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Using Experiential Learning Approaches

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Using Experiential Learning Approaches Powered By Docstoc
					  *The handbook of Experiential
Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
        Apuado & Murillo             12/13/2010   1
    are particularly suited for affective and behavioral training
    goals.

WHAT are the six (6) major experiential learning approaches?

        Role playing

        Games and simulations

        Observation

        Mental imagery

        Writing tasks

        Action learning projects
                                    *The handbook of Experiential
                                Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                                  Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   2
It is a staple in any active trainer’s repertoire.

it is the best-known way to help participants both
experience feelings and practice certain skills.

It enables participants to practice constructive
methods of confrontation.




                              *The handbook of Experiential
                          Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                            Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   3
1.    Scripting – is concerned with the development of roles and situation in which
      drama is placed.

Here are six (6) options:

     a)   Improvisation

     b)   Prescribed roles

     c)   Semiprescribed roles

     d)   Replay of Life

     e)   Participant - prepared skits

     f)   Dramatic readings

                                             *The handbook of Experiential
                                         Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                                           Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   4
A general scenario is given to the participants in
which they will be asked to fill in the details
themselves.

Promotes spontaneity and the opportunity to
gear the scenario to one’s own work
experience.

Situation is not clearly outlined.


                            *The handbook of Experiential
                        Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                          Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   5
A well-prepared set of instructions that
state the facts about the roles they are
portraying and how they are to behave.

Gives you the most control over the script.

Participants may not identify with the roles
and situation you have developed.



                        *The handbook of Experiential
                    Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                      Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   6
An information about the situation and the
characters to be portrayed is given but not
told how to handle the situation.

Provides    greater           latitude                      for         the
participants.

May create a scenario different from what
the trainer intended.

                          *The handbook of Experiential
                      Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                        Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010         7
Participants can portray themselves                                   in
situations they have actually faced.

Advantage: drama is realistic

However, it can be difficult to re-create the
actual situation.



                        *The handbook of Experiential
                    Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                      Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010        8
Participants can be asked to develop a
role-playing vignette of their own.

Provides them with time to create a role
and gives them a chance to rehearse
before a final performance.

Some of the spontaneity of the previous is
lost.

                       *The handbook of Experiential
                   Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                     Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   9
A previously prepared script is given to the
participants for them to act out.

Creates the least anxiety of any of the
previous options and,

Allows the least skill practice.




                         *The handbook of Experiential
                     Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                       Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   10
2. Staging – is concerned with the format you use for the role
    play, regardless of the content.

Here are six (6) options:

   a) Informal role playing

   b) Stage – front role playing

   c) Simultaneous role playing

   d) Rotational role playing

   e) Repeated role playing
                                  *The handbook of Experiential
                              Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                                Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   11
group discussion

reduces the stage fright




                        *The handbook of Experiential
                    Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                      Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   12
One pair, trio, or the like can role play in front of the
group, which will observe and offer feedback.

focuses the class on a single drama

most anxiety – producing for the chosen participants.

The rest of the participants are relegated to an
observer role.



                                *The handbook of Experiential
                            Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                              Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   13
All participants can be formed into pairs, trios, and
so on and simultaneously undertake their roles.

reduces anxiety and,

allows everyone to participate.

However, the trainer may have difficulty
monitoring the dramas that unfold and the level of
performance demonstrated by participants.


                            *The handbook of Experiential
                        Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                          Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   14
Actors in front of the group can be rotated.

Involves a single group drama.

Less demanding than a nonrotating stage-
front drama.




                        *The handbook of Experiential
                    Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                      Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   15
More than one actor can be recruited to role play
the same situation in its entirety.

This allows the group to observe more than one style
or approach.

The trainer must not         encourage                      comparisons
between the actors.

Obtaining volunteers to be the actors can be
difficult.


                           *The handbook of Experiential
                       Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                         Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010    16
The role play can be reenacted.

Good idea: when you want the participants
to have a second chance after the initial
feedback.




                       *The handbook of Experiential
                   Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                     Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   17
3.    Processing – pertains to reflective discussion or debriefing of the
      role play.

Here are six (6) options:

     a)   Designated observers

     b)   Self – assessment

     c)   Open audience discussion and feedback

     d)   Subgroup discussion and feedback

     e)   Trainer observations

     f)   Benchmark comparison
                                       *The handbook of Experiential
                                   Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                                     Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   18
One or more observers can be added to
each role-playing group.

Specific instructions are given to them of
what to observe and how to give
feedback.

Peer feedback is a two-edged sword.


                       *The handbook of Experiential
                   Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                     Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   19
The role players can discuss their reactions to
the experience.

