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Topics in English Syntax


									             Topics in English Syntax
               An Introductory Course

03.09.2012            Lecture notes     1
                Topics in English Syntax

    The following works have been used and quaoted
    extensively without this use being clearly marked.

Verspoor, M. (2000), English Sentence Analysis: An Intro-
  ductory Course. Amsterdam: Benjamins
Burton-Roberts, N. (19972), Analysing Sentences. An
  Introduction to English Syntax. London etc.: Longman
Huddleston, R.; Pullum, G. K. (2002), The Cambridge
  Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge: CUP
03.09.2012                 Lecture notes                    2
                     Topics in English Syntax

• Introduction to the practical analysis of
  Present-day Standard English
             • two especially favoured dialects „Standard Southern
               British English“ and „American English“
             • spoken or written by (educated) native speakers (
               UK, US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South
               Africa, ...)
             • language of the government, broadcasting, print
               media, education, science, public discourse
             • any topic,
             • for informal and formal events
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                       Topics in English Syntax

• E - language, the externalized language seen as a
  potentially infinite set of sentences
             • performance (errors, slips, other problems)
             • corpus data (representativity as a problem)
• I - language, the internalized language seen as a
  finite set of rules and principles in the mind of a
  native speaker / hearer
             • competence (Chomsky 1986, Barriers)
             • idealization
             • introspection (methodological problems)

03.09.2012                          Lecture notes            4
                 Topics in English Syntax

• Syntax: the branch of grammar dealing with the
  organization of words into larger structures such as
  phrases and sentences; the study of sentence
• Three basic assumptions:
    – Sentences have parts which may themselves have parts.
    – The parts of sentences belong to a limited range of types.
    – The parts have specific functions within the larger parts
      they belong to.

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                     Topics in English Syntax

      – Sentence patterns & functions of communication
         • give information about something to someone
                – [John] subject [is leaving] whole verb        // declarative
             • ask someone for information
                – [Is] part of verb [John] subject [leaving] rest of verb
                                                               // interrogative
             • make someone do something
                – [Leave!] verb only                           // imperative
             • express one‘s feeling or attitude
                – [What] What a shock! Rest of sentence        // exclamatory

03.09.2012                         Lecture notes                               6
                         Topics in English Syntax
In a declarative sentence speakers give information on
          •   one or more participants                   (subject, object)
          •   the event, state, process, activity        (predicator)
          •   attributes of participants                 (attribute)
          •   the setting of the event or situation      (adverbial)
                –   The little tiger is happy.
                –   The boy turned five years old yesterday.
                –   The boy considered the tiger dangerous.
                –   A bird hit the car.
                –   The boy gave the tiger some milk.
                –   He was holding his balloon up high.
                –   Pam bought him the book.

 03.09.2012                           Lecture notes                          7
                    Topics in English Syntax

Roles                              Function             abbrev.

1st participant                    subject              S
process / event                    predicator           P
2nd participant                    direct object        DO
3rd participant                    indirect object /    IO
                                   benefactive object   BO
attributes of 1st participant      subject attribute    SA
attributes of 2nd participant      object attribute     OA
the setting                        adverbial            A

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                       Topics in English Syntax

Basic / typical word order patterns of English sentences with
subject - predicate - other participants - attribute - setting
             (predicator = verb;
             predicate = predicator plus complements other than subject:
             predication = predicate plus subject (external complement) )

(1) Intransitive verb pattern
             Pam is jumping (high).      - (1st participant , process)
                                         - (subject, predicate, (adverbial))
                                         - (predicator = intransitive verb cycle,
                                         listen, talk, swim, ...)

03.09.2012                            Lecture notes                                 9
                        Topics in English Syntax

     Basic / typical word order patterns of English sentences

     (2) Copula verb pattern
             Tiger is a nuisance.
                                    - (1st participant, process / state)
                                    - (subject, predicate, (subject attribute ))
                                     - (predicator = copula verb:
                                     be, appear, grow, seem, look, make,
                                     smell, sound, become, prove, taste, feel,
                                     remain, turn)

03.09.2012                          Lecture notes                              10
                     Topics in English Syntax

   Basic / typical word order patterns of English sentences

   (3) The (mono-)transitive verb pattern
         Pam read the book.
         A bird hit the car.
                  - (1st participant, process / activity, 2nd participant)
                  - (subject - predicate - direct object)
                  - (predicator = mono-transitive verb: see, hold, kick, hear,
                   believe, think, read, print, ...)

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                        Topics in English Syntax

     Basic / typical word order patterns of English sentences

     (3) The ditransitive pattern
             Mother bought Pam a lolly.
             John gave Peter the present.
                     (1st participant, process / activity, 2nd participant, 3rd
                     (subject, predicate, direct obj, indirect / benefactive obj)
                     (predicator = ditransitive verb: give, buy, tell, send , pass,

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                        Topics in English Syntax

     Basic / typical word order patterns of English sentences

     (5) The complex transitive pattern
             They elected John the president
                     - (1st participant, process / activity, 2nd participant,
                     attribute of 2nd participant)
                     - (subject, predicate, direct object, object attribute)
                     - (Predicator = complex transitive verb: make, wipe,
                     drive, call, crown, name, consider, assume, regard,
                     certify, declare, deem, ...)

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                       Topics in English Syntax

• Note:
     Many verbs can be used in several patterns
             •   He makes a good teacher.         (1)
             •   He made a goal.                  (3)
             •   We made him a cake.              (4)
             •   The troops made him emperor.     (5)

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                 Topics in English Syntax
• Note:

   (1) the declarative sentence pattern can have different
   communicative functions.
   (2) words have different senses in different contexts
   (3) „process, state, activity“ are loose or fuzzy labels for
   events which are denoted by the predicates
   (4) there exist terminlogical variants: e.g. subject
   complement, object complement, used for subject / object

03.09.2012                   Lecture notes                        15
                       Topics in English Syntax


             subject                            predicate

                           predicator    complement         adverbial*
                                         no complement
                                         subject attribute
                                         direct object
                                         dir obj + indirect or benef. obj
                                         dir obj + obj attribute

03.09.2012                      Lecture notes                               16
                     Topics in English Syntax

• Structure: constituents, categories, function

             old Sam sunbathed     beside        a   stream

   The divisible parts of a sentence are called constituents.
   What does the diagram tell us about this sentence?
      - linear order of words and well-formedness
         * a sunbathed old beside Sam stream

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                      Topics in English Syntax

             - transition word x to word y / class of word x (e.g
                Adj) to class of word y (N)?

