The War and the Second Revolution_ 1792 by ewghwehws


									The War and the Second Revolution, 1792

 Section 9.43: The Revolution and Europe
    The International Impact of the Revolution
•     Exporting the revolution
       • Many members of the excluded
           classes (Silesian weavers, peasant
           farmers, even Prussian army
           officers) around Europe identified
           with the spirit of the revolution
•     Anti Revolutionary sentiment
     – Burke argued that the French
        Revolution was barbaric and urged
        England to adapt slowly to their
        English liberties
     – Reflections on the Revolution in
        France 1790
       • Predicted anarchy and dictatorship
           in France
       • Said that every people must be
           shaped by its own national
           circumstances, history, character
       • He recommended war as an
           ideological struggle
 The International Impact of the Revolution
• Gustavus III (K. of Sweden)
  offered to lead a monarchist
• Catherine of Russia denounced
  the French movement as one of
• Louis XIV and Marie Antoinette
  urged the nobility of Europe to
  help reinstate the Bourbon king
• Émigrés use connections around
  Europe to draw the nobility into
  their cause
• Lines are drawn in most western
   – Less so in eastern and
     southern Europe
    The Coming of the War, April 1792
•    European governments were
     slow to move
•    But new gov in France opening
     encouraged revolution in other
     parts of Europe
•    France is acting in a unilateral
    – Annexes Avignon at the
        local revolutionaries request
    – Bans feudalism and
        manorial dues in Alsace
    – offers the German princes
        compensation but did not
        consent with them
•    Keep the King and Queen of
     France as prisoners
                                        Conciergerie prison in Paris
             Declaration of Pillnitz
•    Austria and Leopold II
    – Meet with the king of Prussia at
•    Leopold would take military steps to
     restore order in France if all the other
     powers would join him
    – Leopold believed England would
        never join                              Leopold II

    – He believed his efforts would quell
        the demands of the émigrés
•    Net effect is the outrage of the French
    – Pushes the Girondins (aka Jacobins)
        to the advanced position in the
        leadership of France
          Exporting the Revolution
•    Girondins became the party of
     international revolution
    – Export the revolution to undercut
        the Conservative Reaction
    – believe that the Rev will not be
        safe unless its spreads all over
        the world                          Edmund Burke

    – believe that invading French
        armies would be welcomed
•    Lafayette and the military feel war
     might help stabilize the monarchy
     and hold the line of the revolution
     at limited monarchy
•    4/1792 the Assembly declares war
     on the Austrian monarchy
    The Second Revolution: August 10, 1792
•    War aggravates the unpropertied
    – Peasants and urban workers are
        dissatisfied with the provisional
    – Unfair land distribution
    – Inflation
    – assignats are losing value
    – Food is being hoarded in the rural
•    Return of the Old Regime is worst
     possibility and the unpropertied classes
     rally around the Revolution in spite of
     their dissatisfaction with the Legislative
•    war was not going well in summer of ’92
    –   Prussia and Austria about to invade
        Brunswick Manifesto July 1792
•    Prussia and Austria declare they will
     invade and exact a severe
     retribution on the citizens of Paris if
     anything happens to Louis XVI
•    Threats from external forces
     enrages and fuels the fires of
•    Robespierre, Danton, and Marat fuel
     the hysteria
•    Turn against the king and move
     toward republicanism
•    Paris becomes politically unstable
•    Radical revolutionaries are
     streaming into Paris
    – singing Marseillaise, a fierce call
        to war upon tyranny
War Begins
   Louis Capet, Prisoner of Revolution
• Aug 10, 1792
   – masses storm Tuileries,
     massacre Swiss Guard and
     seize the royal family
• They move against the
  Legislative Assembly
   – End monarcy
   – suspend the Constitution
   – Declare universal male
   – Set up a Commune in Paris
   – Set up a National
     Convention to draft a more
     democratic constitution
          September Massacre
• Insurrectionary leaders
  lead a massacre against
  the enemies of the
   – hold drumhead trials and
     massacre 1, 100 people
     (refractory priests,
• The threat of war
  destabilized the first phase
  of the revolution and the
  dissatisfaction of the lower
  classes unleashed the
  second French Revolution
September Massacre

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