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    By: Sina, Kelsey, and Jessica
Period 3 due Friday, January 4, 2008
Map of Tundra
                The Arctic Tundra is located in the
                  northern hemisphere encircling
                  the north pole.

                       This is were
                       the Arctic
                       Tundra is
The Physical Conditions of
                • Extreme cold climate
                • Little life
                • Simple vegetation
                •   Limitation of damage
                •   Short season of growth
                    and reproduction
                •   Energy and nutrients in
                    the form of dead
                •   Large population
   Physical Conditions-Summer

• High temp: 54 F (-28 C)
• Cold temp: 37 F ( -70 C)
• Sun shines almost 24 hrs a day
• Warm
• Land known as the land of the Midnight
   Physical Conditions-Winter

• High temp: -18 F (-28 C)
• Low temp: -94 F ( -70 C)
    Physical Conditions of the Arctic
•   Extreme cold climate
•   Little life
•   Short season of growth and reproduction
•   Simple vegetation
•   Harsh winters
•   Low average temperatures
•   Little snow or rainfall
•   Short summer season
•   Harsh winters
•   Extremely short growing seasons (6 to 10 weeks)
•   Long, cold dark winters (6 to 10 months) with monthly temps below
Plants and Vegetation
• Low scrubs, reindeer mosses, liverwursts, and
•   400 varieties of flowers
•   Crustose and Foliosen lichen
•   The plants in the Arctic Tundra all adapted to
    their cold climates.
•   Arctic Tundra’s plants are short and grow
    together, to help resist the cold, and are
    protected by snow in the winter.
•   Growing seasons are short in the Arctic Tundra.
                      Arctic Willow
•   common name-Rock Willow or Arctic Willow
•   Scientific name-Salix
•   Species-artic
•   Found in North America tundra
•   Likes cold climates, tundra=perfect place
•   Salix artic=15-20 cm tall
•   Many shapes
•   Long branches that root when touches surface
•   Arctic Willow grow prostrate, shrub and carpet
•   Leaves are oval with pointy tips
•   Net like vines and long hairs that cover the leaves
•   Flowers of Salix=upright scaly spikes
•   Blooms in spring
                  Arctic Willow
• No fruit on it, only seeds
• Lateral roots are shallow because of frozen ground
    underneath the permafrost
•   Strongest growth season=forms a pesticide to keep bugs
•   Adapted to permafrost by forming a shallow root system
•   Leaves of Salix adapted to the cold by forming hairs
•   A lot in the wild, but vulnerable
•   Helps vegetation system, and helps many mammals
           Purple Saxifrage
•   Grows on very rocky grounds
•   Earliest plants to bloom
•   Tiny leaves cover the plant’s short stems
•   Leaves are fringed with tiny hairs to
    capture heat
•   May be found in southern Alaska, Central
    Washington Cascades, Wallowa Mts. Of
    northeastern Oregon, and many more
Arctic Poppy
• Grows in many places
• The flowers are made up of four petals
    formed into a cup-shape
•   Stems are hairy and 10 to 15 cm high with a
    single flower on each stem
•   Flower heads move to face the sun and soak
    up the heat of the sun
•   Arctic poppies-yellow and white
       Where Artic Poppies like to
              hang out
• Likes to hang out in the Arctic meadow
• It likes to grow in the mountains, in the gravel beds
    and on rocky high plains
•   Likes to grow among the rocks because stones
    absorb heat from the sun and provide moist shelter
    for the roots.
•   Parts of the plants are poisonous is indigested
•   It is toxic to some mammals
•   Toxic level is very low
Main animals
• Herbivores
     – Lemmings
     – Voles
     – Caribou
     – Arctic Hares
     – Squirrels
•   Carnivores
     – Arctic Foxes
     – Wolves
     – Polar bears
•   Migratory Birds
     – Ravens
     – Snow Buntings
     – Falcons
     – Loans
     – Sandpipers
     – Snowy Owl
Main Animals
     – Terns
     – Snow birds
     – Gulls
•   Insects
     – Mosquitos
     – Flies
     – Moths
     – Grasshoppers
     – Black Flies
     – Arctic Bumble bee
•   Fish
     – Cod
     – Flatfish
     – Salmon
     – Trout
