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					Amphibians
          Class Amphibia

• Order Urodela- Salamanders & Newts
• Order Anura- Frogs & toads
• Order Gymnophiona- Caecilians
A fish along the lineage to an
         amphibian….




   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k-5oQlnXSTM
                            limb bones of an early
inside lobed fin, bony or         amphibian
cartilaginous structures
  (orange) undergoing
       modification
Fossils of some early
 & large amphibians
              General Characteristics
• 2 lives
   – Adapted for terrestrial life
   – Water for reproduction
• Respiration using both lungs and skin
   – Moist skin or strategy for maintaining
     moisture
• Complex behaviors
   – Stereotypic behavior
• Diverse feeding strategies
• Worldwide declines in diversity
               Respiratory Systems
 • Respiratory systems
   allowed for terrestrial life
 • Gas Exchange
     – Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide
 • Gills
 • Lungs
     – No diaphragm
 • Bucal Flutter
     – Move air to lungs
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GU_VieIkDZE
Amphibian Skin
       • Moist, thin, & delicate
       • Absorbs water
       • Mucous glands to
         prevent dessication
       • Thin skin permeable
         to oxygen & carbon
         dioxide
       • Poison glands as a
         defense for delicate
         skin
       • Crypsis
             Parotoid Gland

• External skin gland
• Secretes milky
  alkaloid substance for
  predator deterrence
• Bufotoxin
Gelatinous Eggs
        • Non-shelled egg
        • Typically external
          fertilization
        • Require moist
          conditions
        • Most must return to
          water for reproduction
External Fertilization
                  Amplexus
• Pseudocopulation
• Gripping in order to
  ensure paternity
 When you’re hopped up on
testosterone, anything goes!
              Nuptual Pad
• Develops in male
  during breeding
  season
• Aids in grasping
  female during
  amplexus
           Aquatic Larvae
• Tadpoles adapted for aquatic life
   • Streamlined shape
   • Tail
• Breath- gills
• Feed-
Metamophism
                   Metamorph
•   Transitions into adult terrestrial form
•   Limbs grow
•   Tail regresses
•   Skin may change
        Urodela- Salamanders
• 500 spp
• Lizard like lack scales and claws
• Moist skin
   – Newts rough skin
• Variable life styles
• Limited to moist environments- close associations with
  water
• Lateral undulating gait
• Both internal and external fertilization
• Diverse feeding strategies
• Paedomorphism common
Amphibians move like fish out of water!!




                      http://www.californiaherps.com/movies/eex
                      anthoptica210.mov
      Salamandridae- Newts
• Diurnal
• Poisonous
• Aquatic eggs
Migrate to Standing Water
Breeding Aggregations
   Aquatic Phase
                                 • Skin becomes
                                   smoother
                                 • Increased mucus
                                   production
                                 • Tail broadens




http://www.californiaherps.com/movies/tgra
nulosaor609.mov
      Mating Balls




http://www.californiaherps.com/movies/ttor
osabr2104.mov
Nuptial Pads
      • Increase friction for
        grasping females
Hubba Hubba
      • Males develop
        swollen vent during
        breeding season
          Rough Skinned Newt
                 Taricha granulosa
• 2.5-3.5” sv, 8”
• No costal grooves
• Dark eye w/ yellow patch
• Diurnal
• Aquatic eggs
• Grassland, woodland,
  coniferous forest near
  ponds, lakes, streams &
  creeks
• Diet: Sm invertebrates,
  salamander & frog eggs
Aquatic Phase
Predate on eggs
Lay eggs individually
      Unkenreflex
                      • Threat (warning)
                        display
                      • Warns potential
                        predators of toxicity
                           – Tetrodotoxin
                      • Displays warning
                        coloration



