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                                  Czech Republic

RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURES IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC ................................. 1
  REACTOR LVR-15 .................................................................................................................. 1
  PALS LASER SYSTEM ............................................................................................................. 3
  CESNET ................................................................................................................................. 6
RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURES IN HUNGARY .......................................................... 9
  PHYTOTRON ............................................................................................................................ 9
  MEDICAL GENE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION ................................................................................ 9
  PET CENTRE OF DEBRECEN .................................................................................................. 10
  MGC-20E CYCLOTRON ........................................................................................................ 10
  VDG-5 ELECTROSTATIC ACCELERATOR LABORATORY ........................................................ 11
  THE BUDAPEST RESEARCH REACTOR.................................................................................... 12
  THE EG-2R – NIK ACCELERATOR COMPLEX ......................................................................... 12
  THE BUDAPEST UNIVERSITY TRAINING REACTOR ................................................................ 13
  FUTURE PLANS ...................................................................................................................... 13
RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURES IN LATVIA ............................................................. 14
  CENTRE.................................................................................................................................. 14

RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURES IN LITHUANIA...................................................... 41
  BIOCHEMICAL RESEARCH CENTER ........................................................................................ 43
RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURES IN POLAND ............................................................ 45
  IT INFRASTRUCTURE FOR SCIENCE IN POLAND ...................................................................... 45
  NATIONAL SUPERCOMPUTING CLUSTER ................................................................................ 46
  INFRASTRUCTURE FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN POLAND ..................................................... 46
  INVESTIGATIONS .................................................................................................................... 47

RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURES IN SLOVAKIA ....................................................... 49
  NATIONAL MNR LABORATORY............................................................................................. 49
  BITCET - VIRTUAL BIOTECHNOLOGICAL CENTRE OF SR ...................................................... 49
  ARRAY OF SMALL TELESCOPES FOR PHOTOMETRY ................................................................ 50
  INTERNATIONAL LASER CENTRE ............................................................................................ 51
  NATIONAL CYCLOTRON CENTER OF SR ................................................................................ 54
RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURES IN SLOVENIA ........................................................ 57
  JOŽEF STEFAN INSTITUTE TRIGA RESEARCH REACTOR ....................................................... 57
  JOŽEF STEFAN INSTITUTE CENTER FOR ELECTRON MICROSCOPY ......................................... 59
  JOŽEF STEFAN INSTITUTE MASS SPECTROMETRY CENTER .................................................... 61
  JOŽEF STEFAN INSTITUTE MICROANALYTICAL CENTER ........................................................ 63
  NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CHEMISTRY - SLOVENIAN NMR CENTRE ...................................... 65
  ACADEMIC AND RESEARCH NETWORK (ARNES) ................................................................... 75

In the opinion of experts there are only a few research infrastructures in the Czech Republic. Those most
significant include the light-water research reactor in Nuclear Research Institute Řež, a.s., laser facility PALS
and the computer network CESNET.

Reactor LVR-15
This reactor is designed for making research in the area of the reactor radiation effects on material,
manufacturing of radioactive isotopes and research of the reactor radiation. The reactor is used especially as an
intensive source of neutrons.
The purpose of the reactor is to provide the science with a possibility to study on one hand the properties of the
reactor radiation itself and its individual components and on the other the influence and effects of this radiation
on the mass on general. At the same time the research reactor is used for manufacturing of radiators for medicine
and industry, and in the last time also for manufacturing of the activation-alloyed silicon and in the field of
medicine as a source of radiation for the neutron-capture therapy.

Type of the reactor
The research reactor LVR-15 is a heterogeneous reactor of the tank type. During the reactor’s reconstruction in
1974 the existing fuel was replaced by a sandwich-type fuel IRT-2M enriched by 80 % 235U, with a follow-up
enrichment by 36 % isotope 235U. During the reconstruction in the 80´s the inner reactor vessel was removed that
separated the active zone area from the area of the outside water reflector. The reactor VVR-S was changed from
the general-purpose one to MTR (Material Testing Reactor) reactor with a significant prevalence of experiments
in the area of constructional materials for nuclear reactors. The fission chain reaction is realised through thermal
neutrons; the demineralised water being both the moderator and coolant. According to its operational
configuration the reflector is made up either of water or beryllium sections in water.
The reactor may be operated with the active zone configuration in three basic variants. The first and most
frequently used is the so called compact configuration with four loop channels; the second variant is the so called
central trap configuration (water or beryllium). For irradiation of a patient by NZT method the configuration
with 4 fuel assemblies in 10th line and air displacers in lines 8, 9 is used. The active zone may contain from 28 to
34 fuel assemblies (of them 12 three-tube fuel assemblies). Each configuration may have water, combined or
beryllium reflector. The reactor is controlled by 12 regulation rods.
The reactor was designed as a tank-type reactor with a stainless steel vessel, with inner reactor parts made of
aluminium. The reactor vessel is of a cylindrical shape with 2 300 mm in diameter and 6 235 mm in length. It is
made of material 17246.4 and 08CH18N1OT. The wall thickness is 15 mm and the bottom thickness 20 mm.
The primary circle piping leads into the vessel.
Table 1 - Main project parameters
Project thermal output of the reactor                                             15 MW
Operational thermal output of the reactor:                                        10 MW
Density of thermal neutron flow at output of 10 MW:
            maximum in active zone                                                2.1018 n/m2.s
            average in active zone                                                1.1018 n/m2.s
            on the horizontal channels outlet                                     1.1013 n/m2.s
            Maximum coolant rate of flow                                          2100 m2hod.
            Input/output coolant temperature                                      45 0C/510C

The reactor LVR-15 is equipped with following basic experimental facilities:
       high-pressure water loops of PWR and BWR types (5 loops in total),
       4 vertical channels for material probes,
       max 4 vertical irradiating channels (68 mm), max 6 channels (44 mm),

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                                    1
       vertical channels for irradiation of silicon DONA and Erika,
       pneumatic mail channel for short-term irradiation of samples,
       9 horizontal channels for experiments on beams,
       special probes for high-temperature irradiation (~900 °C),
       probes for corrosive tests in Pb-Li,
       probes for cyclical heat stressing of samples,
       graphite thermal column for NZT,
       hot cells.

Use of the reactor
The reactor LVR-15 is used in the area of improvement of the currently operated nuclear power stations,
particularly with the light-water energetic reactors (VVER 440, VVER 1000, LWR, BWR). In this area they
represent particularly water loops and probes modelling the operational conditions of the primary circuits of light
water (pressure water reactors - PWR or boiling water reactors – BWR) reactors and are uses for research in
following areas:
       corrosive tests of materials at defined water regime,
       transport of corrosive products,
       corrosion coverage of fuel,
       stress corrosion cracking, and
    irradiation tests of materials for pressure vessels.
The reactor VVR-S in Nuclear Research Institute in Řež went through a relatively extensive reconstruction in
1989 to 1991. The reactor LVR-15 being the result of this reconstruction is a relatively new and young device,
with a projected 30 years of service life (the expected operation until 2018). The reconstruction cost CZK 130
million. In certain years of operation the annual operational cost exceed the purchase price, i.e. the investment
cost. From the viewpoint of the neutron flows density the reactor is fully compatible with other European
Therefore not only the physical parameters, but also the acceptable age after reconstruction, the experienced
operational and experimental staff and acceptable reactor background like its experimental equipment, hot cells
and research laboratories lie at the root of its present advantageous position among the European research

The research reactor LVR-15 is included in the Division of Reactor Services of Nuclear Research Institute Řež,
a.s. Within this division all irradiation works on the reactor are organised, from the project preparation,
manufacturing and tests to the irradiation itself and their evaluation. The reactor operation support is provided
also within the cooperation with other divisions of the Institute granting the necessary support in the area of
dosimetry, safety analyses, material integrity and engineering.
In 2003, the Institute worked out new safety documentation and subsequently it obtained from SÚJB the
permission for the reactor operation until 2014. In the same year also the INSARR (Integrated Safety
Assessment of Research Reactors) mission took place evaluating positively the reactor operation and its safety.

The present operational cost move in the range from CZK 100 to 120 mil per year. Each year investments into
security systems are necessary. Variants of further development include the reactor reconstruction that should be
completed in 2023. Since 2004 the reactor LVR-15 has received a support partially providing the services for
basic research. This support is provided through the research organisation Centrum výzkumu s.r.o.
Most of the research reactors being operated within EU have been financed through the State budget so far.

International cooperation
Up to now the reactor has been intensively used not only for the needs of the Czech customers, but it has been
fulfilling also tasks being part of large international programmes and tasks placed by international customers.

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                                   2
Even after the reconstruction nine horizontal channels remain on the reactor LVR-15, on which also tasks being
part of the broad international programmes are solved.
The reactor LVR–15 belongs into the group of European reactors like reactors BR-2 in Belgium, Osiris in
France, Petten, Halden, etc. with which the centre of tasks solved for the area of extending the present nuclear
power stations service life, advancement of their operational regimes, as well as for the area of energetic reactors
of a higher generation and development of completely new nuclear systems lies. Within OECD the reactor LVR-
15 is classified in the list of large experimental facilities available for international cooperation (Nuclear Safety
Research in OECD Countries ISBN 92-64-18468-6).
According to its thermal output the reactor LVR-15 is classified in the middle group. Besides the reactor run in
Hungary, being however the research facility used almost on principle in basic research, the reactor LVR-15 is
the most powerful irradiation source in the Central Europe.
The main scope of the present international cooperation of the reactor is given by participation of the workplace
in research programmes of the European Union (6th and 7th FP); let us name for example the programme NMI3,
in the framework of which some works on the reactor LVR-15 may be participated by scientists from the EU
member and associated countries through the Access Activities. In addition, the reactor laboratory participates in
preparation of a new large irradiating reactor JHR in France and takes part in the research of a reactor cooled by
supercritical water and research of a high temperature reactor. This research comes under the area of research of
the so called 4th generation reactors (GenIV). Another large area of cooperation is the participation in the
programme of the fusion reactors development (EFDA programme). In basic research of neutrons the reactor is
included into the network of European reactors (ENSA) and provides foreign workplaces with the possibility of
participation and direct experiments. The last field of the reactor’s application is the research of new radio
pharmaceuticals used in diagnostics and treatment.

Impact on education
The reactor workplace cooperates with many universities and research institutes. It offers the possibility of short-
term study visits directly on the reactor workplace or in scientific institutes using the reactor services; among
these institutions are Czech Technical University, Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Nuclear
Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Department of Power Engineering, Nuclear Physics
Institute, Institute of Plasma Physics and Institute of Inorganic Chemistry. Through the international cooperation
(6th FP and EFDA) the EU support is used for short-term study visits and education of young workers.

Future strategy
The future strategic needs of the CR in the area of research reactors can be broken down into following circles:
       basic research,
       support of sufficient irradiation capacities,
       nuclear power engineering research,
       prolongation of the nuclear power stations service life,
       designing of new reactor types,
       nuclear medicine, and
     education and training.
After 2010 we assume the construction of a new specialised reactor within the international cooperation, with the
financial participation of the Czech Republic. Works will be initiated by a study with defined targets and aim of
the reactor, including its position and inclusion into the European research infrastructure.

PALS Laser System
The PALS laser system belongs among the European Large Scale Facilities (LSF). It represents one of three
giant lasers in EU. The original laser was built in Germany in the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics
(Max-Planck-Institut fur Quantenoptik, MPQ) in Garching near Munich, where it was designed, built and
successfully operated from 1991 to March 1997 under the name Asterix IV. Asterix IV moved to Prague in 1998
and 1999. The then management of MPQ decided to innovate their own research plans and upon a tender it
offered the laser system to be used in abroad for a symbolic price of one German mark. The construction of a
new hall started in the Czech Republic in 1998 and the hall was accepted in 1999. By tuning the exacting air
piping technology three times better thermal stability than required by the project was reached during the year.

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                                     3
At the same time far better cleanness class was attained in the laser hall. The official putting of the laser into
operation took place in June 2000.
The new workplace got the name PALS – Prague Asterix Laser System. PALS is a pulse single-beam photo
dissociation iodine laser system with five power amplifying stages and six fold spatial filtering of the laser beam.
It is the only large iodine laser in European Union; at the same time the second largest in the world. Of all the
large European lasers it has the largest output energy in a single-beam configuration. By a single laser beam
PALS is able to supply up to 1 kJ of light energy on the target in a pulse shorter than 0.4 ns. By its pulse output
of several terawatts it ranks among 10 most powerful lasers of its class. The basic wave length of the iodine laser
PALS (1315 nm) is somewhat longer than with the more common types of Nd-glass lasers. Be means of large-
area non-linear crystals the basic frequency of the laser may be relatively easy and with a relatively high
efficiency doubled or trebled and thus work both with infrared and red or blue output beams and their
combinations. On the contrast to Nd-glass lasers PALS is a gas laser (its working medium is the mixture of
perfluoro-isopropyl-iodide and argon vapours) and so it has a substantially narrower spectral line and better
beam. The high quality of the laser beam, in addition enhanced by six spatial filters, means its good focusability,
i.e. the possibility to attain the extreme density of the target energy.
The unique component of PALS laser is its twin large-volume vacuum interaction chamber newly designed in
cooperation with the French partners particularly with respect to the planned advanced experiments with plasma
x-ray lasers. The equipment for focusing the laser beam and positioning of the laser target is placed inside the
chamber on special optical benches mechanically separated from the outside jacket guaranteeing a high stability
of the laser beam focusing.
Today’s PALS belongs among the most stable and reliable European laser systems. At present, it is practically
the only laser making possible the routine application experiments with the so called quasistationarily pumped
plasma XUV lasers. At the same time, the zinc double-passage saturated XUV laser on the wave length 21.2 nm
developed in the PALS laboratory during 2001-2002 belongs among the absolutely most radiant laboratory
sources of the electromagnetic radiation throughout the world.

The laser system PALS comes under the joint care of two institutes of Academy of Sciences of the Czech
Republic – Institute of Plasma Physics and Physical Institute. The purpose of this arrangement is to put together
the scientific potential and resources within one joint workplace “PALS Research Centre” and use the terawatt
iodine laser for multidiscipline research. Directors of both mentioned academic institutes appoint together the
director of the Centre. Other staff members supporting the smooth and safe operation of the Centre are: the head
of TW laser laboratory, Laser Officer, Target Officer, Chief Technician.
The interest in the use of PALS laser for various foreign and home experiments exceeds several times its present
capacity. Proposals come both from the range of the former laser users and new interested persons
from Germany, France, the Netherlands, Italy, Poland, Great Britain and other countries, including the United
States. Therefore the projects for PALS are being thoroughfully selected according to their scientific quality
upon evaluation by the international advisory team called the PALS User Selection Panel. The selected projects
have been partially supported from the funds of the 5 th Framework Programme of European Union, and at
present from the sources of the 6th Framework Programme.

Research Programme
It is aimed at six basic directions as follows:
       Development and use of plasma sources of the soft x-ray radiation, including plasma x-ray (XUV) lasers.
       Research of the intensive laser radiation interaction with the matter (x-ray ablation, study of the radiation
        damage, etc.).
       Development and utilisation of laser ion sources.
       Study of non-linear processes in laser plasma and hot dense matter with applications in the area of the
        inertially controlled fusion (ICF keep–in-touch activity), material sciences, astrophysics,
        electrochemistry, etc.
        Development of new laser systems (new types of x-ray lasers, hybrid solid state iodine lasers,
         parametrical OPCPA with ultra short - even femtosecond - output pulse).
The power lasers are typical multifunctional facilities finding their application in the whole range of scientific
disciplines and industries (electronical and optical industries, new material and processing technologies,
including nanotechnological applications, space and thermonuclear research, medicine, biology, electrochemistry
and radiation chemistry, laboratory astrophysics and planetary physics and many others).

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                                     4
The workplace is used by Czech institutions particularly within the project of Laser Plasma Research Centre.
The most recognised results during the four years of PALS operation were attained at the locally developed
sources of coherent XUV radiation – plasma x-ray lasers, where the Centre has become the world pilot
development and application workplace.
The Centre cooperates with many Prague and out-of-Prague companies dealing with manufacturing or mediation
of supplies of special apparatuses, facilities and materials in the field of optics, vacuum technique, electronics,
electrotechnics and fine mechanics, and the computer hardware and software.

International cooperation
The PALS Centre establishes scientific contacts with below mentioned laboratories and scientific workplaces:
       I3 - LASERLAB – 18 European laser laboratories
       INTAS – EU cooperation with Russia
       ICDMP – International Centre of Dense Magnetized Plasma (INGO, Unesco)
       EURATOM - Association Auratom IPP-CR (keep-in-touch activity)
       IAEA Vienna (partial research projects)
       Bilateral agreements with workplaces throughout Europe, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States

Impact on education
The Centre includes the training centre for home and European doctorands (PALS Marie-Curie Training Site)
and it is dedicated to education of university students as well.
The existence of the top home workplace for fighting the brain drain is irreplaceable. The middle-aged
experienced researchers are returning to the Centre from abroad. The interest in the work at PALS is coming also
from abroad. The director of the PALS Research Centre sees the main trouble in the fact that the Centre is not
able to offer its scientists a salary comparable to salaries paid by research centres in the countries having higher
GDP per capita.

Use and future strategy
Thanks to its unique properties PALS is in the consensual opinion of laser physicists especially suitable for
application of the so called OPCPA (Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification) technology of ultra short
laser pulses generation. Simulations performed in cooperation with laser physicists at Rutherford Appleton
Laboratory in Great Britain suggest that on PALS it would be possible to attain in pulses with length of several
dozens of femtoseconds the output performance up to several petawatts that is several times higher than at
present most advanced lasers in the United States, Great Britain or Japan. Therefore, the construction of a
petawatt module on PALS belongs among the principal middle-term investment goals of the laboratory. At the
same time the petawatt module project will be based upon results of the pilot OPCPA experiment on the level of
up to 100 TW output being conducted at present in the recently built testing laser laboratory on the smaller
iodide laser SOFIA. The realisation of the petawatt module on PALS will make possible to attain record
densities of the laser radiation performance on the target and so extend the research of the laser radiation
interaction with the matter into the areas of the relativistic and thermonuclear plasma, nuclear physics and other
disciplines up to the very limit of the present human knowledge.

The PALS facility serves for basic research without a commercial utilisation. Out of CZK 50 mil of annual
operational cost 50 % is made up by institutional funds, 40 % by domestic grants and 10 % by grants from
abroad. As far as its time capacity utilisation by users is concerned, one third is represented by the mentioned
foreign projects and two thirds by home users.
The Centre acquires funds for its operation in the form of an institutional support by Academy of Sciences of
CR, after submission of research plans by Physical Institute and Institute of Physics and Plasma; it won the grant
from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport within the project “Research Centres 2000-2004“. Moreover,
the Centre competes by its projects for the grants of Grant Agency of CR, Internal Grant Agency of the ASCR in
the Programme of the basic research centres for 2005-2009 and the European Union grants (LASERLAB-
EUROPE 2004-2007, etc).