A sentence has different kinds / categories of constituents

    sentence             Adj N V Prep Art N
                             N V Prep Art N
    How many sequences of English words / word classes
    result in well-formed (grammatical) sentences ?
    Testing:     - movement of constituents
                 - deletion of constituents
03.09.2012                       Lecture notes                      18
                        Topics in English Syntax
                      - substitutions of constituents
                      - adding constituents
             He sunbathed beside the stream
             Sam sunbathed.
             Beside the stream, the old dog bathed in the sun.
The constituents are arranged in a specifiable manner
Structure def: some parts of an entity are constituents
  of different kinds (categories) which occur in
  specifiable arrangements and which have certain
  specifiable functions

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                       Topics in English Syntax


             frame crossbar wheel spoke handlebar pedal chain


                     frame wheel    handlebar

         crossbar spoke rim pedal chain            bell handbrake

• Diagram of structural relationships: immediate constituents
03.09.2012                         Lecture notes                    20
                        Topics in English Syntax

• Sentence and clause
   Syntax is concerned with the way words combine to from sentences.
        sentence = largest unit of syntax; (intuitively understood concept)
                   „a syntactically related group of words that expresses
                   an assertion, a question, a command, a wish or an
                   usually begins with a capital letter and ends with a
                   period, question or exclamation mark

             word = smallest unit of syntax; (intuitively understood concept)
             clause = basic syntactic construction consisting of a subject and a
                      predicate; occurs as main, co-ordinated or subordinated

03.09.2012                           Lecture notes                              21
                        Topics in English Syntax

• Simple, compound and complex sentences
     – a simple sentence consists of one main clause
             Whales cannot breathe under water.
             They have lungs instead of gills.
             We will see several applications of this order of the primitives in
             the course of the book.
             The waitresses are basking in the sun like a herd of skinned seals,
             their pinky-brown bodies shining with oil.
             Is America streched too far?
             Just give me a remote control for the planet.

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                       Topics in English Syntax

  – a compound sentence consists of two or more
    (independent) main clauses, connected by
        • a coordinate or a correlative conjunction
             – coordinate conjunctions: and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet
               correlative conjuctions : both ... and, not only ... but also, either ... or,
               neither ... nor
        Whales cannot breathe under water, for they have lungs instead of gills.
        • a conjunctive adverb and/or a semicolon
             – conjunctive adverbs: moreover, so, therefore
        Whales have lungs instead of gills; therefore they cannot breathe under
        ...instead of gills; they therefore cannot breathe under water

03.09.2012                             Lecture notes                                    23
                     Topics in English Syntax

   – a complex sentence contains at least one full
     dependent clause which functions as a constituent
     and is introduced by a subordinating conjunction
             – subordinating conjunctions: after, although, as, as if, as/even
               though, because, before, how, however much, if, in order that,
               now that, once, rather than, since, so that, that, though, unless,
               until, what(ever), when(e), where(ever), whereas, whether,
               which(ever), while, who(m)(ever), whose
         • a dependent clause may function as adverbial
         Whales cannot breathe under water because they have lungs instead of
             – a test for adverbials: move into different positions, e.g. sentenece
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                      Topics in English Syntax
             • a dependent clause may function as a modifier of a
               noun (relative clause)
                    Jane, who always drives fast, bought a Lotus.
                    Whales, which cannot breathe under water, have lungs
                    instead of gills.
             • a dependent clause may function as a subject, object,
               or subject complement clause; no complete main
               clause remains
                    That Jane drives fast is common knowledge.
                    What is surprising is that whales cannot breathe under
                    We all know that Jane drives fast.
                    A fact is that Jane drives fast

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                     Topics in English Syntax

     – a compound-complex sentence contains at least
       two main clauses and one dependent clause

         A tone is what you hear in music and a note is the symbol that you
         write down for a tone.

     – The notion of phrase
          phrase def: a word or a group of words without a subject
         and predicate but functioning as a unit in a sentence:
         the old man / recently / in the corner / have mastered / beside the
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                   Topics in English Syntax: Verbs
• Subject, object, predicate and predicator“ name syntactic
  functions which are realized by a certain type of word, or a
  phrase, or a type of clause.
             [ [The mother] subject
                    [ [gave]predicator
                              [the little boy] indirect object
                              [a balloon] direct object ]predicate]sentence
• The predicator is realized by a verb. The verb is the
  syntactically most important element within the VP (VP = a
  syntactic category). Verbs are the heads of the VP = they
  determine what other kinds of element are required

03.09.2012                               Lecture notes                        27
                 Topics in English Syntax:Verbs

• Verbs are lexical verbs (write, swim, ride, tread) or
  auxiliary which name events, processes, states, etc.
     – i. (non modal) be, have, do
     – ii. (modal) can, may, will, shall, must, ought, need, dare
     – iii. dare, need, be, have, do (are also used as lexical verbs)

• verb forms are finite (tensed) or non-finite (non-tensed)
     – most lexical verbs have six inflectional forms
             finite: bake (plain present tense), bakes (3rd pers. sg present tense), baked (past
             non-finite: bake (plain infinitive), baking (present participle/gerund), baked
             (past participle)

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                        Topics in English Syntax

     – auxiliary verbs
             • differ from lexical verbs in their morphology (cf. be, am, was ...);
             • modals have no non-finite forms (*to shall ; *musting; *the musted
               sale); do not occur in an environment where non-tensed forms are
             • do not enter into person - number agreement with the subject
             • function in the complex verbal forms for tense, aspect, mood, modality
             • are distinguished syntactically from lexical verbs: they can be negated
               by a following not and they invert with the subject in interrogatives
                          I have not seen him. *I saw not them.
                         Will you go with them? *Want you to go with them?
             • Auxiliaries have negative forms
                        isn‘t. wasn‘t, can‘t, ...

