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									   ECE I
Final Exam Review
Personal & Professional Preparation
   1.02
       Habits of successful people
            4%
   2.02
       Responsibilities of EC Professionals
            4%
   3.01
       Observation Methods
            4%
   3.02
       Teaching Methods
            4%
    Unit B
    Child Development Birth-12
   4.01
          Domains of Child Development
                7%
   4.02
          Developmental Characteristics of children
                7%
   4.03
          Theories of Child Dev.
                7%
   5.01
          Dev. Appropriate Activities for Infants/Toddlers within PLACES (Domains)
                7%
   5.02
          Apply appropriate reading activities children 3-5
                6%
   6.01
          Dev. Appropriate activities in specific areas for learning for children 3-8
                9%
   6.02
          Evaluate Dev. Appropriate programs for school-age children
                5%
Unit C
Working with Children
   7.01
       Communicating expectations and setting limits
            5%
   7.02
       Guiding Behavior
            7%
   8.01
       Health & Safety policies for EC Settings
            5%
   8.02
       Emergency procedures in EC Settings
            4%
Unit D
The Field of ECE
   9.01
       Leaders in the History of ECE
            4%
   9.02
       Historical Events EC Related Programs
            4%
   10.01
       Career Trends and Opportunities in ECE
            4%
   10.02
       Benefits and limitations of work and education options
            3%
Study Objectives in this order
   6.01=9%
      Dev. Appropriate activities in specific areas for   The higher
       learning for children 3-8                           the %, the
   4.01=7%
      Domains of Child Development
   4.02=7%                                                questions
      Developmental Characteristics of children           you will see
   4.03=7%                                                from that
      Theories of Child Dev.                              Objective
   5.01=7%
                                                           on the Final
      Dev. Appropriate Activities for Infants/Toddlers
       within PLACES (Domains)                             VoCATS
   7.02=7%                                                Exam!
      Guiding Behavior
Study Objectives in this order
 5.02=6%
     Apply appropriate reading activities children 3-5
 6.02=5%
     Evaluate Dev. Appropriate programs for school-age
 7.01=5%
     Communicating expectations and setting limits
 8.01=5%
     Health & Safety policies for EC Settings
Study Objectives in this order
   1.02=4%--Habits of successful people
   2.02=4%--Responsibilities of EC Professionals
   3.01=4%--Observation Methods
   3.02=4%--Teaching Methods
   8.02=4%--Emergency procedures in EC Settings
   9.01=4%--Leaders in the History of ECE
   9.02=4%--Historical Events EC Related Programs
   10.01=4%--Career Trends/Opportunities in ECE
   10.02=3%--Benefits/limitations of work/edu. options
Final Exam
   100 questions
   Comprehensive
       Objective 1.02, 2.02-10.02
       Don’t assume an answer choice until you have read it
        twice to double-check!!
   Process of elimination
       Automatically mark out answer choices you know are
        NOT IT!!!!
   The answer is usually in the question
       Look for KEY WORDS!!! & underline them!!!
7 Habits
             Take responsibility for your life.
   Begin with END in MIND
             Define your mission and goals in life.
   Put 1st things 1st
             Prioritize, and do most important things 1st.
   Think WIN-WIN
        Have an everyone-can-win attitude.
   Seek 1st to understand, then to be understood
        Listen to people sincerely.
   Synergize
        Work together as a TEAM to achieve more
   Sharpen the Saw
        Renew yourself regularly
Skills Needed
by Early Childhood Professionals

1.   Basic communication
2.   Math
3.   Thinking
4.   Life
5.   Interpersonal
6.   Leadership
7.   Resource management
8.   Professional communication
Life Skills

   Leadership
   Ethics
   Accountability
   Adaptability
   Personal productivity
   Personal responsibility
   People skills
   Self-direction
   Social responsibility
Primary Responsibilities
of Early Childhood Professionals
1.   Know how children grow and develop
2.   Plan developmentally appropriate curricula
3.   Prepare the environment
4.   Communicate effectively
5.   Get along with co-workers
6.   Manage time wisely
7.   Continue to learn
What type of Observation method is
   More controlled conditions
   Examples
       Standardized tests
       Research instruments
        (surveys, questionnaires, etc.)
   Results used to form developmental norms
   Require specialized training
Formal observations
What type of observation method is
   Less controlled conditions
   Easier to use
   More appropriate for program planning
   Examples
       Interviewing parents
       Talking with children
       Observing students in the classroom
       Collecting student work samples
SIMPLE records
  Frequency count
  Checklist

  Rating scale
DETAILED descriptions
    Running record
    Anecdotal record
Guidelines for Observing in
Early Childhood Education
       Be a person of character, a model
 S      of honesty, integrity, and fairness
       Be sensitive to the needs of
Guidelines for Observing in
Early Childhood Education
                  Keep information about
        D          teachers, children, and
        N          parents to yourself.
Guidelines for Observing in
Early Childhood Education  X
   Demonstrate            M
    behavior that serves   L
    as a good example
    for young children.
The goal in observing is to be

    Objective = reporting facts
    Subjective = opinions, impressions
When is an anecdotal record used?
                     When you want to gather
                   information about a specific
                        situation or incident
When is a frequency count used?

