Spring 1968 _PDF_ - Columbia College - Columbia University

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Spring 1968 _PDF_ - Columbia College - Columbia University Powered By Docstoc
					Remember the Soph-Frosh Rush?

Well, it's gone.
So are nickel beers, and very low faculty salaries;
fraternity hazing, and feeble scholarship funds.
College today is a different world.
And, many claim, a better world-
for the students, the faculty, the nation.
One of the things that made it all possible is
the loyalty and generosity of Coiumbia alumni.
The College needed your help and you gave it.
The College continues to need your help.
So do the faculty and the undergraduates.
More than ever.

                                      Columbia College
                                      Annual Fund
Columbia College Today                                                Within the Family
Volume XV, No.3                Spring 1968
                                                                                Red flags, gr-een ivy, and the Light Blue
   Published by Columbia College
        Columbia University
       New York, N.Y. 10027                  This magazine has a well-deserved                acquainted with Columbia's past and
                                             reputation for being tardy in its pub-           present. We had collected documents
                                             lication schedule. But it has never been         and photographs like squirrels, and
                                             this late. We beg forgiveness.                   had taken notes-all three of us-like
   This publication is printed for               The news from the College, how-              diligent graduate students. No one
alumni and friends of Columbia College       ever, has been far from routine recent-          could possibly tell the whole story,
         u;ilh the support of
                                             ly. Normally, Columbia is a busy, ex-            even in 20 volumes. But we could at-
   The Association of the Alumni
                                             b'aordinary place, of course. But last           tempt to be more reasonable, compre-
Thomas M. .\tacioce '39, President           spring was tumult, real tumult, That             hensive, and non-partisan than most.
Eugene Rossides '49, Vice President          was not the greatest difficulty though.          This was our aim.
John H. Mathis '31, Secretary                What really slowed us was the small                  As anyone who reads our chronicle
Carl "V. Desch '37, Treasurer                torrent of letters, chiefly (but not ex-         will know, we have fallen short of total
Max J. Lovell '23, ExeC1ltive Director
                                             clusively) from College alumni, urg-             objectivity and empathy for all. But
                                             ing us to forget sports, class notes,            there are, at least, no heroes and vil-
                                             alumni reunions, and tell them what              lains in this piece. Nor is there phony
             EDITOR                          actually happened during the revolu-             melodrama, angry blame-placing, or
      George Charles Keller '51              tion, including lots of whys and hows.           righteousness. God! There was enough
                                                 For example, alumnus Gerald Berk-            righteousness on campus last spring to
          ASSISTANT EDITOR                   owitz '63, an English instructor at the          launch a new crusade to Jerusalem.
          Peter Salzberg '64                 University of Southern California,                   Weare sorry to have scrapped
         EDITORIAL ASSISTANT                 wrote us on May 24: "It is obvious               everything else normally printed in our
             l\'lalinda Teel                  that the news media are doing a very            magazine. We hope to be back to
                                             incomplete and sometimes obviously               better fullness in the nex1: issue. V-Ie
                                             biased job of reporting the develop-             are sorry also for the profanity in this
                                             ments and significance of the current            issue. We have never printed profanity
    ALUMNI ADVISORY COMlYUTTEE               revolution. GGT has shown itself in              before-we find it too imprecise-but
Ray Robinson '41, Chairman                    the past to be a reliably objective and         we felt some parties last spring wore
Arthur Rothstein '35                          frequently critical observer of Univers-         their obscenity proudly, as a badge of
Edward Rice '40                               ity events and policies. You are in a           honor, and to leave it out would have
Edward Hamilton '42                           perfect position to prOVide the neces-          meant losing the peculiar cayenne pep-
Kermit Lansner '42
                                              sary balanced account of the past few           per Havor of some of the personalities
Walter Wager '44
                                              weeks. . . . I strongly recommend                and incidents.
Byron Dobell '47
John McDermott '54                            that you junk whatever features you                 A word about the College alumni
                                              had planned for the next issue, and re-         reaction to the spring riot. (Incidental-
                                              place them with as complete a cover-             ly, there were 101 campus riots last
                                              age of the revolt as you can muster.             spring. Columbia merely got the best
           IN THIS ISSUE                      . . . It will be tragic if the true story       publicity.) While numerous alumni
Six Weeks That Shook Morningside:             is never known. You are the only one             rushed from their offices sputtering
   A Special Report                           I would trust to tell it." Imagine that!        vindictiveness and some others blithely
                                                 We were Hattered, naturally, but              condoned the violence as a good thing,
                                              also frightened by these letters. How            like a laxative, many graduates dis-
                                              does one capture the "true story" of a           played a remarkable desire to get all
Address all editorial communications to:      hurricane? And, how does one do so               the evidence, a salutary skepticism,
COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY                        rationally, when nearly everyone is im-          and a sense of humor. Like Heming-
400 West H8th Street·                         passioned? Still, we had certain ad-             way's bullfighters, they had poise in
New York, N.Y. 10027.                         vantages. We were in the occupied                the presence of disaster. In a crisis,
Telephone (212) 280-3701
                                              buildings; were allowed to visit Low             men are often unmasked. A surprising
                                              Library's innermost offices, even at             portion of Columbia's alumni revealed
                                              the most crucial moments; were privi-            themselves as cool, curious, and con-
        COLUMBIA COLLEGE                      leged to sit in the faculty meetings;            cerned.
           founded in 1754                    talked with alumni, trustees, and com-              The College ought to be proud of
is the undergraduate liberal arts college     munity residents; were friendly with             having produced men like that.
           of 2,700 men in                    numerous students; and generally were                                               CCK
                                              .Cover photo by Alan Epstein; photo on pp. 2·3 by George Gardner                       1
                                               months of a "spring offensive" at Co-        month one undergraduate activist ~t
 At 10 minutes past                           lumbia, the fifth oldest institution 0f       Columbia said to us that he found most
 noon on Tuesday,                             higher learning in America.                   of "the American proletariat" to be
                                                  The Students for a Democratic So-         "surprisingly conservative, materialis-
 April 23, 1968,                              ciety was founded at Port Huron,              tic, home-loving, patriotic, and even
                                              Michigan in June 1962, the product            racist.")
   an intense, lean six-foot junior in        chiefly of University of 'lichigan un-            By late 1966 SDS felt it necessary
  Columbia College, the historic all-male     dergraduates like Albert Haber, Paul          to move again, "from dissent to resist-
  undergraduate school at Columbia Uni-       Potter, and Thomas Hayden, who was            ance." The Johnson administration
  versity, began walking toward the Sun-      elected its first president. It was an off-   seemed incredibly stiff and hawkish
  dial, the unofficial University soapbox     shoot of the League for Industrial De-        about the Vietnam situation, and the
 on College Walk, at the center of the        mocracy, a tiny organization of social-       nation appeared to them reluctant to
 campus. The student walked rather            ists and quasi-socialists who were also       undertake a massive effort to help the
 fast, with long strides, through the sun-    passionate democrats-men like or-                egroes and America's poor. umer-
 ny spring air. His prominent jaw, the        man Thomas, Michael Harrington,               ous SDS members began to question
sandy waves of hair that spilled over         Harold Taylor, and Bayard Rustin.             seriously the validity of America's
 the right side of his forehead, and his       (Albert Haber was president of the           whole economic and political system.
narrowed eyes gave him a look of de-          Student League for Industrial Democ-              SDS from its beginnings had had a
termined belligerency. 'Wearing blue          racy in 1961-62.)                             vague anti-capitalist stance. As early
jeans, boots, and an unironed shirt               Like Columbia philosopher John            as 1963, in their national policy docu-
open at the neck, he seemed rather like       Dewey, the SDS wanted to democra-             ment, America and the New Era, SDS
an angry farmer headed for a brawl at         tize American society more fully; that        leaders condemned the "corporatist"
the local saloon. Several voices mUl"-        is, make every institution in the United      nature of the Kennedy administration
murad, "Here he comes now!"                   States a participatory democratic cell        and the "reactionary Congressional ol-
    As he stepped up on the six-foot-         in an almost Athenian way. 'iV'orkers         igarchy." But in 1966 SDS members be-
round pink granite podium, with five          should have a voice in running their          gan to speak of capitalist warmongers,
of his fellow students, the gathered          factories, Negroes their ghetto schools       U.S. imperialism, rotten bureaucracies,
crowd of approximately 300 persons            and welfare programs, and students            the silliness and sameness of the two-
grew silent. There was a curious mix-         their universities, SDS contended. In         party system, the spinelessness and sel-
ture of quiet good humor and dread            September 1963 a Columbia chapter             fishness of the middle classes, and the
foreboding among the listeners, as if         was formed.                                   slow, unresponsive, committee-infested
they were about to witness a traditional          Initially, SDS spent most of its en-      procedures of liberal democracy. Talk
 spring panty raid in which the spirited      ergy aiding the Negroes in civil rights       became more frequent of "overthrow-
 students as a novelty had decided to         actions. The SDS at first saw itself          ing the power structure" and smashing
 carry knives. The undergraduate about         largely as a campus-based, middle            the entire U.S. "system" as it is pres-
 to speak, Mark Rudd, was a bright. pas-      class, northern counterpart to the Stu-       ently constituted.
 sionate young man who had suddenly           dent Nonviolent Coordinating Com-                 In an interview with reporter Paul
  emerged as a dramatic and fierce-           mittee, or SNCC, which was active on          Hofmann, printed in the        ew York
  willed leader of a small group of Co-       behalf of Jegro equality in the South.        Times on May 7, 1967, SDS national
  lumbia students who were totally fed        Civil rights activity led SDS quickly         secretary Gregory Calvert said, "We
  up with the American "system" of life,      into community organization, or the           are working to build a guerilla force
  with the "power structure" that was im-     stirring up of various underprivileged        in an urban environment. ... 'iV'e are
  posing that system on the masses and        groups into collective action against         actively organizing sedition." Calvert,
  the young, with the leading universities    the authorities in their area in order to     who calls himself "a post-Communist
  that were acting in "complicity" with       gain better jobs, housing, schools, wel-      revolutionary," said that students had
  the system and its "imperialist wars,"      fare programs, equal treatment, and           to become more like the guerilla war-
  and with the University's president,        the like. As the United States became         riors of Vietnam and pro-Castro Cuba.
  Dr. Grayson Kirk. The student group         more and more mired in the Vietnam            Ernesto "Che" Guevara was the new
  also was disillusioned about "the ca-       war, however, SDS shifted its empha-          hero. "Che sure lives in our hearts,"
  reerist, hopelessly middle-class profes-    sis to anti-war publicity and activities      said Calvert.
  sors" who were acquiescing in the com-      in 1964. This shift was prompted by              As the SDS mood shifted from re-
   plicity instead of fighting actively to    two other developments: the increasing        form to revolution, the SDS members
   "liberate" the masses and the young        desire of Negroes to have the civil           began to search for two things. One
   from "the system."                         rights movement largely a black-di-           was a core of dedicated, serious radicals
      ~lost of these students belonged to a   rected affair rather than a white-domi-       to spark things; the other was a mass
   campus clique known as the Students        nated one, and the failure of SDS to          base for the overthrow. To develop
   for a Democratic Society, or SDS,          find allies among the working class,          the former, they teamed up with the
   though the true believers were not lim-    especially in the trade unions. (One          most radical students and professional
   ited to membership in that organiza-       labor leader told us in 1965 that he re-      agitators on the revolutionary left-
   tion. SDS, and Mark Rudd, had been         garded the SDS radicals as "screwball,        the Peking-oriented Progressive Labor
   talking and writing openly for several      un-American, rich kids." The same            Party; the Leninist-Trotskyite Young

