Sixth Grade Social Studies The Eastern Hemisphere

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					Tech International Charter School - Attachment 10(b) - Curriculum Framework - Grade 6 Social Studies

                              Sixth GradeGrade 6 Social Studies: The Eastern Hemisphere in a World Context

           Unit 1                        Unit 2                           Unit 3                          Unit 4                             Unit 5
     September-October              November-December                January-February                   March-April                       May-June
   Geography and Early                   Middle                           Africa                           Asia                             Europe
       Peoples of the                     East                           (Ghana)                         (Japan)                            (France
    Eastern Hemisphere                                                                                                                       Spain)
Essential Question: How        Essential Question:             Essential Question:              Essential Question:             Essential Question:
did geography influence the    How do geography,               How do geography,                How do geography,               How do geography,
development of the             economics, people,              economics, people,               economics, people,              economics, people,
Eastern Hemisphere?            and key elements                and key elements                 and key elements                and key elements connect to
                               connect to shape a continent?   connect to shape a continent?    connect to shape a continent?   shape a continent?
  The Eastern Hemisphere               The Middle East                       Africa                          Asia                           Europe
Identify continents            Case Study: Ancient             Case Study: Ancient African      Case Study: Ancient Asian       Case Study: Ancient
in the Eastern                 Middle Eastern Culture          Kingdom of Ghana                 Culture of Japan                European Culture
Hemisphere 3.1b                (Sumer, Mesopotamia)            Geographic features:             Geographic features:            (Celts, Franks, Anglo
Geographic features:           Geographic features:            deserts, rivers, mountains       deltas, deserts, mountains,     Saxons, Greeks, Romans)
oceans, and mountain ranges    deserts, rivers, mountains      3.1a, 3.1c, 3.1d                 rivers, peninsulas,             Geographic features:
3.1b                           3.1a, 3.1c, 3.1d                Daily life 2.1a                  plateaus, plains,               Seas, rivers, mountains
Locate diverse countries       Daily life 2.1a                 Social and political             islands 3.1a, 3.1c, 3.1d        3.1a, 3.1c, 3.1d
3.1b                           Social and political            organization 2.1a, 5.1a          Daily life 2.1a                 Daily life 2.1a
Locate major land              organization 2.1a, 5.1a         Culture (art, music,             Social and political            Social and political
masses and bodies              Culture (art, music,            architecture, literature) 2.1a   organization 2.1a, 5.1a         organization 2.1a, 5.1a
of water 3.1b                  architecture, literature)       Religions (Animism,              Culture (art, music,            Culture (art, music,
Use maps, globes,              2.1a                            Islam, Coptic,                   architecture, literature)       architecture, literature)
photos, and computer           Religions (Islam, Judaism,      Christianity,                    2.1a                            2.1a
programs 3.1a, 3.1c            Christianity) 2.1a              Polytheism) 2.1a                 Religions (Hinduism,            Religions (Catholicism,
Locate specific places         Economy 4.1a, 4.1e              Economic systems 4.1a, 4.1e      Taoism, Buddhism) 2.1a          Protestantism, Judaism)
and draw them on a             Resources 4.1a, 4.1e            Land use and natural             Economic systems                2.1a
map 3.1b                       Development of                  resources 4.1a, 4.1e             4.1a, 4.1e                      Economic systems 4.1a, 4.1e
Measure distance               Science and technology          Science and technology 2.3c      Land use and natural            Land use and natural
(Equator, Prime                2.3c                            Contributions of people and      resources 4.1a, 4.1e            resources 4.1a, 4.1e
Meridian, latitude,            Contributions of people         events in African History        Science and technology          Science and technology
longitude) 3.1b                and events in Middle East       2.2a, 2.2c, 2.3                  2.3c                            2.3c
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Locate regions with            History 2.2a, 2.2c,2.3                                           Contributions of people and     Contributions of people
climate extremes                                                                                events in Asian                 and events in European        Formatted: Font: Times New
(tropical, arctic, drought,                                                                     history 2.2a, 2.2c, 2.3         history 2.2a, 2.2c, 2.3       Roman
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monsoon) 3.1d
Geologic History (plate                                                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: Times New
tectonics) 3.1c                                                                                                                                               Roman
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                                                  Attachment 10(b) - Grade 6 Social Studies - 11
Tech International Charter School - Attachment 10(b) - Curriculum Framework - Grade 6 Social Studies