Ermine or Short Tailed Weasel
•   Habitat
•   Live in Arctic of North America
•   Structure of animals
•   1. short tail-black tip
•   2. winter-white fur, yellowish brown otherwise
•   3. black nose
•   4. pointed snout
•   5. large black eyes
•   6. big ears
•   7. sharp claws on toes
•   8. sensory whiskers
•   9.winter-belly white, yellow white otherwise
Ermine or Short Tailed Weasel
•   Diet
•   1. carnivores-meat eaters
•   2. eat 40 percent of their body weight each day
•   3. eat small mammals like: mice, squirrels,
    rabbits, hares, birds, insect, carrion, dead meat
    they find
•   4. berries
•   5. hunters
•   6. keen sense of smell
•   Predators
•   1. predators of weasels are owls and mertens
Arctic Hare
•   Arctic Hare
•   Short white tail
                       Size: 55.9 centimeters
•   Huge hind feet
                       Weight: 4.1 kilometers
•   Whiskers
                       Ears: tips of ears black
•   Big eyes
                       edges year round
•   Fur: long, white
                       Breeding: babies usually
    in winter
                       born June-July
•   Gray in summer
                             4-8 in a litter
                             Fully furred
                             Eyes opened
Adaptations of the Arctic Hare
• Diet-food eaten
  mostly, willow    Hair changes color by
  – Leaves          seasons
  – Shoots          Ears are shorter so they
  – Bark            help to stay warm
  – Roots           Big feet, stay on top of
     • Grasses      snow
                    Live on rocky slopes
     • Flowers      Live in groups
     • Crowberry    Don’t live low places or
     • Saxifrage    wooded areas
Arctic Fox
•   Lives in far north Tundra & coastal areas
•   Male fox-reynard
•   Female-vixen
•   Foxes fur turns white during winter& brown during summer
    because of its adapting
•   Effective camouflage for the Fox
•   Commonly the body:20 inches long & 12 inch long tail
•   Tail called sweep, keeps fox warm
•   Arctic Fox-sharp teeth, sharp claws & thick fur
•   Small ears minimizes heat lose
•   Eats small mammals, insects & fish
•   Fallows polar bears for its left over kills
Environmental Issues
What’s predicted for the future?
•   No more Tundra
•   It will all melt away
•   Plants and animals will die
•   Blame global warming for the melting of tundra ice
•   Humans are contributing to global warming
•   Polar bear extinction
•   No more sea ice
•   All animals die out-living on or in the Arctic
•   No more Arctic
•   Ice will disappear-Arctic will disappear
•   If global warming doesn't stop
Environmental Issues
Changes good or bad?
•   Ice is melting fast, so the polar bears will become extinct-bad
•   Barely anymore food because polar bears use the water to catch their food-fish-bad
•   Bad-polar bears in danger
•   Arctic heats up
•   Arctic ice melting faster
•   Less sea ice for polar bears
•   Polar bears-have trouble surviving and finding food
•   If ice disappears-polar bear extinction
•   Polar bears-travel to hunt seals
•   Humans driving cars
•   Humans using electricity
•   Humans burn fossil fuels
• Burning coal, oil, and natural gas
Environmental Issues
How has man changed area now?
•   Polar bears in danger as artic heats up
•   Animals not used to warm temps and becoming sick and even dying
•   217 cubic kilo. (52 cubic miles) of ice sheet now melting every year
•   Ice sheets melting fast
•   Sea is melting also, just as fast
•   Driving cars
•   Humans contribute-global warming
•   Use electricity
•   Burn fossil fuels
•   Burning coal, oil& natural gas
•   Burning fossil fuels-passes gasses-trap heat from sun
•   This causes rise in temp
Environmental Issues
How has man changed in past?
• Ice covering almost all mainland
More info on the Arctic Tundra

• Windy place- 30 to 60 mph
• Like a desert-precipitation
• Precipitation- 6 to 10 inches/mostly snow
  falls each year
• Below soil-tundra’s permafrost
                       Source Cards
•   Website name: The Tundra Biome
•   Website address:
•   Website name: Arctic Willow
•   Website address:
•   Tundra video in the library
•   Website name: Arctic Fox
•   Website address:

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