APA Style

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					 APA Publication Manual is currently in its 6th version
  since 1929.
 APA manual presents rules for the preparation of
  manuscripts for publication.
 Some of the rules may seem arbitrary, but
   They provide a way to have clear and consistent
    communication to reviewers/readers
 In the APA manual, there’s a sample paper on p. 41
 Page Numbers
    Used to identify the pages as part of your article if they get separated
    Your title page is page 1
    All other pages have subsequent page numbers
    In Microsoft Word 2003, go to View, Header and Footer, and click on #.
      Justify right
    In the new version of Word, go to Insert, Header, Edit Header, and click on page #.
 Running head
    The R is capitalized; the h is not
    Then a colon
    Then an abbreviated title in all caps (less than 50 characters)
 Title of your paper, Your Name, Affiliation (Caldwell College)
    Double spaced in center of page
    Put your title on several lines if it’s long
 Note: The course name, professor’s name, and the date are NOT placed on
  the title page
 Brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of the article
 Can be read on PsycINFO
 Do not add to what’s in the paper. Summarize.
 Number of words varies depending on journal – no more than
  250 words
 Abstract for an empirical study:
       Problem under investigation
       Important characteristics of participants
       Most important and interesting features of your method
       Basic findings
       Conclusions, implications, applications
 Format
     On page 2 (with Running head)
     Type Abstract in bold, centered at top of the page. Type of the
        abstract itself as a single paragraph without indentation.
Running head: CHOICE AND ON-TASK BEHAVIOR                                                                      1

This is called the running head.                                                             Page number – Use
The R is capitalized, and the h is                                                         Header function in Word
  not. Then comes the colon, a                                                             to Insert page numbers.
      couple spaces, and an
  abbreviated title. If the title of
 your paper is short, sometimes
  the running head is identical.
 Notice that the abbreviated title
 is in ALL CAPS. This goes on
           every page.                 Effects of Choice on On-Task Behavior in
                                                 Children with Autism
                                                    Tina Sidener
           This is the title. It is               Caldwell College
          centered on the page                                                                   Your name goes here.
              vertically and                                                                       It’s double spaced
             horizontally. It’s                                                                       under the title.
           double-spaced, and
          the first letter of most
         of the words in the title
             are capitalized.
                                                                           The name of the affiliation goes
                                                                           here. It’s double-spaced under
                                                                          the title. Notice that the name of
                                                                            the class, your professor, and
                                                                              the date ARE NOT written
                                                                               anywhere on the paper.
 Put your title on the first line of page 3
 Use headings and subheadings appropriate to the paper. If you had 3 levels of
  headings, they’d look like this…

      Participants and Setting

      Response Measurement and Data Collection
           On task.
           On schedule.

      Pre-experimental Procedures
           Imitation assessment.
           Preference assessment.
 e.g.,
     This means, “for example”
 i.e.,
    This means, “that is”
 Example
    Reinforcers (e.g., Skittles, Bumbleball)
      This means that Skittles and Bumbleball were 2 examples of reinforcers, but
       there were other reinforcers
    Reinforcers (i.e., Skittles, Bumbleball)
         This means that Skittles and Bumbleball were the ONLY reinforcers that were
 If you want to abbreviate a long term that you’re using, put the
  abbreviation in parentheses the first time you use it.
    Subsequently, only use the abbreviation (don’t switch back and forth)
    Example
         Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) was used to reduce problem behavior
         NCR was effective in reducing problem behavior for Joey
 Incorrect: the learner makes their response
 Alternatives
    The learner makes the response
    Learners make their responses
    The learner makes his or her response
    The learner makes his response
        Alternate with his and her throughout text if you’re talking
         about more than 1 person
 If you use an idea from another source, you must cite it
  (avoid plagiarism)
 2 ways to do this….
   As part of the text of a sentence
       According to Carr and Smith (2000), …
       In 2000, Carr and Smith evaluated…
   At the end of a sentence
       Research has shown that this technique is very effective (Carr
        & Smith, 2000).
       Research has shown that this technique is very effective (e.g.,
        Carr & Smith, 2000).
 The first time you cite a source, provide the entire citation
    Smith, Kelley, Balsam, and Cheney (2005) reported that…
    Reeve and Progar (2007)
 If you cite that source again in your paper, shorten it to
    Smith et al. (2005) concluded that…
    Reeve and Progar (2007) ---would stay the same
 Omit the year from subsequent citations after the first
  nonparenthetical citation within a paragraph.
    1st time – Sidener (2007); 2nd time – Sidener
 Include the year in subsequent citations if first citation within a paragraph
  is parenthetical.
    1st time – (Sidener, 2007); 2nd time – Sidener(2007)
 If you use the exact words from another source, you must
    Put them in quotes
    Provide the page number
 Shouldn’t need to quote unless you’re providing a definition or the person
  said something very eloquent or noteworthy
 2 major ways to do this
    Within a sentence
       …is “the greatest invention of the 20th century” (Reid, 2003, p. 394).