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                                    5
The cornerstone of the present NREN (National Research and Education Network) was laid in 1992 in the time
when the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport provided the grant for building the backbone network for
home universities named CESNET and its inclusion into Internet.
Since 1993 NREN in the Czech Republic has come through another two important stages. The first stage in
1996-1999 represented the building of networks TEN-34 CZ, or TEN-155 CZ respectively. These networks were
built in connection to the European projects TEN-34 and QUANTUM. Aims of these projects were to create a
high-speed infrastructure connecting the European networks NREN. In 1997 the largest cities of the republic
were interconnected by lines of at that time extraordinary speed 34 Mb/s and they offered the same transmission
speed also to abroad through the European network TEN-34. The transmission technology used for this network
generation was the ATM technology. In 1999 this backbone of the Czech NREN was able to offer the speed up
to 155 Mb/s.
At present, the network CESNET2 is available for the needs of research, development and education in the
Czech Republic. This network has been gradually built since 2000 within the research plan “High-speed
National Research Network and its New Applications“, whose holder was the CESNET association. The
backbone routes connecting the university centres of the Czech Republic are able to transmit data with speed of
1 or 2.5 Gb/s. In keeping with the global trends CESNET2 is built on the principle of user-controlled optical
networks – CEF (Customer Empowered Fibre), when the operator builds its infrastructure on the basis of a long-
term lease of optical fibres which he/she equips with his/her own facilities.
The basic service of CESNET2 network is to provide the connectivity between the research institutions in the
CR and support the interconnection with other NRENs in the world and access to sources placed outside NREN.
At present, CESNET2 network connects eleven towns by the backbone gigabyte data circuits, other towns are
connected to the backbone network by capacities from 34 to 100 Mb/s. For communication with other world
NRENs the circuit with the speed of 2.5 Gb/s serves connected to the European backbone network Géant.

                       Figure 1 - The topology of CESNET2 network in October 2004

The maximum average load of backbone lines and lines into other research networks does not exceed 30 % in
the long term providing a sufficient free capacities for realisation of data-intensive transmissions. The loading of
CESNET2 network lines illustrates Figure 2.
Technologies and protocols set on the backbone network make possible to users to use routinely various types of
video conferences, from low-capacity suitable for communication needs of individuals to demanding
technologies allowing high fidelity of transmitted image and sound. Moreover, the association CESNET
administers the archive of video recordings of conferences, workshops, lectures, courses or educational
programmes. The by-product of examination of the possibility of data and voice services convergence is the
extensive network of IP telephony enabling free realisation of conversations within CESNET2 network and
several foreign research institutions as for example CERN (Switzerland), FermiLab (USA), and SLAC (Stanford
Linear Accelerator Center, USA).
The CESNET2 network includes also MetaCentrum coming to life by connection and extension of several
supercomputer centres and comprising very powerful computers complemented with clusters of quick PCs.
MetaCentrum is also engaged in international computing grids.

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                                    6
          Figure 2 - Loading of CESNET2 backbone lines in the week from October 3 to 10, 2004

At present, the view of the national research and education network as an infrastructure providing only a
sufficient free band is already surpassed. The new generation of NREN, which the current research and
development infrastructures are to transform into, is generally understood as a virtual environment for
cooperation making possible the effective and comfort exchange of data between the end clients (whether people
or machines). The development of such environment is the subject of the new research plan titled ”National
Optical Research Network and its New Applications”. The research plan will be solved in 2004 to 2010, with the
research plan holder being the CESNET association. The basic building blocks of the new NREN are the so
called hybrid networks allowing both for classical data routing and purely optical circuit switching. This
infrastructure composed of circuits with speed up to 10 Gb/s will be equipped with advanced services and
applications making it from the users view a transparent environment for acquisition and processing of data.
Such environment, for example, will make possible the dynamic construction and operation of grids, specific
architectures designed for effective storing and processing of scientific data of specific scientific disciplines.
The building of the above mentioned generation of NREN assumes extensive research activities not only in the
area of optical transmission technologies, but also in the area of the so called middleware (services connecting
transmission technologies with applications) and the information environment sources-intensive applications.
Therefore, a great attention in the research plan is dedicated to monitoring and evaluation of the infrastructure
conditions, measuring of data flows, methods supporting the effective transmission of data between the end
clients and provision of security. In the new environment the mobility of clients is expected and so the research
plan of CESNET association includes also its support, especially by development of the authentization and
authorization infrastructure and verification of possibilities of the network facilities roaming. And the facilitation
of cooperation of large geographically distributed research teams is on the other hand the reason for research in
the area of multimedial transmissions (video conferences, IP telephony, shared areas...). For verification of the
environment properties the source-intensive applications are developed and piloted as for example the computing
grid represented by MetaCentrum or applications from the field of medicine or distance learning.
Since 1996 the Czech NREN has been developed and operated by the association CESNET. This special-interest
association of legal entities was established in 1996 by all universities and Academy of Sciences of the CR as a
non-profit organisation providing for its members, and contributory organisations established by them, the
development and operation of the computer network, as well as research and development in the area of
information and communication technologies and their applications. At present, the association has 28 members
– owners. The supreme body of the association is the General Meeting; other control bodies are the Board of
Directors, the Supervisory Board and the Director.

The activity of CESNET is financed from several sources, of them the most significant is the institutional
support of the research plan titled “National Optical Research Network and its New Applications“. This support
planned for 2004 to 2010 in the total amount of CZK 1,842,920,000 will guarantee the stable development of the
Czech research and development infrastructure.

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                                      7
The 2004 sources of financing of development and operation of CESNET2 network amounts roughly to CZK
400 mil, with following structure:
       institutional financing in the amount of CZK 270 mil,
       membership fees in the amount of CZK 75 mil,
       European Union contribution for solution of joint projects in the amount of ca CZK 11 mil, and
    participating fees of the association non-members in the amount of CZK 44 mil.
The advantage of this method of the research financing is the accumulation of funds for information and
communication support of research and development leading to higher effectiveness of the funds spending.
Very important for the future development of the Czech national research network is the participation of
CESNET association in international projects supported by European Union. The major project of the 6 th
Framework Programme is GN2 project following after GÉANT project since September 1, 2004. The goal of
GN2 project is to build a top European infrastructure connecting the national NRENs (National Research and
Education Network) that will satisfy the demands of users in the area of research and education. The main idea
motives of the project are the support of grids, support of the users´ mobility within ERA (European Research
Area) and support of a quality interconnection of the end clients. The project will be solved in following four
years by the consortium of thirty two partners composed of the European NRENs, TERENA Association and
DANTE Company that is at the same time the project coordinator. The total project budget amounts to EUR
179 mil; the EU contribution amounts roughly to EUR 93 mil.
The CESNET experts will take part in this project especially in following research activities:
       network topology design, selection of suitable routes and facilities to be placed on these routes,
       solution of the quality of services between the end clients,
       development of tools for monitoring the extensive large-capacity networks,
       development of tools and mechanisms necessary for network security provision,
       creation of mechanisms for providing a reserved band or even reserved wave lengths (λ-services) for the
        needs of short-term projects upon request,
       realisation of testing infrastructures for experiments in information and communication technologies,
     development of authentization and authorization infrastructure for user mobility support.
Another project of the 6th Framework Programme is EGEE (Enabling Grids for E-science and Industry in
Europe) project. The project is aimed at building and operation of the extensive Pan-European Grid serving for
processing of data from experiments held in the CERN research centre. Within this project the association
cooperates on the middleware development, particularly on further development of the logging service and
relating parts of middleware, including the security implications.
SCAMPI project is aimed at high-speed networks monitoring. Our coparticipation is aimed at development,
verification and testing of the monitoring equipment. This successfully solved project was followed up on 1st
October by the project titled LOBSTER. The goal of this project, in which also the association is taking part, is to
propose and develop a pilot European infrastructure for monitoring the Internet operation.
The last project on the solution of which CESNET association participates is 6NET project. Its primary aim is to
build a native extensive IPv6 network and gain practical experiences with its operation. The main goal of our
participation is the development of hardware and software routers. The association also takes part in the joint
programme of NATO and CEENet consisting in consultations at building of national research networks in
certain republics of the former Soviet Union.
The position of the association among other NREN providers in the European countries is supported also by the
association membership in several supranational organisations dealing with the development of national research
networks. Among the most important are DANTE (Delivery of Advanced Network Technology for Europe Ltd.),
TERENA (Trans-European Research and Education Networking Association) and CEENet (Central and Eastern
European Networking Association).

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In this brief inventory the research infrastructures in Hungary are summarised with a possible outlook for their
future tasks and expectations.


Description of the facility
The Martonvásár phytotron is one of the largest, most up-to-date facilities for large-scale plant experimentation
in Europe, comprising around fifty plant growth chambers of various sizes and functions.

Research programme
In the phytotron plant experiments can be programmed and reproduced at any time of the year, irrespective of
the external weather conditions. The climate of any part of the world can be simulated in the plant growth units,
while the environmental factors most important for plant life can also be regulated independently in order to
study their separate effects.

Management structure
The Phytotron is operated by the Agricultural Research Institute of the HAS.

Operational costs are covered by government budget up to 60 %, research funding and commercial services
cover the rest.

Opportunity for international co-operation with other international
The phytotron is open for all sort of international cooperation.

Impact for training
The infrastructure beyond experimental work supports gradual, post gradual and PhD courses.

Medical Gene Technology Division

Description of the facility
The SPF level animal facility of this 1200 m2 newly established division includes an animal care unit which has
the capacity for accommodating over 10 000 mice including 2000 housed in individually ventilated cages and
laboratories for animal research and behavioural testing. The state-of-the-art transgenic mouse core facility also
operates behind the SPF barrier.

Research programme
In the Medical Gene Technology Division various research programmes are run in the field of general and
human genetics.

Management structure
Medical Gene Technology Division is operated by the Institute of Experimental Medicine of the HAS in

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                                  9
Operational costs are covered partly by government budget, national and international research fundings are

Opportunity for international co-operation with other international
The Medical Gene Technology Division provides its fee-based services to universities, research organizations
and industrial companies.

Impact for training
The infratructure beyond experimental work supports gradual, post gradual and PhD courses.

PET Centre of Debrecen

Description of the facility
The Centre is located on the premises of the Institute for Nuclear Research of the HAS, a cyclotron and a GE
4096 Plus whole body scanner. The Centre provides facilities for PET research.

Research programme
There are facilities for PET investigations of extracranial tumours, epilepsy, myocardial infarction or angina,
dementia, miscellaneous neurological cases, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, systemic lupus erythematosus etc. Future
developments aim a new multiheaded fully automated target system, the introduction of new tracers, and joint
projects with pharmaceutical research.

Management structure
The PET Centre is operated by the University Medical School in Debrecen.

Operational costs are covered partly by government budget, research fundings are also involved.

Opportunity for international co-operation with other international
The PET Centre is open for all sort of international co-operation.

Impact for training
The infratructure beyond experimental work supports gradual, post gradual and PhD courses.

MGC-20E Cyclotron

Description of the facility
The cyclotron was installed in 1985. It comprises 11 experimental channels, each equipped for different

Research programme
The experimental channels provide facilities for high-intensity beam for isotope production and charged particle
irradiation in general, high-intensity Be and D neutron sources, channels serving nuclear spectroscopy work

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                                10
(charged particle magnetic spectrometer, superconducting magnetic spectrometer for electron conversion studies,
etc.), equipment for activation analysis, etc.

Management structure
The Cyclotron is operated by the Institute for Nuclear Research of the HAS in Debrecen.

Operational costs are covered mainly by government budget, research fundings are also involved.

Opportunity for international co-operation with other international
The Cyclotron is open for all sort of international co-operation.

Impact for training
The infratructure beyond experimental work supports gradual, post gradual and PhD courses.

VdG-5 Electrostatic Accelerator Laboratory

Description of the facility
Electrostatic accelerator with 5 MV nominal voltage. The charge state of the heavy ion beams can be increased
by a pass through thin foils.

Research programme
The installation has five experimental channels, equipped for different purposes: one channel comprises a
scanning nuclear microprobe with a beam spot size of 1m x 1m, other channels are equipped for macro-PIXE
analysis, for angular measurements and -ray spectrometry, as well as for nuclear scattering studies and for on-
line electron spectrometry.

Management structure
The Cyclotron is operated by the Institute for Nuclear Research of the HAS.

Operational costs are covered partly by government budget, research funding and commercial services cover the

Opportunity for international co-operation with other international
The laboratory is open for all sort of international cooperation.

Impact for training
The infratructure beyond experimental work supports gradual, post gradual and PhD courses.

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                                11
The Budapest Research Reactor

Description of the facility
The Budapest Research Reactor is one of the major research facilities of Hungary. The reactor was first put into
operation in 1959. After a major reconstruction and upgrading the start-up procedure began in 1992.

Research programme
The reactor serves for basic and applied research, technological and commercial applications, education and
training. The reactor has 10 horizontal beam tubes (8 radial and 2 tangential). There is a cold neutron source
installed (in 2000) at one of the tangential beam tubes. Irradiations may be carried out by inserting samples into
the 51 special vertical channels. The utilisation of the reactor for basic and applied research is considered to be
the basic purpose of the reactor, in the fields: condensed matter, radiochemistry, biological irradiations, reactor
physics and technology.

Management structure
The reactor is operated by the KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute.

Operational costs are covered mainly by government budget, research fundings and commercial usage are also

Opportunity for international co-operation with other international
The reactor is open for all sort of international co-operation.

Impact for training
The infrastructure beyond experimental work supports gradual, post gradual and PhD courses.

The EG-2R – NIK accelerator complex

Description of the facility
Anaccelerator complex was built and is continuously developing dedicated to the application of few MeV ion
beams in solving interdisciplinary problems in solid state physics, materials science, life and environmental
science and in preservation of cultural heritage.

Research programme
Due to the unique features of the accelerator complex together with the internationally recognized high level, the
laboratory was informally considered as a regional centre of ion beam analysis since many years. Taking into
account the emphasis of regional development policy in the extended EU the formalization of this role can be an
important objective.

Management structure
The accelerator is operated by the KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics.

Operational costs are covered mainly by government budget, research fundings and commercial usage are also

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                                   12
Opportunity for international co-operation with other international
The accelerator and adjacent laboratories are open for all sort of international co-operation.

Impact for training
The infratructure beyond experimental work supports gradual, post gradual and PhD courses.

The Budapest University Training Reactor

Description of the facility
The Training Reactor of BUTE is an open-tank type light water moderated and cooled nuclear reactor with
maximum thermal power of 100 kW. The reactor is operated by the staff of the Institute of Nuclear Techniques
(INT) of BUTE. The facility was designed by Hungarian physicists and engineers at the end of the 1960s and it
first went critical in 1971.

Research programme
The reactor has been playing a leading role in the education of Hungarian nuclear professionals. Several tools
help the educational work as well as the wide spectrum of research activities, some of which are: 5 horizontal
beam ports, a large irradiation tunnel, vertical irradiation channels, a pneumatic rabbit system and a control room
that can be used by students as well.

Management structure
The reactor is operated by the Budapest University of Technology and Economics.

Operational costs are covered mainly by government budget, research fundings are also involved.

Opportunity for international co-operation with other international
The reactor is open for all sort of international co-operation, mainly in education.

Impact for training
The infratructure beyond experimental work supports gradual, post gradual and PhD courses.

Future plans
Future plans are under discussion in Hungary, it will be part of the Hungarian National Development Plan to be
completed around the end of next year.
The main axes ot the current discussions are:
       How to reinforce the national infrastructure in such a way that both research and industry could equally
       To establish a stable background of the information networks, and the proper access to various
       To explore the benefits of research infrastructures of regional (multi-national) dimensions.

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                                                                                    4.1 The RT-32 and the EVN


Radiotelescopes RT-32 and RT-15 of Ventspils International
Radio Astronomy centre
On July 22, 1994 upon withdrawal of the Russian armed forces from the Baltics, two fully steerable mirror
antennas, 32-meter and 16-meter ones, were taken over by the Latvian Academy of Sciences (LAS). The
Ventspils International Radio Astronomy Center (VIRAC) was established on the basis of these antennas and the
related infrastructure of the former military unit. Initially, the VIRAC was a center run by the LAS, since April
1996 to November 2004 it had been an independent institute, but from December 2004 it is a research institute of
Ventspils University college (
Regardless of being seriously damaged and left without any technical documentation from the former owners,
the pointing and tracking system of RT-32 had been fully restored within four years, and the RT-32 is currently
upgraded to computer control level.
The following scientists and engineers took part in preparation of this report: M.Ābele, G.Balodis, E.Bervalds,
K. Bērziņš, D. Bezrukovs, V. Bezrukovs, D. Draviņš, D. Geršinkova, J. Kaminskis, B. Ķikuste, G. Ozoliņš, M.
Paupere, A. Pavēnis, G. Rakitko, B. Rjabovs, Z. Sīka, I. Šmelds, I. Vilks, J. Žagars.

                                             Figure 3 - The RT-32

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                                                                                      4.1 The RT-32 and the EVN

Radio telescope drive system and its control
Working mechanisms
The following electromechanical systems are supporting the antenna movement function. (See Fig. 4)
1) Antenna azimuth drives with regulators, motors and free-run limiter are mounted on the middle level of the
     reinforced tower- or оn the third floor, counting from the ground.
2) Antenna altitude-angle drive is mounted in а special cabin оn the top of a vertical cylinder of а rotary
3) Нот height regulating drive is а new device, which was mounted during the antenna renovating process. It
     makes possible to shift the antenna axis and to adjust its focus during observations.
4) Antenna drives (2 drives) with asynchronous motors and regulators are located in а hollow space between
     horizontal surfaces of square platforms оn rotary mechanism. It is possible to enter this hollow space only
     through the trapdoor from the elevation-angle drive cabin.
5) An electric windlass is located over the roof of the elevation-angle drive cabin and is suitable for material or
     fitting parts delivery from the conic building roof of this cabin.
6) Telescopic elevator was built as an appliance for liquid nitrogen rising from the conic building to cabins
     under antenna main mirror (13) and was used when receiving apparatus were cooled by liquid nitrogen. This
     elevator was built in оnе room of the conic building but seems not to have been used for the last few years
     before the antenna became а property of the Latvian Academy of Science. Presently it is still out of function.
     To reduce the chance of rainwater intrusion into the building, the trapdoor outer surface is covered with а
     special material.
Feeding aggregates for azimuth and elevation-angle direct current motor (asynchronous motors + direct current
generators) and electrical amplifiers are mounted оn the ground floor of the cylindrical antenna building of the
ferro-concrete tower (12).

Mechanisms for antenna movement control
Special multipliers and movement gears with а minimal free run are used in the antenna control and guidance
drive. Selsyne and tachogenerator systems are used in the control раnеl indicator work, these devices are inserted
in regulators of antenna azimuth and elevation angle drives (I), (2).
Angle optical encoders RS-50 for azimuth control are mounted оn antenna reinforced tower top (fifth) floors
under ceiling. These release аn encoding signal every 20 sec. There are two apparatus оn RT -32, which are
switching uр bу amplifiers with а total cogwheel; amplifiers embrace the central cylinder of supporting/driving
mechanism and а free-run limiter.
Optical angle encoders RS-50 for the altitude angle control are mounted over the antenna horizontal axis, in the
elevation-angle drive cabin under the ceiling. Thе gear mechanism for movement is analogous to azimuth drive
In the same place as both antenna axes RS-50, there are two electromechanical аngle encoders (designed as relay
type), which are switched bу а total multiplier and rotating with а speed 4:I, I:I, I:16 and give 512 readable
values оn оnе turn time of а cogwheel. Probably, these angle encoders were supposed to bе used with big
diameter induction analogue systems. Induction stators include vertical buttresses of supporting/driving
mechanism and cylinder of antenna horizontal axis; rotors are connected directly to cylindrical surface of
rotating supporting/driving mechanism. This cylindrical system is presently out of order аnd was never used in
antenna control system (according to information obtained on our request). The parts and devices of antenna
guidance system, which were not used in work previously and will not bе used in future, are omitted in the
further schemes and text.
Analogue optical angle encoders are connected directly with vertical buttresses of supporting/driving mechanism
and ends of horizontal axes. In this case the ground ends of vertical buttresses are connected with а tube type
cardan gear (10) bу а moving hinge, cardan gear drives buttresses to immovable pad where angle coder is
fastened. Angle encoder (not shown on scheme) is directly connected with а movable hinge without cardаn gear
аnd fastened оn rotary platform. Unfortunately, the angle encoders, designed in the Astronomical Institute of the
University of Latvia, are not adequate for the required tasks, but in future this might bе exchanged for others,
highly precise, industrially made and experienced оn other telescopes (e.g., HEIDENHAIN).