 Whenever you
 need to tally and
 record how many
 times a behavior is
Ways Children Learn
 From the environment
 From a teacher
 From their experiences
Learning from the environment
   Variety of
   Interactive
    environment with
    opportunities to
    explore and
Learning from a teacher
   Provides positive
   Is a good role model
    for children to imitate

  When a person shows
 someone else how to do
 something, this is called
Learning from experiences
   Sensory elements
   Trial and error
   Learn from mistakes
   Address all areas of
2 types of play
1.    Open-ended
     1.   Can be used in a variety of ways, with no one
          correct way to play with them
2.    Closed-ended
     1.   Structured materials meant to be used in one
          way, with one intended outcome
Benefits of Open-ended Materials
for Children
 1.   Develop independence
 2.   Learn to make decisions
 3.   Learn to solve problems
 4.   Use their imagination
Benefits of Closed-ended
Materials for Children

 1.   Learn to follow
 2.   Develop sensory
 3.   Help develop motor
Purposes of Lesson Plans
   Serves as an organizational tool
   Forces teachers to think ahead
   Enables teachers to think through
    what they want to do
   Provides time to gather needed
   Can be saved for future reference

Results of Teaching without
Lesson Plans???

     Lessons flounder and
     Time wasted
     Children bored
     Materials not ready
     Things left out

Lessons usually include these lesson
   Focus and review
       Introduction to capture attention, focus on the topic, review
   Statement of objective
       State what children will learn
   Teacher input
       Introduce new information
   Student guided practice
       Give children a chance to use the new information
   Independent practice
       See how well children can do things on their own
   Closure
       Summarize, bring the activity to an end
Oh, the
You’ll Grow…
Domains of
Child Development -- PLACES
   Physical Development & Health
       Motor skills, Self-care. Growth, Safety awareness
   Language Development & Communication
       Receptive/Expressive language, Reading/Writing
   Approaches to Learning
       Pondering, processing, applying experiences, Curiosity,
        information-seeking, eagerness, Risk-taking, problem-solving,
   Cognitive Development
       Thinking skills
   Emotional Development
       Developing a sense of self
   Social Development
       Developing a sense of self with others
Erik Erikson-Human Dev.
   Life is a series of
       Each individual must
        pass through each stage

       Way in which a person
        handlers each of these
        stages affects the
        person’s identity and
Psychosocial Stages
   Newborn
        Trust Vs. Mistrust
   Toddler
        Autonomy Vs. Shame and Doubt
   Preschool Child
        Initiative Vs. Guilt
   School-age child
        Industry Vs. Inferiority
   Adolescent
        Identity Vs. Role Confusion
   Young adult
        Intimacy Vs. Isolation
   Adult
        Generatively Vs. Stagnation
   Elder
        Integrity Vs. Despair
Jean Piaget-Cognitive Dev.
   Behavior of children and the dev. of their
    thinking can only be explained by the
    interaction of:
   Nature
       intrinsic dev.
   Nurture
       extrinsic environmental factors
Children pass through specific stages
as they develop their Cognitive Dev.
   Sensorimotor
       Birth-2 years
            Infants develop their intellect
   Preoperational
       2-6 years
            Children begin to think symbolically and imaginatively
   Concrete Operational
       6-12 years
            Children learn to think logically
   Formal operational
       12 yrs-adulthood
            Adults develop critical thinking skills
B.F. Skinner & others-Behaviorism
   Based on Locke’s tabula rasa (“clean
    slate”) idea
   Skinner theorized that a child is an “empty
       An empty vessel
            waiting to be filled through learning experiences
Lev Vygotsky-Sociocultural Theory
   Cultural environments
   Children learn values
   Beliefs
   Skills
   Traditions
       eventually pass on to their own children
Howard Gardner
8 Multiple Intelligences
 1.   Linguistic
 2.   Logical-mathematical
 3.   Spatial
 4.   Bodily – kinesthetic
 5.   Intrapersonal
 6.   Interpersonal
 7.   Musical
 8.   Naturalistic
Maslow’s Motivational Theory
   He say’s….
       Once our most critical needs—physical, are met,
        individuals can focus on achieving higher and
        loftier needs such as love, respect, and self-
Maslow’s Basic Needs
Beginning with the most critical
                      Self –

