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UBIQUITOUS FEMTO AWARENESS APPLICATION ACCESS AND
             SERVICE RECOMMENDATION
                                                Yingjie Wang, Yongsheng Zhang
                                                    DOCOMO Beijing Labs
                                                         Beijing, China

   Abstract — Ubiquitous Femto is a service engine that               The paper is further structured as follows: Section II gives
allows small or middle scale enterprise users to access            an overview of the ubiquitous Femto awareness service model,
application easily using whatever device or platform, or           and describes two selected application scenarios for small or
home users to get mobile recommendation services and               middle scale enterprise Femto cells and home Femto cells.
makes this information controllable by closed subscriber           Section III proposes the system configuration of service
group users. The goal of ubiquitous Femto awareness is             architecture based on the two typical scenarios. Section IV
ubiquitous access, sharing, and interaction. Its accessibility     presents design of management object, and section V gives
is based on an Application Programming Interface (API)             implementation methods in order to provide Femto awareness
protocol. This API can be used by various client                   mobile applications and services recommendation. Session VI
applications to access Femto-enabled systems. In this paper,       summarizes the work done and points to the future challenges.
we present the service architecture and features for
enabling Femto to provide specific applications to accessed            II. UBIQUITOUS FEMTO AWARENESS SERVICE MODEL
clients. To demonstrate the feasibility of the architecture,          The iPhone has demonstrated not only the phenomenal
we also present the development of hardware and software           consumer demand for mobile applications, but that by
platform that facilitates the realization and verification of      reducing industry fragmentation all players in the value chain
rich value-added functions on Femto-enabled networks.              can make a sustainable business model from this type of
                                                                   mobile content. With the App Store, Apple has created a
  Index Terms — Femto awareness, mobile applications,              substantial and valuable market in a very short space of time –
service recommendation.                                            in a sector of the mobile industry where the pace of change can
                                                                   be frustratingly slow.
                      I. INTRODUCTION                                 Traditionally, consumer acceptance of wireless evolution
   Femto is a low-power low-cost user-deployed base station        has resulted in a considerable time lag. Take 3G, the mobile
that is able to provide high-quality cellular service in           Internet, even early forms of mobile content and services. But
residential or enterprise indoor environments. For residential     with the App Store, the concept is simplistic and the
deployment they offer a typical coverage range on the order of     consumers understand it, though only a fraction of the mobile
tens of meters. Femto cells have extensive auto-configuration      audience can access the App Store. The success of the App
and self-optimization capabilities to enable simple plug-and-      Store has reignited what was a fading opportunity. Content and
play deployment, and are designed to automatically integrate       services have been reinvigorated by the iPhone and the
themselves in an existing macro cellular network. For a            industry is abuzz with similar app store announcements. The
wireless operator Femto cells are attractive since they are a      downside is that the existing hurdle of device and OS
cost-effective way to significantly increase the user data rates   fragmentation stands to increase as OEMs release their own
of their wireless networks at the customer premises. They          proprietary response to Apple.
leverage the user’s existing broadband Internet connection as         What’s more in a time of uncertain economic conditions, the
backhaul, and there are no additional costs for deployment,
energy supply, or site rental, since all are provided by the                   Web content/              Home/Office content/
customer. Due to their support for high data rates and their                   applications                 applications
integration with the more traditional access networks, Femto
cells present new opportunities for the wireless operators to
                                                                              Windows Marketplace
capture precious wire line minutes and hence to tap into new                                             Operator Market
                                                                              Android Market
sources of revenues [1, 2]. In addition, individual connections
                                                                                                        CSG billing       General billing
to Femto cells reduce the traffic on the macro cellular network,                                         schemes            schemes
thereby improving the quality of the network for the remaining
users, and reducing the costs for the network operator as                     Internet               Femto
                                                                                                     Femto     Operator
                                                                                                    Network
                                                                                                    Network
capital expenditures (CAPEX) associated with traditional                                                       Network
macro cellular networks can be delayed through the
introduction of Femto cells. An overview of typical femtocell                                  Open OS devices
architecture is given in [3].                                                Fig. 1. Ubiquitous Femto Awareness Service Model
                                                                                                                                          2