               Unit 1                  Unit 2                        Unit 3                     Unit 4                               Unit 5
         September-October        November-December             January-February              March-April                          May-June
       Geography and Early             Middle                        Africa                      Asia                               Europe
           Peoples of the               East                        (Ghana)                    (Japan)                              (France
        Eastern Hemisphere                                                                                                           Spain)
Essential Question: How         Essential Question:           Essential Question:       Essential Question:          Essential Question:
did geography influence the     How do geography,             How do geography,         How do geography,            How do geography,
development of the              economics, people,            economics, people,        economics, people,           economics, people,
Eastern Hemisphere?             and key elements              and key elements          and key elements             and key elements
                                connect to shape a            connect to shape a        connect to shape a           connect to shape a continent?
                                continent?                    continent?                continent?
Geographic factors that         The formation of the          Daily life 2.1a           Formation of modern          Trade and exchange of goods
influenced development          modern                        Cultural patterns and     Japan 2.2c                   and the Great Silk Road 4.1a, 4.1d,
(topography, climate,           Middle East 3.1c, 3.2d        legacies 2.1a             Key events and               4.1f, 4.1g, 4.2
resources, stability)           Key events and people         Tribes, clans, colonies   people 2.2c, 2.3a            Cultural diffusion 2.1a, 2.4b
3.1d, 3.2d                      2.2c, 2.3a                    and nations 2.1a          Daily life 2.1a              Key Documents (Magma
Introduction of                 Daily life 2.1a               Forms of government       Cultural patterns and        Carta, Declaration of the
Agriculture 2.1                 Cultural patterns and         5.1a                      legacies 2.1a                Rights of Man) 2.1b
Introduction of                 legacies 2.1a                 African economy           Forms of government          Trade, agrarian life, and the rise
new technologies 2.3c           Forms of government           today 4.1a, 4.1c, 4.1e,   5.1a                         of cities 4.1a, 4.2
Development of                  5.1a                          4.1f                      Asian economies              The Crusades 2.1a, 2.2c, 2.4b,
political, religious, and       Middle Eastern economies      Diversity 2.1a, 3.1d,     today 4.1a, 4.1c 4.1e 4.1f   2.4d
social systems 2.1a             today 4.1a, 4.1c 4.1e 4.1f    4.1a, 4.1c                Land and resources           Motivations for European
Use of resources 4.1a           Diversity 2.1a, 3.1d, 4.1a,   Religion 2.1a             4.1a, 4.1c, 4.1e, 4.1f       colonization 2.2c, 2.3a,
                                4.1c                          Development of urban      Diversity 2.1a, 3.1d,        4.2c
                                Religion 2.1a                 areas 3.1c                4.1a, 4.1c                   Rise of empires 2.2c, 2.3a, 4.2c
                                Development of urban          Impact of technology      Religion 2.1a                The slave trade 2.2c, 2.3c, 2.4b,
                                areas 3.1c                    2.3c                      Development of urban         2.4c, 2.4d, 4.1a, 4.1c
                                Impact of technology          Current issues 2.2a,      areas 3.1c                   Spread of Christianity 2.2c,
                                2.3c                          2.4d                      Impact of Technology         2.4b, 2.4c, 2.4d
                                Current issues 2.2a, 2.4d                               2.3c                         Fall of empires 2.1b, 2.2c,
                                                                                        Current issues 2.2a, 2.4d    2.4d, 5.1b,
                                                                                                                     Development of modern                 Formatted: Right
                                                                                                                     Nation states 2.1b, 2.2c, 2.4d,       Formatted: Font: Times New
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Tech International Charter School - Attachment 10(b) - Curriculum Framework - Grade 6 Social Studies