                respect by others

               Love and sense of

               Safety and security

     Physiological needs --- air, water, food,
              shelter, clothes, sex
What types of activities support
development in the PLACES Domains
of infants & toddlers?
   Physical
       Music and Movement Activities
            Rolling and bouncing
            Playing with rattles
            Playing music
            Group movement activities
            Reflexes
            Holding, rocking, singing
What types of activities support
development in the PLACES Domains
of infants & toddlers?
   Language/Reading Activities
       Reading books to children
       Storytelling
       Talking to children to promote cooing
What types of activities support
development in the PLACES Domains
of infants & toddlers?
   Approach to Learning
       Science Activities
            Activities to extend attention span
            Activities to promote curiosity
            Sensory activities, including textures,
            hanging toys to see and hear
What types of activities support
development in the PLACES Domains
of infants & toddlers?
   Cognitive
       Math Activities
            Visually tracking moving objects
            Interactive toys
            Seeing shapes and forms
            Thinking through sequences
What types of activities support
development in the PLACES Domains
of infants & toddlers?
   Emotional
       Art Activities
       Pictures of emotions posted
       Toys with colors
       Activities with shapes
       Bubbles
       Mirrors
What types of activities support
development in the PLACES Domains
of infants & toddlers?
   Social
       Social Studies Activities
            Attachment activities
            Gentle touching
5.02 Story Time
   Before
   During
   After

    Let’s look at closet door to review!
Objective 6.01

   Exemplify Developmentally Appropriate
    Activities in specific areas of learning for
    Children 3-8 year olds
       Think about all the different centers in pre-k
            All the lesson ideas and how they relate to each
             subject -- PLACES
Objective 6.02
   Evaluate developmentally appropriate
    programs for school-age children
   Relaxed, comfortable atmosphere; free of
   Interesting learning centers
   Developmentally appropriate materials
   Indoor and outdoor areas
   Some predictable daily routines needed
   Also need variety and choices
   Balance between structured routines and
    the freedom of unstructured time
   Routines planned for arrivals, planning
    time, meals and snacks, activities, rest
    time, departures
   Adult-child ratios to meet state
   Ideal: One care provider per ten children
   Staff trained and experienced in working
    with school-age children
   Activities for all areas of development and for guiding
   Balance
       Quiet vs. active
       Indoor vs. outdoor
       Large vs. small group activities
   Help children with homework
   Activities promote respect for cultural diversity
   Activities that accommodate diverse groups with a
    range of ages represented
   Community participation; clubs, teams, and special
What are the two types of guidance?
    Direct
        involving physical and verbal actions
    Indirect
        involving outside factors that influence behavior
What are some guides for
communicating expectation?
    Model respect and acceptance
    Encourage empathy and compassion
    Encourage cooperation and teamwork
    Insist on self-control
    Communicate rules in an easy-to-understand way
Safety Goals
    Goals of safety policies
         Supervise children at all times
         Maintain minimum adult-child ratios
         Provide a safe environment
Knowing about ECE History
   Provides a sense of support and perspective
   Serves as a source of inspiration
   Helps teachers develop creative expression
   Helps teachers develop better methods of
   Creates awareness and understanding of changes
    in education
   Helps individuals get in touch with their own early
    childhood experiences
   Helps individuals develop a philosophy of teaching

Copy what is underlined.
                           D - 9.01 - History       63
              John Locke

   Founder of modern educational philosophy
   Theory based on scientific method, study of mind
    and learning
   Believed that each child is born with a “clean
    slate” (tabula rasa) on which their experiences
    are written

                   Tabula rasa
                       D - 9.01 - History         64
     Friedrich Froebel
               1782 - 1852
•Coined the word kindergarten
•Started the first kindergarten in Germany
in 1837
•Emphasized teacher-directed learning
•Advocated freedom, initiative, and
relevant curriculum

               D - 9.01 - History            65
Superego    Sigmund Freud

   •A child’s personality develops through a
   predictable pattern of psychosexual
   •Many emotional and psychological
   problems of adults are connected to how
   their parents and care providers met their
   basic needs as children.
                     D - 9.01 - History         66
John Dewey
1858 - 1952
              •First real American influence on
              American education
              •Founder of progressive
              •His theory = progressivism

              learning in groups

                 D - 9.01 - History         67
Margaret McMillan
      1860 - 1931
   •Margaret and her sister
   Rachel extended concern
   beyond education to medical
   and dental care for children
   •Created open-air nursery in
   a slum
   •Developed the McMillan
   theory of fresh air, sleep,
   and bathing
       D - 9.01 - History         68
Rudolph Steiner
  1861 - 1925
    •Founded Waldorf Schools
    •Interdisciplinary, multi-sensory
    curriculum with emphasis on the
    •Emphasized the whole child;
    begin where the learner is.
    •Promoted self-regulation and