replacement cycle of consumer mobile devices is lengthening                 can be generated by deploying Femto cells as well as
which means the migration to high-end and smart phone                       providing ubiquitous services to subscribers and sharing the
devices will also be extended, and therefore potentially                    revenue within the whole value chain. At the same time, it’s
prolonging the limited access to app stores and their contents.             agreed that users may also benefit from relevant mobile
As already highlighted earlier, there is a clear consumer                   services with the easy access of preferred apps and services
demand for this centralized content and services solution. This             whenever walking through Femto cell regions. We present
means for mobile operator’s intent on driving ARPU,                         ubiquitous Femto awareness architecture and implementation
deploying an app store-like offering is the ideal solution of               methods in the following two sections, attempting to make the
delivering content and services targeting the broad mobile                  service model in reality.
demographic. It is a strategy that guarantees the operator
flexibility and the timeliness to respond to changing market                                 III. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
and consumer requirements and demands [4]. A network-based                     Ubiquitous Femto awareness system builds a mobile and
solution using common APIs overcomes the pitfall of device                  home/office network converged service system platform over
and OS fragmentation and ensures that mobile operators will                 Femto networks, as Fig. 2 shows. Main functions of this
play a pivotal role in delivering app stores to the mass market             system include:
to consumers without high-end devices and smart phones.                        1) Femto-enabled user interface automatically switches
More importantly, operators will not be intermediated from the              among mobile user interface, home user interface and office
content and services value chain [5].                                       user interface when the user is entering or leaving different
   The distinctive feature of the ubiquitous Femto awareness                Femto cell regions.
service model, as Fig. 1 shows, is in that mobile app market                   2) Widget-based home and office services that converged
capabilities are brought into the mobile operator’s domain                  by the Femto, accessed by the mobile widget, and delivered to
through the Femto network deployment and CSG billing                        multimedia devices by the browser.
scheme buildup. By embedding mobile app market capabilities                    3) Rich presence service including location status, office
into consideration [6], it will possible for mobile client to               schedule and home activity which is shared among family and
access specific applications resources and personalized or                  colleague CSG users.
location based recommended services in its immediate Femto                     In the network domain, the third party can deploy the web
cell access region. Behind the scene, ubiquitous connections                service server for provision of specific content to CSG users
can be constructed automatically according to the operator                  through the mobile terminals or home/office multimedia
networks, mobile terminal capabilities, etc., and the subscriber            devices. The web service server is connected with the Femto
will be requested to preset his/her interests and/or be notified            service server for the purpose of accessing ubiquitous Femto
to have his/her choices before all these happen. At the same                cells in home networks as well as Internet. Mobile service
time, CSG bundled billing scheme can be transacted in flat-                 server provides seamless service experience for user interface
rate-based, per-transaction-based, or per-advertisement-based               switch and app access change. The mobile service server also
single billing.                                                             manages home/office CSG community for Femto cell owners.
   With the ubiquitous Femto awareness service model, we
attempt to create new mobile value-added services of                                     IV. MANAGEMENT OBJECT DESIGN
eventually. It’s obvious that the model can promote the entire
                                                                               For the mobile operator and Femto owner to manage the
mobile value-added service chain, which includes mobile app
                                                                            Femto devices, CSG user rights, Femto awareness applications,
markets from mobile terminal vendors/Internet service
                                                                            and value-added services, we need to design a management
providers, content providers for enterprise/home markets[7, 8],
                                                                            object. The general ubiquitous Femto awareness management
Femto cell companies, and mobile operators operating Femto
                                                                            object is designed as shown in Fig. 3.
networks. As a result, a variety of incremental revenue streams
                                                                               Allowed CSG list entries is the first entry of the
     Web                                  Mobile                            management object. The combination of CSG identification,
    Service                 Operator
                            Network       Service
    Server                                Server                            Femto name, and user interface list entries, and other items to
          Internet
                                                                            specify a defined allowed CSG list entry. Since each user
                      Femto Service                                         interface may includes numbers of contents, user interface list
                         Server              Intranet
                                                                            entries is defined as the second entry of the management object.
                                                                            Each user interface list entry includes specific user interface
                     Femto                               Femto
                                                                            identification, background name, app list entries, and other
                                  Macro
                                  Tower                                     user interface elements. An app name and a set of app
                                                                 PC         parameters define an app list entry.
  Home Multimedia                                                              According to the ubiquitous Femto awareness system
     Devices                              Office CSG    Office Multimedia   architecture as described in section III, the placement of
                 Home CSG                 Community          Devices
                Community                                                   designed management object here is shown in Fig. 4.
     Home CSG Area Network                Office CSG Area Network              The user equipment such as a mobile terminal installs a
       Fig. 2. Ubiquitous Femto Awareness System Architecture
                                                                                                                                                                                                          3