            Unit 1                       Unit 2                               Unit 3                             Unit 4                               Unit 5
      September-October             November-December                    January-February                      March-April                          May-June
    Geography and Early                  Middle                               Africa                              Asia                               Europe
        Peoples of the                    East                               (Ghana)                            (Japan)                              (France
     Eastern Hemisphere                                                                                                                               Spain)
Essential Question: How         Essential Question:                Essential Question:                Essential Question:                Essential Question:
did geography influence the     How do geography,                  How do geography,                  How do geography,                  How do geography,
development of the              economics, people,                 economics, people,                 economics, people,                 economics, people,
Eastern Hemisphere?             and key elements                   and key elements                   and key elements                   and key elements
                                connect to shape a continent?      connect to shape a continent?      connect to shape a continent?      connect to shape a continent?
Geographic factors (resources   Case Study: comparison of          Case Study: Life in Modern         Case Study: Everyday Life          Case Study: Compare
climate, topography) that       two modern Middle Eastern          Ghana                              in Modern Japan                    political systems in modern
influences development 3.1d,    Societies.                         Formation modern Africa            Formation of modern                Spain and France
3.2d                            Formation of the modern            3.1c, 3.2d                         Asian societies 3.1c, 3.2d         Formation of modern
Introduction of Agriculture     Middle East 3.1c, 3.2d             Tribal and clan vs national        Key events and people 2.2c,        Europe 3.1c, 3.2d
2.1                             Key events and people 2.2c,        identity 2.1a                      2.3a                               French Revolution 2.2c, 2,3a
New Technologies 2.3c           2.3a                               Key events and people 2.2c,        Daily life 2.1a                    Russian Revolution 2.2c, 2.3a
Development of political,       Daily life 2.1a                    2.3a                               Cultural patterns and legacies     World War I 2.2c, 2.3a
religious, and social systems   Cultural patterns and legacies     Daily life 2.1a                    2.1a                               Spanish Civil War 2.2c, 2.3a
2.1a, 2.1a                      2.1a                               Cultural patterns and legacies     Forms of government 5.1a           World War II and the
Use of resources 4.1a           Forms of government 5.1a           2.1a                               Asian economies 4.1a, 4.1c,        Holocaust 2.2c, 2.3a
                                Middle Eastern economies           Forms of government 5.1a           4.1e, 4.1f                         Key events and people 2.2c,
                                4.1a, 4.1c, 4.1e, 4.1f             Modern African economies           Diversity 2.1a, 3.1d, 4.1a, 4.1c   2.3a
                                Diversity 2.1a, 3.1d, 4.1a, 4.1c   4.1a, 4.1c, 4.1e, 4.1f             Religion 2.1a                      Daily life 2.1a
                                Religion 2.1a                      Diversity 2.1a, 3.1d, 4.1a, 4.1c   Development of urban centers       Cultural patterns and legacies
                                Development of urban centers       Religion 2.1a                      3.1c                               2.1a
                                3.1c                               Development of urban centers       Impact of technology 2.3c          Forms of government 5.1a           Formatted: Right
                                Impact of Technology 2.3c          3.1c                               Current issues 2.2a, 2.4d          Middle Eastern economies           Formatted: Font: Times New
                                Current Issues 2.2a, 2.4d          Impact of Technology 2.3c                                             4.1a, 4.1c, 4.1e, 4.1f             Roman
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                                                                   Current Issues 2.2a, 2.4d                                             Diversity 2.1a, 3.1d, 4.1a, 4.1c
                                                                                                                                         Religion 2.1a                      Formatted: Font: Times New
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Tech International Charter School - Attachment 10(b) - Curriculum Framework - Grade 6 Social Studies
                                                                                                                                       3.1c
                                                                                                                                       Impact of technology 2.3c
                                                                                                                                       Current issues 2.2a, 2.4d




                       Sixth GradeGrade 6 Social Studies: The Eastern Hemisphere in a World Context

       Unit 1                                                                          September-October:
  Geography and         Essential Question: How did geography influence the development of the Eastern Hemisphere?
Early Peoples of the    Identify continents in the Eastern Hemisphere 3.1b; Geographic features: oceans, and mountain ranges 3.1b; Locate diverse countries 3.1b;
      Eastern           Locate major land masses and bodies of water 3.1b; Use maps, globes, photos, and computer programs 3.1a, 3.1c; Locate specific places
   Hemisphere           and draw them on a map 3.1b; Measure distance (Equator, Prime Meridian, latitude, longitude) 3.1b; Locate regions with climate extremes
                        (tropical, arctic, drought, monsoon) 3.1d Geologic History (plate tectonics) 3.1c; Geographic factors that influenced development
                        (topography, climate, resources, stability) 3.1d, 3.2d; Introduction of Agriculture 2.1; Introduction of new technologies 2.3c; Development
                        of political, religious, and social systems 2.1a; Use of resources 4.1a; Geographic factors (resources climate, topography) that influenced
                        development 3.1d, 3.2dIntroduction of Agriculture 2.1; New Technologies 2.3c; Development of political, religious, and social systems
                         2.1a, 2.1a; Use of resources 4.1a.