       D - 9.01 - History           69
Impact of
Kaiser Child Care Centers

   Served over 3,000 children
   Freed women to work during World War
   Provided a model for exemplary child

                 D - 9.02 - Programs & Initiatives   70
Impact of
Head Start on ECE
     Services for low-income families
     Comprehensive developmental services to over 10
      million children
     Now serving about 20% eligible low-income children
     Burst of enthusiasm for programs for young children
     Expanded enrollment in nursery school, kindergarten,
      and child care programs
     National attention to the need for good care and
      educational experiences for children

                       D - 9.02 - Programs & Initiatives     71
Impact of
Smart Start on ECE
     Made early childhood education accessible
      to children of all races, classes, cultures, and
     Made child care affordable
     Improved child health outcomes
     Strengthened families
     Used cutting-edge, innovative approaches
      for early learning

                     D - 9.02 - Programs & Initiatives   72
Impact of
No Child Left Behind
     Provides accurate assessment of student
     Provides children with effective development
     Increases student and teacher accountability
     Provides individualized and comprehensive reporting
     Encourages parental involvement by providing at-
      home activities

                      D - 9.02 - Programs & Initiatives   73
Impact of More at Four
   Provides a high quality classroom-based educational
   Children served in a variety of settings:
       public schools
       for-profit and nonprofit child care
       Head Start
       Combination settings
   Offers financial assistance
   Serves a diverse group of children
   Very detailed planning of program objectives for

                            D - 9.02 - Programs & Initiatives   74
Impact of 21st Century Skills
    Provides expanded academic enrichment activities for
    Opportunities for students and their families to
     continue to learn new skills and discover abilities after
     school year has ended
    Provides tutorial services
    Provides art, music, and recreation programs
    Helps children meet standards in reading and math

                         D - 9.02 - Programs & Initiatives       75
1. Societal trends
   Those that relate to the activities and customs
    of human beings collectively
       Increase in dual-career families
       Increase in single parenting
       Increasing mobility of population
       Increasing need for child care
       Increasingly diverse population
            English as a second language (ESL)
            Special populations
            Cultural/religious differences
2. Educational trends
   Those that relate to the system for teaching
    and learning
       Rising enrollment in private preschools
       Increasing emphasis on early childhood
        education programs
       Increasing need for teachers
       Gradual decline in student enrollment
3. Workplace trends
   Those that relate to the system within
    which people work
       Increasing number of elderly in the workplace
       Increase in entrepreneurships
       More child care centers on work sites
       More flexible work schedules and locations
       Increased availability of family leave
Career Opportunities IN          Career Opportunities
Early Childhood Education        RELATED TO
                                 Early Childhood Education
Parent education coordinator    Adoption counselor
Infant teacher                  Amusement park guide
Toddler teacher                 Architect who designs child care settings
Preschool teacher               Child custody mediator
Montessori teacher              Children’s book author
Parent cooperative teacher      Children’s zoo guide
Center director                 Funeral home bereavement counselor
Kindergarten teacher            Family and consumer sciences
Kindergarten aide/assistant     community college instructor or university
Head Start teacher              professor
School-age child care teacher   School nurse or nurse practitioner
                                 Summer camp or sports clinic instructor,
                                 counselor, or director
 Option A
 Benefits of Going Straight to Work

Immediate employment
Feeling of accomplishment
Using skills before they are forgotten
Sense of independence


                             D - 10.02 - Benefits & Liimitations
Option A
Limitations--- Going Straight to Work

   Lower pay
   Entry-level tasks
   Minimum job benefits
   Limited variety of jobs
   Fewer opportunities for advancement
   Interferes with further education


                               D - 10.02 - Benefits & Liimitations
Option B
Benefits of Going to School

 Financially rewarding careers
 Opportunities for advancement
 Manageable hours and working conditions
 Professional status
 Broad range of majors
 Broad education base
 Financial assistance available
 Opportunities for continuing education

                              D - 10.02 - Benefits & Liimitations
Limitations--- Going to School

Greater initial cost
Longer time required to reach career goal
Entrance requirements
Competitive job market

                           D - 10.02 - Benefits & Liimitations

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