 4                                                                                                   COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
Socialist Alliance, the junior branch of    and elsewhere, are of middle-class or       an "aspect of corporate capitalism," ::>r
the Socialist Workers Party; the pro-       upper-class origins.)                       for the government leaders Or the mili-
Cuban, pro-Viet Cong May 2 1ove-                The indispensable document for the       tary. What little teaching, intellec-
ment; and the violently anti-American       new SDS position is Carl Davidson's         tual discussion, and joint inquiry there
Youth Against War and Fascism. By           remarkable 18-page The Multiversity:        is left in the insti tutions is done by
late 1966, some SDS leaders spoke of        Crucible of the New Working Class           fledgling instructors and teaching as-
their "non-exclusionary policy"-their       ( 1967), which sells for 15 cents at        sistants. Proof of the fact that U.S.
willingness to form a popular front         SDS literature tables. Davidson, a na-      universities have shifted their purpose
with everyone from liberals to Maoists      tional secretary of SDS, an ex-philoso-     from helping young people become in-
to achieve radical changes. SDS's open-     phy major at Penn State, and an ad-         dependent, creative, sensitive intellec-
ness and new revolutionary mood at-         mirer of Marx, Lenin, Che Guevara,          tuals to turning out cogs in the system is
tracted an increasing number of other       C. Wright Mills, and Andre Gorz, ar-        manifold: liberal education is collaps-
middle-class youths: young Bohemians,       gues that students are "the new work-       ing everywhere; professors hate to
or hippies, who loathed bourgeois life;     ing class" who can and will usher in a      teach and prefer to "produce"; the
apocalyptic religious idealists; anarch-    new age. (What the new age will be          undergraduate college is more and
ists who despised authority, large-         like, concretely, is something that Da-     more considered to be "the intellectual
scale organizations, and power in any       vidson, like nearly all other campus        slum of the campus"; and, "throughout
form; and the psychologically Jp-           radicals does not bother to say. The        the educational apparatus, the bureau-
pressed, those who felt that they were      New Left "movement" is a movement           cratic mentality prevails."
being "brainwashed" by the ubiquitous       away from present forms, not a move-            "What is the reality of American
influence of television, advertising, the   ment toward any better order that has       education?" asks Davidson. "Contrary
capitalist press, and government propa-     been conceived. "We must be life-af-        to our commitment to individualism,
ganda.                                      firming," says Davidson, which is           we find that the day-to-day practice of
    To develop a mass base for the revo-    about as close as he comes to specifying    our schools is authoritarian, conform-
lution was a harder problem. But the        positive new goals.)                        ist, and almost entirely status-oriented."
Berkeley upheaval of 1964 led a few             In The Multiversity, which is writ-     For college students, present-day high-
SDS actives to think that such a base       ten like a term paper, complete with        er education produces boredom, a feel-
could be found in America among col-        a contents page and 42 footnotes, Da-       ing of alienation, and a sense of ir-
 lege and high school students and          vidson contends that modern universi-        relevance. They feel powerless, ma-
 young alumni and drop-outs, especially     ties are little more than the training       nipulated. Students are like the ex-
since 35 per cent of American youth          and research branches of the capitalist-    ploited factory-hands of the 19th cen-
 now go on to higher education of some       imperialist system. They are "knowl-        tury sweatshops. "The core of the uni-
 sort. The traditional Marxian revolu-       edge factories" that absorb young peo-      versity, with its frills removed," says
 tionary proletariat could be replaced       ple and prepare them for obedience          Davidson, "has become the crucible
 by a new middle-class army of ex-           and bureaucratic tasks through objec-       for the production, formation, and so-
 ploited "workers." (Of note is that         tive, value - free, technique - oriented    cialization of the new working class."
 several studies have shown that the         courses. The senior professors spend           The choices open to students are
 overwhelming majority of revolution-        most of their time as well-paid ~'e-        conformity, dropping out, or rebellion.
 ary guerilla leaders, in Latin America       earchers for the "innovation industry,"    According to Davidson, more and
                                                                                         more students are choosing rebellion.
                                                                                         "What we are witnessing and partici-
SDS political rally at the Sundial on College Walk in April 1966. David Gilbert '66,      pating in is an important historical phe-
then chairman of Columbia's SDS chapter, holds aloft a sign. The group drifted from       nomenon: the revolt of the trainees of
dissent to resistance to rewlutian in the last two years.                                 the new working class against the alien-
                                                                                          ated and oppressive conditions of pro-
                                                                                          duction and consumption within COl'-
                                                                                          pOl'ate capitalism." In another place
                                                                                          Davidson asserts, echoing Karl Marx's
                                                                                          Communist Manifesto: "A spectre is
                                                                                          haunting our universities-the spectre
                                                                                          of a radical and militant nationally
                                                                                          co-ordinated movement for studen t
                                                                                             In order to "liberate" the modern
                                                                                          university, however, an overthrow of
                                                                                          the entire U.S. government and econo-
                                                                                          my is necessary. "'We should always
                                                                                          remember that we cannot liberate the
                                                                                          university without radically changing
                                                                                          the rest of society." Therefore, says Da-
                                                                                          vidson, "Every attempt should be made

 to connect campus issues with ofF-cam-                                                 leader in the Boy Scouts, and president
 pus questions."                                                                        of the high school's Political Club. His
    The M ultivel'sity recommends a                                                     College Board test scores were all in
 whole array of strategies and tactics for                                              the 700s (800 is perfect) and he gradu-
campus revolutions, from the use of jug                                                 ated sixth in a class of 704 boys and
bands and rock 'n' roll groups to "the                                                  girls. His community, Maplewood,
formation of a Student Strike Coordi-                                                   l'\ ew Jersey, was a snugly upper-mid-
nating Committee." Among them:                                                          dle class one with a large minority of
avoiding reform groups like the Demo-                                                   successful Jewish businessmen and pro-
cratic Party, which is so "obviously                                                    fessionals. Rudd's father, a Polish emi-
bankrupt that we need not waste our                                                     gre whose name originally was Rudnit-
time"; infiltrating extracurricular ac-                                                 skv, is a former Army lieutenant-
tivities ("Try to gain control of as much                                               colonel and now a fairly well-off real
of the established campus cultural ap-                                                  estate dealer. The Rudds' only other
paratus as possible.... \Ve need our                                                    son, David, is already a practicing law-
people on the staff of the school news- E                                               vel'. A Columbia admissions officer who
papers, radio stations, etc."); and sabo- ~                                             interviewed Rudd early in 1965 re-
taging courses by signing up for "the Carl Davidson, inter-organizational secre-        members him as "a somewhat tense,
worst profs" and for striltegic courses,    tary of the national SDS and author of      rather introspective fellow with high
and then disrupting things.                 the influential popel', The Multiversity.   ideals who seemed to be searching hard
   Of particular importance are three Says Davidson, "The only constructive             for something important to do in life."
other strategies. One is the refusal to way to deal with an inherently destruc-         He recalls also that he was "a bit sullen,
accept reforms instead of revolution. tiue a/,paratus is to destroy it."                but engagingly straightforward."
"\Ve should avoid all of the 'co-man-                                                       Rudd had a respectable freshman
agement' kinds of reforms. These usu-                                                   year. He studied fairly hard and col-
ally come in the form of giving certain                                                 lected a mixture of A's and B's for
'responsible' student leaders a voice deal with an inherently destructive ap-           grades, just missing the Dean's list. F,Jl'
or influence in certain decision-making paratus is to destroy it."                      extracurricular work, he volunteer~d
processes, rather than abolishing or           A third strategy pertains to profes-     for the College's Citizenship Program,
winning control over those parts of tile sors. Under a section called "The              the remarkable student-run activity in
governing apparatus." If any SDS Faculty Question: Allies or Finks," Da-                which over 500 of the College's 2,700
members do win election to any posi- vidson believes that SDS should do                 students annually work in prisons,
tions of influence, says Davidson, they everything possible to ally themselves          ghetto areas, psychiatric and rehabili-
should use the position to denounce with the younger, teaching faculty. "As             tation stations, and the like as a social
and destroy. "A seat should be seen for the research and administrative fac-            service. Rudd tutored youngsters in
as a soap-box," asserts Davidson. "\Ve ulty, we should set both olll'selves and         Harlem.
are not trying to liberalize the existing   the teaching faculty against them."             The next academic year, as a sopho-
order, but trying to win our liberation Also, SDS should encourage the splin-           more, Rudd, disturbed about the Viet-
from it."                                   tering off of the more progressive in-      nam war, discovered radical politics
    Another strategy is to use every issue structors into a separate, independent       and switched his extracuricular inter-
 not as a matter by itself but as a means faculty group. "\Ve should encourage          ests primarily to anti-war activities. He
of smashing all college and university the potentially radical sectors of the           joined the Independent Committee on
authority. "The purpose of de-sanctifi- faculty to organize among themselves            Vietnam, a vociferous campus group
cation is to strip institutions of their around their own grievances," says D'l-        that opposes not only the Vietnam in-
legitimizing authority, to have them vidson.                                            volvement but all U.S. involvements in
reveal themselves to the people under          The long-range goal in Carl David-       foreign situations. Since many of the
 them for what they are-raw, Coerci\le son's mind is a world-wide organization          100 or so students associated with the
power. This is the purpose of singing of revolutionary students and young               I.C.V., as it is called, had an overlap-
the 1ickey Mouse Club jingle at stu- faculty and alumni. "Hopefully, in the             ping affiliation with the Students for
dent government meetings, of ridicul- not too distant future, we may be in-             Democratic Society, Rudd also plugged
 ing and harrassing student disciplinary strumental in forming a new Interna-           into that group.
 hearings and tribunals, of burning the tional Union of Revolutionary Youth,"                (Student organizations, especially
 Dean of Men and/or 'Nomen in effigy, he writes.                                        the political organizations, are extreme-
 etc. People will not move against insti-      Mark Rudd entered Columbia Col-          Iv loose and shifting these days. Of-
 tutions of power until the legitimizing lege in the fall of 1965, just when the        ficers, dues, committees, formal meet-
 authority has been stripped away." Da- Students for a Democratic Society were          ings, official policies, and all that are
 vidson is conscious that such disruption beginning to drift further leftward. Tn       regarded as ".'dickey :\Iouse"-child-
 and negativism may backfire. "\Vhile his high school days, he had been a               ish, overly formal stuff to be avoided.
 we may be criticized for not offering hard-working, broadly active student.            Organizations form and collapse quick-
 'constructive' criticisms, we should re- He was a ham radio operator, a goalie         ly, mostly when specific issues appear
 ply that the only constructive way to on the school soccer team, a troop                that need attack. For the bigger, tougn-

6                                                                                                 COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
er issues, like racism in America or the      take-over would fail. ""'e can never       classes" and spontaneous demonstr:l-
Vietnam war, organizations gather to-         force the University to submit to our      tions was imperative.
gether and mix, like finger paintings,        demands unless we have behind us the          '''hat was evident in the position
to form a "movement.")                        strength of the majority of students on    paper was Rudd's single-mindedness
     Friends say that as a sophomore in       campus." To mobilize student support,      about striking a blow at the Govern-
1966-67, Rudd became increasingly             Rudd urged "a steady stream of propa-      ment's war effort through actions at
impatient, irascible, and action-ori-         ganda and exposures," as well as a         Columbia, and his confidence in the
ented. The refusal of U.S. leaders to         series of limited actions such as "har-    manipulability of Columbia's students.
pull out of Vietnam really bugged him.        rassments of recruiters and N.R.O.T.C.     Conspicuously absent in the document
"By the end of the spring term, he was
almost a Maoist," recalls one classmate.
His disgust mounted for President
Johnson, for President Kirk, who re-
                                              Mark Rudd, chairman of the Columbia SDS chapter, addressing a rally on Low Plaza.
fused to come out against the United
                                              To strike a blow at the U.S. war effort, he felt the students and faCt/lty had to be
States' involvement in Vietnam pub-           "radicalized," the Administration wrecked.
liclv (although Kirk privately had
grave reservations about the conAict),
and for the "stupid" middle class in
America who sheepishly went along
with the "senseless slaughter" of Asi-
ans. He had to be rebuked by the Col-
lege's Dean's Office in the spring of
1967 for sitting in a lavy R.O.T.C.
class on March 1 with the purpose of
disrupting it.
     'Vhen he came back to the Morning-
side campus in September 1967, Rudd
 frequently appeared as furious and en-
ergetic as a newly-caged lion. He was
 convinced that drastic action- not just
 talk and picketing-has to be under-
 taken. In early October Rudd drew up
 a bold "Position Paper on Strategy for
 the Rest of the Year." In it he stated
 that SDS students had to move beyond
 a mere "posture of radical action." A
 carefully prepared, direct assault on
 the University was now necessary "to
 end university complicity with the war:
 I.D.A. (Institute for Defense Analy-
 ses), N.R.O.T.C., C.I.A. contracts, re-
 cruiting, etc." Said Rudd, "We're going
  to have to develop the two things
 which we lack now-a coherent strate-
 gy and an effective organization."
 Rudd proposed a timetable of action,
  from the formulation of strategy for the
 campaign in early November, 1967,
  to "Phase V, Mass Action" in April,
  1968, when there was to be "A sit-in at
  Low Library which, after one dav,
  turns into a general strike. University
      To pull the assaults off, Rudd ar-
  gued, SDS had to succeed in one vital
  area: "The radicalization of students-
  showing people the connections in the
  liberal structure, showing them how
  our lives are unfree in this society (and
  at Columbia), getting them to act in
   their own interest." W'ithout this the