http://www.californiaherps.com/movies/tgra
nulosadefense609.mov
             Coast Range Newt
                 Taricha torosa torosa
• 3-3.5” sv, 8”
• Rough skin, no costal grooves
• Dark eyes with yellow patch
• Aquatic phase, Aquatic eggs
• Diurnal
• Wet forests, woodlands,
  chaparral, grasslands
• Diet: worms, snails, slugs, sow
  bugs, insects, amphibian eggs,
  small vertebrates
Light lower eyelid
Eggs in clusters
Threat Posture
Garter Snakes
        Lungless Salamanders
           Plethodontidae
• Largest family of salamanders
• Lungless
    – Breath exclusively through skin
•   3 species in California
•   Terrestrial
•   Females brood eggs
•   Young hatch fully formed
           Costal Grooves
• Indentations along ribs
• Characteristic of Plethodontids
               Nasolabial Groove
•   Characteristic of all Plethodontids
•   Groove from lip to nostril
•   Used in detection of water born chemical signals
•   Important in social interactions
                    Courtship
• Mental gland
• Male rubs female with
  pheromones during courtship
• Stimulates female receptivity and
  courtship completed quicker
• http://plethodon.science.oregonst
  ate.edu/video/shermani%20slapp
  ing.avi
Spermatophore for sperm
       transfer




   http://plethodon.science.oregonstate.edu/vi
   deo/shermani%20transfer.avi
    California Slender Salamander
                Batrachoseps attenuatus
• 3-5.5” sv
• Reduced limbs
• Nocturnal
• Wide variety of habitats
• Diet: Springtails, sm beetles,
  snails, mites, spiders, isopods
• Terrestrial eggs
                Caudal Autotomy

•   Distraction defense
•   Tail will wiggle
•   Tail will regrow
•   Loses energy reserve
•   Size advantage lost
•   http://www.californiaherps.com/movies/bgregariu
    s411tail.mov
                     Mimicry
• Curled body posture
• Possible mimicry of millipedes as a
  predator deterrent




          http://www.californiaherps.com/movies/batt
          enuatus1108.mov
Ensatina
    • 1.5-3.5”sv
    • 12-13 costal grooves
    • Swollen tail w/
      constricted base
    • Nocturnal
    • Shaded forests, oak
      woodland, grassland,
      chaparral
    • Terrestrial eggs
    • Diet: spiders, beetles,
      crickets, sow bugs,
      centipedes, worms
Defensive Secretions
          • Toxic secretions
            – Distasteful
            – Cause irritation
          • Caudal autotomy
Female Broods Eggs
         • Protects against
           predators
         • Skin secretions inhibit
           pathgens
Parental Care?
             Yellow Eyed Ensatina
              Ensatina eschscholtzii xanthoptica
•   1.5-3” sv, 6”
•   Smooth skin
•   Tail constricted at base
•   Yellow patch in eyes
•   Nocturnal
•   Shaded forests, oak woodland,
    grassland, chaparral
•   Terrestrial eggs
•   Diet: spiders, beetles, crickets,
    sow bugs, centipedes, worms
                     Mimicry
• Mimicry of toxic Coast Range Newt
   – Live in same habitat
• Other species of Ensatina do not have yellow eye patch
• Body color similar
            Arboreal Salamander
• 2-4” sv, 7”         Aneides lugubris
• Large head
• Tail typically coiled, square toe
  pads
• Nocturnal
• Oak woodlands, forests, urban
  areas
• Terrestrial eggs
• Diet of invertabrates
   – Millipedes, worms, snails,
     sow bugs, small salamanders
       Climbing Adaptations
• Prehensile tail
• Square toe pads
        Large Jaw Muscles
• Give head characteristic triangular shape
• In males teeth may protrude from jaw
Estivation
       • Retreat from warm
         temperatures
       • Aggregate in moist
         areas
    Santa Cruz Black Salamander
            Aneides flavipunctatus niger
• 2-4”sv, 5.5”
• Smooth skin, 14-16costal grooves
• Nocturnal
• Mixed woodlands, forest,
  grasslands
• Mostly terrestrial
• Diet: sm inverts, insects,
  millipedes, ants
• Terrestrial eggs
Terrestrial Eggs
        • Pendulous eggs
          Mole Salamanders-
           Ambystomatidae
•   Costal grooves prominent
•   Teeth transverse row
•   Rotten logs & burrows
•   Nocturnal
              Tiger Salamander
                Ambystoma californiense
• 3-5” sv, 8.5”
• Large, smooth skin, lg wide head w/
  sm eyes
• Nocturnal
• Grasslands, oak savanna, mixed
  woodland
• Diet: invertebrates
• Aquatic egg
         Secretive
                      • Rarely seen outside
                        of breeding
                        migrations
                      • Live in burrows
                        underground
                      • Uses burrows of own
                        or of burrowing
                        mammals

