Chapter 9 Section 1 The Big Ideas are: •Explain how the nation’s court system was established. •Describe the first cabinet. •Analyze Hamilton’s financial plans. •Identify interpretations of the Constitution and explain how they influenced attitudes toward the national bank. What does inaugurate? • Sworn in as president. What is a cabinet? • A group of department heads who serve as the president’s chief advisers. What is a tariff? • Tariff is a tax on imported goods (goods from another country). What does the phrase “[Washington] would set a precedent” mean? • To be the first to do something. • One example is people argued what they should call him “His Excellency” or “His Highness”. Others argued that such titles would suggest that he was a king. • The debate tied up congress for a month. Finally, “Mr. President” was agreed upon. What decisions about the nation’s court system did the Constitution leave Congress to decide? • The constitution created the Supreme Court but left the number of justices for Congress to decide. • The Constitution also gave Congress the task of creating departments to help the president to lead the nation. Big Idea Review Question: What is the Federal Judiciary Act of 1789 and what was its purpose? The Federal Judiciary Act was • The Federal Judiciary act passed by Congress to of 1789 gave the Supreme create a court system. Court six members: a chief or judge and five associate justices. • Over time that number had grown to nine. • The act also provided for other lower, less powerful federal courts. How did the cabinet help the president govern the nation? • There were four members of the first cabinet. They were Attorney General, Secretary of State, Secretary War and Secretary of the Treasury. • They helped advise the President. Big Idea Review Question: Describe the first president’s cabinet. • Washington chose talented people to run as his cabinet. • He chose Henry Knox, a trusted general from the Revolutionary War, as a Secretary of War. It was also his job to oversee the nation’s defenses. • Thomas Jefferson had served as U.S. minister to France, Washington chose him as the Secretary of State. • Washington chose the brilliant Alexander Hamilton to be the Secretary of Treasury. Hamilton had to manage the government’s money. • Washington chose Edmund Randolph as Attorney General. What financial problems did the nation face? • During the Revolutionary war the Americans borrowed millions of dollars from France, Spain, and the Netherlands. • Within the United States, merchants and private citizens had to loan money to the government. • The state government also had wartime time debt to pay back.By 1789, the national debt totaled more than $52 million dollars. How did Hamilton purpose to solve the financial problems? His plan was to • Pay off all war debts • Raise national revenues • Create a national bank • Hamilton purpose tariffs to increase national revenues. • Hamilton promoted the sale of bonds. Bonds are a way for governments to pay off debts by selling bonds. Bonds are an investment. The investor pays money to buy the bond and over a period of time the bond increases in value. What beliefs influenced Hamilton’s financial plan for the nation? • He thought the power of the national government should be stronger than the state government Hamilton also believed that a strong government should encourage business and the manufacturing industry. • He sought the support of the nation’s wealthy merchants and manufactures. He thought that the nation’s prosperity depended on them. What were three steps in Hamilton’s financial plan? (Make a flow map.) 1. Paying off all war debts. 2. Raising government revenues. 3. Creating a national bank. Why did many Southern states object to helping the country pay off it’s war debt? • The southern states had already paid their and didn’t like being asked to help the Northern states pay their debts. In your opinion was Hamilton’s plan successful? Explain why or why not. Why did Hamilton favor imposing high tariffs on foreign goods and creating a national bank? • Placing taxes on foreign goods encourage manufacturing. • Money from tariffs was raised from foreign merchants having to pay the tax not Americans. • The national bank create secure and stable place of Americans to put and invest their money. How do banks make money? (Read How Banks work and make a flow map.) 1. Workers use their wages to buy the goods and services they want. They deposit some money in banks as savings because banks pay them interest. 3. Businesses use the loans to create new products and services. As they sell more, 2. Banks use much of the money they they hire more workers and receive in deposits. They lend money to raise wages. people who want to buy cars or homes or to businesses that want to expand operations. Banks charge interest—a fee for a loan—to those who borrow the money. Big Idea Review Question: What were two major ways of interpreting the Constitution, and how did they differ? (Create a double bubble map.) Strict Interpretation Loose Interpretation • It means to follow the • It means that the federal Constitution word for word. government can do That means the federal anything that is necessary government should not do to carry its work. anything that is not • This is following the “Elastic specifically stated in the Clause” or the necessary Constitution. and proper clause of the Constitution. Big Idea Review Question: Why did Madison and Jefferson oppose the creation of a national bank? • They believed in a strict interpretation of the constitution and a national bank was not mention in the constitution. • They believed that the federal government was extending its power too far. How was the argument over the bank settled? • The argument was settled when a compromise was struck between Jefferson and Hamilton. The nation’s capital was setup in the South. • Washington agreed with Hamilton in the argument and they also chose to use the “Elastic Clause” of the Constitution.
Pages to are hidden for
"Chapter 9 section 2"Please download to view full document