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					Civil Society
          Actors in Politics
• Government
• Private Sector
• Military
• Civil society
(Non-governmental organizations, social
            Social Capital
• Those stocks of social trust, norms, and
  networks that people can draw upon to
  solve common problems
         Civic Engagement
• Active participation in the community
  (neighborhood associations, sports clubs,
  cooperatives). The denser these networks,
  the more likely that members of a
  community will cooperate for mutual
 Robert Putnam: Bowling Alone
• social capital has declined as evidenced
  by lower involvement in church attendance,
  community organizations, and civic groups.
  Public forum for debating public issues
  have declined.

• Reasons? Changes in labor force, mobility,
  demographic changes, technological
  transformation of leisure
             Social Movement
May challenge
• Cultural beliefs and practices
• A political or social practice
• promote or resist social change that is:
  -Organized (coordinated to at least some degree)
  -Sustained (lasts a while)
  -At least partly non-institutional (outside the normal
    structures or routines of society)
         Protest Movements
• The act of challenging, resisting or making
  demands upon:
  – Authorities, power-holders
  And/or cultural beliefs and practices
  And/or some other opponent group
Non-governmental organization
• A legally organized entity created by
  private persons or organizations with no
  representation in government
            Some terminology
•   Non-governmental organizations
•   International non-governmental organization
•   QUANGO a quasi NGO
•   GONGO a governmental NGO
•   PANGO partly affiliated NGO (Latin America)
•   DONGO a donor organized NGO
•   BINGO a business NGO with corporate
   Comparative Study of Protest,
    NGOs, Social Movements
• How to explain similarities/differences in
  the forms that protest movements take?
• How to explain similarities/differences in
  the size and scope of NGOs?
• How to explain similarities/differences in
  the relationships among NGOs and
  government or business?

PR and Information Dissemination
      Websites, mailers, telephoning, announcements
      information desks
      Demonstrations
      Events (e.g. Concerts, river clean up)
Non-violent direct action
      Picketing
      Blockades
Direct action
      Sabotage
      Violent demonstrations
      Movements in Germany
Protest Politics in
  Movements on the
  Left and Right Since
  the 1960s

Roger Karapin
                      Protests in Germany

Nuclear waste transports to Gorleben 2008:
more (especially younger) people than in 2001 were

Peaceful as well as

Large numbers of
            Germany 1970s
•   Anti-Vietnam
•   Women’s movement
•   Anti-nuclear movement
•   Environmental movement

Green Party
 German Environmental NGOs
German NGO Forum on Environment and
Bundes Naturschutz:
    Bio Markt
                   German NGO Forum on Environment and Development
                                                         •   Institut für Klimafolgenforschung
                                                         •   justitia et Pax
•   Afrikagruppe deutscher Geowissenschaftler            •   KATE -Berlin
•   AGEH                                                 •   Kath. Landjugendbewegung
•   AGRECOL e.V.                                         •   Klima-Bündnis
•   Aktionsgemeinschaft Solidarische Welt e.V.           •   Landesverband Bürgerinitiativen Umweltschutz
•   Aktionsgruppe Babynahrung AGB                        •   Life e.V.
•   ARA                                                  •   MISEREOR
•   AT- Verband                                          •   NaturFreunde Deutschlands e.V.
•   Attac                                                •   Naturfreundejugend
•   BAG ejL                                              •   Naturfreundejugend (Kopie 1)
•   BAG ejl (Kopie 1)                                    •   Naturland e.V.
•   Bioland e.V.                                         •   NRO. Frauenforum
•   BIU - Bürgerinitiative Umweltschutz e.V. Hannover    •   Ökologischer Tourismus in Europa Ö.T.E
•   BLUE 21                                              •   Oldenburgisch-Ostfriesischer Wasserverband
•   Brot für die Welt                                    •   OroVerde
•   BUKO Agrarkoordinantion                              •   PAN Germany
•   BUND                                                 •   Pro Regenwald
•   Deutsche Welthungerhilfe                             •   Robin Wood
•   Deutscher Naturschutzring e.V.                       •   Stattreisen Hannover e.V.
•   Ecologic                                             •   Stiftung Entwicklung und Frieden
•   EED                                                  •   Stiftung Europäisches Naturerbe (Euronatur)
•   Ev. Bauernwerk in Württenberg e.V.                   •   Südwind
•   Evangelische Kirche im Rheinland                     •   terre des hommes Deutschland e.V.
•   Evangelische Kirche von Westfalen                    •   TOURISM WATCH
•   FAKT                                                 •   Urgewald e.V.
•   FernWeh - Forum Tourismus & Kritik                   •   VEN Verein zur Erhaltung der Nutzpflanzenvielfalt e.V.
•   FIAN- Deutschland e.V.                               •   Venro
•   Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung                             •   Verband katholisches Landvolk e.V.
•   GERMANWATCH                                          •   Verein für politische Bildung und Information Bonn e.V.
•   GISAF e.V. Berlin                                    •   Verkehrsklub Deutschland VCD
•   Greenpeace                                           •   WEED
•   GRÜNE LIGA Berlin e.V.                               •   Weltfriedensdienst e.V.
•   GSE - Gesellschaft für solidarische EZ               •   Weltladen Dachverband e.V.
•   Informationszentrum Dritte Welt                      •   Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
•   Institut fuer Biodiversitaet - Netzwerk e.V. (IBN)   •   WWF-Deutschland
•   Institut für Entwicklung und Frieden                 •   ZADI Zentralstelle für Agrardokumentation und -information
           German Greens
In coalition with SPD (1998-2005)
  phase out nuclear
  renewable energy

               Joschka Fischer
Alliance 90/The Greens
Against GMO Foods
    Who is part of the movement?

Local groups
Local administrations
Regional, national & intern. NGOs
• European Green Party in European
  Parliamentary Elections

2004   7.8%votes (4.8% MEPs)
Germany 2000s
Anti-Nuclear Transport
   Consultative Decision Making

• Parliamentary Enquete Kommission
  “Schutz der Erdatmosphaere”
  – Political parties, NGOs, scientists, business

• German Environment Advisory Council

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