      Unit 2                                                                            November-December
    The Middle          Essential Question: How do geography, economics, people, and key elements connect to shape a continent?
       East             Case Study: Ancient Middle Eastern Culture (Sumer, Mesopotamia)
                        Geographic features: deserts, rivers, mountains 3.1a, 3.1c, 3.1d; Daily life 2.1a; Social and political organization 2.1a, 5.1a
                        Culture (art, music, architecture, literature) 2.1a; Religions (Islam, Judaism, Christianity) 2.1a; Economy 4.1a, 4.1e; Resources
                        4.1a, 4.1e Development of Science and technology; 2.3c; Contributions of people and events in Middle East History 2.2a, 2.2c,2.3;
                        Case Study: comparison of Two Modern Middle Eastern Societies
                        The formation of the modern Middle East 3.1c, 3.2d; Key events and people 2.2c, 2.3a; Daily life 2.1a; Cultural patterns and legacies
                        2.1a; Forms of government 5.1a; Middle Eastern economies today 4.1a, 4.1c 4.1e 4.1f; Diversity 2.1a, 3.1d, 4.1a, 4.1c; Religion 2.1a;
                        Development of urban areas 3.1c; Impact of technology; 2.3c Current Issues 2.2a, 2.4d; Daily life 2.1a; Cultural patterns and Legacies
                        2.1a; Tribes, clans, colonies, and nations 2.1a; Forms of government 5.1a; African economy today 4.1a, 4.1c, 4.1e, 4.1f; Diversity 2.1a,
                        3.1d, 4.1a, 4.1c; Religion 2.1a; Development of urban areas 3.1c; Impact of technology 2.3c; Current issues 2.2a, 2.4d

      Unit 3                                                                             January-February                                                             Formatted: Right
      Africa            Essential Question: How do geography, economics, people, and key elements connect to shape a continent?
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     (Ghana)            Case Study: Ancient African Kingdom of Ghana                                                                                                  Roman
                        Geographic features: deserts, rivers, mountains 3.1a, 3.1c, 3.1d; Daily life 2.1a; Social and political; organization 2.1a, 5.1a;             Formatted: Right, Right: 0.25"
                        Culture (art, music, architecture, literature) 2.1a; Religions (Animism, Islam, Coptic, Christianity, Polytheism) 2.1a; Economic systems      Formatted: Font: Times New
                        4.1a, 4.1e; Land use and natural resources 4.1a, 4.1e; Science and Technology 2.3c; Contributions of people and events in Middle East         Roman
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Tech International Charter School - Attachment 10(b) - Curriculum Framework - Grade 6 Social Studies
                   History 2.2a, 2.2c, 2.3; Current Issues 2.2a, 2.4d; Daily life 2.1a; Cultural patterns and Legacies 2.1a; Tribes, clans, colonies, and nations
                   2.1a; Forms of government 5.1a; African economy today 4.1a, 4.1c, 4.1e, 4.1f; Diversity 2.1a, 3.1d, 4.1a, 4.1c; Religion 2.1a;
                   Development of urban areas 3.1c; Impact of technology 2.3c; Current issues 2.2a, 2.4d
                   Case Study: Life in Modern Ghana
                   Formation modern Africa 3.1c, 3.2d; Tribal and clan vs national identity 2.1a; Key events and people 2.2c, 2.3a; Daily life 2.1a
                   Cultural patterns and legacies 2.1a; Forms of government 5.1a; Modern African economies 4.1a, 4.1c, 4.1e, 4.1f; Diversity 2.1a, 3.1d,
                   4.1a, 4.1c; Religion 2.1a; Development of urban centers; 3.1c; Impact of Technology 2.3c; Current Issues 2.2a, 2.4d


