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					U.S.S.R.
Reading: Page 29
 Worksheet: 14
Stalin was replaced by:
      Khrushchev
Khrushchev immediately
    criticized Stalin
In a totalitarian state, the leader has total
  and complete power over everything.
De-Stalinization meant an end of doing
 the horrible things Stalin stood for.
The “thaw” was a chance for some
  cold war ideas to “melt away.”
In 1957 the Russians launched the
     first satellite into space.
This forced the United States to spend even
  more money on it’s own space program
The Soviet Union tried to send
  nuclear missiles to Cuba
Kennedy was forced into:
“The Cuban Missile Crisis”
This brought the world close to
         nuclear war
At the last minute the Soviets turned
 their ships around and went home
From 1964 to 1984 several Eastern
 European countries tried to turn
       against the soviets
These uprisings were stopped by
    Soviet troops and tanks
In 1979 the Russians invaded:
         Afghanistan
 By 1984 many Russians were
unhappy with their government
Thisset the stage for
    a new leader
U.S.S.R.
Reading: Page 31
 Worksheet: 15
“Glasnost” means openness
           Gorbachev wanted:

   Freedom without
    censorship
   People to be able to
    speak out without
    fear of arrest
    “Perestroika” meant changes in
     the political lives of the people
   This also meant doing something about
    the economy
     The economy of a country:

   Who controls resources
   What products are made
   Who makes them
   What is bought, sold, or traded by a
    country
Gorbachev also wanted to end: total
 government control of everything
The people in the Soviet Union had
    never had a: free election
Anyone who was sent to prison or
  was sent to Siberia was freed
East Germany was controlled by:
        the Soviet Union
Berlin was separated by:
     The Berlin Wall
Gorbachev allowed the Berliners to
       tear down the wall
East and West Germany became
       one country again
Other Eastern European counties
  also began having uprisings
These countries were demanding
 an end to communist control.
In the past the Soviets tried to put
      down these uprisings.
 Almost overnight, Eastern European
people set up their own governments.
U.S.S.R.
Reading: Page 32
 Worksheet: 16
Communists who didn’t want
   changes: hardliners
A coup: attempt to get rid of a
     leader and take over
The hardliners were attempting a coup
   when they arrested Gorbachev
Gorbachev was saved by:
      Boris Yeltsin
Yeltsin was elected by:
      Popular Vote
A popular vote is when the people
        elect their leaders
The Soviets blamed Gorbachev for
     many of their problems
He was forced to resign as leader
    of the communist party.
The power to govern Russia
      fell to Yeltsin
   The former Soviet Union now:
Commonwealth of Independent States
“Perestroika” called for great changes
 in the government and the economy
Gorbachev failed to replace the old
      ways of doing things.
He didn’t plan on the whole
 Soviet Union breaking up.
  15 different countries began
forming their own governments.
 For centuries, Kings and Tsars
controlled this part of the world.
These rulers were replaced by the
        communist party.
They don’t know how to deal with
      their new freedoms.
Now the West has to deal with many
countries that have nuclear weapons
Each of these countries
  wants its own army
 Communist party members were
not happy when their government
        was overthrown
 U.S.S.R.
Reading: Page 35
 Worksheet: 17
 The main concern of hungry people:


Getting
 food
Food shortages were big in the
  Commonwealth in the 90’s
               Privatization:

    Individuals owning
    resources, farms,
    and businesses.
Individuals in the Commonwealth
had no experience owning things.
     In a free market economy:
    The government
    does not:
   set prices for
    things
   set wages people
    will earn
       If there is a shortage:

A   seller can raise the price
Many people are unhappy because
things cost too much (necessities)
    People in the Commonwealth do
         not have experience:
   Looking for work and competing for jobs.
A new government can’t work with
other countries until it is recognized
    World Banks will also help these
           new countries…
   by loaning them
    money
The new governments are going to
  have to provide for their own:
   defense (very costly)
The hope for the rest of the world:

   These changes can happen peacefully
       The world waits to see if:
   privatization
   a free market
    economy
   and, democracy



    are going to be
    permanent in this
    part of the world
The Commonwealth

    Reading: Page 37
     Worksheet: 18
The Bering Straits separate the Soviet
   Union from the United States.
As a result, Alaska is
very close to Russia
 Summers are hot and winters are
cold: because most of Russia is far
     away from oceans or seas
In the Commonwealth, plains are
         called: steppes
Steppes have great soil for farming
The Urals separate Europe from Asia
The Ukraine is often called:
    “the bread basket”
The northern lands are along the:
          Arctic coast
   9         10        11
Tundra / Permafrost / Taiga
The Caspian and Black Seas are
    pleasant vacation spots
The Caspian Sea is more like a lake
      because it’s salt free.
    Four main rivers in the Commonwealth:

   Volga
   Don
   Moscow
   Dneiper
 Much of the land in the Commonwealth
can’t be used because it’s too cold to grow
                food well.
Most people live west of the Urals.
Russia needs better Industry and
     better food production.
Things that were once shared are now going
 to be traded, bought, and sold among the
               separate states
The Commonwealth
    Reading: Page 38
     Worksheet: 19
“Technology” means: being able to use
discoveries or inventions to improve life.
Russia’s technology began to catch
up after World War II – in the 50’s.
   They were helped by
captured German scientists.
    One of the first signs that Russia
          had caught up was:
   Launching the first
    satellite (Sputnik) into
    space.
     By 1991 the only superpower willing to
    spend money on space exploration was:

   The United States
Russians stress math and science in
 school – even elementary school
Music popular over many years is
     called: classical music
Korsakov / Tchaikovsky
(Two famous Russian composers)
     The famous Russian ballet:

   The Bolshoi
Tolstoy wrote: War and Peace (10)

   about Napoleon
    and France
    invading Russia
    and the pain and
    suffering caused by
    war (11)
           Dostoevski wrote:
       Crime and Punishment (12)
   He was sent to a
    concentration
    camp in Siberia for
    what he wrote (13)
            Pasternak wrote:
           Doctor Zhivago (14)
   Because of what
    he wrote, he was
    not allowed to
    leave the country
Alexander Solzhenitsyn also was a
  dissident writer who eventually
     escaped the Soviet Union
  The tsars and communists always used
censorship to limit what people could read,
            see, and hear (16)

   People of the Commonwealth now have
    freedom from censorship (17)
   If people are free their government
    doesn’t usually stop them from what is
    written, read, or seen, or heard (18)
   In a democracy people must be able to
    disagree with their government (19)

				
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posted:9/3/2012
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