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                                                                              4.1 The RT-32 and the EVN

                         Figure 4 - Drive mechanisms in the antenna carcass

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                                                                                   4.1 The RT-32 and the EVN

The main geometrical parameters of the RT-32 TWO-MIRROR SYSTEM
Table 2 - Geometrical parameters
 Parameter                                    Determined initially      Corrected after measurements using
                                                                        a parallactic instrument
 Diameter of the main mirror, D               31.92 m                   31.92 m
 Focal length of the main mirror, F           11.449 m                  11.617 m
 Depth of the main reflector, H               5.590 m                   5.482 m
 Ratio F/D                                    0.359                     0.364
 Angle subtended by the main mirror, 2      139o.8                    137o.9
 Geometric area of the aperture, A            800.2 m2                  800.2 m2
 Diameter of the secondary mirror, d          2.500 m                   2.500 m
 Angle subtended by the secondary             21o.06                    21o.59
 mirror, 2
 Depth of the secondary reflector, h          0.486 m                   0.500 m
 Distance of the secondary focus plane        4.582 m (value from a     Not determined
 from the vertex of the main mirror, F2       private communication)
 Effective focal length of the system, Feff   86.814 m                  86.597 m
 Magnification of the system, M               7.58                      7.45
 Airy diffraction disk diameter in the        6.80 cm                   6.78 cm
 secondary focus plane at wavelength  =
 2.5 cm, dA
 Aperture area blocked by the secondary       4.91 m2                   4.91 m2
 mirror, Abs

The values of parameters in the Table 2 are related by the following:
A= D2/4
H = D2/(16 F)
2 = 4 arctan(D/4F)
Feff = D/[4tan(/2)]
M = Feff/F
dA =  Feff/D

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                                                                          4.1 The RT-32 and the EVN

                                                  Equivalent paraboloid

                                                                          Principal plane

                                                    Secondary mirror

                                                                          Apertune plane

                                                         Main mirror

                               Figure 5 - The mirror system of RT-32

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                                                                                     4.1 The RT-32 and the EVN

Computer aided system for antenna movement control
The original movement control system of the antenna was dismantled and all accompanying documents and
technical instructions were lost. Thus, developing of a new control system was started almost from zero. The
main aim of that was the creating of new original computing control system with capability for astronomical
observations. The new system was launched in July 1999, since that time some upgrades have been applied to it.

The main goals of a new system developing
      To use the electromechanical part of driver, including chain: valve amplifier-amplidyne-slow
       movements engine, bearing in mind that astronomical observations generally do not require fast
       To use the automatic relay system, which supports the correct way of machines switching
       To use the existing angle sensors and tachogenerators for receiving feedback signals.
       To develop a hardware part with a minimal docking-system with the main blocks of antenna drive.
       To develop the software

System description
Fig. 6 shows the main hardware parts and principles of system work.
The system includes the original electromechanical driver and feedback signal receivers, added by controllers
and PC. The system is created as software, which receives the task for antenna movement in real time and also
feedback signals data from angle and angular velocity sensors after that calculates and outputs analogue signals
on valve amplifier exit. Further on, analogue signals are amplifying and guiding the DC motors.
Data acquisition board CIO DAS 1600/16 by ComputerBoards presents the interface for program equipment
docking with apparatus part. It includes the digital part, i.e. three bidirectional TTL ports (8085 chip) and the
analogue part, i.e. a number A-to-D and D-to-A converters. Additional angle sensor controller provides byte-by-
byte data input from angle sensors to PC. Intermediate relays guide the switching of brakes process
independently from relay automatic.
For required angles and angular velocity calculations in real time regime the computer real time clock is used.
For precise time keeping this clock is periodically synchronizing by minute impulses from initial clock.
Synchronizer represents the primary clock.
         Figure 6 - The structural diagram of the hardware of antenna movement control system

The receiving system of the RT-32
During the very first observations with RT-32 we used standard model PK7-16 and model PK7-21 modulation
type receivers, designed for antenna measurements. The PK7-16 receiver has a frequency range from 624 to

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                                                                                    4.1 The RT-32 and the EVN

1248 MHz, but PK7-21 - from 8.15 to 12.4 GHz. Both have direct mixer inputs and are working in the double
sideband (DSB) mode. The sideband center spacing is 60 MHz, the intermediate frequency band is centered at
30 MHz and both the receivers have selectable 2x3 MHz and 2x22 MHz bandwidths. The selectable values of
the time constant are 0.25 s, 1.0 s, 4,0 s and 16 s.
For calibration purpose the receivers have each a gaseous discharge noise generator and an avalanche diode
noise generator. Both the receivers are rather insensitive, having noise temperatures of some 10 3 K. Standard
deviation of the receiver noise temperature varies, depending on the model, from 1.5 K to 3 K at 1 s output time
constant. The advantage of these receivers is a wide frequency range.
Later on we upgraded the PK7-21 receiver for work in the 10.6 GHz radio astronomy band adding a rather
inexpensive low-noise block (LNB), amplifying and converting the input frequency to the 1 GHz range. In this
version the PK7-16 was employed as a converter to the second 30 MHz intermediate frequency and as the
receiver back-end. The noise temperature of this receiver system was about 170 K and the noise temperature
standard deviation  = 0.04 K at 1 s output time constant.

On the accuracy of the functional system of the RT-32(1,3,5,13,16,18)
First measurements of reflecting surface accuracy
Efficiency of antenna depends on shape of reflecting surfaces. For surface measurements parallactic range
finding device was made (see Fig. 7).

                                                   Figure 7

When two images are superimposed in range finder’s field of view, parallax angle p can be measured and object
distance  can be calculated
 = 0,5 b ctg p,                                                       (1)
where b is a distance between axis o1, o2. For this range finder b = 1 m. Elevation angle H and azimuth A of the
chosen point of antenna surface are also measured (Fig. 8).

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                                                                                       4.1 The RT-32 and the EVN

                                                     Figure 8

Measurements of antenna main mirror were performed on dates 16.09.2001 and 25.11.2001 Measured distance 
and angular coordinates A and H can be transformed in rectangular coordinates x, y, z. X axis points to the
zenith, z axis is paralel to the horizontal axis of movable part of the radiotelescope, y axis is pointing down when
antenna main mirror stands horizontal
x =  sin H,
y =  cos H cos A,                                                               (2)
z =  cos H sin A.
If mirror surface has paraboloid shape, then all surface points must obey the equation
x = a1 + a2x + a3y + a4yz + a5(y2 + z2).                                (3)

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                                                                                 4.1 The RT-32 and the EVN

Coefficients a1 - a5 of this equation were determined using least square method. Results are shown on Fig. 9.
Upper image shows mirror deviations from parabolic shape belt by belt. Lower image shows deviation of
measurement points from average surface.

                                                  Figure 9

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                                                                                  4.1 The RT-32 and the EVN

If higher degree members are added to approximation formula (3), deviation from average surface becomes
remarkably lower (Fig. 10).

                                                  Figure 10

Surface of secondary mirror was measured in similar way. Calculation results are shown on Fig. 11. Remarkable
deviation from paraboloid surface of reference can be seen.

                                                  Figure 11

Taking into account that accuracy of range finder is 2 mm (according to calibration data), we can assume that
accuracy of surface of the main mirror of radiotelescope RT-32 is not worse than 2  2,5 mm. This accuracy of
the surface is acceptable for observations in 12,2 GHz frequency range without noticeable decrease of antenna

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                                                                                       4.1 The RT-32 and the EVN

Evaluation of radio telescope RT-32 pointing accuracy using observations of stars
On 23.09.2000 evaluation of radio telescope RT-32 pointing accuracy using observations of stars with the optical
telescope were performed. Apparent places of stars were calculated and antenna was pointed to the star and
tracked it on both axis. Optical telescope situated in observation cabin was aimed to the star and micrometer
readings in x,y coordinates were registered. Knowing the values of micrometer sections and its orientation it was
possible to calculate the deviations of star image from center point Acos h and h. Median errors were A =
9.5, h = 20.6. Elevation deviation was function of elevation itself (Fig. 12).
Table 3 - Observations of stars 23.09.2000, 17 h 35m - 17h 41m UT
Star      A,      h,       Mikrom. read.        X            Y             Acosh,        h, 
Cat.                         x        y           x-x           y-y            
907       1.3      57.3      15.3       26.0      1.7           0.1            11.8           10.5
111       45.1     21.0      15.3       24.6      1.7           -1.3           2.6            19.7
1         86.2     32.7      13.4       24.7      -0.2          -1.2           -9.2           6.6
815       133      34.2      11.7       27.1      -1.9          1.2            -4.6           -20.3
780       136.2    61.7      10.7       28.7      -2.9          2.8            -0.7           21.2
745       167.6    40.8      11.4       25.7      -2.2          -0.2           -15.7          -13.1
676       249.3    77.5      12.4       27.2      -1.2          1.3            0.7            -16.4
509       296.7    43.8      16.0       23.6      2.4           -2.3           0.7            30.8
483       310.9    42.4      16.6       25.2      3             -0.7           15.1           24.3
average                      X 13.6     Y 25.9                                 A = 9,5,     h = 20,6

                                                   Figure 12

VIRAC 32-metre cassegrain antenna pattern evaluation
Analysis of a Cassegrain antenna with a far-field pyramidal horn was given in [1] as an application of the
method of geometrical optics. The significant parameters of the design are both the left and the right circular
polarization of the received radioastronomical signal.
Fig. 13 shows the geometry [2] of the Cassegrain antenna. This consists of a pyramidal feed horn, a hyperbolic
subreflector and a main parabolic reflector. One focal point of the hyperbolic subreflector coincides with one of
the parabolic reflector and the other one with the phase centre of the horn.
The design of the Cassegrain antenna is based on geometrical optics. The feed horn must be located in the
shadow region of the subreflector and this latter intercepts most of the power emitted by the horn.
The main specifications of the antenna system are listed below.

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                                                                                     4.1 The RT-32 and the EVN

Table 4 - Parameters of the Cassegrain system
 Diameter [m]                                             32,00
 Focal length [m]                                         11,45
 F/D ratio                                                0,36
 Subtended angle [degrees]                                139,80
 Diameter of hyperbolic subreflector [m]                  2,50
 Angle subtended by subreflector [degrees]                21,06
 Magnification of radiotelescope                          7,58
 Effective focal length [m]                               86,71

The measurements performed with the Cassegrain antenna in the 10 GHz band allows us to make an assumption
- there were no intended mechanical adjustments to destroy the antenna mirror system [3]. Now we have the
ordinates of the focus point with accuracy about 1 mm. The actual value of the antenna dimensions and
additional geometric parameters have not been known yet. For this reason we present here an estimation of the
geometric parameters made in two different ways :
      as the initial parameters, the diameters of both reflectors, the height of the second focus above the dish
       vertex, the focal length and depth of the dish have been used [ 4 ].
      as the initial parameters, the diameters of both reflectors and both subtended angles have been used [ 5 ].


                                          

                                                         
             D0                                                                   d0


                                   Figure 13 - Geometry of Cassegrain system

In table 5 we present comparative results for the geometric parameters of the Cassegrain system. In bold the
initial values for the calculation parameters are given.
One can see only small differences in the presented geometrical estimations. These results will be used for
calculation of the antenna patterns.

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                                                                                    4.1 The RT-32 and the EVN

Table 5 - Approximation of Cassegrain antenna parameters
Method                                                                               [3]               [4]
Diameter                                                        D0                  31,92             31,92
Focal length                                                   F/D0                11,448            11,448
Depth of the dish                                                H                  5,562             5,562
Subtended angle                                                 2 0                139,5             139,5
Diameter of the hyperbolic subreflector                          d0                  2,50             2,50
Height of the second focus above the dish vertex                 H                 4,5820            4,5808
Angle subtended by the subreflector                             2 0               22,0842           22,080
Effective focal length                                           Fe                 82,55             82,57
Radiotelescope magnification                                    FE/f                7,211             7,213
Foci separation                                                 f-h                6,8666            6,8678
Eccentricity of the hyperbola                               c/a=F-f/F+f            1,3220            1,3219
                                                                 2a                1,6725            1,6700
Inclination of the asymptote                               a=arccos (a/c)            0,71             0,71
Distance of the hyperbolic vertex                               c-a                  0,84             0,84
Depth of the secondary dish                               c-a-(f-H0)*d/D0            0,38             0,38
Difference of ray paths to focus                             (f-h) * a/c             5,19             5,20
Surface area of shadow                                                               4,91             4,91

In figure 13 the geometry of this parabolic antenna is depicted. The antenna consists of an array feed and a main
dish-shaped parabolic reflector. The focal point of the parabolic dish coincides with the phase centre of the
antenna array.
The initial design of the parabolic dish antenna is based on the geometrical optics, which imposes certain
restrictions on the antenna geometry [2]. The constraints are as follows: the antenna array should be located in
front of the reflector and it intercepts most of the power emitted by the array with antenna pattern F() .

First test observations to check the condition of the VIRAC 16-meter two-mirror
The VIRAC 16-m antenna (see Fig.14) has geographical coordinates: 57 O33’33”N, 21O50’51”E and is situated
near the RT-32.
To obtain the first insight of the performance of the 16-meter diameter antenna, we chose the 15 GHz receiving
frequency, because it is high enough to estimate the working capability in the short cm range. We used a PK7–22
type modulation receiver, being at our disposal. Our receiver has 12 to 17 GHz range of frequency. Some
frequencies in this range are often used to investigate the cosmic background radiation, as well for molecular
spectral line profile and solar research. This double sideband receiver has 2x22 MHz bandwidth and 2.5 K
sensitivity threshold at 1 s output time constant.
Table 6 - Content of the first rather rough estimates of the main geometrical parameters of 16-m antenna
Parameter                                                                                              Value
Diameter of the main mirror, D                                                                        16.0 m
Focal length of the main mirror, F                                                                     6.4 m
Depth of the main mirror, H                                                                            2.5 m
Ratio F/D                                                                                                 0.4
Angle subtended by the main mirror, 2                                                                1280.0
Geometric area of the aperture, A                                                                     201 m2
Diameter of the secondary mirror, d                                                                    1.5 m
Angle subtended by the secondary mirror, 2                                                              270
Depth of the secondary mirror, h                                                                      0.21 m
Effective focal length of the system, Feff                                                            33.8 m

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                                 26
                                                                              4.1 The RT-32 and the EVN

Airy diffraction disk diameter in the secondary focus plane at  = 2 cm, dA                  4.2 cm
Aperture area blocked by the secondary mirror, Abs                                            1.8 m2

The values of parameters in the Table 6 are related by the following:
A= D2/4
H = D2/(16 F)
2 = 4 arctan(D/4F)
Feff = D/[4tan(/2)]
dA =  Feff/D
The position of the secondary focus of the two-mirror system was estimated only approximately. So the
subtended angle of the 1.5 m diameter secondary mirror was determined being near 27 O, using estimated
possible position of the secondary focus plane.

                                  Figure 14 - The VIRAC 16-meter antenna

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                        27
                                                                             4.1 The RT-32 and the EVN

The uv-plane plots of a VLBI experiment for selected EVN antennas and the RT-32

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 I                                        G                     │         EFLSBERG-IRBENE =F
 │        F            CS         B                             │         CAMBG32M-MEDICINA=G
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v│   J            R                     R            J   │                CAMBG32M-TORUN   =J
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1└───────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘                TORUN   -IRBENE =U
 max.proj.baseln        1684 km        0      u scaled to fill screen

Figure 15 - Plots of uv-plane for selected compact AGN sources of chosen EVN antennas and the VIRAC
Irbene RT-32 showing the overall benefit to the network observing Northern sky objects. To be continued
in the next pages)

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                         28
                                                                            4.1 The RT-32 and the EVN

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1└───────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘              TORUN   -IRBENE =U
 max.proj.baseln        2116 km        0     u scaled to fill screen

Figure 15 - (Continued) Plots of uv-plane for selected compact AGN sources of chosen EVN antennas and
the VIRAC Irbene RT-32 showing the overall benefit to the network observing Northern sky objects. (To
be continued in the next pages)

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                       29
                                                                            4.1 The RT-32 and the EVN

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v│       J           R                     R           J     │          CAMBG32M-TORUN   =J
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Figure 15 - (Continued) Plots of uv-plane for selected compact AGN sources of chosen EVN antennas and
the VIRAC Irbene RT-32 showing the overall benefit to the network observing Northern sky objects. (To
be continued in the next pages)

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                       30
                                                                            4.1 The RT-32 and the EVN

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v│                         T            T                    │          CAMBG32M-TORUN   =J
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Figure 15 - (Continued) Plots of uv-plane for selected compact AGN sources of chosen EVN antennas and
the VIRAC Irbene RT-32 showing the overall benefit to the network observing Northern sky objects. (To
be continued in the next pages)

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                       31
                                                                            4.1 The RT-32 and the EVN

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v│                  J        R       R        J             │           CAMBG32M-TORUN   =J
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Figure 15 - (Continued) Plots of uv-plane for selected compact AGN sources of chosen EVN antennas and
the VIRAC Irbene RT-32 showing the overall benefit to the network observing Northern sky objects. (To
be continued in the next pages)

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                       32
                                                                            4.1 The RT-32 and the EVN

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v│                                                          │            CAMBG32M-TORUN   =J
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 max.proj.baseln        1602 km        0      u scaled to fill screen

Figure 15 - Continued) Plots of uv-plane for selected compact AGN sources of chosen EVN antennas and
the VIRAC Irbene RT-32 showing the overall benefit to the network observing Northern sky objects. (To
be continued in the next pages)

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                        33
                                                                            4.1 The RT-32 and the EVN

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 │                         L             M               │              EFLSBERG-IRBENE =F
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 │                    B             C             D      │              CAMBG32M-ONSALA85=H
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v│ J          E PR A         T T          A RP E      J │               CAMBG32M-TORUN   =J
 IK         F H           SU              Q              │              CAMBG32M-IRBENE =K
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1┌───────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐                  UVPLOT for
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Figure 15 - (Continued) Plots of uv-plane for selected compact AGN sources of chosen EVN antennas and
the VIRAC Irbene RT-32 showing the overall benefit to the network observing Northern sky objects. (To
be continued in the next pages)

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                       34
                                                                            4.1 The RT-32 and the EVN

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Figure 15 - (Continued) Plots of uv-plane for selected compact AGN sources of chosen EVN antennas and
the VIRAC Irbene RT-32 showing the overall benefit to the network observing Northern sky objects. (To
be continued in the next pages)

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                       35
                                                                            4.1 The RT-32 and the EVN

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Figure 15 - (Continued) Plots of uv-plane for selected compact AGN sources of chosen EVN antennas and
the VIRAC Irbene RT-32 showing the overall benefit to the network observing Northern sky objects. (To
be continued in the next pages)

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                       36
                                                                            4.1 The RT-32 and the EVN

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Figure 15 - (Continued) Plots of uv-plane for selected compact AGN sources of chosen EVN antennas and
the VIRAC Irbene RT-32 showing the overall benefit to the network observing Northern sky objects. (To
be continued in the next page)

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                       37
                                                                            4.1 The RT-32 and the EVN

1┌───────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐                  UVPLOT for
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v│                                                        │             CAMBG32M-TORUN   =J
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v│      D                                              D   │            CAMBG32M-TORUN   =J
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Figure 15 - (Continued) Plots of uv-plane for selected compact AGN sources of chosen EVN antennas and
the VIRAC Irbene RT-32 showing the overall benefit to the network observing Northern sky objects.

