Data by dfhdhdhdhjr



   A2 Module 2 13.4.3
    Heathcote Ch. 43
Methods of Data Entry
 Basic manual method
   • Keyboard

 Direct data capture
   •   Bar code readers
   •   Magnetic stripe readers
   •   Smart cards
   •   MICR

 EDI – electronic data interchange
   • Transfers data already entered from one organisation to another
Using bar codes
 Management is provided with very detailed up to
  date information, enabling decisions to be made
  quicker and with more confidence. For example:
   • Fast-selling items can be identified quickly and automatically
     reordered to meet demand;

   • Slow-selling items can be identified, preventing a build-up of
     unwanted stock;

   • Effects of repositioning a given product within a store can be
     monitored, allowing fast-moving more profitable items to occupy
     the best space;

   • Historical data can be used to predict seasonal fluctuations very
Other uses of bar codes
 Warehousing
   • for containers of raw materials stored in racks of bins which are
     also bar coded

 Transport and distribution
   • freight carriers: individual packages are bar coded as are depot

 Manufacturing
   • accurate data on work in progress obtained using bar codes as for
     data entry

 Marketing
   • polling companies: for multiple choice questionnaires to enter data
     quickly and accurately
Other uses of bar codes 2
 Medical
   • to identify blood and other samples, and patients’ records

 Libraries
   • to record loans and provide information on stock

 Banking, insurance and local government
   • for accurate document control and retrieval
Data collection methods
 Bar codes

 Magnetic stripe cards
   • widely used for applications ranging from railway cards to
     customer loyalty cards

 Electronic data interchange (EDI)
   • transmission of business data from one firm’s computerised
     information to that of another firm
Data collection methods 2
 Smart cards
   • cards containing a microchip are likely to replace cash over the
     next five years

 Keying in data
   • keyboard still widely used for data input in spite of the drawbacks
      • inaccurate data transcription
      • comparatively slow data entry
      • risk to health (RSI)
Usefulness of data
 Data is of poor ‘quality’ if it is:

     Inaccurate
     Incomplete
     Out-of-date

 To be useful, data must be:

    • Accurate
    • Complete
    • Up-to-date
Collecting and analysing data
 Data may be collected for a specific purpose (direct)

 Or it may be collected for one use and then used for another
   • Store loyalty cards
   • Information gained can influence shop layout
   • It may determine the type of vouchers that you receive

 Junk mail
   • Information derived from credit card sales used for marketing purposes

 Every time you use a credit card or answer a survey a further
  profile is being created of you and stored on computer
Coding value judgements
 What is a value judgement?
  • A subjective opinion
       • ICT lessons are c**p!
       • Liverpool FC are good? Very good? Excellent!
       • Anne Widdecombe is better looking than Anna Kournikova

 If you have ever filled in a questionnaire on which you were
  asked to tick a box rating something from ‘Poor’ to ‘Excellent’
  you will know how difficult it can be.

 Try the example on page 41 of Heathcote

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