 SPRING, 1968                                                                                                                     7
 were such traditional SDS concerns as         too. He was arrested for a virulent at-     SDS conference at New York Univer-
 help for the poor, for egroes, and for        tack against Secretary of State Dean        sity's Weinstein Residence Hall en
 student power in running the universi-        Rusk outside a midtown hotel in New         February 10-11. The purpose of the
 ties. Rudd recently told a New York           York on November 15, 1967. On Feb-          meeting was to figure out ways of lo-
 Times reporter, "I was never really at-      ruary 24 he helped stage an illegal sit-     cally implementing a decision reached
 tracted to civil rights. There was too        in inside Dodge Hall, blocking the door     by the SDS's National Council during
 much idealization of Negroes and they        of the campus job interviewer from           the Christmas holiday of 1967-68 at the
 didn't seem too effective. I've always       Dow Chemical Corporation, a leading          University of Indiana. Basically, the
 felt a tremendous barrier between me         manufacturer of napalm. Earlier Presi-       decision was that SDS members had to
and blacks."                                  dent Kirk had stated that picketing          enter a new third stage of political
    Mark Rudd, and those few others           inside University buildings was im-          theory and practice. Begun in dissent
who supported him were not able to            proper because such action makes             and reform, SDS had moved into re-
 muster much enthusiastic support for         noise and hampers the movement of            sistance and sabotage; now it was time
 the position paper. One of the things        persons in a way that directly inter-        to move into revolution and head-on
 that his plan required was much tighter      feres with classroom instruction and         clashes.
organization and, as he put it," "com-        work in the buildings, and is hard to           As stated in Firebomb, the SDS
mitment to the work necessary to win."        keep non-violent. (Peaceful outdoor          newsletter, in early February, SDS was
But the SDS has from its beginnings           picketing, rallies, and demonstrations       taking a "major step forward" in their
prided itself on its egalitarian and £Ioat-   have long been an accepted practice at       struggle, one that was a matter of Ijfe-
ing structure, its absence of strong in-      Columbia.) The February 24 sit-in            and-death for SDS. Said the editorial:
ternal discipline. In 1966 SDS even           was done despite an undergraduate            "A serious organization consciously
voted to abolish its own offices of Presi-    student referendum on Jovember 1 in          seeking to develop a revolutionary
dent and Executive Secretary on the           which 67.3 per cent of the students          practice creates a life-or-death dynam-
grounds that such positions allowed too       voted to continue open recruiting, de-       ic within the society it is trying to de-
much authority and replaced them with         spite a College Faculty vote on Novem-       stroy and recreate."
three National Secretaries and an 11-         ber 14 also backing free campus visits          What the SDS ational Council de-
man National Council.                         by corporations, and despite the objec-      cided in Bloomington was to adopt the
    To some, Rudd's ideas seemed like         tions of some SDS members.                   so-called "Ten Days in April" plan,
an alien Leninist imposition of party             But Mark Rudd had become a revo-         whereby SDS members and their allies
control. Also, many SDS followers are         lutionary and had risen above majority       would spark 10 days of disruption and
fine young scholars, and they balked          rule. Five weeks before the illegal Feb-     violent confrontations at leading Amer-
at the suggestion of curtailing their         ruary 24 sit-in (which the College's         ican colleges and universities between
studies to work night and day for a uni-      Associate Dean for Students Alexander        Sunday, April 21 and Tuesday, April
versity takeover. Then too, Rudd's pro-       Platt decided, to many people's sur-         30. As reported in The Chronicle of
posals had a methodical quality, a smell      prise, not to punish as an illegal act),     Higher Education, January 15, 1968,
of probable violence in them, that            Rudd had requested permission to             by an on-the-scene observer, Greg Cal-
scared off students who preferred to          leave the College brie£ly to visit Cuba      vert, one of the SDS national leaders,
stay loose and non-violent.                   in January. He came back with enthusi-       declared the last 10 days in April "a
    Lastly, the SDS group had as its          astic reports of how marvelous every-        time to shake the empire." Another one
chairman College senior Ted Kaptchuk          thing was in that state. (His reports,       of the 200 students in attendance
'68, an effective speaker and authority-      printed in Spectator, the College's caus-    called the period, "a time for aggres-
baiter but a personally amiable and not       tically liberal daily newspaper, drew        sion."
entirely dedicated radical. He and            the fury of others at the University            The SDS plan, in keeping with the
SDS's chief Sundial orator, Ted Gold,         who had other knowledge of life in           organization's looseness and centrifu-
a former classmate of Kaptchuk's at           Fidel Castro's territory. One of the re-     gal tendencies, urged that each cam-
   ew York's Stuyvesant High School,          spondents, a Mr. Perez, wrote in a let-      pus chapter select its own methods and
both came out of a background of in-          ter to the Spectator editor, "As a Cuban     targets. The SDS national leaders cau-
tellectual radicalism of a Trotskyite         citizen born in that beautiful country,      tioned, however, against getting too
bent. It is a background that is rather       I am disgusted and outraged at the           hung up on specific issues or particular
ideological in its anti-capitalism and        pack of lies, distortions, and absurdities   reforms. The report said, "SDS does
anti-imperialism, one unaccustomed to         that a Ml'. Mark Rudd has been trying        not attack university complicity with
the new trend toward swift action and         to pass as facts . . .") Additionally,       the war, but the university as an in-
brawling, guerilla-like street fighting.      fired with the guerilla spirit of Ernesto    tegral part of the corporate structure
    Though Rudd's approach remained           "Che" Guevara, Rudd was more than            which necessitates and wages imperial-
a minority one within SDS, he and his         ever convinced of the necessity, the         ist wars."
colleagues decided to put portions of         morality, even the beauty of a liberat-         The SDS newsletter Firebomh point-
their action-oriented program in opera-       ing upheaval.                                ed to the need for greater discipline
tion anyway. He lashed out at every-              Only two weeks before the illegal        within its ranks and told readers of the
thing at Columbia even remotely con-          February 24 sit-in, after Rudd had re-       plan "for pulling our organization to-
nected with military and government           turned from Cuba, several Columbia           gether as a real political force in Amer-
activities, and he fought off-campus,         students attended a weekend regional         ica." One SDS writer from New York
urged: "\Ve've got from now until April    attack and occupation. "Columbia              not with an angrv mob. The SDS
to organize the hell out of this citv.     could burn Grayson Kirk in effigy in          crowd then stalked off to the office \Jf
Then we open up and confront the           front of Socony Mobil (or IB"\I or            Vice President for Business Thomas
power structure and the people, an:.!      Chase Manhattan, for that matter),            McGoey, who said he had seen theIr
if we survive the confrontation we or-       T¥U could go to First Jational City         petition of 1,400 names urging dis-
ganize some more."                         Bank Or any other target they find ap-        affiliation with IDA, but declined to
   Accord;ng to one person who at-         propriate. . . . Artists and writers          argue with them in the hallway. Rudd
tended the .Y. U. conference, there        ,,"ould have no problem finding their         then shouted, "There's one more uf
were about 175 people, mostly stu-         own targets in the nerve center of im-        these swine around," and the demon-
dents, there. The general feeling was      perialism. The South African people           strators dashed down to the office of
that the overthrow of American society     could do their thing at Chase Manhat-         Dr. Warren Goodell, the third of Co-
was not possible yet, but SDS had to       tan . . . ." Halliwell suggested: "Our        lumbia's vice presidents. Dr. Goodell,
begin "pre - revolutionary" activities.    aim is not to close down one entrance         however, was out to lunch.
These activities were to be of a provok-   to one building, but rather to occupy            Just before one o'clock Dr. Davd
ing sort, designed to force numerous       the area and exploit its manv wonders.        Truman left his office for an appoint-
levels of authority into violent police    The intricate little cross-streets of low-    ment with Dr. George Fraenkel, dean
or National Guard action against stu-      er Manhattan can work for us in that          of Graduate Faculties, in Philosophy
dents and Negroes. The purpose of          context, not against (vi;::;. Paris workers   Hall. Rudd and his fellow students
these activities was "educational"; they   during the last lhree Republics)."            rushed out in front of him and locked
were to instruct and "radicalize" peo-     What about the cops? "Probably there          arms in front of the door to prohibit
ple. By unmasking what they believed       will be some fighting, and we will have       him from entering the Philosophy
was the fundamentally brutal, "fascist"    to be prepared to deal with that. But a       building. When the Academic Vice
nature of the supposedly tolerant, dem-    highly mobile demonstration with more         President tried to open the door, the
ocratic leaders and thus stirring hatred   than enough ugliness to attack need           SDS group pushed him away. "I have
for government figures, military au-       not attempt to hold its ground in any         an appointment," said Dr. Truman.
thorities, university leaders, and the     particular spot."                             "\Iark Rudd retorted, "Adolf Eichmann
police (and earning svmpathy and              Halliwell's imaginative piece de 1'Ii-     had appointments too." The Universi-
strcngth for the SDS leaders), it was      sistQnce was not accepted; it was             ty's popular and scrupulously fair Proc-
hoped that the stage could be set for      thought to be too audacious given             tor William Kahn, finally persuaded
an ultimate SDS-led confrontation,         SDS strength and support at that mo-          the ~tudents to let Dr. Truman into the
which would smash the system and its       ment.                                         building.
power structure and usher in a saner,         The NY Conference that February               This noon-hour rush on \Vednesday,
more peaceful, more genuinely free         10-11 also helped steel Rudd in his           ~Iarch 27 was important in sever,11
era.                                       determination to conduct revolution-          ways. It revealed to Columbia's admin-
   During the pre-revolutionary period,    ary activities.                               istrators, who were unaware of SDS's
SDS members had to keep up a steady           In mid-~Iarch the SDS members at           recent escalation of tactics and strug-
demand for more and more control           Columbia met to elect new officers.           gle, the new mood of the SDS grOLlp-
over all the institutions in society, it   Rudd ran for chairman and won in a            sportively truculent and belligerent!v
was suggested. At the SDS Radical Ed-      close election. As the new chairman,          profane. It made further transparent
ucation Project conference at Prince-      Rudd wasted no time in installing new         the desperate itch of SDS for a rough-
ton University a year earlier, organizer   vigor, discipline, and determination          house confrontation, an incident to
Jerry Tenney argued that SDS mem-          into the 125 or so students in SDS. On        catapault them into bigger things, a
bers should work for "control over the     ~Iarch 27, he led about 110 students          thing the deans and administrators had
universities." In the subcellar games      into Low Library during the noon hour         become aware of earlier in the year.
room of N.Y.U.'s Weinstein Hall Ten-       in a protest against both the ban 0n          'They again appear to be daring us to
ney again insisted, "The thing we have     indoor demonstrations and the Univer-         clamp down on them roughly," said
to ask for all the time is control."       sity's membership in the Institute of         one University official. That March
   Columbia graduate student Steve         Defense Analyses, or IDA. Carrving            27th afternoon thev demanded in a
Halliwell, who had been writing blis-      placards and chanting slogans, the            letter to President Kirk that Columbia
tering articles for the New Left News,     group rushed to the door outside the          resign from the IDA consortium and
"The Journal of the Columbia Univer~i­     offices of President Kirk and Vice Pres-      that any professor working on IDA
ty Students for a Democratic Society,"     ident Truman. Rudd demanded that              projects be fired from the Universit!,.
offered the N.Y.U. conference group a      Dr. Truman come out and meet with             " ntil Columbia University ends all
written proposal to highlight the "Ten     the group in the domed Rotunda.               connections with IDA we must disrupt
Days in April" program in ew York:         Someone shouted, "Tell him no pies in         the functioning of those involved in
a "Financial District Festival." The       the face." (The previous week the di-         the daily disruption of people's lives
paper proposed that the SDS students       rector of New York City's Selective           around the world." (This letter wus
lead a temporary seizure of the whole      Service was struck in the face with a         circulated to all faculty, with Dr.
Wall Street area, with each of the local   lemon meringue pie while speaking at          Kirk's reply, in the Columbia Univer-
SDS chapters and special discontent        Columbia.) Dr. Truman said he woalt!          sity Newsletter, April 15, 1968,)
groups choosing their own places of        meet onlv with three representatives,            And, the Low inciclent obliged the