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                       38
Prospects of investigations into the methanol masers using VIRAC RT-32
Abstract. Recent radio observations have shown that the methanol maser spot emission is a good tracer of
nascent massive stars deeply embedded in the dust cocoons surrounding the Galactic ultra compact regions of
ionized hydrogen. This paper is only a very brief introduction and review to start the intended CH3OH maser
research at the Ventspils International Radio Astronomy Center (VIRAC). It is shown that the VIRAC 32 m
radio telescope can be effectively used for methanol maser line observations, however serious work must be
done to select, obtain and prepare the necessary receiving equipment.

VLBI solar and scaterring research at AT 92-cm wavelength range
One of the main goals of building of big radio telescopes, such as RT–32 is to use them as a part of some VLBI
network. It is reasonable to start with the longer wavelengths (particularly 92–cm wavelength range) because
requirements to equipment and antenna alignment are not so strong than for shorter ones. It is planned to carry
out these researches in close cooperation with Low Frequency VLBI Network (LFVN, the VLBI network
operating at 327 MHz, 1665 MHz and 5 MHz frequency bands and includes following telescopes: Bear Lakes
RT-64, Puschino RT-22 (Russia, near Moscow), St.Pustyn RT-14, Zimenki RT-15 (Russia, N. Novgorod),
Evpatoria RT-70 (Ukraine, Crimea), Noto RT-32 (Italy), Torun RT-15 (Poland), GMRT (India, Pune) and ORT
(India, Ooty), Urumqi RT-25 and Shanghai RT-25 (China), Ventspils RT-32 (Latvia). LFVN is collaborating
with Svetloe RT-32 (Russia, near St. Peterburg), Simeiz RT–22, Medicina RT–32, Torun RT-32, Arecibo RT-
300, Green Bank RT-43, HartRAO RT-26. This network was created under INTAS Project N 96-0183 and began
its operations at 327 MHz frequency range with the Mk-2 recording terminals in December 1997.

VLBI observation using HDD based recording terminal
The most serious and real way for the international cooperation in the radio astronomy area is the participation of
the radio telescope RT-32 in European VLBI Network (EVN) observational sessions. This kind of activity , i.e.
the regular interferometry sessions needs to supply of RT-32 with the receiving equipment and recording
terminal. Some experiments of RT-32 participation in long wave interferometry program proved that it is very
Today the EVN radio telescopes are using the Mk IV recording terminal. But it and all its supporting hardware
and software are rather old now. The common recommendation of JIVE to all radio telescopes-participators of
EVN is to change the Mk IV terminal to Mk V or PC EVN ones based on hard disk drive facilities. The
specification, standards and components of Mk V and PC EVN are in advance now.
So, it is evident that developing the VLBI technique at RT-32 there is no sense to repeat the step of Mk IV
exploring. The Mk V terminal installation is a real way to rise a technical and scientific level of RT-32 usage.

Minutes from the fourth meeting of the VIRAC scientific advisory council
Ventspils International Radio Astronomy Center – VIRAC
Scientific Advisory Council – SAC
Minutes from the Fourth meeting: May 23-24, 2002, Riga, Latvia
Organizations represented:
    Free University of Brussels
       Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Latvia
       Institute of Astronomy, University of Latvia
       Institute of Atomic Physics and Spectroscopy, University of Latvia
       Institute of Physical Energetics, Latvian Academy of Sciences
       Institute of Radioelectronics, Riga Technical University
       Latvian Academy of Sciences
       RIXC, Riga Centre for New Media Culture
       Ventspils College

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                                   39
The Netherlands:
   Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, Dwingeloo
       United Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow
   Astro Space Center, Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow
       Lund Observatory
    Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University of Technology
Total number of participants: 33

VIRAC Scientific Advisory Council - Terms of reference
Continuing the ambitions expressed in the international “Agreement on co-operation in radio astronomy” signed
at The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on February 12, 1996, the following guidelines for the work of the
VIRAC Scientific Advisory Council (SAC) are adopted:
(a) PURPOSE: SAC is a scientific advisory body to VIRAC, charged with evaluating, recommending and
advising on programs for the scientific and technical work at VIRAC, with special emphasis on elements that
include international collaboration.
(b) RESPONSIBILITY: SAC has no part in any administrative, nor any other internal matters of VIRAC and,
in particular, has no financial responsibility towards VIRAC and its research facilities. Nevertheless, SAC may
seek to identify national and international resources which could be used to promote the activities.
(c) MEETINGS: The SAC aims at organizing meetings about once per year. Date and venue for these
meetings is decided by the Chairman and the Scientific Secretary, after consulting with the VIRAC management,
and the SAC members. A call for attendance at these meetings shall be distributed by the Chairman at least 90
days in advance. Minutes from recent meetings shall be kept by the Scientific Secretary, and be made publicly
available on the Internet or otherwise.
(d) ATTENDANCE: At the SAC meetings, a broad attendance by scientists and research students should be
aimed at. Since a main task is to discuss future scientific projects, it is desirable that such discussions involve as
many potential future collaborators as possible.
(e) FORMAL MEMBERSHIP: The SAC may express its opinion through, e.g., discussions (as recorded in the
minutes from meetings) or by adopting resolutions. In case there is a need to vote on specific issues, the voting
shall be made by the SAC “formal members”, composed of one representative from each organization which has
established scientific contacts with VIRAC, and who is also personally represented at the meeting. In case of
doubt which person is to represent an organization, the selection is to be made by that particular organization. In
case of doubt whether an organization is eligible for membership, the decision rests with the VIRAC director.
(f) FUNCTIONARIES: The SAC appoints amongst its formal members a Chairman and a Scientific Secretary,
both elected for a period of five years (or until the first SAC meeting which takes place following such a five-
year period).
The above Terms of Reference for the VIRAC Scientific Advisory Council were unanimously adopted at the
fourth meeting of the VIRAC SAC, held in Riga, May 23-24, 2002.
Election of chairperson and scientific secretary for the coming years
With the end of this meeting, the terms of office of both the chairman and the scientific secretary were coming to
an end, and invitations to propose names were made. After some deliberations, Dainis Dravins and Juris Zagars
were re-elected as respectively chairman and scientific secretary, for a period for a period of five years, i.e. until
May 2007 (or until the first SAC meeting which takes place following such a five-year period).

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                                      40
Lithuania mainly possesses only small Research Infrastructures (RI), which are actually subdivisions (research
centres or laboratories) of Lithuanian institutions of higher education and research. Such RI has only institutional
Those centres and laboratories could not be considered as a large research facilities in European (ESFRI)
understanding. It could not be designated even as a medium size RI of state significance.
Lithuania almost has not RI which could be called as corporate ones or of common use. Only one research centre
– Laser Research Center at Vilnius University has majority main features of real RI in European meaning (see
attached information).
Some Lithuanian research centres (as Biochemical Research Ceter, described in another attached file) have
certain potential and are pretending to be called as RI.
In Lithuania we have not yet any clearly expressed policy of the development of our own RI. There are no
specific schemes for its support and financing. Ministry of Education and Science is planning in the nearest
future to develop some strategy of the development of Lithuanian RI. The strategy should also include some
Lithuanian attitude or policy how Lithuanian research centres could be integrate into the networks of European
RI and how Lithuanian researchers could participate in the programs of those RI.

Research infrastructure at Vilnius university laser research

Description of the facility
The beginning of the research in the field of laser physics and nonlinear optics at Vilnius University dates as far
back as late sixtieth. After a decade of rapid development of laser physics at Vilnius University the laser
facilities were concentrated at Laser Research Center (VU LRC) that was established in 1982 as an integral part
of Department of Quantum Electronics at Vilnius University. The activity of VU LRC from the very beginning
is directed by Prof. A.Piskarskas.
Experimental laser facilities provided by the VU LRC are open for interdisciplinary and international
collaboration in laser physics and laser application in chemistry, biology, and medicine. The VU LRC
infrastructure comprises of several installations and offers an access to the following laboratories:
1) experimental facility for investigation of laser – matter interaction processes at the intensities up to 1016
2) laboratory for investigation of optical parametric oscillation, generation and amplification in the range of
     pulse duration from 10 ns to 10 fs,
3) pump–and–probe picosecond and femtosecond laser spectrometers based on UV – IR continuously tunable
     parametric generators and amplifiers providing temporal resolution 1 ps and 10-100 fs respectively,
4) facility for standardized laser induced damage tests of optical and laser components in wide wave – length
     and pulse – width range,
5) laboratory for biomedical laser applications, e.g., fluorescent diagnostics, cells manipulation and optical
     coherent tomography.
The high level of staff expertise and state-of-art of research infrastructure at VU LRC is already recognized by
European scientific community. In 2000 European Commission has approved VU LRC as Center of Excellence
for FP5 project “Cell Biology and Lasers: Towards New Technologies” (CEBIOLA). Since beginning of 2004
VU LRC is a member of Consortium of 17 the largest national laboratories in the area of laser-based inter-
disciplinary research at the European level performing the project “Integrated European laser laboratories”
(LASERLAB-EUROPE) implemented as Integrated Infrastructure Initiative of FP6.

Research program
The main trends of research in VU LRC are: Ultrashort Pulse Solid-State Lasers, Nonlinear Optics, Ultrafast
Laser Spectroscopy and Biophotonics. The topics of scientific research activity involve parametric interaction of
ultrashort light pulses with crystals, liquids, and atomic gases; broadly tuneable wave-length optical parametric

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                                    41
generation and amplification; laser spectroscopy of energy transfer and relaxation processes in organic and
biological molecular complexes; the development of ultrafast laser technology for life science and environmental
Scientific staff of VU LRC is publishing about 25-30 articles yearly in leading international journals on lasers
and optics and giving more than 50 presentations at national and international conferences. Researchers of VU
LRC have been awarded by FSU (1984) and Lithuanian State Prizes (1994, 1999, 2002) as well as by Alexander
von Humboldt Research Prize (1992) and EPS Quantum Electronics and Optics Prize (2001).

Management structure
Management of infrastructure at VU LRC is performed by local administration of VU LRC headed by Prof. Dr.
A.Piskarskas with participation of International Advisory Board. Laser facilities offered for access are
supervised by leading scientists (Prof. Dr. V.Sirutkaitis, Prof. Dr. R.Gadonas, Prof. Dr. V.Smilgevicius, prof.
R.Rotomskis, Lead. Res. Sci. Dr. R.Danielius, Sen. Res. Sci. Dr. A.Varanavicius, Sen. Res. Sci. Dr. A.Dubietis,

State budget of Lithuania, Budget of Vilnius University, National and International grants.

Opportunity for international co-operation with other international
Along with well developed experimental infrastructure VU LRC is providing world-wide recognized expertize in
optical parametric amplification and generation, optical chirped pulse parametric amplification, multybeam
pumping and energy combining in OPA/OPG, nonlinear optics of Bessel beams and optical vortices, generation
of “optical bullets” and nondiffracting X-waves. The research personnel at VU LRC is experienced in pico- and
femtosecond lasers, ultrafast spectroscopy, nonlinear optics of ultrashort light pulses, complexity in optics, laser
induced damage measurements as well as in biomedical laser application.
VU LRC researchers are extremely motivated to participate in joint research and international networking
activities since in previous years this possibility was limited due to political status of Lithuania. Active research
in the areas of high fundamental and applied interest, highly skilled staff, versatile experimental facilities and
research friendly environment have attracted many guest researchers over past years. Only in the past 4 years
more than 60 visits of scientist from Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Great Britain, Japan and other countries to
laser facilities at VU LRC took place for performing of joint research projects.
Foreign researchers are also frequently visiting the VU LRC for research coordination, lecturing and
participation in international meetings. Among the international meetings organized by the VU LRC are
International Schools on Laser Application in Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics (ISLA’1990 and 1993),
International symposium on "Ultrafast Processes in Spectroscopy" (UPS’1993), International Workshop “Laser
Against Cancer” (1997, 2002), International Conference on “Lasers in Life Sciences” (LALS’2002), workshop
“Optical Parametric Processes and Periodical Structures”(2004), and others.
The main fields of research for international collaboration and trans-national access offered by research
infrastructure at VU LRC are:
       modelling and experimental testing of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA) and
        synchronization of lasers using optical parametric amplifiers (OPA’s) and generators (OPG’s)
       ultrafast pump- and- probe spectroscopy of relaxation processes in condensed matter, organic and
        biological molecular complexes using broadly tunable pico- and femtosecond OPA’s
       standardized measurements of laser induced damage thresholds of optical components and coatings in
        broad range of pulse durations and wave – lengths
       shaping and characterization of Bessel – Gauss and Laguerre – Gauss beams of different topological
        charge and their application for particle manipulation and plasma physics
       generation of space- and-time- domain localized optical wave packets (nondiffracting and nondispersing
        X pulses)
       numerical simulation of nonlinear optical interactions of ultrashort light pulses in the second- and third-
        order nonlinear medium

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                                     42
Impact for training
VU LRC offers extended training opportunities for PhD students and young scientists, with regard to both
academic achievements and professional skills, opening up solid prospects for excellence in the academic world
as well as in the highly competitive technology sector. These are summarized below:
       Work in an active, highly intellectual, international environment of high-quality and standards, enhanced
        further through the networking with European research infrastructures.
       Advanced course work and research training in topics of cross-disciplinary character.
       Multifaceted training in the highest quality basic and applied research topics, most of which are related
        to important technological developments.
       Participation in specialized workshops (organized through the training programme) and in international
        scientific events maximizing exposure to experienced researchers in the field.
       Contacts with academic, industrial and other collaborators from the private sector associated with the
        VU LRC laboratories, which enhance career opportunities and prospects for future employment.

Biochemical Research Center
After the restoration of Lithuanian independence during the last 15 years the activity of the Institute of
Biochemistry has been transformed and adapted to the new realities. The number of staff members of the
Institute were reduced from 360 at 1992 to 154 today, and the number of scientists – from 94 to 49. During this
period 5 departments have been reorganized and 3 new scientific units have been established. Main efforts of
research and development were concentrated on modern and priority directions indicated in EC 4-6 Frameworks.
As a result of this reorganization the most active and productive departments and scientists formed a core of the
Biochemical Research Centre at the Institute of Biochemistry.

Description of the facility
Research and development of the biochemistry field require integrated approaches and are dependent on both
multidisciplinary and intersectional activities to meet the challenge of the modern biochemistry in 21 st century
and to be able in reaching the very sophisticated aims efficiently. A critical mass must of necessity be formed by
cooperating between researchers and consolidating of methods and equipment. The Biochemical Research center
consists of the following integrated units and has the required critical mass to perform research in biochemistry.
       The Unit of Spectroscopy (the key equipments: FT-Raman spectroscope, UV-VIS and IR spectrometers
        and fluorimeters),
       The Unit of Biocatalysis (the key equipments: potentiostats, HPLC, stopped-flow system),
       The unit of Cell Biology and Biomolecule Engineering (the key equipments: equipment for cultivation
        of microbial and eukariotic cells, microscopes, PCR cyclers, protein purification stations, equipment for
        work with recombinant DNA and recombinant cells),
       The Unit of Technical Support consisting of the Vivarium for laboratory animals, facilities for
        experiments with isotopes and facilities for pilot organic synthesis.
The infrastructure of the Biochemical Research Center was created by implementation of 4 INCO-
COPERNICUS grants of the EC 4FW, one research Grant of the 5 FW, NATO, Volswagen-Stiftung, HHMI
(USA), a number grants supported by the Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation and a number of
cooperative contracts with international private companies. There have been totally invested about 900 000 Euro
during the last five years.

Research programme
Elucidation of structure and function of biological systems and development of knowledge-based (bio)materials.

The main objectives
       To identify and characterize new genes;
       To identify and characterize new biocatalyzers;
       To identify and elucidate new regulatory systems,

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The main outcomes
       New fundamental knowledge about functioning of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells;
       New biocatalysts for organic synthesis and biosensors;
       New biosensoric systems for medicine, food and environmental control;
       New targets for drug development;
       New cell-based therapies.

Management structure
Management structure of the Biochemical Research Center consists of administrative management performing
by the administrative personnel of the Institute of Biochemistry and scientific management performing by
Project Leaders.

Infrastructure of the Biochemical Research Centre (heating, electricity and water supply, communication service
and salary) is maintained by the budget of the Institute of Biochemistry. The research activity of the Centre is
substantially supported by the international and the Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation research
The scientists of the Centre take part in the implementation of three EC 6 FP projects now: in one STREP and
one IP act as a partner, and coordinate SSA project (in total 400 000 Euro). Scientists of the Centre participate in
the implementation of 4 priority programs supported by the Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation
(one of them is coordinated), and perform other contracts with European companies with turnover about 350 000
Euro per year.

Opportunity for international co-operation with other international
Centres/facilities. Scientists of the Centre are collaborating with Universities of Lund, Karolinska and
Linchoping (Sweden). University of Firenze and Roma “Tor Vergata” (Italy), Bochum University (Germany)
and Pau University (France) in the frame of joint research projects.

Impact on training
The scientists of the Centre are taking part in the study process giving lectures and practical courses at the
Vilnius University, Vytautas Magnus University, and Gediminas Technical University and also abroad. The
scientists are supervising students for Master and Bachelor degrees (10-12 students per year). Scientists of the
Centre are participating in doctoral studies as supervisors, members and opponents of thesis defence boards (at
present 11 PhD students).

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                                    44

IT infrastructure for science in Poland
As far as IT infrastructure for science in Poland is concerned, it is necessary to mention the following facilities
and institutions that are of vital importance for research activities and programmes:
Five high-performance computing centres (so-called KDM - Komputery Dużej Mocy):
1) Poznań Supercomputing and Networking Centre (PCSS) -
2) Academic Computer Centre in Gdańsk (TASK) -
3) Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling in Warsaw (ICM) -
4) Wrocław Centre for Networking and Supercomputing (WCSS) -
5) Academic Computer Centre CYFRONET AGH in Cracow -
All these computing centres are affiliated either with universities (ICM with Warsaw University) or technical
universities (TASK with Gdańsk University of Technology, WCSS with Wrocław University of Technology,
CYFRONET with the University of Science and Technology in Cracow) or with the Polish Academy of
Sciences (PCSS with the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry in Poznań).
The computing centres play a key role in the Polish system of IT infrastructure for science because they have the
necessary potential to develop RTD activities at the national and international levels (highly qualified academic
personnel, modern high-performance computers, international experience due to participation in European
research programmes, etc.).
The computing centres enumerated above are active as:
       RTD centres
       computational high-performance centres for science
       educational and training institutions
       IT centres and Internet service providers
       databases and data grids
    centres for IST initiatives and projects
As far as ways of financing the computing centres are concerned, the main sources of funding are:
       the financial means for IT investments (from the Ministry of Scientific Research and IT)
       the financial means for statutory activities (from the Ministry of Scientific Research and IT)
       profit from commercial activities
     grants from European programmes
All the 5 Polish computing centres are involved in many national and international/European research projects
(also in the EU FP6). Examples of the projects are:
       EGEE – Enabling Grids for e-Science in Europe (EU FP6) - as the most prestigious of all FP6 projects,
        aims to integrate current national, regional and thematic Grid efforts in order to create a seamless
        European Grid infrastructure for the support of the European Research Area (ERA). The EGEE project
        is coordinated by CERN.
       GRIDSTART – project devoted to developing computing grids and clusters
       FP6 WINIT – focusing on solutions developing mobile wireless Internet in Europe
       PRO-ACCESS – focuses on creating a platform for the promotion of telemedicine as well as
        dissemination and transfer of advanced health telematics concepts
       PELLUCID – IT software supporting the mobility of public sector employees
       CLUSTERIX – integration of existing computing clusters
       SGIgrid – developing remote broadband access to costly scientific facilities

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                                   45
National supercomputing cluster
The programme for developing IT infrastructure for science in Poland has been financed and implemented since
1993 by the Ministry of Scientific Research and Information Technology. The programme led to the creation of
the 5 high-performance computing centres described above, 22 metropolitan area networks (MAN) located at the
main scientific and academic centres in Poland as well as the POL-34 broadband network, which connects the
entire Polish scientific community to the European GÉANT scientific network. The next stage of modernising
and developing the Polish IT computational grid for science is realised by means of the governmental
programme named PIONIER - Polish Optical Internet ( The strategic aim of this
programme is to build a countrywide optical network that will connect all academic and metropolitan networks
in Poland. This will greatly contribute to the development of the IT infrastructure for science and promotion of
the idea of IST in Poland. The Poznań Supercomputing and Networking Centre (PCSS) - -
is the co-ordinator of the PIONIER project.