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                       Topics in English Syntax

• VP can be simple (gave) or complex, i.e. consist of aux
  elements plus a lexical verb (will have given)

    – progressive be + present participle to express progressive aspect
              Max writes / wrote an interesting term paper
              Max is writing an interesting term paper
              Max was writing an interesting term paper

    – perfect have + past participle to express perfect aspect
              The men set out hours ago.
              The men have already set out.
              The men had set out hours before we arrived.

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                    Topics in English Syntax

     – modals + (to) infinitives to express mood and modality (degrees of
       possibility, factuality, necessity, capability, obligation)
              They found something horrible
              They must have found something horrible
              They may find something horrible
              They may leave now.

     – passive be + past participle
              They found something horrible.
              Something horrible was found
              ? Something horrible got found.

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                      Topics in English Syntax

     – do for questions, negation and emphasis whenever there is no aux
       verb in the predicator
             They walked with their heads down, as if they were ashamed?
             Did they walk with their heads down, as if they were ashamed?
             They did not walk with their heads down as if they were ashamed
             They did walk with their heads down as if they were ashamed.

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                    Topics in English Syntax

• Verb phrase: relative ordering of auxiliaries in the predicator
    – the main verb may be preceeded by up to 4 auxiliaries:
      modal perfect progressive passive in that order.
    – order is rigidly fixed; each position is optional
    – each auxiliary determines the inflectional form of the following verb

    Auxiliary             Inflectional form of following verb
    modal                 base form:       may take
    perfect               -en form:        has eaten
    progressive           -ing form:       is reading
    passive               -en form         be taken

 03.09.2012                      Lecture notes                           33
                    Topics in English Syntax
   Modal       perfect   progressive         passive      lexical verb
                                               is           taken
                             is                             taking
                             is                being        taken
                 has                                        taken
                 has                           been         taken
                 has       been                             taking
                 has       been                being        taken
         may                                                take
         may                                   be           taken
         may                be                              taking
         may                be                 being        taken
         may     have                                       taken
         may     have                              been     taken
         may     have       been                            taking
         may     have       been               being        taken
03.09.2012                         Lecture notes                         34
                  Topics in English Syntax

• Be, have, do as aux and lexical verbs
             He is my friend.                          lex
             He is writing a letter                    aux, progr.
             This letter was written by Thomas Cook.   aux, pass
             He was to write many more letters.        aux mood
             He has many friends                       lex
             He has written many letters.              aux, perf
             He has to leave now.                      aux, mood
             He does a lot of work                     lex
             Does he write many letters?               aux, interrog

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                    Topics in English Syntax

• Sub-types of lexical verbs
   The verb is the syntactically the most important element
   within the VP and the clause. Verbs are the heads of the VP
   because they determine what other kinds of element are
   required or permitted as complements of the predicator.
                  He | always | jogs| before breakfast.
                  C       A      P        A
                  He | always | reads | the paper | before breakfast.
                  C       A      P         C            A
    Adjuncts are free additions to the VP or clause, are loosely attached
    Complements are central to the predicator, have sharply distinct
   syntactic functions as subject or object, etc.

03.09.2012                       Lecture notes                              36
                    Topics in English Syntax

• Internal and external complement
    the first constituent structure boundary in canonical clauses is between
    subject and predicate; subjects are complements external to the
    predicate, the other complements are internal to the VP.
• Transitivity
    all canonical sentences have a subject, but depending on the verb, they
    may or may not contain an object
          S - P clauses are called intransitive :
                    The Imam fainted.
          S - P - O clauses are called transitive
                    The Imam loved aubergines.

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                         Topics in English Syntax

• Many verbs are dual-transitivity verbs
             The door opened (intransitive)
             She opened the door (transitive)
             He reads / He is reading ( intransitive)
             He is reading a novel (transitive)
• Intransitive verbs do not take objects or subject or object
  complements / predicative complements: S - P
             Mara dreams
             Her heart beats.

03.09.2012                           Lecture notes              38
                       Topics in English Syntax

• copula verbs like be, seem are called complex intransitive
  verbs which allow a pattern of            S - P- PC
             Ed seems quite competent.
             The soup tastes salty.
• transitive verbs are divided into mono-transitive and di-
  transitive verbs depending on the number of objects they
  have and into complex transitive
         just one direct object = monotransitive          (S - P - DO)
                 He is drinking whisky and milk.
                 The local council must observe the law
                 Troops quickly occupied the city.

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                    Topics in English Syntax

      ditransitive verbs have two objects, an indirect and a direct Object
        (S - P - IO - DO)
                She told him the truth.
                Max gave mother some painkiller.
                She baked a cake for her ssister
                He bought me a book
     complex transitive verbs admit a direct object and predicative
       complement / object attribute
        (S - P - DO - OA)
                  She considered Ed a decent guy.
                  They elected George W. the president.

03.09.2012                       Lecture notes                               40
                    Topics in English Syntax
• Note: the direct objects of the three types of transitive verbs may be
  realised by different structures
    – a phrase:        I know him.
                     I know the student.
                     I know the student who lives next door.
    – a clause with a finite verb
                » I know that he moved to Münster last year.
                » I asked him whether he would join us.
    – a clause with a non-finite verb: (to inf, bare inf, plain inf)
                » I enjoy listening to cool jazz.
                » I forced him to eat the tuna sandwich.
                » She made him paint the fence.

 03.09.2012                        Lecture notes                           41
                    Topics in English Syntax

• Passive clauses
  The positive, active, declarative clause is generally
  considered the canonical clause. Other types of clauses are
  made to fulfill certain functions:
     – passive clauses are used to focus on the goal, the
         recipient or experiencer rather than on the agent of an
     – passive clauses depend on transitive verbs (which have at least 2 roles /
       participants )
                    Max bought an expensive painting.
                    An expensive painting was bought by Max.