  Allowed CSG                                                                                Internet                                      Intranet
                         CSG_ID
   List Entries
                         HNB_Name
                                                                                                                  Femto Server
                         UI List Entries         UI_ID
                                                                                                                                    File                              Femto Web Portal
                                                                                          Database
                                                                                                                                  System
                         ……                      Background_Name
                                                                                          Activity      Status    Calendar        Video Channel                     Message Board       Status

                                                 App List Entries         App_Name
                                                                                          UI Switch     Message Board         Share Picture     Slides Channel       Activity          Calendar

                                                 ……                       App_Para

          Fig. 3. Ubiquitous Femto Awareness Management Object
                                                                                                                                           Femto
                                                         Femto Service Server
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Server
          UE                      Multimedia                    Connection
                                   Devices                      Management                                                                                                                       Client
      UI Controller
                                                                    App Service
      App Engine                    Femto                     CSG-UI-App List
                                CSG_I      HNB_Nam                                                   UI Switch   Display Status     Slides Channel
                                  D           e                Management                                                                                        Projector      Television
    CSG-UI-App List                                                                                  Schedule    Message            Video Channel
         MO
                                  Macro Cell                 Mobile Service                                                                                      Digital Photo Frame
                                        Cell_I                                                                                      Share Picture
     Mobility Module
                                         D                      Server                               Activity


                                                                                                                 Android Phone                                   Multimedia Devices
                                   Internet               Web Service Server           Fig. 5. Ubiquitous Femto Awareness System Implementation Example
    Fig. 4. Ubiquitous Femto Awareness System Functional Architecture                on web server. They display the data on the web page after
ubiquitous Femto awareness management object. The user                               getting them.
interface controller controls the user interface switch as the                          The objects on Android phones get data from the web server
management object specifies. The app engine launches                                 by invoking the interfaces provided by the corresponding
specified applications as the management object specifies also.                      objects on the web server. The data are then displayed in the
The mobility module senses the Femto cell in the mobile                              Android user interface.
network.                                                                                The objects on multimedia devices listen to events by
   In the Femto service server side, a ubiquitous Femto                              invoking the interfaces provides by the web server. After
awareness management object management function module is                            events arrival, web server pushes them to multimedia devices.
installed to manage management objects in user equipment of                          Then the objects on multimedia devices update the user
CSG users. The connection management manages multimedia                              interface.
devices in home environment or enterprise environments.                                 Figure 6 gives an example of ubiquitous Femto awareness
                                                                                     application access. The Android Phone user interface
                      V. IMPLEMENTATION METHODS                                      automatically switches when the family user enters home
   In the ubiquitous Femto awareness network, the Femto is a                         Femto zone from outside, and at the same time applications on
bridge between the user interface on the mobile phone, the                           the user interface get access to home Femto services
contents on the multimedia device, the Java web server and the                       intelligently. The function of “Home UI Switch” needs the
Internet.                                                                            support of web server and web portals, and the effect is
   The ubiquitous Femto awareness system architecture                                displayed on the android phone. The web server provides the
includes web server, web portals, Android phones as mobile                           service interfaces to web portals and Android phone. The “UI
terminals and multimedia devices, which is shown in Figure 5.                        Switch” and “Status” objects implement interfaces, and use
All the four parts are connected to the Femto through wired or                       database packages to get data from the database. The “UI
wireless connection links. The Android phones, multimedia                            Switch Controller” and “Status” objects in web portals get data
devices, web portals and the Internet can communicate with                           from the web server by invoking interfaces provided by the
the web server through programming interfaces. Web portals                           “UI Switch” and “Status” objects on the web server,
and multimedia devices are two web applications deployed on                          correspondingly. The web portals switch from outside portal to
the web server, which should be visited using a web browser,                         home portal after getting required data and update status of
e.g., Firefox.                                                                       family CSG users on the web page. The “UI Switch” and
   The web server provides the service interfaces to web                             “Display Status” objects on Android phone get the UI index
portals, Android phones and multimedia devices. Each object                          and CSG status data from the web server by invoking the “UI
implements some interfaces, and may use database and file                            Switch” and “Status” interfaces on the web server. The
system packages to get data from the database and file system.                       Android UI is switched from Outside UI to Home UI, and
The web server may also get data from the Internet.                                  CSG status data are then displayed in the Home UI. The
   The objects in web portals get data from the web server by                        Android Phone user interface automatically switches when the
invoking the interfaces provided by the corresponding objects                        enterprise user enters office Femto zone from outside, and at
                                                                                                                                          4