Infrastructure for scientific research in Poland
The best Polish infrastructure facilities for R+D are:
1) Research Station in Hornsund (Spitsbergen). The main field of research – geophysics. Affiliated with one of
    the institutes of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The station takes part in the programme “Global change –
    researching the physical parameters of environment”.
2) H. Arctowski Research Station on the Island of King George (Antarctic). The main field of research: change
    in polar ecosystems. Affiliated with one of the institutes of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The Station
    takes part in many international programmes.
3) Well-developed infrastructure for marine research, including well-equipped terrestrial laboratories in
    research entities, as well as laboratories on vessels:
        OCEANIA – the seagoing research vessel for marine Baltic research and research in the arctic areas of
         the Atlantic Ocean;
        HORYZONT II – a vessel for exploring arctic and antarctic areas;
        BALTICA, OCEANOGRAF-2, DOCTOR LUBECKI, IMOROS – designed for research on the Baltic
        Hel Marine Station – conducts a programme of the restoration of Baltic seals and is equipped for coastal
4)   Photometric Telescope at Las Campanas, Chile. The main field of research: observation of
     microgravitational lensing. Affiliated with Warsaw University.
5)   Radiotelescope at Piwnice near Toruń. It is the only radiotelescope using the VLBI (Very Long Baseline
     Interferometry) technology in Central and Eastern Europe. Affiliated with the Nicolas Copernicus
     University in Toruń.
6)   Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences is in possession of research infrastructure and
     equipment for satellite research facilities construction, which is used during international space missions,
     among others for examining the solar corona, comets and planets in the solar system.
7)   International Centre for Hardness of Hearing and Speech Treatment, which is equipped with diagnostic and
     rehabilitation facilities for hearing aid fitting and for new-born and infant hearing screening.
8)   Equipment of biological-medical research laboratories and physical-chemical research laboratories:
        NMR of the Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Gdańsk
         Technical University, Wroclaw Technical University and others;
        Mass Spectrometer of the cyclotron resonance type, with Fourier transformation for proteomic research
         in biology, medicine and biotechnology;
        Cyclotron Facility C-30 at the Institute for Nuclear Research;
        Cyclotron Facility AJC-144 at the Institute of Nuclear Physics;
    Cyclotron 200P of the Heavy Ion Laboratory of Warsaw University.
9) Natural collections of great scientific and historic value, such as:
        zoological collection of the Museum and Institute of Zoology of the Polish Academy of Sciences – 8
         million exhibits, with part of the collection dating back to the 18 th and 19th centuries;

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      herbarium collections – 61 herbariums containing more than 4 million specimens.
10) Infrastructure for archaeological research, used in many countries in the Mediterranean
11) Research Campus Warsaw-Ochota – a grouping of research entities of the highest exclusivity, comprising:
      Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Medical Research Centre, Institute of Biocybernetics and
      Biomedical Engineering; Institute of Experimental Biology – all affiliated with the Polish Academy of
      Sciences; University of Warsaw and the Medical Academy. Fields of research: genetics, molecular research,
      biotechnology, cybernetics, modelling of biological structures, neurobiology, pharmacology, experimental
      surgery, cell immunology, etc.
The facilities listed above are co-financed from the budget of the Ministry of Scientific Research and IT in the
form of a special instrument for co-financing scientific infrastructure investments. They may also obtain
financial resources from the following sources: the financial means for statutory activities (Ministry of Scientific
Research and IT); profit from commercial activities; grants from European programmes.
It is also worth mentioning that there are many centres of excellence in Poland. Some of them are in possession
of valuable research infrastructure. A full list of them is available at:

The Polish Polar Station Hornsund, the unique plant
system for research investigations
The Polish Polar Station Hornsund (770N 15033’E) is situated in the centre of the Spitsbergen Archipelago, at the
border of Asiatic and American Arctic. Many programmes carried out at the Station concern the physical
parameters investigated in the framework of the International Program “Global Change”.
The research is conducted in the following main fields:
1) Geophysics, including:
       The geomagnetic field;
       Seismicity of the Arctic Sea Basin;
       Atmospheric electricity;
       Optics of the atmosphere;
    Ionospheric events in the Polar cusp region.
2) Environmental research:
       Mass balance of glaciers;
       Long-range transport of pollutants from Europe to the Arctic;
       Local and regional evolution of the environment;
    Biological research.
3) Transmission of data to international data centres:
       IMAGE – International Monitoring for Aurora Geomagnetic Effects;
       INTERMAGNET – International Real-time Magnetic Observatory Network;
       WMGS – World Glacial Monitoring Service;
    WMO – World Meteorological Organization.
The Polish Polar Station consists of the main building, the building of the power station, three separate scientific
cabins and the store-house for marine equipment for local boat transport.
The Station is provided with electricity 230/400 V, two satellite-communication systems (Iridium, Inmarsat-B)
and a waste-water treatment system.
Scientists have access to:
       13 single bedrooms (for round-year use),
       7 larger bedrooms (for spring-summer season) – 30 beds,
       8 testing laboratories,
    bathrooms, toilets.
4) Selected important instruments working at the Station:
       Automatic weather station Vaisala QLC50;

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       Torsion photoelectric magnetometer PSM-8911-08, LEMI-004P/96 fluxgate magnetometer, digital
        logger DR-02, analog recording system PSM/R-8111, proton magnetometer PMP-5-115, fluxgate
        magnetometer declinometer/inclinometer;
       716 Compact ion chromatograph;
       Laser total station TCR-1105;
       Seismological station MK-6;
     Ionosonde.
The Polish Polar Station Hornsund is a part of the Institute of Geophysics of the Polish Academy of Sciences.
Direct scientific and logistic management is made by the Polar and Marine Department of the Institute. The
station is supported financially by the Ministry of Scientific Research and Information Technology.
The Station cooperates with 25 scientific institutions in Poland and 35 institutions from other countries. Since
2002, it has been one of the six flagship sites for biodiversity of Europe.
The Station is open for students from various universities to collect materials for master’s and PhD dissertations
and professional training. Courses in connection with the EUROGLACIO project and field workshops for
glaciology, geomorphology and geology are also planned.
More information on the web site:

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National MNR laboratory

Description of the facility
National NMR laboratory consists of set of four laboratories equipped with:
1) 600 MHz NMR spectrometer (Inova, Varian), laboratory at Slovak Technical University, Bratislava
2) 300 MHz NMR spectrometer (MercuryPlus, Varian), Slovak Technical University, Bratislava
3) 400 MHz NMR spectrometer (MercuryPlus, Varian), University of Pavol Jozef Šafarik, Košice
4) 300 MHz NMR spectrometer (MercuryPlus, Varian), Comenius University, Bratislava
5) 300 MHz NMR spectrometer (Avance, Bruker), Slovak Academy of Science, Bratislava
6) 200 MHz in-vivo NMR spectrometer (SISCO, Varian), Slovak Technical University, Bratislava

Research programme
The laboratory is under construction. It will provide NMR instrumentation for a wide range of research activities
covering different branches of natural sciences. Besides the structural studies (organic compound, natural
products,..) strong scent will be given to the biochemical application especially to the field of metabolic studies
on different levels (experimental animal, tissues, cell cultures, extracts, bio-fluids,…). Also strong support will
be given to the material research (solid state NMR).

Management structure
All laboratories have its autonomy. Common projects and activities are coordinated by the laboratory at Slovak
technical university. Access to 600 MHz instruments and in-vivo SISCO spectrometer is also coordinated by the
laboratory at Slovak technical university.

Establishment of NMR was funded by the State programme (90% by national budget, 10% by the participants).
The running costs will be covered by the users.

Opportunity for international co-operation with other international
The laboratory will be open to the wide international cooperation. Common projects with EU countries will be
strongly supported

Impact for training
One of the main goals of the National NMR laboratory is the dissemination of the knowledge concerning modern
NMR applications. Special NMR courses and seminar will be organized.

BITCET - Virtual biotechnological centre of SR

Description of the facility
Facilities belonging to the virtual biotechnological centre of Slovak Republic BITCET serve as an equipment
basis for development of genomics (DNA sequencing, Real Time PCR, micro array techniques etc.), proteomics
(separation of biomolecules by chromatography and electrophoresis and their determination of primary structure
by mass spectrophotometry), cell engineering (cell culture engineering, measurement of interaction of

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                                   49
biomacromolecules, analyses of metabolites etc.) and bioinformatics (software’s for biotechnology, molecular
and cell biology). The instruments are used by 17 institutions in the field of basic as well as applied research.
The main idea is to obtain unique and expensive equipment in Slovak Republic for improvement of scientific
level in biotechnology.

Research programme
So far there is no common research programme. All members of the BITCET centre have their own research

Management structure
Council of representatives rules all important decisions and every institution has the same rights.

BITCET is mostly supported by government and about 10% of funding is coming from private or non-profit

Opportunity for international co-operation with other international
All members of BITCET are independent organization and therefore are free for any kind of domestic or
international co-operations.

Impact for training
Impact for training is significant because the universities and other academic institutions are involved in centre
and there are responsible for education and PhD programmes.

Array of small telescopes for photometry

Description of the facility
The facility consists of the following telescopes
1) 0.6 m Cassegrain, telescope for photoelectric photometry, 1780 m alt., Skalnate Pleso
2) 0.61 m Cassegrain, telescope for CCD photometry, 1780 m alt., Skalnte Pleso
3) 0.6 m Cassegrain, telescope for double-channel photoelectric photometry, 810 m alt., Stara Lesna
4) 0.5 m Newton, telescope for CCD photometry, 810 m alt., Stara Lesna
5) 0.6 m Cassegrain/Newton, telescope for CCD photometry, 580 m alt., Modra-Piesky
6) 1 m Cassegrain, telescope planned for double-channel photoelectric photometry and spectrophotometry, 460
    m alt., Kolonica

Research programme
Photometry of interacting binary stars (novae, symbiotic, close binaries) and chemically peculiar stars (1, 3, 4,
6), photometry of asteroids and comets (2, 5)

Management structure
Telescopes ad 1), 3), 4) are managed by the Stellar department of the Astronomical Institute, Slovak Academy of
Sciences. Telescopes ad 2) is managed by the Department of Interplanetary, Matter of the Astronomical Institute,
Slovak Academy of Sciences. Telescope ad 5) is operated by Faculty of Math., Phys. And Informatics,
Comenius University Telescope ad 6) is operated by Vihorlatska hvezdaren Humenne

20aaec00-e287-44b8-85ef-2b5b7fd171a6.doc                                                                  50
Telescopes ad 1), 3), 4) by Astronomical Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences telescope ad 5) is funded by
Faculty of Math., Phys. And Informatics, Comenius University Telescope ad 6) is funded from regional

Opportunity for international co-operation with other international
All the facilities are involved in international cooperation.

Impact for training
All the facilities run traing courses of university students in the frames of educational university courses.

International laser centre

Description of the facility
The International Laser Centre (ILC) is an interdisciplinary institution, focused on training, research and
development in the areas of advanced methods and technologies of photonics. The Ministry of Education of
Slovak Republic in January 1997 established the ILC as an independent (research and educational) institution.
The decision on the establishment was aiming to build up an excellent research centre with laboratories equipped
with up-to-date instrumentation in field of advanced laser and optoelectronic technologies.

Available equipment

Laboratory of ultrafast spectroscopy (UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy setup)
Laser system(s)
        Ti : Sapphire oscillator (CDP TiF50, 80MHz, 450 mW, 50 fs)
        Oscillator pump laser (COHERENT VERDI5)
        Multipass amplifier (CDP MPA50, 1kHz, 250 mW, 80 fs)
        Amplifier pump laser (SOLAR TII LF2210, 1kHz, 6W, 10 ns)
        Frequency conversion system (CDP OPA800/100, SHG, THG)

Laboratory of advanced femtosecond spectroscopy (IR/SNOM spectroscopy setup)
Laser system(s)
       Cr – Forsterite oscillator (PCC RAS CrF65, 450 mW, 120 MHz, 60 fs)
       Oscillator pump laser (Spectra-Physics MILLENIA IR)
       Regenerative amplifier (100 Hz, 200 mW, 120fs - y2003)
       Multipass amplifier (100 Hz, 5 W, 120fs- y2003)
       Amplifier pump lasers
       Frequency conversion system(OPA, DFG - y2003)

Planned upgrade(s) and add-ons
       DPSS PICOSECOND YAG LASER SYSTEM with harmonics (MGU, 2003)

Laboratory of material analysis
       System of Scanning electron microscope with spectroscopy (LEO)
       System of Time-of flight secondary ion-mass spectrometer (ION-TOF)

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      Large sample AFM (NT-MDT Solver P7LS)
      Free-air STM (NT-MDT)

Laboratory of general spectroscopy and imaging
Spectroscopy setups
      Spectrofluorimetry setup (SPEX Fluorolog 3-11)
      FTIR and absorption spectrometers (2003)
    Equipment for chemical/biological sample preparation
Imaging setups
      Macroscopic fluorescence lifetime imaging
      (tuneable nanosecond laser system SOLAR, gated intensified CCD DeltaTekh)
    Macroscopic fluorescence imaging (laser/CCD, DeltaTekh)
Optical tomography setups
      Dual wavelength optical coherence tomograph (Optimec)
      Dual-wavelength optical scattering tomograph (2003)
      Optoacoustical microscope (2003)

Laboratory of laser microscopy
Confocal microscopy setup
      Laser scanning confocal microscope with spectral detector Zeiss LSM 510 Meta NLO on inverted
       microscope Axiovert 200M with sample conditioning (heated stage, perfusion, electro-stimulation)
       system prepared for multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime-imaging work (both upgrades planned in
Fluorescence microscopy setup
      Zeiss Axiovert 200M with sample conditioning (heated stage, perfusion),
      Cooled CCD detection (PentaMax and CoolSnap, Roper Scientific)
    Cellular electrophysiology setup (Axon Instruments)
Scanning-probe microscopy setup
      Multi-mode AFM and optical SNOM microscopy in dry and liquid environments.
    (NT-MDT: Solver P47H + Solver SNOM)
Other setups
    Facility for cell and tissue cultivation (HERA CO2 incubator, laminar box, freezer, centrifuge etc.)
Planned upgrades in 2003
      Ti:Sa and/or Cr:F femtosecond laser systems for confocal microscope and SNOM
      Time-correlated single-photon counting instrumentation with ps/ns laser diodes

Laboratory of applied optics
      Noncontact measurement of shape, geometry and physical properties of objects
      Rapid prototyping – stereolitograph LS 250, UV laser NICTL Shatura
      Laser metrology and holography, laser vibrometer Polytec OFV-303
      Thin films mechanical and thermal characterization

Laboratory of laser microtechnology
      Laser based thin-film deposition system
      High-power pulsed ns laser (QuantaRay Pro 250, Spectra Physics, 1.5 J/1064 nm, 0.5 J/355 nm
      Fast confocal surface system profilometer
      Large-format laser cutting system (2003)

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Laboratory of applied biophysics and pharmacology
       Raman Spectroscopy setup – triple subtractive monochromator + cooled CCD, CW SHG Ar:laser,
       VIS-NIR spectroscopy setup – notch-filter based imaging spectrograph with CCD, multiline Ar:laser,
       Axiovert 200 inverted microscope with imaging and possibility of Raman imaging + sample
     DPSS Picosecond YAG Laser System with harmonics
The mission of the Centre is to create local conditions for high performance scientific work in particular field of
interest. The institution is based on interdisciplinary approach, sharing technology and ideas through several core
laboratories. Combination of laboratories covering the majority of optics based methodologies serves as a
development system with highly variable experiment set-ups.

Main objectives
       solving of actual scientific and technological projects, co-operation with associated institutions
       providing the platform for technology transfer and creating contacts among scientists, engineers and
        other specialists sharing interest in the field of photonics, presentation of scientific and technical results,
       cooperation with universities in gradual and postgradual education covering applications of lasers and
        optoelectronics in microelectronics, biomedicine, industry, organization of training and courses,

Research programme
Research programme is focused on two main topics in technology and biophotonics and comprise following
       analysis and functional testing of telecommunication fiber-optic lines and investigation of new
        technologies of transmission and processing of optical information
       subsystem design and characterisation for CDMA optical encoders and decoders
       characterization of high-speed optical and optoelectronic components
       application of intense laser fields as a technological tool (laser deposition, laser micromachining)
       reflexion, diffraction and interference as a means of non-contact optical metrology and holography
       measurement and monitoring of the spectral characteristics of lasers, laser and light-emitting diodes,
        detectors, analysis of the spectral features of the optoelectronics devices
       low-temperature absorption and emission spectroscopy of semiconductor structures
       time-of-flight secondary ion-mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and spectroscopy, optical
        spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy for complex analysis of surfaces.
       Fluorescence study for OLED and development of semiconductor heterostructures
       Fluorescence study of host-guest molecular complexes
       Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers, pump-probe spectroscopy of metal nanoparticles
       Functional fluorescence diagnostics of cells and tissues under physiological conditions
       High-resolution optical and atomic-force microscopy for biomedical applications
       Quantitative fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging
       high resolution Raman spectroscopy and imaging
       application of high-performance computing systems for large-volume experimental data processing and
        visualization, simulation of biomedical and chemical structures and processes
       research and application of advanced methods of photonics and information technologies in the process
        of creation of virtual 3D models from real objects, and production of 3D replicas from virtual models

Management structure
ILS is independent organization, managed by director. Institute has a Scientific Board which advice director on
scientific matters. Institute has two departments – Department of Material Technology and Department of
Biophotonics and both of them consist of several laboratories.

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Core equipment in ILC facilities has been built in the framework of delivery agreements 7/97B and 1/99B
between ILC and Moscow State University. The ILC is currently operated as fully budgetary organisation under
Ministry of Education of Slovak Republic. The laboratories and departments are involved in dozen of national
and international projects, with their respective funding.

Opportunity for international co-operation with other international
The ILC is open for international collaboration and at present has close international co-operation with following
       International Laser Center of Moscow State University, Russia
       Liepzig University, Germany
       Hong-Kong City University, China
       Physical Institute of Czech Academy of Science, Prague, Czech Republic
     University of Sherbrook, Canada
International projects:
       5.RP VGF GaP,
       COST – Activity P11

Impact for training
The ILC has close contact with educational programs of Slovak Universities. The programs are oriented toward
short-term courses as well as specialized training for both under- and postgraduate students. In the Institution
specialized educational programs has been carried out regarding the applications of lasers in science, technology,
healthcare, environment protection, and culture.