03.09.2012                          Lecture notes                                  42
                      Topics in English Syntax

• monotransitive verbs and the passive construction
             active clause                          passive clause
             subject                                by object
             object                                 subject
             active predicator                      be + past participle

• ditransitive verbs have two passive alternants : two objects
  may become the subject of the passive construction
             • Max gave Mary the book
             • The book was given to Mary by Max
             • Mary was given the book by Max

03.09.2012                          Lecture notes                          43
                       Topics in English Syntax

• complex-transitive verbs: one object, one passive alternant
        We consider him a nuisance
        He was considered a nuisance (by us).
    Note: The object attribute becomes a subject attribute
• non-finite clauses and the passive
             I know [ him to be a noisy guy ]DO.
             He is known to be a noisy guy.
             I certainly expect [ him to clean up his act soon ] DO.
             He is certainly expected to clean up his act soon.
    Note: the subject of the non-finite clause, an indirect
     object, becomes the subject of the passive construction

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                   Topics in English Syntax

• multi-word verbs
    – phrasal verbs: verb + adverb
             write up, run off, ring off
    – prepositional verbs: verb + preposition
             run into, agree to
    – phrasal prepositional verbs: verb + adverb + preposition
             keep away from
    – idiomatic noun + preposition verbs
             catch sight of, set fire to, lose count of

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                 Topics in English Syntax

• Tests to distinguish a phrasal verb from a
  prepositional verb
             He looked into the problem.
             He looked into it.
             He looked up the word.
             He looked it up.
     Position of pronoun after a preposition but in front of an
     adverb = phrasal verb.
     If there is no direct object, the verb is a phrasal one.
             He walked down.

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                   Topics in English Syntax

• Phrases
   We analyse sentences as consisting of smaller units
   (constituents) which are called phrases.
   We assume that the words of a phrase “belong together
   naturally“. We can test this notion by deletion or addition
   some words of a phrase or by testing different
   segmentations of a sentence.
       # A good knowledge of English # is essential # for
       engineers # and # other staff in charge of aircraft
             *A good # knowledge of # English
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                Topics in English Syntax

     – Each phrase has a core element which, if deleted, will
       produce an ill-formed „unnatural“ phrase.
     – This core element is called the head element; it
       names the whole the phrase, e.g.
            verb phrase, noun phrase; prepositional phrase, etc.
       and determines its category or type.
     – We describe the linear order of elements in a sentence
       either by the sequence of phrasal categories VP, NP, PP
       or by the syntactic function these units realize in the
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                    Topics in English Syntax

     – Functions are subject, direct object, indirect object,
       predicate, adverbial of S
     – Phrases realize functions; „ : “ = „realized by“

                 Subj: NP     Pred:VP    dir obj: NP
             The white tiger # bit # the magnificent magician#.

     – Words are the building blocks of phrases. To determine
       the type or class of a word, we look for its form and for
       the contexts in which it can occur.

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               Topics in English Syntax

• Word classes / Parts of speech
   Traditionally (cf. Latin grammar), we distinguish approx. 11
   different classes of words. Attributes of words:
   - form (inflectional properties),
   - potential of occurrence in specific contexts, i.e. their
     syntactic features and their distribution,
   - lexical meaning.
        - POS determined by semantic features
                arbeiten, v = activity; Arbeit, n = activity
                arrival, n = activity; arrive, v = activity
                in, prep = ?
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               Topics in English Syntax
• distributional criteria („distribution“: the set of all
  environments); homogeneity of approach,
       - an objective procedure, intersubjective validity
       - an operational procedure = substitution test for
         determining POS; function of a word in a phrase
              We walk to the office every day
              We took a long walk
              I put on my walking boots
              You‘re a light weight.
              Come on, light my fire.
              Put the lights out, please, will you.

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                     Topics in English Syntax

•   noun:            bird, freedom, uncle, walk, Henry, farmer, sand
•   verb:           walk, swim, cycle, ride, consider, think, perceive, write
•   adjective:      blue, exhausted, painful, big, strong, powerful
•   adverb:         hard, hardly, happily, very, however, up, merely
•   preposition:    in, on, at, under, after, amongst, like, since
•   coordinator:    and, but, or, nor
•   subordinator:   that, because although, since
•   pronoun:        we, her, mine, his, who, someone, which
•   article:        the, a, an
•   numeral:        three, third
• interjection: oops, , wow

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• Noun
    – proper nouns: Henry Miller, Ford, the United States, Warwickshire,
      Thames (referential function); common nouns: table, wood, soap, sand,
      sea, furniture, freedom, pleasure, pain (descriptive / predicative function)
             • concrete : tangible things: car, bike, water; abstract: non-
               tangible entities: ?? processes: idea, dream, thought; ?? move,
               walk, transportation
             • count: bounded, separable entitites: book, house; non-count /
               mass nouns: grass, sand, oil, furniture, cattle, love,
• noun form
    – nouns typically inflect for number (singular - plural) and case (plain
      vs genitive)

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Noun and Noun Phrase function
  1. NPs are prototypically function as a complement in
  clause structure ( subject, object, predicative complement)
             The doctor arrived. We saw the doctor. Kim is a doctor
    and as as complement in PP
             They were talking to the Dean.
    2. NPs also function as
         specifying or classifying genitive („subject determiner“ in an NP)
         adjunct in clause
         modifier in PP, AdjP and AdvP
         supplement (Apposition) and vocative (Anrede)

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• NP structure
     – nouns function as heads of NPs, alone or accompanied by one or
       more dependents, such as determinatives (articles etc.), pre- and
       postmodifiers (AdjP, relative clauses)

     all of the very expensive vases on the shelf that broke in the quake

     Note: nouns do not take objects
             – Kim dislikes tiger; * his dislike it

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                      Topics in English Syntax

     – test for „nounhood“:
             • 1) occurrence with articles: the ____; a_____
             • 2) substitute word with a pronoun: it, they

     – test for countability
               one plate, two plates, three plates
             * one furniture, *two furnitures, *three furnitures

     – note: the count non-count distinction applies to uses of a
               BP developed three new motor oils

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• Verb
     – verbs denote processes, actions, activities, states, accomplishments,
• Verb form
     – lexical verb paradigm: base, -s (3rd sg), plain (present), -ing,
       (gerund participle) -ed (past tense), -ed (past participle)
     note: syncretism between want - want; wanted - wanted
     – forms of the auxiliary be: be, am, are, is, are, was, were,
              negated: aren‘t, isn‘t, wasn‘t, weren‘t
     – form distinctions of modal verbs (defective paradigm) :
              can (plain present), could (past)
             negated: cannot, can‘t, couldn‘t