http://www.californiaherps.com/movies/acal
ifornienselarvaecc610.mov
           2 Tadpole Types
• Normal tadpoles
• Cannibal tadpoles
      California Giant Salamander
                 Dicamptodon ensatus
• 2.5-7” sv, 12”
• Smooth skin, stout limbs
• Nocturnal
• Coastal wet forest, near
  streams, caves in Santa Cruz
• Diet: anything it can overpower!
  Inverts, salamanders, rodents,
  lizards
• Aquatic eggs
Largest Salamander
Porkers!
    Order Anura- Frogs & toads

• 4500 sp
• Very diverse
• More adapted for land
Frog vs Toad
      • Frog
        – Smooth skin
        – More aquatic
      • Toad
        – Skin more dry,
          warty
        – Parotid gland
Communication
                      Pacific Tree Frog
                       Pseudacris sierra (regilla)
• ¾-2”
• Toe pads
• Dark eye stripe
• Diurnal & nocturnal
• Any habitat with water
• Diet: invertebrates, flying
  insects
• Aquatic eggs
    http://www.californiaherps.com/movies/pre
    gillacall708.mov
Square Toe Pads
           California Toad
                Bufo boreas

• 2-5”
• Warty skin
• Light stripe down back
• Diurnal & nocturnal
• Marshes, springs, creeks, ponds in
  woodlands, forests, grasslands
• Diet: invertebrates
• Aquatic eggs
http://www.californiaherps.com/movies/bbh
alophiluscomp811.mov
       California Red-legged Frog
                      Rana draytonii
• 2-5” sv
• Dorsolateral fold, dk eye stripe
• Reddish legs
• Diurnal & nocturnal
• Ponds, forests, woodlands,
  grassland, coastal scrub, streams
• Aquatic eggs
• Diet: inverts & fish, mice, frogs &
  salamander larvae
Red Legged frog
  Red Legged Frog Extirpation
• Extirpation
• Local extinction
• Species no longer exists in portions of it’s
  historical distribution range

http://www.californiaherps.com/movies/rdra
ytoniimteat811.mov
http://www.californiaherps.com/movies/rdra
ytoniimteat811slow.mov
                     American Bullfrog
                  Lithobates (Rana) catesbeianus
• 3.5-8”
• Smooth skin, conspicuous
  eardrums
• Diurnal & nocturnal
• Permanent water
• Diet: anything it can swallow!
  Mammals, birds, fish, reptiles,
  amphibians
• Aquatic eggs
http://www.californiaherps.com/movies/rcat
esbeiana810.mov
       Foothill Yellow-legged Frog
                        Rana boylii
• 1.5-3”
• Bumpy skin, no eye stripes
• Faint light area on top of head
• Diurnal
• Rare
• Rocky streams, rivers in forest,
  woodland & chaparral
• Diet: aquatic, flying, terrestrial
  inverts, spiders, snails,
  grasshoppers
• Aquatic eggs
             Congregation
• Sierra Nevada
  Yellow-legged
  frogs
• South facing
  slope of 11,000ft
  lake
             Western Spadefoot
                     Spea hammondii
• 1.5-2.5”
• Fat & squat
• Nocturnal
• Vertical pupils, indistinct parotid gland
• Most of life underground
• Open areas with sandy, gravelly soils in
  woodlands, grasslands, coastal sage &
  chaparral
• Diet: inverts, beetles, moths, crickets, flies, ants
  & earthworms
• Aquatic eggs
             Spade
                      • Kertininized structure
                        on hind feet
                      • Assists in burrowing




http://www.californiaherps.com/movies/spa
defootmovie.mov
http://www.californiaherps.com/movies/spe
ametaparasite810.mov
         Explosive Breeding
• Emerge after rain
• Reproduction occurs
  quickly
• Tadpoles develop
  within 8-16 days
                Sources
• http://plethodon.science.oregonstate.edu/b
  ehavior.html#

				
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posted:9/5/2012
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