10                                                                                                COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
Dr. Moran Weston '30 speaking at the
Martin Luther King Memorial Seruice in
Columbia's St. Paul's Chapel on April 9,    turbulence began, and after weeks of       of the stupidity of prejudice and vio-
1968. Et;eryone held hands and sang         attempted talks and an April 12 meet-      lence were so perv;::sive and profoUJl(J.
"We Shall Ot;ercome." But SDS leaders       ing with SDS leaders on the "neutral"      that hardly anvone spoke. Heads were
(white) shocked the mourners by disrupt-
                                            South Field grass, Associate Dean Platt    bowed and eyes moist. The service was
ing the service to make wild allegations.
                                            wrote a terse letter to the leaders in-    somber and stately. After the Rev. Dr.
                                            forming each one that if he did not re-    Moran \Veston '30, a Negro and a
                                            spond to the Dean's letter and corne to    noted Episcopalian minister in Harlem,
Universitv and College officials to en-     the College office, each would be sus-     read moving passages from Dr. King's
force the rule against indoor demon-        pended from Columbia.                      writings, everyone in the Chapel, some
strations.                                     What really brought ,vIark Rudd to      1,300 strong, held hands (except Dr.
   It did. Shortly after, Rudd, SDS         the attention of the University com-       Kirk, who was seated at the rear of ,he
vice-chairman Nick Freudenberg, and         munity, though, was his electrifying       chancel) and sang all the verses of "We
four members of the SDS steering com-       stunt at Columbia's memorial service       Shall Overcome." It was an unprece-
mittee (John Jacobs, Ted Gold, Ed           for the Rev. Dr. :\'Imtin Luther King,     dented act for Columbia's intellectual,
Hyman, and :\10rris Grossner) were          Jr. in St. Paul's chapel on April 9. The   unsentimental, non-hymn-singing pop-
asked to come to the College Dean's         University chapel was overflowing          ulation. Slowly, Vice President Tru-
office to discuss their role in leading     with mourners - facultv, administra-       man rose to deliver a somber eulogy.
the illegal demonstrations. In a brazen     tion, and students, including nearly          Suddenly Mark Rudd, seated in one
move, they refused to do so, and de-        100 of Columbia's black students. An       of the front rows, leapt to his feet. He
manded instead "open hearings" of           additional 1,000 professors and stu-       walked up and seized the microphone,
their cases. On April 17, six days be-      dents huddled outside the chapel's dec-    and denounced Dr. Truman's forth-
fore the fateful Tuesday on which the       orative doors. The feelings of sorrow,     coming speech as "an obscenity," and

SPRI:-,TG, 1968                                                                                                              11
the whole service as "morallv outra~e­        especiallv since :\Iark Rudd and the            Said one professor, "Shockinglv op-
ous" since, he said, Columbia had fol-        SDS leadership had been largelv anti-        portunistic." One student commented,
lowed a long and consistent "racist           war in their concerns and had plaved         "Holy cow, SDS has re-discovered the
policy." About 20 of his fellow SDS           down Negro problems in the past vear.        Negro!" The reactions were not entire-
members applauded loudly, then got               \Vhen the mourners left the Chapel,       ly accurate because in late March and
up and followed Mark Rudd out of              they were handed a mimeographed              April Rudd and the SDS had begun to
the chapel.                                   sheet from the Columbia SDS that had         seek revolutionary support from out-
   The mourners were stunned and              an entirely new thrust. It demanded,         side the student population, because
appalled. Whispers of "Shame," "Blas-         among other things: "an immediate            the students were not responding as
phemy," and "Incredible bad taste"            halt to the construction of the gym-         well as SDS had hoped. SDS had be-
(ould be heard. One person at the rear        nasium in Morningside Park, with rep-        gun including Harlem blacks, workers
of the Chapel, who watched Rudd               arations for damaged park land"; re-         at or around Columbia, and Morning-
storm out-quivering, transfixed, and          definition of the concept of the \11liver-   side dissidents in their literature. Revo-
eyes bulging-said, "He's gone mad."           sity community' to include local resi-       lutions do not live by young intellectu-
Many of Columbia's students said after        dents, neighbors, and university work-       als alone, it had been decided.
the service that they were outraged,          ers"; and "total community control              Three days later, on Friday, April
                                              over the [Ford Foundation's] $10 mil-        12, President Grayson Kirk was sched-
                                              lion Urban Affairs grant." It also asked     uled to give a Founder's Day address
                                              for "the incorporation of Black arts and     on the occasion of the 225th birthday
                                              culture in the regular College curricu-      of Thomas Jefferson, at the University
President Gmyson Kirk speaking to Col-        lum," something that was already in          of Virginia in Charlottesville. He had
lege sttldents at a 1"ecent Dorm Council-     effect in some measure at Columbia           completed the text the previous Thurs-
sponsored Fh'eside Chat. For two how's,       and which recently had been added to         day morning, several hours before Dr.
ttvice a year, the President and 'under-      by the announcement of a new course in       ~Iartin Luther King was shot on April
graduates have an informal question-and-      Negro history beginning fall, 1968.          4. For Dr. Kirk, the speech was a very
answer session. At the University of Vir-     Even the IDA was given a new twist           important one. He had become con-
ginia this Aplil 12, Dr. Kirk said, "We       in the leaflet. Now it was no longer a       vinced that there were several new
should not be afraid to remember Jeffer-
                                              body engaged in war research but "an         trends that were dangerous for Ameri-
son's counsel that each generation should
be prepared to examine its political insti-
                                              organization which produces weapons          can society, and he had stayed up sev-
tutions 011d to reshape them as might be      and control systems for the suppres-         eral nights laboring over each para-
necessary in order to meet more ade-          sion of ghetto upriSings."                   graph of the talk, writing and rewrit-
quately the needs of the time."
ing in longhand on a legal pad. It              burden properly should be carried out         our cake and eat it too. \Ve should not
turned out to be an extraordinarily             by the city, the state, or the Federal        be afraid to remember Jefferson's coun-
                                                government. No one knows whether              sel that each generation should be pre-
prescient speech.                               dependent mothers of large families,          pared to examine its political institu-
   At the University of Virginia, follow-       when there is no father present, should       tions and to re-shape them as might be
ing some laudatory remarks abo~lt Jef-          be left at home on relief to rear their       necessary in order to meet more ade-
ferson, President Kirk said:                    children or whether it would be better        quately the needs of the time.
                                                to encourage the mothers to become            Later on, Dr. Kirk, a former profes-
      In many ways our society is in a          employed and to provide for the chil-
  more perilous condition than at ailY                                                     sor of government and international re-
                                                dren during work hours at Day Care
  time since the convulsive conflict be-        Centers. No one knows how the vicious      lations, added, "We are trying to oper-
  tween the states a century ago. . . .         cycle of dependency, which threatens       ate a complicated and sensitive society
  Our nation is in trouble.                     to go on generation after generation,      with mechanisms devised for the needs
      The enumeration of our present dif-       can be broken. \~Te do know that the
  ficulties and dangers would ruffle even                                                  of a simpler day." There is a distinct
                                                present, improvised system is hopeless-
  the calm temperament of a Jefferson.                                                     danger, argued Dr. Kirk, of "drift fur-
                                                ly inadequate, and that is almost all
  At home, disrespect for law and au-           we know.                                   ther into sterile and divisive conflict."
  thority has reached such a level of ac-          And yet ours is certainly the most          In his concluding paragraph he ex-
  ceptance that its natural concomitant,        affluent and perhaps the best educated
  resort to violence, has almost achieved                                                  plained how he had taken the title of
                                                society in history.                        his address, "The Umpirage of Rea-
  respectability. . . . Our young people,
  in disturbing numbers, appear to re-           In the midst of this brooding analy-      son," from Thomas Jefferson's Third
  ject all forms of authority, from what-     sis, Columbia's president made two           Annual Message to Congress. "There
  ever source derived, and they have          startling suggestions. One was "the          he spoke eloquently of 'cultivating gen-
  taken refuge in a turbulent and in-         need for this country to extricate itself
  choate nihilism whose sole objectives                                                    eral friendship, and of bringing colli-
  are destructive. I know of no time in       as quickly as pOSSible from its current      sions of interest to the umpirage of rea-
  our history when the gap between the        involvement in Vietnam. 10 other item        son rather than of force.' In the years
  generations has been wider or more          on the national agenda can be dealt          ahead we shall have to remember this
  potentially dangerous....                   with effectively until this has been
      Youth protest movements erupt from                                                   counsel."
   time to time even in authoritarian com-    done. Not one of our great social, eco-          Hardly anyone in society today pays
  munist states. One senses in the coun-      nomic, or political problems can be          much attention to the speeches of uni-
   tries of \Vestern Europe, as here, a       made manageable until this conflict          versity presidents. So almost none of
   general unease, a feeling of drift and     can be brought to an end." Said Dr.
   uncertainty as social systems lose their                                                 the faculty or students at Columbia
   traditional rigidity and as political      Kirk, the Vietnam engagement has pro-         were aware of the contents of the Uni-
   leaders struggle to cope with the be-      duced "more bitter dissension than any        versity of Virginia talk, except the an-
   wildering problems of governing an ur-     issue since the tragic "Var Between the       nouncement in some newspapers that
   ban, technologically advanced, indus-      States," and has tended "to elevate civil     President Kirk had come out against
   trial society.                             disobedience into a civic virtue." The        the Vietnam war, and taken a swipe at
Dr. Kirk went on to say that while            strong stand made President Kirk one          student "nihilism." (President Kirk so
youth too often tends toward facile           of the first American university presi-       avoids chest-thumping ballyhoo that
criticism and no concrete suggestions         dents to take a public position on this       Columbia is probably the only major
for improvement, the adult world also         burning matter.                               university in America without a vice
has too little inventiveness and lacks            Even more surprising was his other        president for public relations.)
constructive ideas. "The plain fact is        suggestion-that Americans consider a             But at least Mark Rudd and his SDS
that we do not know how to solve the          radical re-casting of the nation's entire     colleagues might have been amazed to
new problems that confront our so-            political structure and system of insti-      discover that the Columbia official who
ciety. They are too new, too complex,         tutions.                                      had become in their eyes the most
too immense in magnitude, and neither
                                                   Our problems, urban, industrial and      hated representative on campus of
our experience nor that of other peo-           social, are so great in magnitude and       the capitalist-imperialist Establishment
ples is of much help to us as we g;'o~e         so complex in nature that they can be       agreed with them that the Vietnam en-
for answers." He cited the nation's             dealt with efficiently only by a greater
                                                concentration of governmental authori-      gagement ought to be concluded as
cities as an example of our seeming
                                                ty than our democracy has been con-         rapidly as possible and that American
helplessness.                                   structed to provide or our people are       society needed to "re-examine its poli-
    Look for a moment at one single fact        prepared to support.                        tical institutions and re-shape them,"
  of this problem of the metropolis, the           \Ve have always said proudly that
  matter of public welfare. The mass            though our democracy may be a clum-         as Dr. Kirk put it.
  migration of largely indigent people to       sy form of government, we accept this           Mark Rudd was not unaware of Pres-
  great metropolitan ce~ters Ins created        inefficiency as a reasonable price for      ident Kirk's Charlottesville speech. He
  an administrative and fituncial night-        the protection of our liberties. But to-    had read the brief review of it in The
  mare for welfare agencies. In New             day, though we cling to our liberties
                                                                                            New York Times of the next day. Rudd
  York City alone we have today almost          with appropriate passion, we demand
  twice as many people on relief as dur-        from our government a degree of effi-       was stung by Dr. Kirk's reference to the
  ing the depths of the depression. \Ve         ciency that our system was designed to      "turbulent and inchoate nihilism" of an
  have more dependent children than the         make almost impossible.                     increasing proportion of the young,
  entire population of Omaha or Akron.             I do not conclude that we should         which the newspaper mentioned. He
  The cost of our city welfare programs         now abandon our liberties in the in-
  now exceeds a billion dollars a year.         terest of efficiency. The price would be    and a few of his fellow SDS students
      10 one knows how much of this             too great. But we cannot forever have       decided to respond in their own news-

