Chapter 9 section 2 by dfhdhdhdhjr


									           Chapter 9 Section 1
The Big Ideas are:
•Explain how the nation’s court system was
•Describe the first cabinet.
•Analyze Hamilton’s financial plans.
•Identify interpretations of the Constitution and
explain how they influenced attitudes toward the
national bank.
What does inaugurate?
• Sworn in as president.
What is a cabinet?
• A group of department heads who serve as the
  president’s chief advisers.
What is a tariff?
• Tariff is a tax on imported goods (goods from
  another country).
What does the phrase “[Washington]
would set a precedent” mean?

• To be the first to do something.
• One example is people argued what they
  should call him “His Excellency” or “His Highness”.
  Others argued that such titles would suggest that
  he was a king.
• The debate tied up congress for a month. Finally,
  “Mr. President” was agreed upon.
What decisions about the nation’s court
system did the Constitution leave
Congress to decide?
• The constitution created
  the Supreme Court but left
  the number of justices for
  Congress to decide.
• The Constitution also gave
  Congress the task of
  creating departments to
  help the president to lead
  the nation.
Big Idea Review Question: What is the
Federal Judiciary Act of 1789 and what was
its purpose?
The Federal Judiciary Act was   • The Federal Judiciary act
  passed by Congress to           of 1789 gave the Supreme
  create a court system.          Court six members: a chief
                                  or judge and five associate
                                • Over time that number had
                                  grown to nine.
                                • The act also provided for
                                  other lower, less powerful
                                  federal courts.
How did the cabinet help the president
govern the nation?
• There were four members of the first cabinet. They were
  Attorney General, Secretary of State, Secretary War and
  Secretary of the Treasury.
• They helped advise the President.
Big Idea Review Question: Describe the
first president’s cabinet.
• Washington chose talented people to run as his cabinet.
• He chose Henry Knox, a trusted general from the
  Revolutionary War, as a Secretary of War. It was also his job
  to oversee the nation’s defenses.
• Thomas Jefferson had served as U.S. minister to France,
  Washington chose him as the Secretary of State.
• Washington chose the brilliant Alexander Hamilton to be the
  Secretary of Treasury. Hamilton had to manage the
  government’s money.
•   Washington chose Edmund Randolph as Attorney General.
What financial problems did the nation
• During the Revolutionary war the Americans
  borrowed millions of dollars from France, Spain,
  and the Netherlands.
• Within the United States, merchants and private
  citizens had to loan money to the government.
• The state government also had wartime time debt
  to pay back.By 1789, the national debt totaled
  more than $52 million dollars.
How did Hamilton purpose to solve the
financial problems?
His plan was to
• Pay off all war debts
• Raise national revenues
• Create a national bank
• Hamilton purpose tariffs to increase national
• Hamilton promoted the sale of bonds. Bonds are
  a way for governments to pay off debts by selling
  bonds. Bonds are an investment. The investor
  pays money to buy the bond and over a period of
  time the bond increases in value.
What beliefs influenced Hamilton’s
financial plan for the nation?
• He thought the power of the national government
  should be stronger than the state government
  Hamilton also believed that a strong government
  should encourage business and the
  manufacturing industry.
• He sought the support of the nation’s wealthy
  merchants and manufactures. He thought that
  the nation’s prosperity depended on them.
What were three steps in Hamilton’s
financial plan? (Make a flow map.)
1. Paying off all war debts.
2. Raising government revenues.
3. Creating a national bank.
Why did many Southern states object to
helping the country pay off it’s war
• The southern states had already paid their and
  didn’t like being asked to help the Northern states
  pay their debts.
In your opinion was Hamilton’s plan
successful? Explain why or why not.
Why did Hamilton favor imposing high
tariffs on foreign goods and creating a
national bank?
• Placing taxes on foreign goods encourage
• Money from tariffs was raised from foreign
  merchants having to pay the tax not Americans.
• The national bank create secure and stable place
  of Americans to put and invest their money.
How do banks make money? (Read How
Banks work and make a flow map.)
1. Workers use their
wages to buy the goods
and services they want.
They deposit some
money in banks as
savings because banks
pay them interest.                                                  3. Businesses use the loans to
                                                                    create new products and
                                                                    services. As they sell more,
                          2. Banks use much of the money they
                                                                    they hire more workers and
                          receive in deposits. They lend money to
                                                                    raise wages.
                          people who want to buy cars or homes or
                          to businesses that want to expand
                          operations. Banks charge interest—a fee
                          for a loan—to those who borrow the
Big Idea Review Question: What were two major
ways of interpreting the Constitution, and how
did they differ? (Create a double bubble map.)
       Strict Interpretation           Loose Interpretation
  • It means to follow the        • It means that the federal
    Constitution word for word.     government can do
    That means the federal          anything that is necessary
    government should not do        to carry its work.
    anything that is not          • This is following the “Elastic
    specifically stated in the      Clause” or the necessary
    Constitution.                   and proper clause of the
Big Idea Review Question: Why did
Madison and Jefferson oppose the
creation of a national bank?
• They believed in a strict interpretation of the
  constitution and a national bank was not mention
  in the constitution.
• They believed that the federal government was
  extending its power too far.
How was the argument over the bank
• The argument was settled when a compromise
  was struck between Jefferson and Hamilton. The
  nation’s capital was setup in the South.
• Washington agreed with Hamilton in the argument
  and they also chose to use the “Elastic Clause” of
  the Constitution.

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