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• Verb and VP function
    – verbs function as predicator and determine the number and kind of
      dependents (complements); predicator and complement, possibly
      with other dependents of type adjunct (modifiers) form the VP
• VP and clause structure
    – verbs function as head elements in the VP and in the structure of the
    – valency (mono-, bi- trivalent) determines the number of external and
      internal complements (subject, objects),
    – transitivity determines the kind of obligatory complements
      (intransitive, complex intransitive, monotransitive, complex
      monotransitive, ditransitive)

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             He died.                         (intrans., monovalent)
             This depends on the price.       (intrans., bivalent)
             Ed became hungry.                (intrans. complex, bivalent)
             He reads the paper.              (monotrans., bivalent)
             He blamed me for the delay.      (monotrans., trivalent)
             This made Ed angry.              (monotrans. cmplex, trivalent)
             She gave him some food.          (ditransitive, trivalent)

   – verbs determine the choice of prepositions
           The cream consists of egg and milk
           It all depends on her father.
           He supplied them with food and drinks.

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     – verbs determine the choice of subordinate clause construction
           Whether /*That we go abroad depends on the cost.
           I don‘t know whether / * that they will like it.

• Distinctive syntactic properties of auxiliary verbs
     – 4 non-canonical constructions are found with aux verbs:
       NICE: Negation, Inversion, Code, Emphasis
             – He has seen it. vs He has not seen it.
             – Has he seen it? (subject - aux inversion)
             – He has seen it. And I have, too.
             – They don‘t believe he has seen it but he has seen it.

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• Distinctive syntactic properties of modal verbs
    – central modals take bare infinitival complements
           They must read the text
           They will work on that problem.
           They should help us finish the job.
    – present tense modals don‘t show agreement with the subject
           He can buy anything he likes; he has got tons of money.
           John may insist on being invited.
Note: The person-number inflection in lexical verbs is determined by
agreement with the subject: knows agrees with the student.
           The student knows the professor.
           The students know the professor.

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• Adjectives
  Function of central members of the category
     – Adjectives typically modify nouns: can be used in predicative,
       attributive and postpositive function
             • Max is / seems / appears sad.
             • Max owns an expensive car.
             • Here is someone clever.
     – The prototypical adjective is gradable, accepts degree modifiers and
       has inflectional or analytic comparatives and superlatives
        very many, too bright, much heat
        pretty, prettier, prettiest; useful, more useful, most useful

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• Dependents
    – Adjectives characteristically take adverbs as modifiers
          • remarkably tough; surprisingly sweet

• Adjective phrases as attributive and postpositive
  modifiers, and predicative complements
          • my new job; all other possibilities; good work
          • this is new; they seem suitable; we found it easy
          • something important; a man full of his own importance
    1. APs function (mostly) as modifiers in the structure of the
    NP as pre-head internal dependent, = part of a nominal,
    located between he determiner and the head noun

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• 2. as predicative complements APs are dependents in the
  clause structure, licensed by particular verbs, such as be,
  seem, find, become, make, appear, feel, look, sound
• 3. post-positive APs function as post-head internal modifier
  in NP structure; occur commonly after compound
  determinatives such as someone, anything, nobody
     – Note: the majority of Adjs can occur in all three functions but a
       sizeable number is restricted to either attributive or predicative
             • mere, former, main vs. alone, asleep, glad
     – a few Adjs are restricted to postpositive function
             • gifts galore, president elect

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    – Note: predeterminer APs occur as external modifier in NP structure,
      preceding the indefinite article a
             • such a fool
             • half a pint of bitter

• Adjectives as heads of complex phrasal categories
    – Many adjectives license
             •   complements in post-head position and
             •   modifiers in pre-head and post-head position
             •   PPs, NPs and clauses in post-head position;
             •   AdvPs in pre-head position

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     – Complements of APs in post-head position
             •   fraught with danger;
             •   mindful of the danger; afraid of dogs
             •   concerned about the delay; angry about her behaviour
             •   angry at the news; astonished at the allegations
             •   distressed by these insinuations
             •   clothed in linnen; covered in dust
             •   insistent that the charge be dropped;
             •   amazed what a fuss she made
             •   happy to leave it to him

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     – Many adverbs are morphologically derived from adjectives ( -ly);
       but note: fast, hard, early, better, worse
             • a rapid improvement   vs   it rapidly improved
             • a surprising depth    vs   surprisingly deep
             • progress was rapid    vs   we progressed rapidly

     – Adv modify a verb, an adjective or another adverb; they cannot
       function as predicative complement
             • They almost died in the accident.
             • Max almost always gets it right.
             • She was extremely unhappy with the proposal.

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      • relate entities; denote place, time, direction, duration,
        manner, causality, ...
      • they have a core function within the phrase which
        they introduce - they are the head element of a PP and
        introduce a dependent NP as prepositional
      • they are mostly short, simple words of a closed class
        of function words
      • there are several types of complex prepositions:

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             about, above, across, after, against, along,
             among, apart from, around, as at, because of,
             behind, below, beneath, beside, between,
             beyond, by, concerning, despite, down,
             during, except, for from, in, in addition to, in
             case of, in contrast to, inside, in spite of, into,
             like, near, of, off, on, onto, out, out of,
             outside, over past, regarding, since, through,
             throughout, to, toward, under, underneath,
             until, up, upon, with, with regard to, within,
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             • 1. ADV or PREP +PREP
               along with, as for, away from, out of up to, etc.

             • 2. VERB / ADJ / CONJUNCTION etc + PREP:
               owing to, due to, because of, etc.

             • 3. PREP + NOUN + PREP
               by means of, in comparison with, in front of, etc.