      Unit 4                                                                          March-April
       Asia        Essential Question: How do geography, economics, people, and key elements connect to shape a continent?
     (Japan)       Geographic features: deltas, deserts, mountains, rivers, peninsulas, plateaus, plains, islands 3.1a, 3.1c, 3.1d; Daily life 2.1a
                   Social and political organization 2.1a, 5.1a; Culture (art, music, architecture, literature) 2.1a; Religions (Hinduism,
                   Taoism, Buddhism) 2.1a; Economic systems 4.1a, 4.1e; Land use and natural resources 4.1a, 4.1e; Science and Technology 2.3c;
                   Contributions of people and events in Asian history 2.2a, 2.2c, 2.3; Formation of modern Japan 2.2c; Key events and people 2.2c,
                   2.3a; Daily life 2.1a; Cultural patterns and legacies 2.1a; Forms of government 5.1a; Asian economies; today 4.1a, 4.1c 4.1e 4.1f;
                   Land and resources 4.1a, 4.1c, 4.1e, 4.1f; Diversity 2.1a, 3.1d, 4.1a, 4.1c; Religion 2.1a; Development of urban areas 3.1c;
                   Impact of Technology 2.3c; Current issues 2.2a, 2.4d
                   Case Study: Everyday Life in Modern Japan
                   Formation of modern Asian societies 3.1c, 3.2d; Key events and people 2.2c, 2.3a; Daily life 2.1a; Cultural patterns and legacies 2.1a;
                   Forms of government 5.1a; Middle Asian economies 4.1a, 4.1c, 4.1e, 4.1f; Diversity 2.1a, 3.1d, 4.1a, 4.1c; Religion 2.1a; Development
                   of urban centers 3.1c; Impact of Technology 2.3c; Current Issues 2.2a, 2.4d


      Unit 5                                                                            May-June
     (France       Essential Question: How do geography, economics, people, and key elements connect to shape a continent?
      Spain)       Case Study: Ancient European Culture (Celts, Franks, Anglo Saxons, Greeks, Romans)
                   Geographic features: Seas, rivers, mountains 3.1a, 3.1c, 3.1d; Daily life 2.1a; Social and political organization 2.1a, 5.1a; Culture
                   (art, music, architecture, literature) 2.1a; Religions (Catholicism, Protestantism, Judaism) 2.1a; Economic systems 4.1a, 4.1e;
                   Land use and natural resources 4.1a, 4.1e; Science and technology 2.3c; Contributions of people and events in European history
                   2.2a, 2.2c, 2.3; Trade and exchange of goods and the Great Silk Road 4.1a, 4.1d, 4.1f, 4.1g, 4.2; Cultural diffusion 2.1a, 2.4b; Key
                   Documents (Magma Carta, Declaration of the Rights of Man) 2.1b; Trade, agrarian life, and the rise of cities 4.1a, 4.2; The
                   Crusades 2.1a, 2.2c, 2.4b, 2.4d; Motivations for European colonization 2.2c, 2.3a, 4.2c; Rise of empires 2.2c, 2.3a, 4.2c; The slave trade
                   2.2c, 2.3c, 2.4b, 2.4c, 2.4d, 4.1a, 4.1c; Spread of Christianity 2.2c, 2.4b, 2.4c, 2.4d; Fall of empires 2.1b, 2.2c, 2.4d, 5.1b; Development
                   of modern Nation states 2.1b, 2.2c, 2.4d, 5.1b
                   Case Study: Compare political systems in modern Spain and France
                   Formation of modern Europe 3.1c, 3.2d; French Revolution 2.2c, 2,3a; Russian Revolution 2.2c, 2.3a; World War I 2.2c, 2.3a;                      Formatted: Right
                   Spanish Civil War 2.2c, 2.3a; World War II and the Holocaust 2.2c, 2.3a; Key events and people 2.2c, 2.3a, Daily life 2.1a                       Formatted: Font: Times New
                   Cultural patterns and legacies 2.1a; Forms of government 5.1a                                                                                    Roman
                   Middle Eastern economies 4.1a, 4.1c, 4.1e, 4.1f; Diversity 2.1a, 3.1d, 4.1a, 4.1c; Religion 2.1a; Development of urban centers 3.1c              Formatted: Right, Right: 0.25"
                   Impact of technology 2.3c; Current issues 2.2a, 2.4d                                                                                             Formatted: Font: Times New
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                                         Attachment 10(b) - Grade 6 Social Studies - 61
Tech International Charter School - Attachment 10(b) - Curriculum Framework - Grade 6 Social Studies

                                                              TI Charter School
                                             Sixth GradeGrade 6 Social Studies Curriculum


The TI Charter School Sixth GradeGrade 6 Social Studies Curriculum is modified from the NYC Department of Education curriculum and
is aligned with the following Department of Education Standards:



Social Studies Standard 1: HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES AND NEW YORK
Students will: use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of major ideas, eras, themes, developments, and turning
points in the history of the United States and New York.