    At the end of a sentence
       Reid (2003) claimed that it’s “the greatest invention of the 20th
        century” (p. 394).
 If you are citing more than 1 article, list them in order
  alphabetically by last name and separate them with
   Only two studies have evaluated this phenomenon (i.e.,
    Carr & Smith, 2000; Tuttle & Kramer, 1996)
 Type Reference or References in bold on the first line centered at the top of the
 Different types of sources are listed differently – you may have to look it up
 A good trick to know…
     To indent your references correctly in Microsoft Word, select the entire reference
          Then choose the hanging indent triangle in the ruler at the top of the page
          Move it to the right to 0.5”
 Journal Article Examples
     With digital object identifier – see
       See example of doi at

         Kline, A. H. (2004). Effects of reinforcement on student behavior.
               Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 576-578.
    Without doi
   Kline, A. H. (2004). Effects of reinforcement on student behavior.
         Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 576-578.
         Retrieved from
 Book Examples
    Entire book
     Kline, A. H. (2004). Reinforcement and its effects. Hillsdale, NJ:
           Context Press.
    Book chapter
     Cooper, L. S. (2006). Positive reinforcement. In A. H. Kline (Ed.),
     Reinforcement and its effects (pp. 200-249). Hillsdale, NJ:
     Context Press.
 After your references page
 Caption is placed directly below the figure
    Should be a brief but descriptive phrase
    Single spaced (only use single-space for figs. & tables)
 Examples:
    Figure 1. Percentage of intervals with vocal stereotypy
     and motor stereotypy across conditions for Jenny.
    Figure 2. Vocalizations per session for Mark (top panel)
     and Jenny (bottom panel) during Experiment 1.
 General Rule:
     Use figures to express numbers 10 and above
     Use words to express numbers below 10
 Exceptions – Use figures for ALL numbers when they…
     Are grouped for comparison with numbers above 10 (e.g., 2 of the 20 responses)
     Immediately precede a unit of measurement (e.g., 10.54 cm)
     Represent statistical or math functions, time, dates, ages, numbers of participants, sums
      of money (e.g., multiplied by 5, 2-year-olds)
    Denote a specific place in a numbered series, parts of books or tables, and each number
      in a list of four or more numbers (e.g., Table 3)
 Exceptions – Use words for ALL numbers when they…
    Begin a sentence, title, or heading
    Are common fractions (e.g., one fourth)
    Have a universally accepted usage (e.g., the Fourth of July)
 Exceptions – Combine numbers and words to provide clarity
    2 two-way interactions
    Ten 7-point scales
    Twenty 6-year-olds
    The first 10 items
 The word data is plural.
    Correct: These data are interesting.
    Incorrect: This data is interesting.
 You model and children imitate.
 Hyphenation
    Hyphenate an adjective and noun combination when it precedes
     another noun (e.g., low-frequency words; 5-min session).
    Hyphenate a compound with a participle when it precedes the noun it
     modifies (e.g., role-playing techniques)
    Do not hyphenate a compound that includes an adverb ending in ly
     (e.g., widely used test)
 That and Which
    That clauses are essential to the meaning of the sentence (e.g., The
     children that met criterion began the new curriculum)
    Which clauses merely add further information (e.g., The discrimination
     programs, which had multiplied like flies, were strenuously edited)

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