SPRING, 1968                                                                                                                      13
paper, the first issue during his chair-                                                         The day after Up Against the Wall
manship, Volume III, number 1. (The                                                           was distributed, Associate Dean Alex-
new SDS incumbents decided to change                                                          ander Platt finally received a visit from
the name of the paper from New Left                                                           Rudd and the four other SDS leaders
News to Up Against the Wall. The                                                              (one had dropped out of school) who
dateline read "April 22, 1968-The                                                             had been charged with actively partici-
year of the heroic guerilla" and one full                                                     pating in the Low Library indoor dem-
page inside the eight-page sheet was                                                          onstration on March 27. When they ar-
given over to a double portrait of Ern-                                                       rived on M.onday, April 22, Dean Platt
esto Guevara above the signature,                                                             asked them if they wanted to admit
"Che." Underneath the portraits was                                                           guilt or plead innocence, and if they
the sentence, "The duty of every revo-                                                        would explain their side of the Low
lutionary is to make the revolution.")                                                        Library affair. They refused to answer,
   Rudd's response was titled "Reply to                                                       so the dean of students, because they
Uncle Grayson." It read in part:                 "If we win, we will take con-                had not denied their role, placed them
  Dear Grayson,                                  trol of ,),our world, ,),our cor-            on disciplinary probation for the rest of
      Your charge of nihilism is indeed          porations, ,),our universit')', and          the semester (five weeks), with the
   ominous ... Though it is not true, your
   charge does represent something: you
                                                 attempt to mold a world in                   warning that one more disruption of
   call it the generation gap. I see it as a     which we and other people can                University life would cause him to ask
   real conflict between those who run           live as human beings."                       for their suspension or dismissal from
   things now-you Grayson Kirk-and                                                            the College. The SDS students, who re-
   those who feel oppressed by, and dis-                                 MARK RUDD
                                                                                              garded the rule against indoor demon-
   gusted with, the society you rule--we,
   the young people.                                                                          strations as a politically motivated rule
      You might want to know what is                                                          to "stifle dissent" and hamper their con-
   wrong with this society since, after all,      as human beings.... We will have to         frontations on the campus, left Hamil-
   you live in a very tight, self-created         destroy at times, even violently, in        ton Hall in a huff.
   drcam world. 'vVe can point to the war         order to end your power and your sys-           A few days earlier, Rudd and SDS
   in Vietnam as an example of the un-            tem-but that is a far cry from nihi-
   imaginable wars of aggression you are                                                      had already announced that they in-
   prepared to fight to maintain control                                                      tended to seek another "confrontation"
                                                     There is only one thing left to say.
   over your empire. (Now you've been             It may sound nihilistic to you, since it    in Low Library, the University's chief
   beaten by the Vietnamese, so you call          is the opening shot in a war of libera-     administrative building. The move an-
   for a tactical retreat.) . . . ''''e can       tion. I'll use thc words of Leroi Jones,
   point to this university, your university,                                                 gered a great number of Columbia stu-
                                                  whom I'm sure you don't like a whole        dents, who had begun to grow weary of
   which trains us to be lawyers and en-          lot: "Up against the wall, motherfuck-
   gineers, and managers for your IBM,            cr, this is a stickup."                     SDS's incessant demands, slashing ac-
   your Socony Mobil, your IDA, your                                                          cusations, and disruptions; and a group
   Con Edison (or else to be scholars and                              Yours for freedom,
                                                                       tllark                 called the Students for a Free Campus
   teachers in more universities like this
   one). Vie can point, in short, to our                                                      was re-activated. It was an ad hoc
                                                 In another article in Up Agqinst the
  own meaningless studies, om identity                                                        group that had formed the previous
   crises, and our revulsion with being         Wall, by student Bob Feldman, "The
                                                                                              October to promote open recruiting and
   cogs in your corporate machines as a         King Memorial-Why We Disrupted,"
                                                                                              the continuance of free speech at the
   product of a reaction to a basically sick    the author said, "In pursuit of Justice
   society.                                                                                   University. On Monday morning, April
                                                the revolutionary is compelled to act at
      Your cry of nihilism represents your                                                    22, the Students for a Free Cam-
                                                all appropriate times." One other piece,
  inability to understand our positive                                                        pus distributed a mimeographed sheet
                                                "McKennedy or Sabotage?", by Col-
   values ... 'Ve do have a vision of the                                                     throughout the campus. It read:
   way things could be: how the tremen-         lege sophomore John Jacobs (who with-
                                                                                                    Tired? Tired of an organization that
   dous resources of our economy could          drew from Columbia in early 'larch)              claims to represent you and doesn't?
   bc used to eliminate want, how people        blasted both Eugene M.cCarthy and                Tired of a two-standard university that
   in other countries could be free from        Robert Kennedy as Presidential candi-            gives virtual immunity to SDS agitators
   your domination, how a university                                                             while you are subject to immediate sus-
   could produce knowledge for progress,        dates, and contended:
                                                                                                 pension if you toss a paper airplane
   and not waste consumption and de-                   There is only one way to save Ameri-      out a window?
   struction (IDA), how men could be               ca and that is by revolutionary up-              Tired of an environment where you
   free to keep what they produce, to en-          heaval.                                       cannot listen to a guest speaker and
   joy peaceful lives, to create. These are            Our tasks can then be specified.          be sure he won't be physically harassed
   positive values-but since they mean             ''''hen America's rulers fight wars like      by SDS? Of an environment where
   the destruction of your order, you call         Vietnam, our task is disruption, ob-          your sacred privacy of worship is al-
   them "nihilism." In the movement we             struction, and sabotage. ''''hen the          lowed to degenerate into political
   me . be~!nning to call this vision "so-         army invades the ghetto, our task is          showmanship? Must one group be al-
   cJahsm. . ..                                    counter-terror, directed against the          lowed to dictate this university's fu-
      You are quite right in feeling that          symbols of oppression, the state and          ture?
   the situation is "potentially dangerous."       the capitalists, and against their re-           On Tuesday, April 23, SDS plans
   For if we win, we will take control of          pressive apparatus, according to the          another disruption against IDA. The
   your world, your corporations, your             revolutionary principle of Three for          most distasteful aspect of this demon-
   university and attempt to mold a world          One. For ourselves our task is to mo-         stration is that SDS plans to embarrass
   in which we and other people can live           bilize our generation ...                     our deans through physical coercion,

14                                                                                                     COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
  and force the deans to add more names                                                   The Students for a Free Campus had
  to those of the "infamous seven" up for                                                 issued another flyer called "Cool It for
  suspension. The question is not one of
  liberalism vs. moderation. It is a ques-                                                Victory." It said, "We will have as
  tion of whether democracy can survive                                                   many students as possible on Low Pla-
  on a campus dominated by one faction                                                    za and the steps," in an attempt to halt
  victorious only through physical co-                                                    the SDS invasion of Low Library by
  ercion.                                                                                 having a protective picket line in front
     Be there.... Can democracy survive
  at Columbia University? Will Mark                                                       of the building. It continued, "We are
  Rudd be our next dean? Be there on                                                      going to be on TV and in the national
  the 23d-prepared.                                                                       press, but instead of a blurry film of
                                                                                          flying fists, we are going to give them
   That Monday night, April 22, the                                                       a real show. SDS will have to wade
SDS called an emergency meeting in                                                        through our picket line to break the
Fayerweather Hall. According to Rob-          "The question is not one of                 rules, to trample our rights; and Am~r­
ert Stulberg, a Spectator reporter who                                                    ica will watch them. So cool it. This
                                              liberalism vs. moderation. It is
apparently was there but did not report                                                   time we are going to win by making
about the meeting until the May 10 is-
                                              a question of whether democ-
                                                                                          SDS look like dirt."
sue of his paper. "A sense of urgency         racy can survwe on a campus                    The SDS radicals had published their
seemed to pervade the meeting room."          dominated b~y one faction vic-              rationale for the noon hour rally in that
Said Stulberg: "During the course of          torious only through physical               Tuesday morning's Spectator. "The two
 the meeting the body passed a broad          coercwn. "
                                                                                          questions at issue are: shall the Univer-
outline of future plans entitled, 'Pro-       STUDENTS FOR A FREE CAMPUS                  sity continue to support materially the
posal for a Spring Offensive Against                                                      U.S. Government's imperialist policies
Columbia Racism.' The outline, which                                                      at home and abroad? Shall the Univer-
was intended 'for internal circulation'                                                   sity repress political activity against it?
only, was passed almost whimsically          the new "black power" mood of the            Join us today in demanding: 1) An end
by a unanimous vote of the general           Negroes; the shift of the Citizenship        to Columbia's ties with IDA. 2) That
assembly. Most SDS members at the            Council's leaders into the business of       no one will be punished for opposing
meeting laughed when Steve Komm              encouraging racial violence, especially      Columbia's unjust policies, 3) That all
'70 read off a list of militant actions      against Columbia's proposed gymnasi-         accused [the six who were put on pro-
planned for April and May. The big-          um, and aiding the SDS's "spring offen-      bation for the Low demonstration] be
gest laugh came, however, when Komm          sive"; the pros and cons of Spectator,       granted their rights to open public
announced that on May 7 SDS will             the student paper, siding for the most       hearings before students and faculty
'occupy and blockade' Low Library            part with the student radicals (''I'm        with full rights of due process." Sur-
'until the University capitulates on our     glad they're committed," "No, they           prisingly and conspicuously missing
demands.' "                                  should be objective."); the size and         was any reference to Columbia's new
   Tuesday, April 23, was a cool but         composition of the opposition to SDS,        gymnasium in the three demands.
sunny day. There was a usual amount          especially the rejuvenated Students for         Hence, when the lanky, 20-year-old
of milling around on campus by stu-          a Free Campus; and the degree of in-         Mark Rudd stepped up on the Sundial
dents late that morning. Acting Dean         eptitude of the Administration and the       podium at 10 minutes past noon on
Coleman of the College had asked doz-        unconcern of Columbia's professors.          Tuesday, April 23, the crowd of 300
ens of faculty members to be present at         The mood was expectant but rela-          listeners, two-thirds of them curious on-
the SDS Sundial Rally that noon to help      tively light, even mocking. One College      lookers, grew quiet to hear his words.
prevent violence, so some of the in-         senior quipped, "You are about to               Rudd began rather matter-of-bct-
structors without an 11:00 a.m. class        watch the real sexual revolution. In-        Iy. Behind him, on the long mall from
had arrived early and were talking out-      stead of attacking Barnard girls in a        the base of the Sundial to the entrance
doors with students on College "Valk.        panty raid, the students will attack their   of Butler Library, was a brilliant blaze
Among the students there was debate          father images in a new kind of raid."        of tulips of various colors in full bloom.
about the sudden abandonment of the          Another, alluding to the scheduled           South Field was bright green from the
source readings and the use of original      luncheon-talk sponsored by the Meno-         early spring rains and the care of the
documents in the famous required Con-        rah and Jewish Graduate Societies on         University's gifted horticulturist, James
temporary Civilization at the College.       "The Alienation of the Jewish Intellec-      Beckley, and his staff. Directly behind
The change to the use of paperback           tual" that very same noon hour in Earl       Rudd, on the podium with him, were
secondary sources next year had been         Hall, said, "I guess the meeting will be     several of the aides. One held a large
announced the day before. There was          shifted to the Sundial." ( early all the     poster saying: "Open hearings for the
talk also of the new course in Afro-         leaders and many of the members of           IDA Six. End University Racism. End
American history that was to begin next      Columbia's SDS chapter are of Jewish         University ties with IDA." Another
fall, and argument about whether it was      faith. )                                     held up a white cardboard on a stick
acceptable to have a white, Eric Foner          But most of the conversation was, of      reading "Kirk is illegitimate."
'63, teach it.                               course, about SDS, and the possible             Rudd spoke facing toward Low Li-
   Also discussed were such topics as        violent showdown that early afternoon.       brary. Up on the Low steps, behind the