Key Idea 1.4
4. The skills of historical analysis include the ability to: explain the significance of historical evidence, weigh the importance, reliability, and
validity of evidence, understand the concept of multiple causation, and understand the importance of changing and competing interpretations of
different historical developments.

Student Performance Indicators:
1.4a: consider the sources of historic documents, narratives, or artifacts and evaluate their reliability
1.4b: understand how different experiences, beliefs, values, traditions, and motives cause individuals and groups to
interpret historic events and issues from different perspectives
1.4c: compare and contrast different interpretations of key events and issues in New York State and United States
history and explain reasons for these different accounts
1.4d: describe historic events through the eyes and experiences of those who were there.

STANDARD 2 – WORLD HISTORY
Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of major ideas, eras, themes, developments, and turning
points in world history and examine the broad sweep of history from a variety of perspectives.

Key Idea 2.1:                                                                                                                                           Formatted: Right
1. The study of world history requires an understanding of world cultures and civilizations, including an analysis of important ideas, social and       Formatted: Font: Times New
cultural values, beliefs, and traditions. This study also examines the human condition and the connections and interactions of people across time and   Roman
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space and the ways different people view the same event or issue from a variety of perspectives.
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Student Performance Indicators:                                                                                                                         Formatted: Font: Times New
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2.1a: read historical narratives, myths, legends, biographies, and autobiographies to learn about how historical figures lived, their motivations, hopes,
fears, strengths, and weaknesses
2.1b: explore narrative accounts of important events from world history to learn about different accounts of the past to begin to understand how
interpretations and perspectives develop
2.1c: study about different world cultures and civilizations focusing on their accomplishments, contributions, values, beliefs, and traditions

Key Idea 2.2:
2. Establishing timeframes, exploring different periodizations, examining themes across time and within cultures, and focusing on important turning
points in world history help organize the study of world cultures and civilizations.

Student Performance Indicators:
2.2a: distinguish between past, present, and future time periods
2.2b: develop timelines that display important events and eras from world history
2.2c: measure and understand the meaning of calendar time in terms of years, decades, centuries, and millennia, using BCE and CE as reference
points
2.2d: compare important events and accomplishments from different time periods in world history

Key Idea 2.3:
3. The study of the major social, political, cultural, and religious developments in world history involves learning about the important roles and
contributions of individuals and groups.

Student Performance Indicators:
2.3a: understand the roles and contributions of individuals and groups to social, political, economic, cultural, scieientific, technological, and religious
practices and activities
2.3b: gather and present information about important developments from world history
2.3c: understand how the terms social, political, economic, and cultural can be used to describe human activities or practices

Key Idea 2.4:
4. The skills of historical analysis include the ability to investigate differing and competing interpretations of the theories of history, hypothesize
about why interpretations change over time, explain the importance of historical evidence, and understand the concepts of change and continuity over
time.

Student Performance Indicators:
2.4a: consider different interpretations of key events and developments in world history and understand the differences in these accounts                     Formatted: Right
2.4b: explore the lifestyles, beliefs, traditions, rules and laws, and social/cultural needs and wants of people during different periods in history and in   Formatted: Font: Times New
different parts of the world                                                                                                                                  Roman
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2.4c: view historic events through the eyes of those who were there, as shown in their art, writings, music, and artifacts
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STANDARD 3 – GEOGRAPHY
Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of the geography of the interdependent world in which
we live — local, national, and global — including the distribution of people, places, and environments over the Earth’s surface.

Key Idea 3.1:
1. Geography can be divided into six essential elements, which can be used to analyze important historic, geographic, economic, and environmental
questions and issues. These six elements include: the world in spatial terms, places and regions, physical settings (including natural resources), human
systems, environment and society, and the use of geography.