National Cyclotron Center of SR
A multi-purpose scientific center and production facility ensuring
       the basic and applied research in radiochemistry, physics, biology and medicine
       production of radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals
        application of proton and heavy ions accelerator technologies in medicine and materials science
The Cyclotron Centre of the Slovak Republic is projected as a system established by two complementary
1) Base accelerator of light, heavy and molecular ions.
2) Commercial fixed energy accelerator of hydrogen and deuterium ions.

Description of the facility
The base accelerator DC-72 is constructed in the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna (Russian
Federation). The isochronous cyclotron DC-72 produces ion beams from H (maximum energy up to 72 MeV) to
Xe (maximum energy 2.7 MeV/nucleon). The maximum ion beam intensity is planned 6x10 16 s-1 (100 µA) of
hydrogen ions, and drops to 6x10 14 s-1 for 129Xe18+. The ions are extracted from the accelerator chamber in two
opposite directions. The experimental devices for physics, material science and heavy ion applications are placed
in three beam channels No.6-8, two channels No.4,5 are for radiotherapeutical practice and research and three
channels No.1-3 are designed for radionuclides productions.
The commercial cyclotron Cyclone 18/9 (IBA, Belgium) for preparation of PET radionuclides fulfils a basic
demand for commercial production of 2x3 Ci (2x110 GBq) of fluorine-18 within 6 (2x3) hrs run. In addition to
18 MeV proton beam the possibility to use deuterium negative ions accelerated to 9 MeV and solid target
accessory are also advantageous.
ECR heavy ion source DECRIS-2M consisting of
1) Beam transport system with scanning to 120 x 120 mm2 area, beams see table below

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2) UHV target chamber, 4 inch sample target holder, 1200K – LN2 heating/cooling, Ar gun for surface
3) Surface analysis: Topography SPM (AFM, MFM, lithography mode, STM)
Important equipment for the medical programme is PET/CT tomograph “Discovery LS” and coincidence camera
“Millenium Hawk Eye”, both by GE Medical Systems.

Research programme
In the cyclotron centre eight channels for production, research and education are planned for the branch of
radiochemistry, physics, hadron therapy, materials modification and analysis, utilising:
       proton beam of variable energy (15-72 MeV),
     heavy ions from 7Li to 129Xe with energy of about 7 MeV/nucleon.
The main objective of the radiochemistry and radiopharmaceuticals programme is β+, EZ and α radionuclides
and labelled compounds production both for medical and other applications. It should ensure quality assurance
and control to provide a regular supply of high quality radiopharmaceuticals in a safe manner (in the order of
1) [18F]FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) and [18F]L-DOPA of radiochemical purity 99.8%
2) [123I]NaI of radiochemical purity 99.9999%
3) [123I]MIBG (metaiodobenzylguanidine)
4) [123I]β-CIT, IPPA, IBZM, Hippuran etc.
5) [11C]CH3 as a precursor for raclopride etc.
6) 211At pilot production (monoclonal antibodies)
7) [13N]NH3 of radiochemical purity 99.8%
8) [15O]H2O or [15O]CO2
9) 81Rb - 81Kr generators
The production of radiopharmaceuticals is closely connected with the diagnostic purposes in nuclear medicine
for the positron emission tomography (PET). A nuclear medicine centre constructed for the clinical usage of
short-lived PET radionuclides and operating also with 99mTc and 125I radiopharmaceuticals is placed directly at
the site of CC SR. A “Discovery LS” PET/CT tomograph and “Millenium Hawk Eye” coincidence camera (both
GE Medical Systems) are installed there.
The utility of the DC-72 cyclotron for the nuclear medicine is based on the production of the radioiodine-123 for
labelling of MIBG (metaiodobenzylguanidine), iodinated fatty acids and monoclonal antibodies and receptors,
released from totally 70-100 GBq 123I per day. Production of the rubidium-krypton-81 generators for ventilation
scintigraphy is under consideration. Also, the 211At production for therapy is envisaged.
The medical programme of CC SR is devoted to nuclear diagnostics with short-lived radioisotopes, biomedical
research and hadron therapy. The most important planned therapeutic application of DC-72 is the proton therapy
of uveal melanoma. A neutron capture therapy with epithermal neutron source is foreseen for research purposes
The programme for physical laboratories is currently under reconsideration. The main orientation is planned
towards development of High Energy and Heavy Ion Beam Analysis together with Ion Beam
Modification/irradiation of materials. For the later a facility for routine production of heavy ion irradiated
polymers is foreseen.

Management structure
CC SR is independent organization, managed by director. Institute has a Scientific Board which advice director
on scientific matters. From the 1st of January 2005 the finished first part of the CC SR will be established as a
state owned share-holding company

Basic funding of the infrastructure was provided by the government. After transformation to the share-holding
company combined funding is expected. Facility will be partly funded by the government, partly by own
economic activity (production of labelled pharmaceuticals and partly by research grants.

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Opportunity for international co-operation with other international
Facility will be open for international cooperation in all fields of research programme.

Impact for training
The CC SR has close contact with Slovak universities; most of the staff is coming from various universities. The
educational programs will oriented toward short-term courses as well as specialized training for both under- and
postgraduate students in the field of material science, basic and applied research in radiochemistry, physics,
medicine and related fields.

Present status
In the December 2004 the construction of the first part of the CC SR will be finished, i.e. the building with the
cyclotron Cyclone 19/8, PET radiopharmaceuticals production and research laboratories, nuclear medicine
clinics with the tomographs PET/CT and SPECT/CT and the Laboratory of nanotechnologies based on an ECR
heavy ion source DECRIS-2M. For pre-clinical studies a laboratory equipped with a microPET is available. The
production laboratories are built with the ambition to fulfil the strict European Union cGMP guidelines for
human drugs production.

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1)   Jožef Stefan Institute TRIGA Research Reactor
2)   Jožef Stefan Center for Electron Microscopy
3)   Jožef Stefan Mass Spectrometry Center
4)   Jožef Stefan Microanalytical Center
5)   National Institute of Chemistry - Slovenian NMR Centre
6)   National Institute of Biology - Marine Biology Station at Piran
7)   Academic and Research Network ARNES

Jožef Stefan Institute TRIGA Research Reactor

General description of the facility
Detailed description of J. Stefan Institute TRIGA reactor is available in IAEA Research Reactor Database and in J. Stefan Institute homepage

General information
Facility name                                              TRIGA Research Reactor
Address                                                    Brinje 40, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Owner and operator                                         J. Stefan Institute
Licensing authority                                        Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration
Safeguards                                                 Euratom, IAEA
Construction date                                          1964/01/01
First criticality date                                     1966/05/31

Technical description
The research reactor at J. Stefan Institute is small TRIGA Mar II type research and training reactor built by US
company General Atomics. Its power in steady state mode operation is 250 kW and in pulse mode 1800MW.
The core contains up to 90 fuel rods in concentric rings. It is contained in a tank filled with water at normal
conditions. The fuel is 20% enriched uranium mixed with zirconium hydride. The core is cooled by natural
Unique feature of this reactor is its inherent safety. More than 50 reactors of this type have been built since 1950-
s. No accidents with radiological consequences have been recorded.
The reactor is designed for
        training,
        irradiation of samples for activation analysis and material research,
        neutron radiography and spectrometry,
     small scale isotope production.
The reactor is equipped with several horizontal experimental neutron beam channels and with several in-core
irradiation channels, operated manually or by automatic pneumatic system (2 pneumatic post irradiation
channels). It is equipped for irradiation of large samples in fast neutron spectrum (fission neutron converter in
special large irradiation cell).
The reactor is connected to the hot-cell laboratory equipped for handling highly radioactive samples. Several
high-quality gamma spectrometers are available for post-irradiation measurements in various research
laboratories related to the reactor.

Management structure
Head: Prof. Dr. Matjaž Ravnik (

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The reactor is owned and operated by J. Stefan Institute. According to the national law on nuclear safety, the
reactor is a nuclear installation and the director of the institute is responsible for its nuclear safety. Technical
operation of the reactor is provided by a special organisational unit of the institute, Reactor Infrastructure Centre
(RIC). The staff of RIC are four reactor operators(engineers) and the head (Ph. D., part time), who is authorised
by the director for immediate safety and management responsibilities. Reactor operation is supervised and
supported also by the Institute's quality assurance manager and by the health physics department.
The staff of RIC does not perform any research work. The research work at the reactor is performed by qualified
and authorised researchers from other research departments of J. Stefan Institute (mainly from reactor physics
department and environmental chemistry department).

Areas of research / research programmes
The following research programmes are currently performed at the reactor
       experimental reactor physics
       neutron radiography
       neutron spectroscopy
       neutron activation (environmental chemistry)
       neutron activation (material science)
       solid state neutron detector development

Funding sources
The reactor is funded 90% by the Ministry of Education, Science and Sport of RS in total amount 250.000 EU$
per year. 10% is earned by the RIC staff through commercial contracts (supervision of the NPP Krško refuelling,
servicing of industrial radioactive sources, various radiological work).

Possibilities for training
The reactor has been intensively used for training of:
       Krško NPP operators and other technical staff (more than 300 since 1981)
       graduate students (2-3 days of practical exercises for students of physics from University of Ljubljana,
        approximately 30per year)
       post graduate students (in total 80 B. Sc. diploma works, 40 M.Sc. degree diploma works and 30 Ph.D.
        works have been performed using the reactor since 1966, approximately 5 per year)
       international training courses in reactor physics and radiology (until now: 6 IAEA, 1 MIT, 2 ICTP)
       IAEA fellows on-the-job training (1-2 per year)
      school-children and general public education (approx. 300 school children and 100 other visitors visit
       the reactor each year)
The reactor is open to all training possibilities. In particular, two training courses are scheduled in 2005:
       International training course on reactor physics and applications, organised jointly by MIT (US) and JSI
       European Nuclear Engineering Network, postgraduate course on reactor experiments.

International cooperation
On the technical level, the reactor co-operates mainly with the operators of similar reactors in neighbouring
       TRIGA reactor at Atominstitut in Vienna,
    TRIGA reactor at University of Pavia
and organisations
       IAEA,
     RROG (research reactor operators' group).
On scientific level, the researchers using the reactor, work on several projects within 5-th and 6-th EU
framework programme, IAEA, NEA and CERN. Some foreign scientists (CERN) regularly use the reactor at
their work (solid state detector irradiation).

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Research exclusivity
Reactor physics
       reactivity measurements using reactivity computer
       fuel burn-up measurements using reactivity method
       research reactor safety calculations
       pulse experiments

Activation analysis
       activation analysis of short lived samples (fast pneumatic transfer system)
       high accuracy gamma spectrometry of activated samples
       activation analysis of reactor structural materials (concrete) for dismantling and radioactive waste
       environmental chemistry methods based on activation analysis

Radiography and neutron spectrometry/dosimetry
        (neutron) radiography using imaging plate method
        solid state track detectors and track counting system

Other customers / users
The reactor is mainly used by the J. Stefan Institute researchers (90% of time). Other users are:
       University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics (education)
       University of Maribor, Faculty of Civil Engineering (education, research work)
       IAEA (training)
       University of Zagreb, Faculty of Electrical Engineering (education)
       NPP Krško (irradiation of sources, education)
       companies (irradiation of small sealed industrial sources, 1-2 per year)
       National museum (neutron radiography of artefacts)

Possible European significance
Our reactor is one of 4 remaining small research reactors in EU designed and intended for education and
training (more than 50 research reactors have been already decommissioned in EU in last 15 years).
Its significance is mainly in relation to international post-graduate education in nuclear engineering program
ENEN and to co-ordinated research projects within EU frameworks (Framework 6, ITER).
Efforts have been made to integrate our and other remaining research reactors in Europe as an EU infrastructure
project (project code-name TRRIN- Training and Research Reactors International Network, co-ordinated by
University of Pavia), however, without success.
Together with other expertise and infrastructure at J. Stefan Institute (the training centre, the accelerators) and
taking into account that JSI closely co-operates with Krško nuclear power station, the reactor could be attractive
as an international centre of education and training in nuclear engineering (reactor physics and design, reactor
engineering and safety analyses) and other applications of nuclear energy (radiation and health physics, nuclear
methods, medical physics, activation analysis, environmental studies, radioactive waste treatment and storing).

Jožef Stefan Institute Center for Electron Microscopy

General description of the facility
Center for electron microscopy (CEM) was established at the end of 2001. The CEM has a function of a
supporting infrastructural center that comprises the equipment for electron microscopy that is necessary for

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analytical and research work of IJS departments, research institutes, universities and industry. The users of the
CEM equipment are the researchers in the field of materials science that are involved in chemical and structural
analysis of materials on micro and atomic scale. The major equipment of the CEM are two scanning electron
microscopes (JSM-840A and JSM-5800) and two transmission electron microscopes (JEM-2000FX and JEM-
2010F). Especially the JEM-2010F is the state of art TEM/STEM microscope with a FEG (field-emission gun)
electron source and is one of best microscopes in Europe. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used for
morphological studies of either fractured or polished surfaces. Since both scanning electron microscopes are
equipped with the X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, WDS), qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis on micro
scale is also possible. Since only a few µm3 of the material are nondestructively analysed, the term electron
probe microanalysis (EPMA) is used for such analytical work. When the structural features on the nano scale are
investigated, however, various techniques of the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are used. For JEM-
2010F the point-to-point resolution is below 0.19 nm, which is more then sufficient to observe the atomic
columns in crystalline materials. Both transmission electron microscopes are also equipped with analytical
systems for chemical analysis (EDS, EELS). JEM-2010F has also an annular dark-field detector that enables so
called Z-contrast imaging, which enables chemical analysis of singled atomic columns on the basis of the
measured intensities. CEM also comprises the equipment for SEM and TEM specimen preparation, which is the
first starting step for all electron microscopy observation procedures. Especially important are high and low-
energy ion-millers, which enable preparation of thin foils that are transparent for high-energy electrons.

Management structure
Head: Dr. Miran Čeh (
CEM is run by the head of the center and by the managing board of four members who are the heads of
departments at the IJS.

Areas of research/research programs
Microstructural, structural and chemical characterization of inorganic materials (ceramics, metals, alloys,
semiconductors, thin films, composites, nanomaterials) on micrometer, nanometer and atomic scale.

Funding sources
The CEM is funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Sport in the amount of app. 35% and by four
departments at the IJS in the amount of 65%.

Possibilities for training
The equipment of the CEM is used by more then 40 trained and skilled operators from research institutions and
industry. Courses for new operators are regularly organized twice a year.

International cooperation with other centers (not complete list)
      Mechanical Systems, University of Technology, Wroclaw, PolandNCSR "Demokritos", Institute of
       Materials Sciences, Aghia Paraskevi, Attikis, Greece The National Hellenic Research Foundation,
       Athens, Greece
       Universität Karlsruhe, Institut für Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik - IWE, Karlsruhe, Germany
       Max-Planck-Institut für Metallforschung, Stuttgart, Germany
       Universität Bonn, Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Bonn, Germany
      Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA National
       Institute of Standards and Technology, Surface and Microanalysis Science Division (NIST),
       Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA
       Université Paul Sabatier de Toulouse III, Laboratoire de Génie Électrique, Toulouse Cedex, France
       Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
       Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto, Japan
       Tachnisches Unversitat Graz, Graz, Austria

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Research exclusivity
JEM-2010F scanning transmission electron microscope equipped with a FEG gun that enables structural and
chemical analysis on the atomic scale. The microscope of this type was one of the first ones installed in Europe.
The microscope is equipped with EDS (Oxford Instruments), PEELS (Gatan), BF, ADF, HAADF-STEM
detectors and auto-alignment system.

Other customers/users
Research institutions
”Jožef Stefan” Institute, Ljubljana, Institute of Metals and Technology, Ljubljana, National Institute of
Chemistry, Ljubljana, Faculty for Pharmacy, Faculty for Natural Sciences,Faculty for Chemistry and Chemical
Engineering, all University Ljubljana, Faculty for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University Maribor,
Orthopedic Hospital Valdoltra.

Lek, Krka, DONIT TESNIT, BIA Separations, Kolektor, ETA, EMO Kemija, Cinkarna Celje, Metalflex,
HIPOT-HYB, HIPOT-RR, AET Tolmin, Zlatarna Celje, TE-TO, VARSI, EPCOS, Termo, KEKO-Oprema,
Feriti, Stelem, Bosch GmbH.

Possible European significance with interests on European level.
Expertise in quantitative high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), analytical microscopy
(AEM) and quantitative high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF-STEM) imaging of ceramic materials and other
inorganic materials. Structural and chemical characterization of interfaces and grain boundaries on the atomic

Jožef Stefan Institute Mass Spectrometry Center

General description of the facility
The rapid evolution of mass spectrometry and its multidisciplinary character and especially expensive facilities
has had to change the traditional model in which instruments were used in one research institution or only in one
group. This was the main reason that Slovenian Government (Ministry of Education, Science and Sport)
established in 1992 a few national infrastructural instrumental centers including Mass Spectrometric Center in
“Jožef Stefan” Institute (MSC-IJS). Thus MSC services the researches of various scientific areas such as
chemistry, molecular and biochemistry, pharmacy, medicinal chemistry and biology. The MSC users are
researchers of two institutes, i.e. National Institute of Chemistry and “J. Stefan” Institute and of four Faculties:
Chemistry and Technology, Pharmacy, Medicine and Biology.
Currently the instrumental Mass Spectrometric Center supports the research of about 30 national and
international research programs, projects and some technological applications of the pharmaceutical industry in
Slovenia. The Center deals with an about 4000 analyses each year. In general, mass spectrometry services are
provided free of charge to those research groups who have national or international research projects.
Basic facilities in MSC are
1) Tandem, high resolution mass spectrometer Autospec Q, EBEQ sectors geometry (Waters-Micromass,
     Manchester, U.K.) supplied with various ionizations modes, such as electron ionization (EI), fast atom
     bombardment (FAB) and two modes of atmospheric pressure ionizations (API), i.e. electro spray (ESI) and
     atmospheric pressure chemical (APCI) ionization.
2) A hybrid orthogonal acceleration Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer (oa-ToF) Q-Tof PremierTM (Waters-
     Micromass, Manchester, U.K.) will be equipped with API and MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption
     ionization) sources and this instrument will be provided in MSC in the year 2005. Various inlet systems,
     such as: MALDI target plate and ultra performance liquid chromatograph (UpLC), capillary column LC and
     different source options will prove this instrument for LC-MS and LC-MS/MS operation mode.
The quality mass spectrometric analyses of the most diverse array of samples require close interaction between
instrumentation and problem. Therefore a mass spectrometrist must understand not only mass spectrometry, but
also how the sample was prepared. Similarly, the researcher must understand the requirements for obtaining

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mass spectra. Only when both of these criteria have been achieved, the optimum mass spectra result can be
obtained. Thus, MSC strongly encourages close cooperation between investigators and service facility personnel.

Management structure
Head: Dr. Bogdan Kralj (
The MSC-IJS mass spectrometric facility is managed by two high experienced mass spectrometric specialists.
The principal goal of the MS facility is provide high-quality mass spectrometric services for the Slovenian
research community. CMS activities are supervised through the Program committee of the representatives of
CMS users, management team and representative of Ministry of Education, Science and Sport.

Areas of research/research programs
MSC supports the research teams and their projects from various scientific areas such as chemistry, molecular-
and biochemistry, pharmacy, medicinal chemistry and biology.

Funding sources
The main funding source (80%) of the MSC is the Government of the Republic of Slovenia and the rest is
provided by the research projects and services for Slovenian pharmaceutical industry.
In general, mass spectrometry services are provided free of charge to those research groups who have national or
international research projects.