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Prepositions precede the PP, postpositions occur in
             • wh- questions:
                   Which town to you live in
             • relative clause:
                    The old hag I was telling you about
             • Wh-clause:
                    What I am convinced of is that terrorist acts will happen.
             • Exclamations:
                    What a mess he’s got himself in.
             • Passives :
                    She was sought after by all the leading impresarios
             • Infinitive clauses:
                    He’s impossible to work with
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• Syntactic functions of prepositions:
    – complements of verbs, adjectives and nouns:
           We depend on continued subsidies
           I am sorry for his parents
    – adjuncts:
           The students were singing on the bus
    – postmodifiers in NPs:
           The people on the bus were singing loudly and out of tune
    – disjuncts:
           To our surprise, he survived the accident unharmed.
    – conjunct:
           On the other hand, he was supported by the whole family.

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Pronouns and their Subclasses
• personal, reflexive, possessive, reciprocal, relative,
  interrogative, demonstrative, indefinite
• may be used in two functions:
    – 1. independently, in (pro)nominal function, replacing a co-referential
      noun or a noun phrase
    – 2. dependently, almost like adjectives, in determiner function
           His book cost over € 75.-
           That flower on the window-sill ..
           When she arrived in Münster, Tiger went straight to class
           Hers cost more than € 100.
           And indeed she is impressive
           Our American friends really like Sauerkraut.
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Features of (major subclasses) of pronouns
     – They do not admit determiners
             * the each book; * the which girl ?
     – They often have remnants of case marking
                 –   I, me, mine;
                 –   we, us, our,
                 –   they , them, their
                 –   who, whom, whose
     – They often have person contrast
             • 1st person : refers to speaker role
             • 2nd person: refers to role of person(s) addressed
             • 3rd person: refers to entity under discussion
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     – They often have gender contrast
             he – him – himself – his
             she – her – herself – hers
             it – itself- ist

     – They show number contrast; mostly by morphologically
       unrelated forms

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Personal pronouns           possessive pronouns       reflexive pronouns
              subj case obj case determiner nominal
1st pers sing         I    me         my     mine        myself
          plur       we     us        our    ours       ourselves
2ndpers sing         you you          your yours        yourself
          plur       you you                            yourselves
3rdpers sing masc he       him        his      his      himself
                fem she her           her      hers     herself
               non pers it            its      its      itself
         plur        they them        their    theirs   themselves

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Personal pronouns:
   – replace / substitute for co-referential NPs in
     neighbouring a) preceding b) in following clauses:
             Johni told Mary to wait for himi.
             Whenever hei took off his glasses, Johni was difficult to deal with.
     – objective case forms are used as (direct or indirect)
       objects or as complements of prepositions; in informal
       usage also as subject complements
                Tiger spotted them immediately.
                     Max gave them some chocolate.
                     It’s me. Is it you?
                     I saw her with them.
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Reflexive pronouns
   – replace a co-referential NP within the same clause
               John hurt himself badly.
   – the indefinite pronoun one has its own reflexive oneself;
     other indefinites use himself, themselves
               No one must fool himself
Possessive pronouns
combine genitive functions, indicating ownership (my, her, your,
...), functioning attributively / syntactically as determiners,
with pronominal function in the second series: mine, yours, hers

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Relative pronouns
    – reflect neutral, personal or non-personal gender of referent, and
      case (genitive, and objective)
                 personal:          who, whom, whose
                 non-personal:      which, whose
                 neutral:           that

    – introduce dependent relative clauses in which they function as a
      subordinating conjunction (subordinator) and as a constituent
      (subject, direct object, indirect object, or prepositional object)
                 John knows the guy who / whom you met.
                 John is the guy who broke the record.

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             John is the guy whose daughter was recently married.
             John is the guy for whom I have immense respect
                      ... the house in which I was born
                      ... the games that politicians play

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Interrogative pronouns
     – are used in questions, both in determiner function;
                           personal:                 whose,
                           personal or non-personal: which, what
                   Whose book is it? Which picture do you like most?
                   What kind of weather do you expect?
                   On whom do you rely?
     –       and pronominally, independently,
                    This cat here. Whose is it?
                    Which do you prefer? What did he want?

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     – The interrogative pronouns may be used as
       subordinators introducing dependent questions;
       however, word order is then the same as in a declarative
                Whom did you meet?
                I asked whom you saw.

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Demonstrative pronouns
     – substitute for a pointing gesture, establish near
       and distant reference (from the point of the
       speaker) and function as determiner as well as

                         near                distant
             singular    this                that
             plural      these               those

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Indefinite pronouns and universal pronouns
     – the universal pronouns comprise each, every, all, the
       every-compounds (everything, every body, every one
     – most indefinite and universal pronouns can be used
       dependently, functioning as determiners or
             Someone thought that all the apples were sweet.
             Every man is expected to do their duty.
             All (senators) agreed that a reform was needed.
                 each student: individual reference to two or more
                 every student: collective reference to three or more
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    – every one, each, each one have of-constructions
             Every one of the students should have their own books
             Each one /each student has his own book
    – the indefinites comprise somebody, anybody, anything,
      someone, something, nobody, no on; [several, much ,
      both, enough can also be considered quantifiers, like
      vague numerals; similarly a great many; a few, many a,
      a lot of, a great deal of ]
              once upon a time, someone told us a story about ...
             several went into the kitchen
    – either, neither have dual reference, none is the negation
      of every among the universal pronouns
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  – There are two series of numerals, cardinal numerals
    (one, two, three...) and ordinal numbers (first, second,
    third ),
  – they can be used dependently (as premodifiers) and
    independently / pronominally
               The first student to arrive was ...
               He is the first.

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Reciprocal pronouns
     – are each other and one another
             They met each other regularly.
             Wolf and Tiger are fond of one another.

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       • English has two articles, the, a, an.
       • The articles are always used as determiners
         preceding the noun.
       • The is used for specific, definite reference, a / an for
         indefinite reference.
       • The can occur before any common noun

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• Connectors
  – coordinating conjunctions
             • link parallel structures, i.e. units of „equal syntactic
                 Tom and Otto
                 both the boy with the telescope and the girl with the apple
                 He studies for his exam for he is eager to succeed.
                 He is reading a book. So he must not be disturbed.