SPRING, 1968                                                                                                                      15
statue of Alma Mater, about 200 stu-         to meet with the SDS leaders and any        sumes that all actions should have the
dents had formed a moving, narrow           others in Mc~Iillin Theater "immedi-         assent of most of the participants,
oval of picketeers with signs also.         ately" to discuss any and all University        The "participatory democracy" de-
Theirs read: "Is the Rule Book a Joke       matters they wanted to challenge. After      vice of constant stock-taking means that
Book?" "It's Our Campus Too!" "Per-         he finished reading, Rudd asked his          somewhat reasoned discussions take
suasion, Si, Coercion, No." "Send Rudd      constituency around him what they fe!t       place at all turning points in left-Wing
Back to Cuba" and "SDS Must Go."            SDS should do. Should they meet with         action. The discussions, however, are
Rudd glanced up at them occasionally        Truman?                                      frequently grounded in rumor and sur-
but his eyes were directed most of the          There followed four minutes of "par-     mis.c; their hurried nature precludes
time at the members of the crowd            ticipatory democracy." The technique         fact-gathering of an accurate sort. Mob
around him, particularly his 100 or so      is a fascinating one, and one used reg-      psychology is often present, even
supporters in the front rows.               ularly by the New Left. At any juncture      though the groups are relatively small,
   He told the crowd that President         in a course of action where a decision is    and stampeding by forceful zealots is
Kirk and the Trustees, "who run this        required, the leader consults his fol-       a problem. The position of the leader
school completely," are part of the         lowers by presenting what he regards         is a vague one. If he is strong-willed,
small ruling group, with connections in     as the choices open. (The participation      witty, and clever, he can manipulate
business, the military, and the govern-     is thus restricted narrowly to the matter    the group in its discussions; but if he
ment, that runs America and oppresses       at hand.) Individuals among the group        is truly democratic and wide open, the
the people, especially the young, the       offer ideas and tactics, some wild, some     leader may be little more than a front-
poor, and the Negroes. Through agen-        shrewd, some cautionary, some comi-          runner and discussion leader.
cies like IDA, Rudd alleged, Dr. Kirk       cal. Other individuals often offer objec-       What m:1l1Y persons fail to
also helped the forces of imperialism.      tions to the previous suggestions. Occa-     grasp is that the central business of
Rudd hammered away at IDA and               sionally, the leader inserts a suggestion    frequent caucuses gives         ew Left
Vietnam, special grievances of his. He      of his own. This usually happens fairly      youth movements three special ingredi-
also denounced "Kirk's ban" on indoor       fast; the consultations generally take       ents. One is an improvisational quality,
demonstrations and Associate Dean           from three to twenty minutes, depend-        which adults label erraticism, emotion-
Platt's decision to put the SDS leaders     ing on the importance of the decision.       alism, or confusion. Another is the local
on probation as a "reprisal," "a ruthless   As the suggestions dwindle, the leader       nature of decision-making and leader-
attempt to suppress dissent," a naked       sums up what he senses is the majority       ship. Adults like J. Edgar Hoover or the
move to "get us."                           opinion. If he senses no prevailing          editors of the New York Daily News
   His audience grew, as additional on-     view, he usually picks the two or three      may still talk about outside Communist
lookers and SDS sympathizers swelled        best tactics as he sees it and asks for      direction and control, but the idea is
the crowd to nearly 600. There was          opinions. The group indicates whether        laughable to the constantly caucusing
surprisingly little applause for Rudd's     the leader has grasped the majority          radicals. (The young egalitarian radi-
remarks, but almost no heckling either.     view correctly, or decides upon the best     cals, though, often fail to understand
Some in the crowd seemed to think that      of the two or three tactics noted, and a     the extent to which their aims and be-
Rudd and SDS were being melodrama-          decision is reached. All this is normally    havior coincide unwittingly with out-
tic and peevish. Student comments like      done by voice, although on rare occa-        side Marxist strategies, or the degree to
"This rally is silly," "Both sides are      sions a hand vote is taken. The device       which they can surreptitiously be led
idiots," and "Rudd's push for no pun-       is a form of consensus politics for the      along certain courses of action by Pro-
ishment for himself and his buddies is      small group. During the next few weeks       gressive Labor Party (Maoist) or other
blatantly self-serving," were frequen t.    at Columbia, the SDS leaders and their       outside party adherents who infiltrate
One faculty member at the crowd's           colleagues used the quick democratic         the voung radical groups and throw out
edge said, "Real middle-class stuff.        consultation several thousand times.         ideas for "spontaneous" courses of ac-
They want their rowdy brawls, but              It is imperative to understand this       tion at the caucus with a camouRaged
they also want to go scot-free so they      "participatory democracy" device. It         cunning and pattern behind them.)
can make it into law school or medical      presupposes several things and makes         Third, contradictions and lack of clarity
school." At one point the crowd broke       difficult the carrying out of certain old-   about goals and tactics are evident freJ-
into laughter, to the annoyance of an-      time revolutionary sb'ategies. Participa-    quently in radical actions. This is
other SDS speaker, when a student           tory democratic decision-making in the       particularly the case in coalition move-
with an angelic grin waded through the      midst of important actions assumes a         ments of some size, since there are
listeners with a placard "Warmth Pic-       remarkable degree of equality among          numerous loci of direction from the
nic, Sunday 1 P.M." Few of the faculty      the radical participants. Anyone in the      several different groups, each impro-
members seemed to take Rudd's rhet-         group may determine the next piece of        vising as it goes along. Coordination
oric very seriously,                        action if he or she convinces the group      and coherency is a huge headache br
   After two or three other speakers had    quickly of its worth. It assumes, too, a     radical movements once they rise above
harangued, Rudd mounted the podium          high degree of inventiveness and intel-      small-scale, brief attacks. The Jew Left
again. He held high a letter he had re-     ligence among the group. And, it pre-        encourages each special group, and
ceived from "that son of a bitch Dave       supposes virtual unanimity among the         even individuals, to do "their own
Truman" a few hours earlier. He read        group about goals and a fair amount of       thing;" yet they also seek "solidarity,"
it aloud. In it, Dr. Truman had offered     openness about tactics. Lastly, it as-       both in purpose and maneuvers,

16                                                                                                COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
                                                                                                           Columbiana Collection

                                                  The Sundial, 1914
  The Sundial on College 'Valk is known today as a con-          noon. The noon hom was marked by the sphere casting its
  venient meeting place, a pulpit for student evangelists of     shadow on the bronze plates that are still present on the
  all stripes, and a launching pad for campus protests.          pedestal, and by notches on the plates corresponding to
     '''hat is less well known is that something else stood      the days of the year.
  atop the fiat, round podium until 1946, before most of to-        The Fortnightly Bulletin of Columbia's Institute of Arts
  day's undergraduate orators were born. For 32 years a          and Sciences said on ~larch 26, 1915, "This is the only
  15-ton, 7-foot, granite "Sunball" conducted a silent fili-     sundial of its kind in the world, and the granite ball used
  buster there.                                                  as the dial is the largest ball in the world turned from one
     On the surviving pedestal of the Sundial is an ominous      piece of stone."
  prophesy: Horam expecta veniet ("Await the hour, it will          Originally the Class of 1885 proposed that the Sundial
  come"). The hour came for the Sunball on December 12,          be placed smack in the center of 116th Street, the prede-
  1946, when University officials, fearing that two thin         cessor to College Walk. IVlanhattan political officials would
  cracks in the large ball would split it into malevolent        not allow it because they felt it would be a hazard to the
  chunks, removed it. It was rudely retired to a Bronx           "fast-moving" traffic of 1910. University comptroller Fred-
  stoneyard.                                                     erick Goetze '95 suggested the present site, where he felt
     "Columbia Junks Famous Sundial" headlined the New           the Sundial "would be equally conspicuous and equally
  York Times. Spectator editorialized: "Somehow, we never        free from any danger of being overshadowed by adjacent
  attached any sentimentality to the globular mass. None of      buildings."
  us are astronomy majors, and we never could quite figure          The Sundial was built atop the steps next to South
  out what time it was by referring to the dial."                Field, then an athletic field used for the College's football,
     The Sundial was a gift of the College's Class of 1885 to    baseball, and other games. It was offiCially presented to the
   Columbia on the occasion of its 25th reunion. It was de-      University on May 26, 1914, at a large ceremony attended
  signed by a member of the class, astronomy professor           by professors, administrators, the Class of 1885 in academic
   Harold Jacoby '85. The sunball served as a stylus for the      dress, leading citizens, and numerous ladies in the finery
   timepiece that was accurate only one minute a day-at 12        of the day.

   Anyway, Rudd and the group of           Truman let "the students" decide the       compromises" should be made. Sudden-
nearly 200 SDS members and sympa-          fate of "the IDA six" instead of Dean      ly, one person shouted, "What about the
thizers went into a caucus about Dr.       Platt. Rudd himself suggested that if      plan to grab Low?" With that, a stu-
Truman's proposal to meet with them        SDS met with Truman it ought to be         dent dressed in a denim suit and sport-
in Mc:\IiIIin. While 400 onlookers         on their terms, with chanting and dis-     ing a red bandana jumped up on the
watched and listened, a swift, confused    cussion of demands that they wanted.       Sundial. He was Tom Hurwitz, a Col-
exchange took place about what tactics     A student quickly agreed, "We should       lege junior currently making a film on
to use next. One student thought SDS       tell Truman what we want to do." An-       the hippies. Hurwitz said, "Yeah, let's
should go to McMillin and demand that      other said he thought that "no deals, no   go to Low." Whereupon the crowd of

SPRING, 1968                                                                                                                       17
                                                                                       the building site, while eight New York
                                                                                       City policemen tried to keep them from
                                 from Song 3                                           ripping up the wire fence. The students
                                                                                       rushed like buffalo; the police pushed
                                                                                       off and pulled away. The students suc-
             In the midst of plenty,        ~wlk                                       ceeded in tearing down several sections
             as close to                                                               of fence. As they did so, the police
                                                                                       arrested Fred vVilson '70, who was
                                                                                       particularly aggressive. Numerous of
                 In the fewe of sweetness,                                             the radical students then kicked antI
              p~ss.                                                                    punched a few of the police, especially
                 In the time of goodness,                                              one who had been knocked to the
              go side, go                                                              ground while trying to hold on to Wil-
                                                                                       son. Three policemen had to be taken
              smashing, beat them, go as                                               to Columbia-Presbyterian Hospital. No
              (e~s nee~1- as you can                                                   students were hurt.
                                                                                           After 10 minutes of battle, the SDS
              tear.                                                                    combatants decided to quit the gym
                                                                                       site. There was a third quick demo-
                                                                                       cratic discussion at Morningside Drive
                               In the lcmd of plenty, hewe                             and 116th Street, led by Rudd and
                               nothing to do with it.                                  senior Ted Gold, at which the group
                                 Take the way of                                       decided to go back to the Sundial for
                                                                                       the purpose of regrouping and "taking
                               the lowest,
                                                                                       some real action this time," as one stu-
                               including                                               dent leftist put it.
                               your legs, go                                               As the splinter group of activists
                               cont1-ary, go                                           were walking back to the Sundial, Ted
                                                                                       Kaptchuk, the former SDS chairman,
                                                                                       said to the crowd of perhaps 300 per-
                               sing.                                                   sons on College Walk, who had been
                                                                                       listening to more speeches, "Let's all
                                              CHARLES OLSO                             go down to the gym site. Stay away
                                              "Me~ximus     Poems"                      from the cops though. Be carefuL"
                                                                                       About 75 students surrounding Kapt-
                                                                                        chuk started to go, but they took no
                                                                                        more than 30 steps when they saw
onlookers parted as if a decision had       where a priceless collection of Oriental    Rudd and the others mtuming to the
been made, and the SDS members in           art and sculpture is displayed, Rudd        Sundial. There ,"vas some muted laugh-
front of Rudd turned about-face and         and the other SDS leaders veered to the     ter among the onlookers. "This thing's
began walking toward Low Library.           right as they approached the student        getting to be a farce," said one student.
Rudd and the other SDS leaders had to       defenders of Low and headed for thf.        Said another, wearing a "Stop the \Var
jump off the Sundial and race around        southeast entrance of Low on the            ~Iadness" button, ''I've lost faith in the
the perimeter of the crowd in order to      ground floor, the only open entrance. It    SDS."
take a place at the front of their SDS      was guarded by several members of the          Then a black student named Cicero
constituency.                               campus security police. Rudd stoppeJ        Wilson took the podium. Wilson,
    The group of 200 radicals looked as     his group, then climbed up on a win-        though only a sophomore, was such an
if they were headed for a fight with the    dow ledge and asked, "O.K. What do          effective advocate of black power that
200 members of the Free Campus              we do now?"                                 he had won election as president of Co-
group, who were still circling on the          This time the participatory democ-       lumbia's Student Afro-American Soci-
flat areas above Alma Mater. Said one       racy session was even more brief and        ety. The bull-necked Wilson, a formcr
of the 1,000 observers, "It's like show-    confused than the one on the Sundial        captain of his high school football team
down time in a corny grade B 'Western       15 minutes earlier. Someone suggested       and president of its honor society, and
movie." The 40 or so professors who         that the group go down to the gym site      the graduate voted "most likely to suc-
had been observing the scene rushed to      on Morningside Drive and 113th Street.      ceed" by his class, appeared to be
a position in front of the Students for a   That caught the fancy of about half of      both pleased and disgusted with the
Free Campus, where they might pre-           the SDS gang, who walked off in that        thrashing about of the SDS whites.
vent fisticuffs between the two forces.     direction, Rudd among them. The othcr       After expressing an appreciation for
    Since Low Library had been official-    half went back to the Sundial.               SDS' concern for black problems, he
 ly closed for the day by President Kirk       At the gym site, nearly 100 students      said, "but we black students are no
 to prevent a brawl inside its halls,       stormed the cyclone fence surrounding        longer going to stand for this kind of