Possibilities for training
The staff of MSC-IJS provides possibilities for training on mass spectrometric facilities in European programs in
Human mobility (Marie Curie Programme).
The training course in the Mass Spectrometry Center will be provided for participants from various research
areas, e.g. medicinal chemistry, organic syntheses, etc. on available facilities.

International cooperation with other centers/facilities
MSC-IJS has been cooperating with two mass spectrometric groups/centers
1) Department of Physical Chemistry, Ruđer Boškovič Institute, Zagreb, Croatia
2)    Facility: Fourier transforms mass spectrometer, FT/MS 2001 DD (Finningan),
3) Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro
4) Facility: MALDI-Tof mass spectrometer, Voyager DE Biospectrometer (Applied Biosystem).

Research exclusivity
Research exclusivity of CMS-IJS can be shown in two main streams
1) The work of MSC-IJS has been essential in supporting the many research teams in university and research
    institutes in Slovenia. Many users have expressed their opinion that they could not carry out their research
    without this facility. The number of publications (about 30/year) which quote the work of the MSC-IJS is
    clear evidence of the success of the Center.
2) Research work in Center which is documented by bibliographic data of its members.
3) Basic researches performed in MSC are determinations of: a) modified oligonucleotides containing 8-aza-3-
    diaza-2'-deoxyguanosine, and stabilities of duplex, triplex and quadroplex resonace forms of different
    oligonucleotides, b) weakly bonded noncovalent complexes and c) ESI studies of proteins.

Other users
Of MSC-IJS are two pharmaceutical companies in Slovenia
1) KRKA, Novo mesto and
2) Lek, Ljubljana.

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Possible European significance with interests on the European level
A new hybrid orthogonal acceleration Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer (oa-ToF) Q-Tof PremierTM (Waters-
Micromass, Manchester, U.K.) will significantly improve the mass spectrometric facilities in Slovenia which
should be also important at the European level. However, it has to be purchased next year (2005).

Jožef Stefan Institute Microanalytical Center

General description of the facility
1) 2 MV HVEE Tandetron accelerator with
   a) Duplasmatron and Sputtering heavy ion source
   b) Four beamlines
       i) External proton beam facility
       ii) Ion microbeam
       iii) Broad beam beamline with PIXE/ERDA/RBS/TOF-ERDA analytical techniques
       iv) HR X-ray spec. beamline
2) Spectrometer for coincidence atomic spectroscopy
3) Spectrometer for hydrogen-surface interaction

Management structure
Head: Dr. Primož Pelicon (
Infrastructure research center “Microanalytical center” belongs to the Department of Low and Medium Energy
Physics (head dr. Matej Lipoglavšek) of the Jožef Stefan Institute.
The head of Research Program “ Studies of atoms, molecules and structures with photons and particles”, which
uses the most of the research facilities within the MIC, is dr. Matjaž Žitnik.
The infrastructure center is a member of the Infrastructure group of the Jožef Stefan Institute, head dr. Janez Slak
– Assistant Director.

Areas of research/research programmes
       Ion Beam Analysis (PIXE, RBS, ERDA, External Beam PIXE)
       Thin films and surfaces: element depth concentration profiles
       Elemental concentration maps in tissues
       Analysis of archaeological objects
       High performance high-energy proton microbeam (0.3-4 MeV),
       Working Proton Beam Writing (PBW) device, developed by the own research team
       Study of hydrogen plasma-wall interaction
       Coincidence atomic spectroscopy
    High resolution studies of X-ray spectra
The research group at JSI tandem accelerator is already involved in two Europen scientific projects:
       6. FP EU: FU06-CT-2003-00010 »Interaction of Vibrationally Excited Hydrogen with Fusion Relevant
       5. FP EU: EVK4-CT-2001-00049 »INKCOR«,

Funding sources
Slovenian government is providing funds (app. 150 000 EURO/annually) for the operation and maintenance of
the infrastructure.

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Possibilities for training
The facilities contributed to over 10 Ph.D, M. Sc. and B.Sc. theses in the last 5 years.
Trainees from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, UN agency, Vienna, Austria) were sent to the
facility to be trained in the peaceful application of nuclear technology, accelerator use and ion beam application.
Microanalytical centre offers various possibilities for graduate, undergraduate and post-doctoral research, as well
as topical trainings in the following areas of basic and applied research:
       Nanotechnology (PBW micromachining),
       Materials research,
       Atomic physics,
       Microbiology (element mapping in tissues),
       Ecology (Air-Aerosol analysis),
       Archeometry,
       Medicine.

International cooperation with other centers/facilities
       bilateral Slovenian - Greek project with the Institute »Demokritos«, Athens, Greece
       bilateral Slovenian - Croatian project with the Institute Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb, Croatia

Working collaboration:
       “University of North Texas”, Denton, USA
       Laboratory “INFM-TASC”, Sinchrotrone Elettra, Trieste, Italy
       I-Temba Laboratory, South Africa
       University of Upsalla, Sweden
       “Institute of nuclear research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences - ATOMKI”, Debrecen, Hungary
       Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany
       University of Freiburg, Switzerland
       Lab. Pierre Sue CEA/CE, Saclay (Paris), France

Research exclusivity
The Proton Beam Writing (PBW) facility at Jožef Stefan Institute is one of few in Europe that could fully exploit
the potential of PBW technique due to excellent properties of existing micro-beam and accelerator installations.
The PBW technique is the fastest prototyping deep nanolithography, since the digital plan is directly reproduced
in the media.
Elemental composition of the inks in old documents:
       completely automated In-air PIXE analysis of old manuscripts for heritage conservation purposes,
       Elemental mapping of biological tissues with sub-micron precision and at ppm levels: studies in
        medicine and biology,
       Study of the vibrationally excited states of hydrogen plasma-wall interaction and the role of vibrationally
        states of.

Other customers/users
       National and University Library, Ljubljana
       National Museum, Ljubljana
       Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana
       Kolektor d.o.o., Idrija

Possible European significance with interests on European level
The facility offers wide areas of high-quality interdisciplinary-oriented research. Several recently established
facilities are unique at the European level and it is expected that they would play an important role in the future

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international projects. Several activities in the frame of EU-supported programs are already taking place at the
facility. The Microanalytical center will continue to improve the research infrastructure and will participate
within the EU frames such as »Centres of Excellence« and »Large-Scale facilities«.

National Institute of Chemistry - Slovenian NMR Centre

General description of the centre/facility
Slovenian NMR centre, EU Centre of Excellence from 1999 call is a research unit at National Institute of
Chemistry in Ljubljana, Slovenia which offers infrastructure and expertise for collection and processing of NMR
spectra to all institutions and companies that use NMR in their research and development as part of basic or
applied research projects. National Institute of Chemistry (NIC) in Ljubljana, Slovenia is a nationally and
internationally recognized research organization in the field of pure and applied chemistry.
The founding of the NMR Centre in 1992 defined its future role not only as academic research facility but also
as an expert centre which offers its highest quality service to the industrial users particularly the users from
chemical, pharmaceutical and food industry. It is important to note, that the chemical and pharmaceutical
industry, which are partners of NMR centre are one of the most developed in Slovenia. The NMR centre devotes
a considerable effort to transfer the research results to industrial partners, which makes it important part of R&D
laboratories in both Krka and Lek as well as other chemical and food companies.
Each year Scientific Council of Slovenian NMR centre discusses and approves the program of NMR centre. In
the year 2004 researchers are involved in over 63 programs and projects financed by Slovenian Ministry of
Education, Science and Sport or through international projects collaborate with NMR centre (list is available at The most recognized international project of the NMR centre itself
is currently being Center of Excellence of European Union. Scientific results are published in international
journals. One of our goals is to increase the number of research programs and projects as well as disciplines
where NMR can give deeper insight into molecular structure, interactions, exchange phenomena, local dynamics,
Current equipment involves a 600 MHz NMR spectrometer which is used to study three-dimensional structure
and dynamics of complex systems such as proteins and nucleic acids. The two 300 MHz instruments are used by
synthetic organic chemists, for solid-state measurements and wine analyses as well as for routine analyses in
pharmaceutical, chemical, food and other industries.
NMR centre plays important role in education by offering help at collection and interpretation of NMR data to
students from B.Sc. to Ph.D. level. We promote exchange of students and scholars from European institutions
and worldwide beyond duration of Centre of Excellence project.

Management structure
Head: Dr. Janez Plavec (
NMR centre is organized according to organigramme shown below. Head of NMR centre, reports to the
scientific council, which reviews application for time at NMR spectrometers, approves the financial plan,
discusses the personnel questions, etc.
The scientific council was established to supervise the work of the NMR centre and is responsible for reviewing
applications for the NMR time and distributing available instrument and computer time among the industrial and
academic users. The scientific council consists of established senior researchers from National Institute of
Chemistry, Jozef Stefan Institute, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Krka,
Lek, Sava, Agricultural Institute of Slovenia and the representative from the Ministry of Education, Science and
Working groups of NMR centre could be roughly subdivided into the following categories:
       Routine NMR measurements on the 300 MHz instruments are performed by Mr. Aleksandar Gaćeša,
        who has a university degree in chemistry and is highly skilled to run standard one and two-dimensional
       Electrical engineering support is performed by Mr. Damjan Makuc, who is knowledgeable both in
        hardware maintenance and basics of running NMR spectrometer,

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       Development and implementation of new NMR experiments is performed by Dr. Simona Golič
        Grdadolnik in collaboration with Dr. Janez Plavec and Ph. D. students, who also help and teach other
        (younger) colleagues to perform their NMR experiments in most efficient and safe way, Dr. Gregor Mali
        offers assistance to users with solid state applications.


                         Development and                                          Electrical
                        implementation of            Head of
                            novel NMR               NMR Center
                          pulse sequences

                                 Computational                             Routine
                                   Chemistry                         Measurements and
                                    Support                          Service for Partners
                                                                        from Industry

                                             Figure 16 - Organigramme

Areas of research/research programmes
High resolution NMR spectroscopy is a technique that can be applied in very broad areas ranging form
chemistry, biology, physics, ecology to food science and medical applications. In the last few years NMR centre
has very successfully collaborated with broad academic community at National Institute of Chemistry, Jožef
Stefan Institute, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Pharmacy,
University of Ljubljana and Agricultural Institute of Slovenia. The personnel of NMR centre are also involved in
collaboration and assistance in the collection of NMR data that is directly applied in industrial R&D laboratories
and in the manufacturing process. Krka and Lek which are the biggest pharmaceutical companies in Slovenia
regularly use facilities at our NMR centre. We help them in the structural determination of new synthetic
chemical entities originating from synthetic laboratories or biotechnology processes, identification of
metabolites, perform conformational studies in order to understand the relation between chemical structure of an
active component of a drug with its activity or study dynamic aspects of a certain pharmaceutically important
substances. NMR centre is in this way one of the important partners of R&D laboratories in both Krka and Lek
and therefore directly involved in their innovation processes. Our collaboration with pharmaceutical industries
extends across the borders of Slovenia. In the past years we established close collaboration with research
institute and in particular with NMR laboratory in Pliva, Zagreb, Croatia. Their antibiotic azitromycin which is
the result of their own research is sold world-wide as a block-buster drug.
Our links with food industry are currently mainly focused on determination of wine authenticity with the use of
SNIF method which is based on deuterium NMR spectroscopy. The results are directly used by wine producers
who in this way acquire the license to export their wines into EU countries. Important part of our activities
involves research on zeolites and aluminophosphates and their interactions in the solid state with the use of
magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy. These materials have a great potential as catalysts. Some of our efforts
are dedicated to provide NMR data acquisition and support to Helios, which is a Slovenian paint company and to
Donit Tesnit, which manufactures washers and filters. 13C NMR spectroscopy has proved as invaluable tool in
their work. Collaboration with other industrial partners from Slovenia include: Fenolit, Belinka, Bia, Saturnus
and Šepič.
The research program of NMR centre is focused on the following areas where NMR spectroscopy is used as a
method of choice (shortened list):
       Structural and conformational studies of biological macromolecules,
       Characterization of conformationaly restricted and flexible organic molecules and other small molecules,
       Structure and interactions in solid state, polycrystallinity, polymorphism,

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       Structural determination and analysis of organic compounds in solution,
       Studies of mixtures of compounds in solution - profiling of impurities in medicines, degradation
        products, metabolites,
       Characterization of recombinant proteins and biological macromolecules in solution,
       Interaction of medically active compounds with biological macromolecules
       Nanoporous materials and molecular sieves,

       Polymer characterization and self organized supramolecular poliuretans   ,
       Complex enzymatic reactions,
       Nucleic acid structure and conformation,
       Characterization of metastable states and conformational transitions of proteins involved in diseases,
       Theoretical and experimental studies of intramolecular hydrogen bonding,
       Conformational analysis of peptidomimetic drugs,
       Interactions of glycopeptide antibiotics by membrane bilayers,
       Development of novel chiral catalysts,
       Studies of polymorphism in the solid state,
       Structural characterization of natural products like terpenoids and flavonoids.

Funding sources
The annual budget of NMR centre in 2003 was ca. 300.00 EUR. The sources of the budget were:
subvention by Ministry of Education, Science and Sports                                            208.000 EUR
industrial partners (Krka, Lek, Helios,...)                                                          90.000 EUR
collaboration with partners from outside Slovenia                                                     2.000 EUR
depreciation value of spectrometers                                                                  67.500 EUR
sum covered from projects and grants                                                                 15.000 EUR
support for Centre of Excellence from European Commission                                            54.000 EUR

Possibilities for training
Slovenian NMR centre has experience in training of young colleagues. In the last several years ca. ten graduate
students received their Ph.D. degrees in the field of NMR spectroscopy. Currently six Ph. D. students are
performing their research at NMR center. In addition we are active in involving graduate students from Europe
in short term visits (i.e. ca. 3 months). One of the primary roles of NMR centre is to offer help at collection and
interpretation of NMR data to undergraduate and graduate students of chemistry, pharmacy, biochemistry,
medicine, chemical engineering and ecology. At least 15 students get their B. Sc., M. Sc. and Ph. D. degrees
each year with the partial help of NMR centre.
NMR center is facing a major investment into the new 800 MHz NMR spectrometer. The enlargement of
infrastructure will enable several new graduate students to get actively involved in the field of biomolecular
NMR spectroscopy as their major field of research. In addition many more students and researchers will be able
to regularly visit the centre and get the necessary data with the help of personnel at the Centre to solve their
scientific problems. The researchers at NMR center will offer training to researchers that will express interest to
learn how to operate NMR spectrometers on their own. Since the operation of NMR spectrometers is complex
the training would be realized on person by person basis.
Available staff at NMR centre includes three researchers with Ph. D. degrees, one electrical engineer and one
technician for routine measurements. Additionally four colleagues with Ph. D. degrees extensively use our NMR
equipment in different areas of chemical in biochemical research.

International cooperation with other centres/facilities
Slovenian NMR centre is actively involved in various forms of international collaboration. The most important
recognition of these activities came in year 2000 when European Commission selected and nominated NMR
centre as “Center of Excellence”. The support for Center of Excellence involves us in numerous very active
collaborations with various laboratories in Austria, Hungary, Poland, Finland, U.K., Germany, Sweden,
Netherlands, Belgium, Greece and other European counties.

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The NMR centre with two 300 MHz and one 600 MHz instruments at the National Institute of Chemistry is the
only facility in Slovenia which has the high resolution NMR spectrometers dedicated to both high resolution
NMR spectroscopy in solid state and in solution. This gives us the unique opportunity to offer service and
support to all interested institutions, companies as well as to the academic community. Several international
contacts with the scientific institutions in Europe and all over the world have been established which is evident
from the (shortened) list of renowned professors and scientists who were guests of NMR centre and gave lectures
during their short-term visits:
       Robert Kaptein, Univesity Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
       Jyotti Chattopadhaya, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
       Ernst Haslinger, University Karl Franz, Graz, Austria
       Lajos Radics, Central Research Institute for Chemistry, Budapest, Hungary
       Oleg Jardetzky, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
       Laszlo Szylagy, L. Kossuth University, Debrecen, Hungary
       Horst Kessler, Technical University Muenchen, Muenchen, Germany
       David J. Craik, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
       Nicholas V. Hud, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
       Dražen Vikić Topić, Institut Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb, Croatia
       Frederic Allain, ETH, Zürich, Switzerland
       Lucia Banci, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
       Jill Barber, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
       Herman Berendsen, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
       Ivano Bertini, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
       Gerd Gemmecker, Technical University München, München, Germany
       Christian Griesinger, Max Planck, Göttingen, Germany
       Ulrich Günther, J.W.-Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany
       Rainer Haessner, Technical University München, München, Germany
       Hans A. Heus, University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen, Netherlands
       Wiktor Kozminski, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
       Hans-Heinrich Limbach, FU Berlin, Germany
       Slobodan Macura, Mayo Clinic, USA
       Vladimir Malkin, University of Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovakia
       Norbert Müller, University of Linz, Linz, Austria
       Michael Sattler, EMBL, Heidelberg, Germany
       Wilfred van Gunsteren, ETH, Zürich, Switzerland
       Jonathan P. Waltho, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK

Research exclusivity
Researchers at NMR centre as internationally recognized infrastructure facility see their role in assisting
colleagues in other disciplines in their scientific pursues as well as perform their own studies at the frontiers of
Science or in R&D projects in industrial applications. Only high quality research that is published in
international journals can be of help to users of NMR facility. Current equipment involves a 600 MHz and two
300 MHz instruments. NMR centre is together with partners from industry and academia proposing a major
investment into 800 MHz NMR spectrometer which will be the major piece of research infrastructure in
Slovenia and will further strengthen the position of Regional infrastructure NMR centre.

Other customers/users
Slovenian NMR centre is managed and ran by scientists with necessary expertise to solve structural problems in
wide scientific areas which range from structure determination of small organic molecules to studies of dynamic
aspects of large biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. This gives NMR centre the unique opportunity
to offer service and support to all interested institutions in companies as well as to the academic community.

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The new high field 800 MHz NMR spectrometer would strongly increase the potentials of NMR center and
enable it to serve as a regional infrastructure center where all interested parties from SE European region could
perform the research which requires a high field NMR spectrometer. The Centre has already been involved in
very active collaborations with several laboratories in the region. As mentioned before in year 2000 Slovenian
NMR centre was nominated Center of Excellence by European Commission. The project enabled fruitful
collaborations with European laboratories from Germany, Poland, Austria, U.K., Greece, Finland, etc. The
exchanges of short and long term visits of students and researchers are now running for over one year. With our
experience and expertise we believe that we have excellent references and predisposition for a regional
infrastructure center. A short list of laboratories in the neighbouring countries that have collaborated with
Slovenian NMR centre in the recent years and would be integrated into a regional network is given below:
       Prof. Dr. Dražen Vikić Topić, Institut Rudjer Bošković, Zagreb, Croatia
       Prof. Dr. Predrag Novak, Faculty of Natural Science and Mathematics, University of Zagreb, Croatia
       Prof. Dr. Ernst Haslinger, Karl Franz University, Graz, Austria
       Prof. Dr. W. Steiner, Institute for Biotechnology and Institute for Organic Chemistry, Technical
        University Graz, Graz, Austria
       Prof. Dr. Laszlo Szylagy, L. Kossuth University, Debrecen, Hungary
       Prof. Dr. Lajos Radics, Central Research Institute for Chemistry, Budapest, Hungary
       Prof. Dr. Alessandro Trovarelli, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita' di Udine,
       Prof. Dr. Giovanni Natile, Universita degli Studi di Bari, Bari, Italy
       Dr. Alessandro Piras, Universita' degli Studi di Udine, Udine, Italy
       Dr. Renato Toffanin, Poly-bios Research Centre, Trieste, Italy
       Dr. Liljana Simjanovska, Skopje, Macedonia
     Prof. Dr. Slobodan Macura, Belgrade University, Academy of Sciences, Serbia
Slovenian NMR centre operates on 365-24-7 regime. In the past years 600 MHz spectrometer was used over
90% of the time. Around 30% of the instrument time is used by users from outside the National Institute of
Chemistry. The purchase of new spectrometer will offer additional time on the new high-field 800 MHz
instrument and we expect to take of a load from 600 MHz as well. This will offer additional spectrometer time to
outside as well as inside users. Considering the collaborations in the last few years with the researchers in the
neighboring countries we estimate that around 15% of the spectrometer time will be used by the researchers from
the region. This will include ca. 30 short term visits per year. Once Regional NMR centre is established and gets
financial support some longer term exchanges of students and senior researchers are planned.