Student Performance Indicators:
3.1a: study about how people live, work, and utilize natural resources
3.1b: draw maps and diagrams that serve as representations of places, physical features, and objects
3.1c: locate places within the local community, state and nation; locate the Earth’s continents in relation to each other and to principal parallels and
meridians
3.1d: identify and compare the physical, human, and cultural characteristics of different regions and people
3.13: investigate how people depend on and modify the physical environment

Key Idea 3.2:
2. Geography requires the development and application of the skills of asking and answering geographic questions, analyzing theories of geography,
and acquiring and organizing geographic information.

Student Performance Indicators:
3.2a: ask geographic questions about where places are located; why they are located where they are; what is important about their locations; and how
their locations are related to the location of other people and places
3.2b: gather and organize geographic information from a variety of sources and display it in a number of ways
3.2c: analyze geographic information by making relationships, interpreting trends and relationships, and analyzing geographic data



STANDARD 4 – ECONOMICS
Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of how the United States and other societies develop
economic systems and associated institutions to allocate scarce resources, how major decision-making units function in the U.S. and other
national economies, and how an economy solves the scarcity problem through market and non-market mechanisms.
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1. The study of economics requires an understanding of major economic concepts and systems, the principles of economic decision making, and the            Roman
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interdependence
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of economies and economic systems throughout the world.                                                                                                    Roman
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Student Performance Indicators:
4.1a: know some ways individuals and groups attempt to satisfy their basic needs and wants by utilizing scarce resources
4.1b: explain how people’s wants exceed their limited resources and that this condition defines scarcity
4.1c: know that scarcity requires individuals to make choices and that these choices involve costs
4.1d: study how the availability and distribution of resources is important to a nation’s economic growth
4.1e: understand how societies organize their economies to answer fundamental economic questions: What goods and services shall be produced and
in what quantities? How shall goods and services be produced?
4.1f: investigate how production, distribution, exchange, and consumption of goods and services are economic decisions with which all societies and
nations must deal

Key Idea 4.2:
2. Economics requires the development and application of the skills needed to make informed and well-reasoned economic decisions in daily and
national life.

Student Performance Indicators:
4.2a: locate economic information, using card catalogues, computer databases, indices, and library guides
4.2b: collect economic information from textbooks, standard references, newspapers, periodicals, and other primary and secondary sources
4.2c: make hypotheses about economic issues and problems, testing, refining, and eliminating hypotheses and developing new ones when necessary
4.2d: present economic information by developing charts, tables, diagrams, and simple graphs

Key Idea 2.4:
4. The skills of historical analysis include the ability to investigate differing and competing interpretations of the theories of history, hypothesize
about why interpretations change over time, explain the importance of historical evidence, and understand the concepts of change and continuity over
time.

Student Performance Indicators:
2.4a: explain the literal meaning of a historical passage or primary source document, identifying who was involved, what happened, where it
happened, what events led up to these developments, and what consequences or outcomes followed 2.4b: analyze different interpretations of
important events and themes in world history and explain the various frames of reference expressed by different historians
2.4c: view history through the eyes of those who witnessed key events and developments in world history by analyzing their literature, diary accounts,
letters, artifacts, art, music, architectural drawings, and other documents
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Key Idea 5.3:
3. Central to civics and citizenship is an understanding of the roles of the citizen within American constitutional democracy and the scope of a          Formatted: Font: Times New
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citizen’s rights and responsibilities.

Student Performance Indicators:
5.3a: explain what citizenship means in a democratic society, how citizenship is defined in the Constitution and other laws of the land, and how the
definition of citizenship has changed in the United States and New York State over time5.3b: understand that the American legal and political systems
guarantee and protect the rights of citizens and assume that citizens will hold and exercise certain civic values and fulfill certain civic responsibilities
5.3c: discuss the role of an informed citizen in today’s changing world
5.3d: explain how Americans are citizens of their state and of the United States

Key Idea 5.4
4. The study of civics and citizenship requires the ability to probe ideas and assumptions, ask and answer analytical questions, take a skeptical attitude
toward questionable arguments, evaluate evidence, formulate rational conclusions, and develop and refine participatory skills

Student Performance Indicators:
5.4a: respect the rights of others in discussions and classroom debates regardless of whether or not one agrees with their viewpoint5.4b: explain the
role that civility plays in promoting effective citizenship in preserving democracy5.4c: participate in negotiation and compromise to resolve
classroom, school, and community disagreements and problem




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