18                                                                                               COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
action. From now on we are going to         opened a meeting to decide what they        those dirty, bearded twerps with their
be in the vanguard, and SDS and its         should do next. While they were meet-       sneers and their sloppy girl-friends is
council can support us. You guys are        ing, Associate Dean Platt and several       enough to make a guy vomit.") A
not much better than Columbia. What         faculty members coming and going to         crowd of approximately 600 spectators
do you know about whether the black         their offices in the building talked with   now gathered around the 200 protes-
people in Harlem want this gym or           the students, trying to convince them       tors.
not?"                                       of the impropriety of their sit-in. Rudd       An hour later, shortly after 3:00,
    One other person spoke on the Sun-      and the other leaders were adamant.         Dean Coleman came out of the Dean's
dial. Then Mark Rudd, panting, got up       They set up a steering committee,           office to plead again that the demon-
to talk. He told the crowd that "the        which included several black students,      strators clear the hall and allow him to
cops got one of our men," and that now      to prepare for a long stay.                 leave. A sharp debate followed. Many
SDS had to get some Columbia official.         Meanwhile, two burly undergradu-         of the protestors seemed to possess a
"A hostage for a hostage," Rudd said.       ates from the Students for a Free Cam-      deep, generalized hatred directed at no
He ended, "We're going to close down        pus placed themselves in front of Dean      one person or no particular issue, al-
this goddam university. We'll need          Coleman's door, and a dozen oth~rs          though they were profanely abusive
more help, and we'll get it. Everybody      stationed themselves on either side of       toward their dean and especially insist-
to Hamilton Hall!"                           the Dean's Office entrance "to protect     ent on receiving no punishment from
    It was 1:45 in the afternoon when       the Dean." Numerous other students at        any source for any of their acts. In a
the SDS members supported by a               the edge of the cluster of seated dem-      test to find out whether the sit-in was
group from the Citizenship Council          onstrators and outside Hamilton Hall         an honest, conscionable act of civil dis-
and joined by many members of the            began demanding that the campus             obedience (which accepts legal conse-
Student Afro-American Society, or SAS,       guards "or somebody" remove "the            quences for unlawful actions) or an
marched into Hamilton Hall, the Col-         pukes" from Hamilton Hall and free          insurrection (which does not recognize
lege's chief classroom building and the      the dean. (One student explained the        the legitimacy of prevailing rules),
home of the Dean's office and the Ad-        appellation "pukes": "Just looking at       Dean Coleman asked, "Are those stu-
missions Office. The group, numbering
approxin1ately 200 students, hoped to
confront Acting Dean Henry Coleman
'46, but he was out. They decided to
stay, chanting, "\,ye want Coleman."                                The Idea     0/ a University
    Ten minutes later, Dean Coleman
entered the building, accompanied by
University Proctor William Kahn. The                To have even a portion of you is the highest
crowd of demonstrators parted to let                State to which a good article can aspire.
him walk to his door, then quickly sur-             It puts me beyond chance, necessity, anxiety,
rounded him in front of the door. They              Suspense, and Supe1'stition, the lot of nwny.
demanded that the decision to put the
"IDA six" on disciplinary probation for
defying the Dean's Office be rescinded              VCLulters, whose hours are possessed by one pole,
immediately, that the charge against                Take excLggemted views of the importance of height,
the student arrested at the gym site                Are feverish in the morning, cmd are
be dropped, that the President's rule
against demonstrating inside classroom              Startled cmd depressed when they happen to fall.
buildings be dropped. The students
were exceedingly angry, and some                    When I am in difficulties, I originate VCLSt ideas
shouted obscenties. When Dean Cole-
                                                    Or dazzling projects equal to any emergencies.
man informed them that only the Uni-
  -ersity's president had authority to do           I can remembe1' to whom I am speaking.
what they were demanding, they yelled               This is genius. Something recLlly luminous,
 that he should "bring Kirk and Truman
here." Dean Coleman replied, "I do not
                                                    Something really large. The earth smiles.
intend to meet any demands during a
situation like this, and I will not re-             The 1'ocks an demnged over the sequence of ideas,
 quest that Dr. Kirk or Dr. Truman                  Too violent to last before this giant fascination.
 come here either." He then turned and              And the hand opens its ten thousand holds.
went into his office, closing the door.
     Mark Rudd then told the group,
 "\,ye're not going to leave, and we're                                                  DAVID SHAPIRO '68
not going to let Coleman leave, till our                                                 in the Columbia Review
 demands are met.''' The group sat
 down in the Hamilton Hall lobby and

SPRING, 1968                                                                                                                   19
    [; earning comes      What apout
I   only .from action-.   our J 1$hts?

                    Stop repre5Sin~ on-p
                     natural instincts.
 ome!       vp agains t -th~ negotia.te if'
            T 1..             We'll             If only]
                                                could -talk
             waJJ.homo        . YOL('re          to the
eanih1a]s    sa~lcns.        . SY1.UpUhetk       a_nimqJs,
ide.                           enoujh.
                              \J~ peJieV0
                              in strong

                                     ~~I!!~ Hancl~o./12{2
                                              JS as
dents who refuse to let me lea\'e my          nicely the combination of gay prank-          Albanian village during Lenin's bb:th-
office willing to sign a statement to that    ishness and angry rigidity of most of         day celebration.
effect?" The students shouted, "No,           the protestors in front of the Dean's            Also around 6: 00, Rudd announced
never!" The dean re-entered his office.       door at this time.                            that a delegation from the City College
He called Vice President for Academic            Shortly after 4:00 Dean Henry Cole-        SDS had arrived to join the group.
Affairs David Truman and informed             lllan came out of his office for the          (Applause.) Shortly after, the arrival
him that he was virtually being held a        third time. He informed the crowd th'lt       from l\ewark, N. J. of Thomas Hayden,
prisoner by 200 student rebels, mainly        Vice President Truman had offered to          the former national chairman of SDS,
from the College and Barnard.                 meet with them for a no-holds-barred          was announced and cheered. Hayden
    Dean Coleman's question caused            dialogue in Wollman Auditorium. Al-           spoke brieRy.
considerable apprehension among some          though a few of the demonstrators                While Rudd and the others were
of the young scholars, who were not           thought it might be a good idea, the          working to give the sit-in an importance
entirely sure that seizing hostages was       majority, especiallv the SDS leaders,         and a revolutionary mystique, profes-
their cup of tea. There was another           rejected the offer promptly. Shouted          sors and College officials were pleading
meeting, but the stronger wills pre-          one student, "\Ve don't h'ust him. No         and arguing with the protestors. His-
vailed. The apprehension was a sign,          meeting unless he gives us a show of          torv professor Orest Ranum told them
however, to the steering committee that       good faith. Amnesty for everyone first!"      that a number of professors had peti-
it had to formalize its protest a bit more    Many of the others shouted approval.          tioned for an emergency College fac-
and seek additional support around the        Dean Coleman went back into his               ultv meeting the next night to discuss
campus for their daring enterprise.           office. One undergraduate demonstra-          the six demands, and asked the group
    The steering committee collected it-      tor left Hamilton Hall, saying, "This         to disperse and allow classes to go on
self. It took over the Citizenship Coun-      mob isn't interested in resolving any-        until that meeting. Four philosophy
cil's office in 311 Ferris Booth Hall for     thing with anyone." Another, who              professors, led by Dr. Arthur Danto
headquarters, started calling friends         stayed, said, looking deliciously naugh-      said, "\Ve're here to convince you to
and SDS units at other colleges, and          ty, "Why should we leave? This is so          dissolve." They proposed that the
mimeographed a statement for campus           much fun."                                    group select a delegation to meet with
distribution. The statement contained            Following the dismissal of Vice Pres-      the faculty as soon as possible. The
the first formulation of the later-famous     ident Truman's offer to discuss the is-       suggestion was debated by the protes-
"six demands." It read:                       sues, there began a long tug-of-war           tors until one student said "\Ve don't
   Join us! In Hamilton Hall now (Tues-       between the faculty and deans and the         want to meet with the faculty, but with
   day). \Ve're staying until the follow-     revolutionary SDS leaders for the alle-       the Administration." "But you turned
   ing demands are met:                                                                     down a meeting with Vice President
    1. All disciplinary probation against
                                              giance of the 200 protestors. Mark
         the six originally charged must be   Rudd by now had become exhilarated,           Truman," replied one College instruc-
         lifted with no reprisals.            some witnesses say intoxicated, by the        tor. "~[aybe we don't want talk but
    2. Kirk's Edict on Indoor Demon-          idea of a crippling blow against Colum-       action," snapped a student. Not a single
         strations must be dropped.           bia. Someone had secured a bullhorn           faculty member appeared to support
    3. All judical decisions should be
         made in an open hearing.             and he and his colleagues began ad-           their sit-in, which worried some of the
    4. All relations with IDA must be         dressing the crowd in a magnified             SDS supporters. Only the University's
         severed.                             voice. To pump up morale and soli-            Protestant counselor, the Rev. \iVilliarn
    5. Construction of the Columbia           darity Rudd and the others read tele-         Starr, an Episcopalian and a Christian
         gym must stop.
    6. The University must see that all       grams of support (which they h:ld             revolutionary with a deep hatred for
         charges against persons arrested     solicited), delivered harangues about         all authority and middle class life, fully
         for participating at demonstra-      the IDA and President Kirk, reported          approved. "I give you all sanctuary,"
         tions at the gym site are dropped.   faculty support, "O.K. Listen. vVe just       he offered beneficently.
    Already there or coming are: Colum-
    bia Band, Soul Syndicate, extensive       heard that Eric Bentley of the English           Admissions director John 'iVellington
    news media, Prof. Shenton, Prof. Col-     Department and Serge Lang of Math             and Associate Dean Alexander Platt
    lins, Prof. H. Brown, Prof. Larson,       are with us!"), promised visits from Dr.      circulated among the protestors too,
    Prof. Zavin, Prof. Danto, and more!       Spock, Harlem leaders, other celebri-         urging them to disband. Their tone was
    Plus group participation by hundreds
    of students. You wouldn't want to miss    ties, and the TV reporters, and dis-          one of reason, advice, and amiability.
    it! ! !                                   cussed tactics. After 5: 30 food, notably     On several occasions Dean Platt ex-
                                  SDS & SAS    hambmgers and ice cream bars, were           changed pointed jokes with M:ll'k
    It was hardly a revolutionary docu-       sent in by the armfuls. About 6:00,           Rudd. Dean Platt's tone helped make
ment. At this point SDS still seemed          large posters of Lenin, Castro, Gue-          the SDS venomous statements seem a
more concerned about freeing their             vara, and Stokelv Carmichael and sev-        bit overwrought, even silly; but it also
leaders and top activists from disci-          eral anti-war posters were hung up, and      contributed to the feeling that neither
pline, and about being allo\\'ed to prac-      later red balloons and streamers of reel     the College nor the University authori-
 tice their confrontation politics via in-     crepe paper were tied to the seats and       ties were prepared to get tough alld
door jaw-to-jaw sessions and open              large white columns of the Hamilton          evict the protestors. About 7:00 some
hearings where the press would be              lobby. The College building looked           students started bringing in blankets to
 present. The document did capture             festive, as if it were the town hall in an   spend the night. The top two floors