Possible European significance with interests on European level.
The National Centre for High Resolution NMR spectroscopy (NMR centre) was established in 1992. 11
academic institutions and businesses supported the establishment of the NMR centre by contributing funds for
the purchase of NMR spectrometers. The partners of the NMR centre continue to support the ongoing
development of the infrastructure centre for NMR spectroscopy, where research equipment as well as necessary
expertise is collected in one place. The many years of successful partnership between academic institutions and
businesses should be built upon.
NMR is a spectroscopic method, which allows the study of the relationships between the structure and sequence
of biomolecules and their dynamics, and molecular recognition. NMR is thus a key to gaining insight into the
biological functions, chemical structure, and interactions of molecules in both the liquid and solid state. Thus it
can be used to gain insight into the nature of the fundamental processes which underlie the production and
development of pharmaceutical preparations. Knowledge in this area opens up new biotechnological and
biomedical possibilities, which will help to raise competitiveness, to develop a more innovative environment,
and encourage advances in medicine. The infrastructure centre for high resolution NMR spectroscopy is open to
all users for carrying out measurements and research within the framework of fundamental or applied research,
as well as projects for industry or by industry itself (a list of the programs and projects is available at Since its founding, the NMR centre has worked closely with partners from industry, which
gives it a unique role.
Several international contacts with the scientific institutions in Europe and all over the world have been
established. We have established very close contacts and we collaborate with the following laboratories:
       Prof. Dr. Predrag Novak, Pliva d.d., Zagreb, Croatia

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       Prof. Dr. Dražen Vikić Topić, Institute Rudjer Bošković, Zagreb, Croatia
       Prof. Dr. Ernst Haslinger, Karl Franz University, Graz, Austria
       Prof. Dr. W. Steiner, Institute for Biotechnology and Institute for Organic Chemistry, Technical
        University Graz, Graz, Austria
       Prof. Dr. Laszlo Szylagy, L. Kossuth University, Debrecen, Hungary
       Prof. Dr. Lajos Radics, Central Research Institute for Chemistry, Budapest, Hungary
       Prof. Dr. Alessandro Trovarelli, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita' di Udine,
       Prof. Dr. Giovanni Natile, Universita degli Studi di Bari, Bari, Italy
       Dr. Alessandro Piras, Universita' degli Studi di Udine, Udine, Italy
       Dr. Renato Toffanin, Poly-bios Research Centre, Trieste, Italy
       Dr. Liljana Simjanovska, Skopje, Macedonia
       Prof. Dr. Slobodan Macura, Belgrade University, Academy of Sciences, Serbia
       Prof. Dr. Robert Kaptein, Univesity Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
       Prof. Dr. Jyotti Chattopadhaya, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
       Prof. Dr. Jonathan Waltho, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom
       Prof. Dr. Vladimír Sklenář, Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Brno, Czech Republic
       Dr. Ingrid Luyten, Solvay Research and Technology, Brussels, Belgium
       Dr. Thomas Mavromoustakos, National Hellenic Research Foundation, Athens, Greece
       Prof. Dr. Nicholas V. Hud, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A
       Prof. Dr. J.-L. Imbach, Laboratoire de Chimie Bio-Organique, Universite de Montpellier II, Montpellier,
       Prof. Dr. Ryszard Adamiak in Prof. Dr. Bozenna Golankiewicz, Institut for Bioorganic Chemistry,
        Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan, Poland
       Prof. Dr. Aleksander Koll, Department of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, Poland
       Prof. Dr. Heikki Vuorela in Prof. Dr. Raimo Hiltunen, Department of Pharmacy, Division of
        Pharmacognosy, University of Helsinki, Finland
       Prof. Dr. Gerd Gemmecker, Technische Universität München, Germany
       Prof. Dr. H. Rüterjans, Institut für Biophysikalische Chemie, Frankfurt, Germany
       Prof. Dr. Horst Kessler, Institut für Organische Chemie und Biochemie, Technische Universität
        München, Germany
       Prof. Dr. Lucia Banci, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
       Prof. Dr. Ivano Bertini, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
       Prof. Dr. Gerd Gemmecker, Technical University München, München, Germany
       Dr. Wiktor Kozminski, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland

National Institute of Biology - Marine Biology Station Piran

General description of the center/facility
Oceanographic Buoy Piran
By the year 2001, after five years of effort, the coastal oceanographic station was operational.

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                         Figure 17 - Oceanographic buoy made by Sirius d.o.o. Koper

The buoy continuously records oceanographic data at a site thought to be typical of the southern half of the Gulf
of Trieste. This data is complemented by observations taken from the research vessel Sagita. Data from the
buoy can record rapid changes in oceanographic and environmental parameters, for example such as might arise
from southerly excursions of water masses originating in the Northern Adriatic. Complimentary measurements
taken from the research vessel allows the spatial extent of such events to be estimated.
The buoy is equipped with:
       Acoustic 3D anemometer
       Temperature and humidity sensors
       GPS
       Compass/tilt sensors
       Two temperature and salinity probes
       Acoustic Doppler Current meter profiler
       Power supply batteries and solar panels
     Buoy controller unit.
The data are transmitted to the Marine Biology Station in Piran, where they are quality checked and put into a
Technical difficulties arose on several occasions during the implementation of this project. In some instances we
indicated that it was not possible to overcome these difficulties by the due date for completion, i.e., by the end of
2000. In addition, in December of 2000, the oceanographic buoy was run over by a large vessel which was a
further setback. These problems were compounded by the level of coordination required between financiers and
the installation firms. Fortunately, we had the understanding of the services responsible for the necessary
approvals (The Inter - municipal Board for Natural and Cultural Heritage and the Municipality of Piran Maritime
Administration). Eight contracts were finalized in regard to the oceanographic station. The value of the
equipment on the Oceanographic Buoy Piran is about 87.000€ (EUR). Our Institute does not derive any financial
benefits from this project, yet it wishes to continue to manage operation of the oceanographic buoy. Above all, it
wishes to upgrade the data at this web site and within the oceanographic station data base. We have had
substantial support for the continuation of this part of the project from the National UNESCO Commission

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which has also planned a partial financing for the continuing oceanographic buoy video monitoring into the year
2001. The value of this support is for only up to one third of the required funds - leaving a substantial shortfall.
The coordinates of the oceanographic buoy are: 45° 32,90' N, 13° 33,00' E

The Research Vessel “Sagita”
The research vessel is a 40’Dautless class patrol boat and was built at SeaArk, (Monticello, Arkansas, USA) It is
equipped with two 420 HP Caterpillar engines and “Twin Disc” yet propulsion system. It’s profile suits a 6-man
cabin and an extra cabin part for laboratory field work.
With the most sophisticated navigation equipment it can suit all the needs for field research in shallow coastal
waters to a depth of few hundred meters.

                                                    Figure 18

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Physical oceanography laboratory and field work facilities
  Laboratory of fluid dynamics – simulations of coastal water processes:
  Rotating table ( = 1.3 m, load up to 500 kg, continuous rotating rates 0.02-0.2/s or 0.1-1.0/s, or
  programmable saw-tooth oscillation) with plexi tanks (1.3x1.3x0.5 m3;  = 1 m x 0.5 m height), facilities
  for stratified fluid.

  Numerical simulations of coastal circulation:
  Linux cluster of four computers Dual Intel Xenon 3.0 GHz with the driving/spare fifth one

  Experimental coastal ecology/oceanography:
  Rosette multisampler (12 x 5 l), AF module with depth sensor ( Seabird)
  Free-falling CTD multiparameter fine scale profiler (UWA, Perth, Seabird sensors), data retrieval with 50
  Hz, vertical resolution of a profile of temperature, salinity, chl-a, oxygen and PAR is 2.5 cm in 1 m/s
  falling speed
  Nortek NDP 500 kHz vessel mounted (on a bow) Acoustic current Doppler profiler for the on-board
  measurements of currents with a cruising speed of 7 knots

Biological and chemical laboratory facilities
  EQUIPMENT/APPARATUS                          Type, Analysis/PURPOSE
  Elemental analyser                           CHNS-Carlo Erba 1108 elemental analyser
  Atomic absorption Spectrometer               Varian SpectrAA-10 Plus
  Spectrofluorimeter                           Perkin Elmer Luminiscence Spectrometer LS 30
  HPLC system                                  HPLC system, Varian 9010 (detectors: UV/VIS and
  Spectrophotometer                            Perkin Elmer UV/VIS Lambda 14
  Ultrafiltration system                       “Vivascience VivaFlow 200”
  Gas Cromatograph – MSD                       Varian Saturn 2100 T
  Gas Cromatograph                             Agilent Technologies 6890 N
  Gas Chromatograph                            HP 5890 Series II
  Photochemical reactor                        Atlas Suntest CPS+
  FTIR                                         Perkin Elmer, Spectrum One System

  Inverted microscope Zeiss Axiovert 135, with fluorescence (blue-green and UV filter sets)
  Olympus BX51 with Phase Contrast Condenser (U-PCD2), Reflected Fluorescence System, different
  filter sets (UV, BG, TRIPPL Band Filter - for Fluorescent insitu hybridisation); digital camera DP70,
  Olympus DP - Soft Imaging System 3.2, video/photo adapters
  Stereo Microscopes Olympus SZH and Olympus SZ2
  Epiflurescent microscope, Olympus BH2
  Thermocikler Applied Biosystems GeneAmp PCR9700 Aluminium
  Uvitec Model GAS9200 UV trans-iluminator, videocamera; UVIdoc software;
  DGGE Model DGGE-4801 C.B.S Scientific
  Fluorometer Turner digital fluorometer model 112
  UV/VIS Spectrometer Lamda 14,Perkin Elmer
  UV/VIS/NIR Spectrometer
  Quantum Sensor, LI-COR L1-190SA-50, Measurements of PAR in the atmosphere, growth chambers...
  High temperature oven G8-5206A AURODENT, Temp. up to 1200oC, Vol 5.5L
  PH meter Metrohm 744
  Multititrator Methrohm 794 Basic Titrino
  Quantum Scalar Laboratory Sensor, Biospherical Instruments QSL-2101
  Ultra-pure water system, Millipore Mili-Q plus
  Liquid scintillation analyser, Canberra Packard Tri-Carb 2500 TR (C-14, H-3 and P-32)
  Cold room, regulated temperature (+4 to +30 oC) and light (cool-white fluorescence lamps)], Kambic RK-
  13000, Growth and maintenance of cultures, in vitro experiments
  Ultra-low deep freeze (max –85 oC), Sanyo MDF-U50V

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   Centrifuges: Eppendorf 5415D, Eppendorf E5417 R, Eppendorf E5804 R
   Hybridisation owen
   Low temperature Incubator Cole Parmer
   Ultrasonic Baths, Water Baths, Incubatures, Peristaltic Pump, Wacum Pressure Pump, Filtering Sistems,
   Plankton Nets with diferent diameters,

Management structure
Marine Biology Station (MBS, established in 1969 and located in Piran (on the northern
Adriatic coast) is affiliated to the National Institute of Biology (NIB) in Ljubljana.

Areas of research/research programmes
The main research activities of the MBS are focused on characteristics and problems of coastal waters especially
on the impact of pollution from land-based sources, coastal dynamics and modelling, biogeochemical processes
and cycling of substances. Particular attention has been given to eutrophication problems and effects of nutrient
over enrichment from different sources (municipal waste waters, riverine and atmospheric inputs, inputs from
fish cages). MBS is national focal point for MED POL activities (Barcelona Convention) and is responsible for
National Marine Monitoring Programme including assessment of the state of marine environment, marine
biodiversity monitoring and conservation of coastal areas. MBS is data provider for Transitional, Coastal and
Marine Waters within EIONET (European Environment Information and Observation Network).

Funding sources
The majority of the funding (70%) comes from governmental sources (different ministries & local communities.
20% of the funding comes from international projects (EU FP 5&6, Interreg, Phare, UNEP/MAP). The rest
comes from private sector.

Possibilities for training
From the beginning of the year 2005 the Marine Biology Station will provide a spacious and flexible venue
combining facilities for workshops, conferences and lectures with laboratory benching and equipment for
practical work and field courses. The following resources will be available:
       Seminar, workshop and lecture facilities for up to 80 people
       Fully equipped laboratory holding up to 30 participants (inventory available on request)
       Digital, slide and overhead projectors
       Networked computing facilities
       Display and poster boards
       Access to the National marine Biological Library
       Seawater systems
       Boats, sampling equipment and a Diving base
       Easy access to a wide range of marine habitats including estuaries, rocky and sandy shore
       Catering facilities for tea and coffee, buffets, formal lunches and dinners (to be completed in 2005)
       Disabled access and toilet facilities

International cooperation with other centres/facilities
International cooperation is included mainly within international projects (4 EU 5th FP projects, 2 EU 6th FP
projects). We also developed an intensive cooperation with UNEP, Regional Seas programme (Mediterranean
Action Plan.) MBS is also one of the centres of the International Ocean Institute (IOI). MBS is also an action
address for the IOC (International Oceanographic Commission)

Other customers/users
Major user or customers are:
       Ministry of Education, Science and Sport
       Ministry of Environment, Spatial Planning and Energy

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      Ministry of Economy
      Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food
      Fish farms, Local communities, Local communities services
      Small enterprises

Academic and Research Network (Arnes)

General description of the facility
Easy access to a variety of different types of information, and cooperation with related organizations are of
crucial importance to the success of research institutes, universities and other organizations involved in
development, education and culture. This can be facilitated with computer networks. As there is a great
difference between the general purpose commodity Internet on the one hand and the high performance network
that satisfies the needs of researchers and teachers on the other, so-called National Research and Educational
Networks (NRENs) can be found in all countries. These networks provide “production” level services to
educational, research and cultural institutions and serve as a test bed environment for the demonstration and
validation of advanced networking applications in research and education. ARNES is the NREN of Slovenia.
ARNES was established as an independent public institution in 1992. In order to facilitate cooperation between
education and research organizations, ARNES provides a set of services grouped into three main areas: network
connectivity, network services and user support.
The basis for the connectivity inside Slovenia is the backbone which is constructed by main routers (nodes of
concentration) connected by leased lines. The ARNES network is composed of the ARNES backbone and all
lines and routers at final destinations which are managed by ARNES.

                                       Figure 19 - ARNES backbone

ARNES provides network services to universities, secondary and primary schools, government and private
research institutions, libraries and cultural institutions.

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There are several ways in which individual organizations can connect to the ARNES network. The choice is
dependent on the requirements of the organization, its infrastructure and funds available. The organization can
have a permanent connection (via leased line, own or leased optical fiber, CATV network or wireless link), a
dial-up connection (via analogue or ISDN phone network) or ADSL.
Individuals from research and educational institutions can get a personal dial-up account directly from ARNES.
They can use analogue or ISDN telephone network.
ARNES has 1,2 Gbit/s connection to the pan-european research network GÉANT.

Management structure
Managing Director: Marko Bonač M.S. (
ARNES is directed by a Board of Directors. The Board consists of fife members, five of which are appointed by
the Ministry of education, Science and Sports, two by the Ministry of the Information Society (MID) and one by
ARNES employees. The Board of Directors adopts an Annual Operating Plan and a Final Account in accordance
with Ministry of the Information Society.
The work and operations are managed by the Managing Director. He is appointed and replaced by the Board of
Directors with the consent of the founder.
ARNES has a Technical Board which deals with user-oriented, technical, programme and development

Areas of research/research programs
The purpose of a computer network are its services. ARNES carries out all the necessary activities for all
Internet services.
ARNES also maintains its own WWW, FTP, WAIS, X.500, News, MBONE, IRC and Gopher servers. There is a
possibility that those users, who can not maintain their own server do this on one of the ARNES servers.
From the very start of networking in Slovenia ARNES has supported some basic activities which are useful for
other Internet service providers in Slovenia as well. ARNES manages the top level domain (.si) for Slovenia and
runs the top level Domain Name Server. In addition ARNES runs SIX (Slovenian Internet Exchange) where all
those Internet providers which have their own international connectivity can peer between themselves.
In recent years another service provided by ARNES has been growing in popularity: the Slovenian Computer
Emergency Response Team (SI-CERT). Its main services include coordination of security incidents involving
networks or systems in Slovenia, distribution of security-related information to the constituency and provision of
technical expertise on network security related issues. The team can also provide links to appropriate law-
enforcement agencies in Slovenia.
Computer networks are new technology and the organizations very often ask for technical support when they ask
for the connection of their local network to ARNES. Similarly, the services of the global computer network are
new for most users. ARNES has to help here as well.
ARNES activities in the field of user support are the following:
       Consultancy to organizations in connecting their local networks to ARNES.
       Consultancy to organizations with setting up their DNS, E-mail, FTP, WWW, News and X.500 systems.
       Organization of conferences for managers of local systems.
       Help desk for managers of local systems.
       Computer Emergency Response Team support (SI-CERT).
       Consultancy to organizations regarding usage of services.
       Cooperation at seminars organized by connected organizations for their users.
       Organization of conferences for future/perspective users.
       Presentation at exhibitions.

Funding sources
Funds necessary for the execution of ARNES operations are obtained from the budget of the Republic of
Slovenia on the basis of the Annual Operating Plan. ARNES can also get funds from other sources. ARNES is
required to use surpluses to carry out and develop its activities.

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Its services are free for the majority of users. The exception is development departments in industry – they have
to cover the costs of the services they use, calculated on the basis of their incoming network traffic.
The main expense for ARNES is international connectivity, representing about 60% of all costs. The next largest
sum is used for national connectivity, accounting for 20%. Purchasing new equipment takes an additional 11%.
All other costs (salaries, maintenance of equipment, etc.) amount to 9%.

International cooperation with other centers/facilities
ARNES is a full national member of TERENA (, a shareholder in DANTE
(, a member of CEENet (, a member of CENTR
(, and a member of RIPE (
ARNES also participates in many European projects in the field of network technologies or network services.
The major network development activities of TERENA are conducted through its Task Forces. These are small
groups of volunteers who undertake specific activities on behalf of the TERENA Technical Committee. ARNES
staff is involved in the work of most of them.
GÉANT is the most important project ARNES is involved in. The GÉANT (GN1) project is co-funded by the
European Commission as part of its Fifth Research & Development Framework Programme. GN1 is a contract
between 26 National Research and Education Networks (NRENs), DANTE and the European Commission.
DANTE is the co-ordinating partner of the project.
GÉANT is the 6th generation of pan-European research network. The project’s purpose has been to improve on
the previous TEN-155 pan-European research network by creating a new backbone at gigabit speeds – the
GÉANT network.
The project has four main objectives:
       Gigabit speed
       Geographical expansion
       Global connectivity
       Guaranteed quality of service

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