             • Conjunctive adverb
                 He is reading a book; therefore, he must not be disturbed.
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• Subordinators
   – subordinating conjunctions introduce dependent
     phrases or clauses
      • are subclassified according to
             – the type of dependent clauses they introduce
                 subject, and subject complement clause
                 object, and object complement clause
                 clauses modifying nouns
                 wh-clause; that clause; if-clause
             – according to their function in the phrase or clause

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             I know where he lives. (DO)
             I know how he works. (DO)

   where and how are constituents of the clause and function
   as interrogative adverbs with a subordinating function
   If, whether and that are no clause constituents and function
   solely as subordinating conjunctions

             I don‘t know if he will come by himself.
             We believe that he arrived on time (DO)
             We asked whether he would be home.

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• In relative clauses that post-modify a noun, the relative
  pronouns who, whose, whom, that, which function as
             The boy [that/whom you met is my pal. ]   Subject
             Remember [the time when we were young.]        DO
    the relative pronouns and the subordinating relative adverbs
    when, where, also function as constituents in clauses
    In adverbial clauses introduced by words like when, where,
    after, since, before, ... these adverbs do not function as
    constituents of the clause and are called subordinating

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• Conjunctions
             • coordinating conjunction
                  and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet
             • correlative conjunctions
                  not only .. but also, either ... or, both ... and, neither ...
             • conjunctive adverbs
                  moreover, however, otherwise, certainly, finally, similarly,
                  nevertheless, indeed, consequently,accordingly, likewise,
                  now, therefore, thereafter, hence, meanwhile, still,
                  undoubtedly, next, hence, instead, certainly, besides

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• Subordinators

             after, although, as , as if, as though, because, before, even
             though, how, however much, if, in order that, now that,
             once, until, unless, though, that, so that, since, rather
             than, what(ever), when, whenever, where, whereas,
             wherever, wheher, whichever, while, who, who(m)(ever),

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• Parts of Speech:
    major word classes:
                V, N (and pronouns), Adj, Adv, Prep
     minor word classes:
                 subordinators, coordinators, determinative,
    major parts-of-speech are marked for the HEAD feature

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Levels of description
             phrase syntax                grammar
             word ] morphology

    clause: has subject and predicate
    phrase : has head element and dependents
    word : HEAD feature + or -; only major parts of speech
             function as head elements (= N, V, Adj, Adv,

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     consists at least of one word but may contain other phrases
     phrases have constituents
                    constituents have functions
                    constituents have realizations

     functions and realizations do not have a 1:1 relation

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Noun Phrase
    -        the most complex type of phrase
    -                       Topics in English nominal
             obligatory: head element = noun / Syntax / pronoun
             plus one or two dependents
    -        prehead and post-head dependents

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Noun Phrase functions
    – NPs prototypically function as a complement in clause
      structure (subject, object, predicative complement
    – and as phrasal complement in PP
    – NPs also function
        • as specifying or classifying genitive
        • adjunct in clause
        • modifier in NP, PP, AdjP and AdvP
        • supplement (Apposition) and vocative (Anrede)

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     NP functions: example sentences
             The doctor arrived.
             We saw the doctor.
             Kim is a experienced doctor.
             They were talking to the Dean.
             I liked Sue‘s analysis of the passive construction.
             Fred departed the day before yesterday.
             The nail was three inches long
             Fred arrived a whole day late
             The wreck was found a mile under the sea.
             I like the novel „Ulysses“.
             I finally met his wife, a distinguished linguist.
             Michael, I found your book.
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Functions of constituents of an NP
• predeterminer, determiner, postdeterminers, premodifier,
    head, postmodifier
• examples of NP constituent functions and their realizations
             the boy
             exciting city life
             half of the group of experts
             the glass

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             the teacher’s glass
             both of the very well known glitterati who intoned Britannia,
                      Britannia rule the waves
             our old apple tree in the back yard
             her skin beautifully tattooed with red dragons
             England proper
             the engine alone
             a house as big as I have everseen
             the night-life in Berlin
             some wonderfully warm woollen blankets
             photographs of Maja which her father had taken
             a half of bitter

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Realisations of constituent functions
    - premodifiers of NP heads are mostly AdjP; N may be
      premodified by one or several AdjP
    - nouns which premodify nouns can be considered
                city [premod: AdjP] life [head:N]

     - postmodifiers of Np heads are phrases or finite or non-
          finite clauses, only some AdjP realise postmodifiers

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    definite and indefinite article, demonstrative pronouns
    preceding the noun: the, a , an, this, that, these, those

     both of, both those (copies), half of, all the, such a

    those two, a half of

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Specifying versus classifying genitives
  a specifying genitive : an NP which has a genitive as the
  head of a determiner as in
                the child’s book
  a specifying genitive can be substituted with a possessive
  pronoun (his, her, its, theirs)
  in a classifying genitive as in
                a children’s book
  the article functions as determiner of the head noun

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   restrictive (specifying) vs non-restrictive post-modifiers
   post-modifiers may be added to an NP to help the addressee
   identify the referent of the head noun , to specify vague
   reference as in
        My friend who has recently moved to London called
        me last night. (intonation rising, no comma)
   or to give additional information of an already identified
        Uncle Peter, who has recently moved to London, called
        me last night. (intonation falling; set off with commas)

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Relative pronouns and postmodification
                who, whom, whose, which, that
    serve a double function as
    1. subordinators introducing a dependent clause,
    2. as clause constituent realising the function of a subject,
      an object or an adverbial of the clause

    whose is a dependent pronoun and phrase constituent

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Verb Phrase
    A VP consists of a
         - a lexical verb as head element
         - or of a comlex verb which contains auxiliary
           elements and a lexical verb as its head
         - and of the dependent complements.
    In a verbal complex, the auxiliaries carry tense, aspect, and
    mood information.
    The verbal head licenses complements, i.e. it determines
    the argument structure of the clause.

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Adjective Phrase
     an AdjP consists of an adjectival head which in many cases
     has a dependent (syntactically obligatory) complement in
     postposition realised by a PP or a clause
             She is afraid of dogs (optional).              She is afraid
             Peter was very keen to take part (optional) Peter was very keen.
             We are happy to leave it to you (optional) We are happy.
             He is mindful of the danger (obligatory)       *He is mindful
             The airlift was fraught with risks. (obligatory)
                              *The airliftwas fraught
                                They were fraught (= anxious, distressed)

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       a large number of adjectives that require an obligatory
       complement when used predicatively or in postposition
       cannot be used attributively.