Open – ended questions must be asked first
and pointed questions later on, probing
gently about feelings, intentions, and
reactions.



                         *The handbook of Experiential
                     Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                       Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   20
The group as a whole is invited to give their
reactions and feedback to a role play.

Providing guidelines can avoid a free-for-all
feedback session.

Try to obtain several points of view.




                         *The handbook of Experiential
                     Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                       Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   21
A small group from the audience is assigned to
one of the role players.

Is effective after the format of the use of different
techniques.

The time given to the subgroup members are
used not only to give feedback but also to
obtain the actor’s self - assessment.



                            *The handbook of Experiential
                        Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                          Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   22
The trainer can give reactions to the role play
for everyone to hear.

The trainers’ feedback is often held in high
regard.

Own the feedback by saying such phrases as
“It seemed to me…” or “I’m not sure how
others saw this, but I…
                         *The handbook of Experiential
                     Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                       Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   23
The role players and observers can compare
the performance to an ideal script.




                       *The handbook of Experiential
                   Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                     Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   24
Prior to the Taping

    Give trainees adequate time to prepare for taping.
    Lighten the mood.
    Consider leaving the room of the videotaping session.

During the Taping

    Don’t make teaching points.
    Do make notes.
    You may want to keep a running time notation system.

After the Taping

    Give trainees uninterrupted time.
    Consider creating peer support groups.
    Develop a written checklist of specific behaviors.
    Review parts of the tape and use effective feedback techniques.
    As much as possible, invite trainees to problem – solve.
                                      *The handbook of Experiential
                                  Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                                    Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   25
  is a process whereby learners are actively
  engaged in learning process rather that
  passively absorbing lectures.




Because you encourage participants to be
mentally alert to what you are doing.
                         *The handbook of Experiential
                     Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                       Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   26
1. OBSERVE

      Give the participants a visual glimpse of the “big picture”.

      Do not expect retention.

2. RECALL

     Form pairs.

     Demonstrate the skill again slowly, again with little or no
     explanation or commentary.

     Obtain a volunteer to explain what you did.

     Acknowledge correct observations.

                                       *The handbook of Experiential
                                   Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                                     Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   27
3. QUESTION

        Ask for questions!

4. DO

    Have the pairs practice the skill with
    each other.




                                 *The handbook of Experiential
                             Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                               Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   28
Are not without risk.

Advantage: is the extent to which they encourage
participants to confront their own attitudes and values. (e.g.,
“Prisoner’s Dilemma Game” – a well-known game)

It can also help participants grasp the total course content.

Advantage of using game at the beginning section of a
program: it can give participants a chance to experience
the whole before discussing the parts. (e.g., “Bafá Bafá” – a
simulation game)

                                *The handbook of Experiential
                            Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                              Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   29
It can also test the behavioral style and
performance of participants.

Playing a game at the end of the course
enables the trainer to assess the instructional
experience. (e.g., “Desert Survival” – a simulation
exercise)

CD-ROM – is becoming a popular medium for
this type of experiential learning.




                           *The handbook of Experiential
                       Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                         Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   30
1. The game or simulation needs to be relevant to the
   participants. (e.g., “Sixty-Four Squares” – a game)

2. The easiest way to create games and simulations is
   to mimic the format character of well-known ones.
   (e.g., “Jeopardy”, “Wheel of Fortune” and “Family
   Feud”; television quiz games, “Trivia Pursuit”; board
   game)

3. Well-known games and simulations can be modified
   to suit your needs. (e.g., “Alligator River” – a story)


                                *The handbook of Experiential
                            Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                              Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   31
4. Funlike, contrived games can be followed by more
   serious, less contrived ones.

5.    Instructions for games and simulations need to be
     carefully thought out. (e.g., “Instant Aging” – a
     simulation)

6. Games and simulations almost always need to be
   discussed afterward for experience to be an
   effective teacher.




                               *The handbook of Experiential
                           Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                             Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   32
can play an important role in a training
design.

 key: observation experience must be active
rather than passive.




                       *The handbook of Experiential
                   Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                     Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   33
1.    Provide aids to help participants attend to and retain
      pertinent aspects of a demonstration they are watching.
2.    When participants are observing a role play or group
      exercise,   provide   easy-to-use     observation  forms
      containing suggestions, questions, and checklists.
3.    Provide key questions to help observers focus their
      attention.
For example:
     (1)   Who are they most aware of,
     (2)   What that person is doing,
     (3)   What her or his impact on the group, and
     (4)   How others are reacting to the person.


                                     *The handbook of Experiential
                                 Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                                   Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   34
4. Expect observers to give constructive feedback in
   order to challenge them to observe carefully and
   apply what they have previously learned.