the same time apps on the user interface access to office Femto     video can be played on the multimedia device, and the
services intelligently. The function of “Office UI Switch”          playback functions are controllable on the phone. The function
needs the support of web server and web portals, and the effect     of “Presentation Center” needs the support of web server and
is displayed on the android phone. The web server provides          android phone, and the slides are displayed on the multimedia
the service interfaces to web portals and Android phone. The        devices. The web server provides the service interfaces to
“UI Switch” and “Status” objects implement interfaces, and          Android phone and multimedia devices. The “Slides Channel”
use database packages to get data from the database. The “UI        object implements some interface and uses file system
Switch Controller” and “Status” objects in web portals get data     packages to get data from the file system. The “Slides
from the web server by invoking interfaces provided by the          Channel” object on Android phone gets slides list data from
“UI Switch” and “Status” objects on the web server,                 the web server by invoking the interfaces provided by the
correspondingly. The web portals switch office portal from          “Slides Channel” object on the web server. The slides list data
outside portal after getting required data and update status of     are then displayed in the Android UI. The “Projector” object
colleague CSG users on the web page. The “UI Switch” and            on multimedia devices listens to events by invoking the
“Display Status” objects on Android phone get the UI index          interfaces provided by the “Slides Channel” object on the web
and CSG status data from the web server by invoking the “UI         server. After events arrival, web server pushes slides data to
Switch” and “Status” interfaces on the web server. The              multimedia devices. Then the objects on multimedia devices
Android UI is switched from Outside UI to Office UI, and            update the UI.
CSG status data are then displayed in the Office UI.
   Figure 6 gives an example of ubiquitous Femto awareness                     VI. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK
service recommendation. Family users can find out                      In this paper we proposed a ubiquitous Femto awareness
recommended video from friends on the video list of the video       service model to provide flexible content provision choices
channel on the Android phone, play the recommended video            and attractive mobile value-added service features. A system
on the multimedia device, and control the playback functions.       and its main features are presented under the service model.
The function of “Video Sharing” needs the support of web            Our aim is to link open mobile app, Femto access sensing, and
server, multimedia devices and android phone. The web server        user interface on mobile terminals with Femto cell
provides the service interfaces to Android phone and                management and relative service provisioning. For users, the
multimedia devices. The “Video Channel” object implements           services provide ubiquitous user experience whenever the
some interfaces and uses file system packages to get data from      subscriber comes into proximity of ubiquitous deployed Femto
file system. The “Activity” and “Status” objects implement          cells. For content providers and rights providers, the services
some interfaces and uses database to get data from the              satisfied the third party’s demand for enforcement of entrance
database. The “Video Channel” object on Android phone gets          to home and office environments. For mobile operators, the
data from the web server by invoking the interfaces provided        services make it possible to highlight the service evolution
by the “Video Channel”, “Activity” and “Status” objects on          from provide communication infrastructure to provide services
the web server. The video, activity and status data are then        directly to open OS devices infrastructure, and thus to share
displayed in the Android UI. The “Television” object on             the revenue in the new mobile Internet value
multimedia devices listens to events by invoking the interfaces     chain.
provided by the “Video Channel” object on the web server.
After events arrival, web server pushes video data to
multimedia devices. Then the objects on multimedia devices
update the UI. A presentation list is displayed in the slides
channel on the Android Phone user interface. The selected
slides can be on the multimedia device, and control the
presentation functions. A video list is displayed in the video
channel on the Android phone user interface. The selected




    Fig. 6. Ubiquitous Femto Awareness Application Access Example     Fig. 7. Ubiquitous Femto Awareness Service Recommendation Example
                                                                                5

   In the future, we will investigate various emerging
communication technologies and mobile Internet access
devices. They have different transmission ranges, speed
limitations, and application processing capabilities. Their
suitability for mobile network awareness application access
and service recommendation will be further investigated.

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