             This is tantamount to a confession.
                               *their tantamount confession
             They were heedless of the danger.
                               this heedless destruction od the rain forest

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PP complements of adjectives
              annoyed, concerned, mad, glad, happy    about
             astonished, adept, hopeless, delighted   at
             amused, distressed, hurt, unaffected     by
             anxious, answerable, greedy              for
             divorced, alienated, removed             from
             bathed, clothed, engaged, decisive       in
             desirous, reminiscent, scared            of

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Clausal complements of adjectives
             I am glad that you were able to come
             I am not sure whether you will understand
             too good to participate in the games

Functions of the constituents of AdjPs
an Adj may be preceded or followed by a modifier;
   - premodifiers are mostly realised by AdvP
   - postmodifiers are realised by adverb phrases, NPs,
    and mostly prepositional phrases or clauses

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his [occasionally [very offensive ]] behaviour = stacked modification
his [[quite unbelievably] offensive] behaviour = submodification

                   AdjP                                     AdjP

       Mod:                 Head                  Mod                  Head
       Adv                  AdjP                  AdvP                 Adj

                     Mod           Head     Mod           Head
                     Adv           Adj      Adv           Adv

    occasionally     very      offensive    quite     unbelievably   offensive

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Determinatives as degree modifiers
             the, this, that, no, any, much, little, a little, enough, all
             The bigger it is the more likely it is to break
             They are this tall
             He seemes all confused
             We‘re not getting any younger
NPs as modifiers
             three years old
             five centimeters thick
             lots better
             a trifle shy
             two hours long
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PPs as modifiers
             cautious to excess
             dangerous in the extreme
             deaf in both ears
             very good for a beginner
             these in some respects highly controversial theories
             an on the whole persuasive argument

Discontinuous modifier
             so very good that he became a member of the team

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     -       Advs characteristically modify verbs, adjectives and
             other Advs
     -       AdvPs have Adv as head element and may contain
             dependent modifiers and / or complements

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Complements in AdvPs
    - complements are almost always PPs
             Our company operates [almost entirely separately from the rest of
             the enterprise]
             We decide independently of an abstract principle of justice.
             Luckily for them, President Clinton decided not to run again.
             ... concomitantly with the process of ageing
             ... analogously to the calculation above

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Modification in AdvPs
    Stacked modification and submodification in the AdvP are
    similar to modification in the AdjP
             Jill loses her temper [only [very rarely]]
             Jack and Jill sing [[quite remarkably] well]

             very easily, fairly evenly, incredibly meticulously, all that well
             later that morning, a bit slowly, arrive three hours late

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             easily enough / clearly enough,
             old enough to know better
             he behaved badly in the extreme,
             later in the day,
             faster than anyone could imagine

Discontinuous modifier
             He won the race [so easily that he became a member of the
             national team]

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Prepositional Phrases

    - headed by prepositions, taking complements and
      modifiers as dependents which are realised as NPs,
      finite and non-finite clauses, AdvPs, AdjPs, other PPs
    - all PPs functioning as non-predicative adjuncts, many
      as complements in clause structure
                   Ahead of the ship, there was a small island. (PP)
        but note: Tired of the journey, the sailor saw a small island. (AdjP)

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NP-complements of prepositions

                     He lived in London for two years.
                     She sent a photograph of their new house to her parents.
                     Our new friends are keen on golf.
                     Concerning the news that you told me ...
                     just inside the penalty area
                     He left after the accident.
                     I haven‘t seen her since last Easter.
             note:   I haven‘t seen her since. (Prep without a complement?)

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Clausal complements of Prepositions

             He left after he saw her.
             He left after you promised to help.
             It all depends on whether he saw her.
             I am looking forward to seeing you.
             afraid of what will happen.
             We can‘t agree on whether we should call the police.

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Prepositions plus non-NP constituents as complements
         The magician emerged from behind the curtain.           (PP)
         I didn‘t know about the accident until recently.        (AdvP)
         cf. He stayed with us until last week.
         She took him for dead.                                  (AdjP)
                                                (predicative complement)
           She took him for a friend.                            (NP)

Modifiers of prepositions
        two years after their divorce
        just inside the building
        very much in control of thngs

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Position of the preposition relative to its complement
   - in most cases, the preposition precedes ist complement
  - some English prepositions can follow their
             notwithstanding the weather vs. the weather notwithstanding

Stranded preposition
             What are you looking at?
             What are you waiting for?

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S : NP SA : NP
[He was [a Hindu, a puny wisp of a man, with a shaven head and vague liquid eyes]]
     SA : NP      post-modifying : NP
     [a Hindu     [a puny wisp of a man, with a shaven head and vague liquid eyes]]
        post-mod : NP       post-mod : PP
        [a puny wisp          [of a man, with a shaven head and vague liquid eyes]]
              post-mod : PP complement : NP
              [of                [a man, with a shaven head and vague liquid eyes]]
                     complement : NP post-mod: PP
                     [a man             [with a shaven head and vague liquid eyes]]
                            post-mod: PP      complement : NP
                            [with              [a shaven head and vague liquid eyes]]

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                        Noun Phrase
Pre-det Determiner Post-det Pre-mod(s)       Head      Post-mod(s)
        article             AdjP             noun        AdvP
        pronoun             class. genit     pronoun     AdjP
        numeral                                          PP
        spec. Genitive                                   NP
                                                         fin. clause
                                                       non-fin clause

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               Adjective Phrase

Function: Pre-modifier    Head              Post-modifier
realised by AdvP         Adjective          PP

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Functions:      Pre-modifier      Head      Postmodifier

Realisations:     AdvP(s)         Adverb        AdvP
                                                finite clause
                                                non-finite clause
                discontinuous [Adverb]          modifier

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              Prepositional Phrase

Functions:    Modifier    Head           Complement

Realisation   AdvP        Preposition NP
                                      finite clause
                                      non-finite clause

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                      Verb Phrase

Functions: AUX          Head      complements /adjuncts
Realisation: tense     lexical verb     NP
             mood                       PP
             perfect aspect             AdjP
             prog. Aspect               finite clause
            passive voice               non-finite clause

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