5. Be aware that observers can have strong vicarious
   experience if what they are observing has
   personal impact.

        Greek chorus effect

        Vicarious participation can also be catalyzed by
        interviews or experiential exercises.




                                  *The handbook of Experiential
                              Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                                Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   35
1.   The simplest format is to use observers as the audience
     watching a demonstration, video, role play, and the like “on
     stage”.(e.g., observation checklist)

2.   Observers can also be assigned to small groups to provide
     feedback after the small group performs.
               (1) things that were done well,
               (2) skills and techniques used, and
               (3) suggestions

3.   Finally, participants can be arranged in a fishbowl format,
     where observers form a circle around the individuals they are
     observing.


                                    *The handbook of Experiential
                                Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                                  Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   36
   refers to (a) the
    involvement of
    learners in concrete
    activities that
    enable them to
    “experience’ what
    they are learning
    about and

   (b) the opportunity
    to reflect on those
    activities.
    (Silberman)
                               *The handbook of Experiential
                           Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
              2.pdf                         Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   37
        Help participants to
         be aware of their
         feelings & reactions
         to new ideas and
         issues

        Allow participants to
         practice & refine
         new skills and
         procedures

        “Learning is the
         process whereby
         knowledge is
         created through the
         transformation of
         experience.”(Kolb,
         1983)
    *The handbook of Experiential
Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                  Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   38
   can be used for                Role Playing
    learning that is (a)           Games & Simulations
    cognitive                      Observation
    (understanding                 Mental Imagery
    info/concepts)                 Writing Tasks
                                   Action Learning
   (b) behavioral                  Projects
    (developing skills)

   (c) affective
    (examining beliefs)        *The handbook of Experiential
                           Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                             Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   39
   Role Playing

   Games & Simulations

   Observation

   Mental Imagery

   Writing Tasks
                            *The handbook of Experiential

   Action Learning Projects
                        Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                          Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   40
WHAT:

Ability to visualize an
object, person, place, or
action that is not actually
present
                            *The handbook of Experiential
                        Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                          Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   41
                        WHY?:
   Help participants to retain
    cognitive info and

   has a special value as a
    way to help them mentally
    rehearse putting skills into
    action and to bring feelings
    & events into focus

   can be used to replace role
    playing

   cause less anxiety

   stimulate discussion
           *The handbook of Experiential
       Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                         Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   42
                        How?:
Six Kinds of Imagery Experiences

   Visual Imagery

   Tactile Imagery

   Olfactory Imagery

   Kinesthetic Imagery

   Taste Imagery

   Auditory Imagery
                              *The handbook of Experiential
                          Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                            Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   43
   Help participants to clear their minds by
    encouraging them to relax

   Conduct warm-up exercises to open the
    mind’s eye

   Assure participants that it’s okay if
    they experience difficulty visualizing
     what you describe


                                 *The handbook of Experiential
                             Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                             Apuado & Murillo     12/13/2010   44
   Give imagery instructions slowly & with
    enough pauses to allow images to develop

   Invite participants to share their imagery



                             *The handbook of Experiential
                         Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                           Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   45
WHAT:

short responses or long essays



  Worksheet        Longer writing


                           *The handbook of Experiential
                       Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                         Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   46
Worksheet                               Longer Writing

   provides specific                      generally works best
    instructions                            in the middle of a
    concerning what                         training design
    the participant is to
    write

   can be used
    anytime during a
    design

           needs assessment.pdf
                                       *The handbook of Experiential
                                   Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                                     Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   47
   Allows each participant
    to reflect slowly on his or
    her own understanding
    of & response to
    training input

   Used to describe events

   Useful when any written
    skill is being taught
                              *The handbook of Experiential
                          Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                            Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   48
   Help participants to get in the
    mood to express themselves in
    writing.

   Make sure your instructions are
    crystal-clear.

   Arrange a good work
    environment for writing.


              *The handbook of Experiential
          Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                            Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   49
   Allow enough time for
    writing.

   Allow enough time for
    feedback.




    *The handbook of Experiential
Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                  Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   50
WHAT:

Assigning lengthy
challenging tasks to
participants

Time is the biggest
constraint


                           *The handbook of Experiential
                       Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                         Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   51
   Obtain additional information not given by
    the trainer

   Apply what they have learned back on the
    job




                            *The handbook of Experiential
                        Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                          Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   52
   In-Basket
    Assignments

   Research Projects

   Field Observation

   Teaching Projects

   Task-Force Projects       *The handbook of Experiential
                          Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                                            Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   53
    *The handbook of Experiential
Learning (Ed. Mel Silberman, 2007)
                  Apuado & Murillo   12/13/2010   54

				
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