22                                                                                                    COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
Acting dean Henry Coleman '46 speak-
ing to_ students outside Hamilton I-Iall.      violence ourselues. Make your voice       Truman did visit Hamilton Hall, but
He was held captive in his office for 26       heard, especially if you haven't yet      did not go in to argue with the sit-in
hours by band of student protestors.           done so....
                                                                                         leaders. Instead he held an impromptu
                                                   THE CURRENT SITUATIOI                 fireside chat in Hartley Hall, such as
were designated as the sleeping areas.            vVe can save the University from       he and President Kirk do several times
    Outside Hamilton HaH word of the           SDS violence and from the increasing
                                               number of outsiders in the Hamilton       each year with undergraduates in the
sit-in spread, causing indignation, jokes,
                                               demonstration. We have already de-        dorms. He told nearly 500 bafBed, an-
and puzzlement. By 4:30 the Students           feated SDS on the open recruiting is-     gry students that "amnesty was out
for a Free Campus were distributing            sue in last fall's referendum. Today      of the question," and that Columbia
a mimeographed flyer which read, in            we stopped them non-violently from
                                               storming Low Library. V>le can win.       would not make any key changes with-
large part:
                                               vVe have the great majority of students   out prior discussion and thought. Swift,
     Had enough? Had enough of SDS
                                               on our side ...                           basic changes because of pressure',
  insolence and contempt for your
  rights? Let's close the Authority Gap         Numerous professors began to won-        blackmail, or "coercion" from a tiny
  on the Columbia University campus.         der why the University officials permit-    minority were unthinkable, he said.
            WHAT WE WANT                     ted the sit-in to continue, especiallv      Dr. Truman remained on the scene
     SDS seeks a minority role in thE        since the College's dean was being held     until 2:00 a.m.
  Guise of Student Power. They do not
  shrink from the use of force, such as      captive. A member of the government            In the Hamilton Hall lobby two
  imprisoning Dean Coleman, even             department said, "This is outrageous.       things were happening. Mark Rudd
  when the legitimate authority or the       Why doesn't Kirk act before this thing      was continuing to have trouble with
  vast student majority . . . refuses to     gets out of hand?"                          some of the demonstrators. Despite
  bow to their wilL Therefore, the Stu-
                                                Actually, President Kirk was out of      some soul music by the Soul Syndicate,
  dents for a Free Campus calls on the
  University authorities to:                 town on that first day of the revolu-       and frequent announcements of sup-
  1. Stop yielding to SDS blackmaiL          tion. Dr. Truman, who was thus left         port, every now and then a student or
  2. End the demonstration in Hamil-         in charge of Columbia, and was in tele-     three would get up and leave the dem-
       ton Hall.                             phone communication with the Presi-         onsh-ation, which until the early eve-
  3. Punish the demonstration's insti-
                                             dent, was receiving conflicting advice      ning had packed the lobby of Hamilton.
      gators effectively.
  4. Enforce all the rules all the time.     from several faculty members. Presi-        Some speakers helped the process. For
                                             dent Kirk, is reported to have favored      instance, Victor Crichton '53, a egro
              WHAT TO DO
     \Ve must do something immediate-        firm action but Dean Coleman did not.       alumnus who lives on Morningside
  ly, but at the same time we must auoid        Around 9:30 p.m. Vice President          Heights and is a vigorous opponent of

SPRING, 1968                                                                                                                  23
                                                                                           coalition unless the blacks were run-
                                                                                           ning it. (Today's young i\egroes prefer
                                                                                           to be called blacks, not Negroes.)
                                                                                              The sentiment that coalitions be-
                                                                                           tween blacks and whites are no longer
                                                                                           valid unless the whites are willing to
                                                                                           work under black direction is an in-
                                                                                           creasing and widespread one among
                                                                                           blacks, especially black college stu-
                                                                                           dents. "Let black people organize
                                                                                           themselves first, define their interests
                                                                                           and goals, and then see what kind of
                                                                                           allies are available," write Stokely C,1.r-
                                                                                           michael and Charles Hamilton in Black
                                                                                           Power: the Politics of Liberation in
                                                                                         ~America (1967), a book that one black
                                                                                         1 student in Hamilton Hall called "almost
                                                                                         ~a bible for us." The authors contend:
                                                                                          ~ It is our position that black organiza-
                                                                                         -' tions should be black-led and essen-
Black stlldents, teho eeicted SDS whites                                                      tially black-staffed, with policy being
with help from olltside militants and oc-   friends (including an older man around            made by black people. White people
cllpied Hamilton Hall themselt;es, look                                                       can and do play very important sup-
                                            40 years old who kept saying to the               portive roles in those organizations.
alit on thz crated below on 'Vednesday      Hamilton Hall crowd, "This is a prac-             \\'here they come with specific skills
morning, April 24. ShOltly after, they                                                        and techniques, they will be evaluated
                                            tical laboratory in revolution."), the
released Dean Coleman and mged the                                                            in those terms. All too frequently,
Harlem Olltsiders to depart.
                                            black students started calling their
                                                                                              however, many young middle-class
                                            friends in Harlem, nearly all of them             white Americans, like some sort of
                                            militant black power advocates. Dy                Pepsi generation, have wanted to
                                            10:00 at least a dozen older Negroes              "come alive" through the black com-
the new gymnasium, told the group:          from CORE, SNCC, the Uuited Black                 munity and black groups. They have
                                                                                              wanted to be where the action is-and
"You've won your point. You have got-       Front, and the Mau Mau Society were               the action has been in those places.
ten the faculty to have a meeting and       inside Hamilton Hall. Black students              They have sought refuge among
discuss the gym and IDA seriously. You      had replaced the white students in                blacks from a sterile, meaningless ir-
can't twist Kirk's arm any further. If      front of Dean Coleman's door, and                 relevant life in middle-class America.
                                                                                              ... ~[any have come seeing "no differ-
you don't want charges made against         separate caucuses - one white, the                ence in color," they have come "color
you, go home. The demonstration is          other black - had been initiated. At              blind." But at this time and in this
now pointless." Most of the demonstra-      ] 0: 30 several blacks announced that             land, color is a factor and we should
tors merely chanted in response, "Hell      the two side doors of Hamilton Hall               not overlook or deny this. The black
                                                                                              organizations do not need this kind of
no. we won't go."                           were being locked and barricaded and              idealism, which borders on paternal-
   Rudd told the group that blacks and      passage through the central door was              ism.
whites should stick together. He aLo        being restricted. This caused another             By 3:30 in the morning the blacks
brought up the possibility of the police    10 or 15 white protestors to leave. Said       had pretty much decided that in order
coming in to bring them out. But, h0        one, "This comedy of the absurd is             to halt construction of Columbia's new
said, "Stick around. The University will    turning grim."                                 gymnasium, and to do it their way,
capitulate. Don't leave. Forget vour            As the night wore on, some persons,        the white students had to be moved
mothers. Stav tough." Bv 9:00, how-         mostly white, went to the sixth and            aside. An hour later the blacks sent
e\'er, the dcmons~rators were down to       se\'enth floors to sleep, but the majority     messages to the white caucus in 717
125 in number. The ambiyalence of           of the crowd, black and white, stayed          Hamilton to tell the whites they had
some students was nicely illustrated by     up, caucusing, devising schemes of             to leave Hamilton Hall. Rudd met with
a statement of Ted Kaptchuk, last           action in case the cops came, and hold-        the black caucus, to no avail. A young
vear's SDS chairman: "1 think that          ing meetings. By 1:00 a.m. it had be-          government instructor commented the
keeping Coleman in his office is a bad      come obvious to many white students            next day, "It was like the 19.67 New
tactic. But of course he and Kirk are       that the black students and their older        Politics Convention in Chicago last
morally wrong, so we're entitled to do      Harlem colleagues were dissatisfied            summer, where the whites, including
anvthing we want with the dean."            \\'ith the way the whites were running         many Jews, were forced to accept a
   The other development was the            the show ("They're just kids playing           black caucus resolution condemning
gradual assertion of authority within       around with this revolution bull."),           Israel for its "aggression" against its
the demonstration by the black stu-         were growing distrustful of "Whitey's"         Arab neighbors.) SDS leaders woke up
dents of SAS and the:r outside friends.     intensity of purpose ("Every hour an-          the sleeping students and spread the
During the evening, while Rudd and          other 10 of them leave."), and were            word that they had been urged to get
the other leaders were calling their        doubtful whether there should be a             out.

24                                                                                                  COLU'.lBIA COLLEGE TODAY
   Dean Coleman, locked in his office     played a sudden concern for the dean      move to open a 'second front.' But fear
with Proctor William Kahn and the         since, they reported, there were about    -of violence, of guns-and inexperi-
College's director of College Relations   two dozen older men wearing sun-          ence and naivete in the face of superior
Daniel Carlinsky '65, found out about     glasses in Hamilton with "guns and        organization and tactics was principally
the embarrassing split through the iron   knives." (The guns-and-knives charge      responsible for SDS's move."
bars on his window, which opened onto     was never proven conclusively, though        After the whites left Hamilton, the
College Walk. A few protestors, who       numerous students have attested to        SAS students and outsiders took chairs,
had left Hamilton immediately after       their presence.)                          tables, ladders, and file cabinets and
they had been informed of the divorce,       Fearful, dazed, the SDS leaders and    blockaded all three doors of the build-
rushed around to the window and dis-      their 120 or so remaining troops filed    ing. They tore down the red balloons
                                          out of Hamilton Hall at 5:45 that morn-   and crepe paper that SDS whites had
                                          ing, looking haggard and carrying         put up, and they ripped the pictures of
                                          blankets and books. As shldent reporter   IVlarx, Lenin, and Castro off the walls.
                                          .\Iichael Stern wrote in Spectator:       They left hanging the posters of Chc
                                          "Rhetoric of solidarity soon covered up   Guevara and Stokely Carmichael and
Early morning (Wednesday, April 24)       the disappointment of being asked to      added one of Malcolm X. They later
crowd of pu::,zled, curious, and angry
                                          leave. SDS's retreat became a tactical    hung a huge banner of Stokely Carmi-
students in front of Hamilton, chief
                                                                                    chael from the front of Hamilton Hall,
building of the 1111dergmduate College,
which was blockaded the night before.
                                                                                    and put up a sign in the building's
                                                                                    doorway, ".\/Ialcolm X University. Es-
                                                                                    tablished 1968."
                                                                                       Mark Rudd and his revolutionaries
                                                                                    sat for awhile, looking forlorn, on the
                                                                                    steps outside Hamilton Hall. What to
                                                                                    do? Obviously, another participatory,
                                                                                    democratic meeting was called for. A
                                                                                    handful said they had had enough
                                                                                    "action," and went home to bed. vVhile
                                                                                    in Hamilton Hall, both Rudd and some
                                                                                    SAS members had considered "liberat-
                                                                                    ing" another University building. low
                                                                                    it was seriously debated, and Low Li-
                                                                                    brary, which SDS had attempted to
                                                                                    enter 17 hours earlier, was chosen. The
                                                                                    group of 100 stalwarts dropped their
                                                                                    blankets and headed for the southeast,
                                                                                    or security entrance.
                                                                                       The entrance had two wide glass
                                                                                    doors, the outer one locked and the
                                                                                    inner one locked with a single grey-
                                                                                    uniformed guard behind it. Rudd and
                                                                                    his colleagues broke the glass with a
                                                                                    wooden sign and opened the first door,
                                                                                    then smashed the second door too,
                                                                                    badly cutting the hand of the guard.
                                                                                    They rushed up into the building and
                                                                                    broke their way into President Kirk's
                                                                                    office suite on the main or second
                                                                                    floor. Only 30 or so stud'ents entered
                                                                                    the President's office. The others held
                                                                                    back by older notions of privacy: civil
                                                                                    liberties, and respect for the University,
                                                                                    remained in the hallway or in the Ro-
                                                                                    tunda outside. Those who entered Dr.
                                                                                    Kirk's office came out quickly to join
                                                                                    the others in a discussion about what
                                                                                    to do next. Opinion ran the gamut,
                                                                                    from leaving the building altogether to
                                                                                    turning the whole of Low Library into
                                                                                    a fortress. Finallv, Mark Rudd suggest-

SDS students, gaily defiant, in President Kirk's office during the
first day ot their occupation. In top picture, rebellion leader
Tony Papert '67 call be seen in a tchite shift. Papert, little-
known, Maoist-oriented tactician who shuns publicity, teas one
ot the most infl/lentinl figures in the uprising.

26                                                                   COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
       ed a compromise that the group barri-       vVednesday morning the chief concern       going on?" was the ubiquitous query.
       cade themselves only in the President's     had become the safety of acting Dean       The morning newspapers told of the
       and Vice President's suite of eight of-     Harry Coleman, a prisoner in his office    previous evening's activities but did not
       fices. The idea was accepted, and all       along with Proctor William Kahn and        tell of the eviction of the whites from
       100 of the protestors went into the         College Relations officer Daniel Car-      Hamilton or the subsequent seizure of
       second floor offices on west side of the    linsky. The numerous reports from stu-     President Kirk's office. The general re-
       architecturally famous edifice. Said        dents that there were guns and knives      action was one of astonishment, though
       Rudd, "My academic career is ruined         in Hamilton Hall was a very disturbing     anger, fear, and resentment, amuse-
       anyhow. 1 might as well stay here and       and key factor. Then too, since there      ment, and even admiration were not
       win this fight."                            were representatives of the more radi-     missing. Among the comments: "Those
          It was as if fraternity members had      cal Harlem groups in the building, it      guys are fascist hoodlums;" "You've
       broken into Brigitte Bardot's bedroom.      was felt that police actions against the   got to admire their nerve;" "Now we'll
       The radicals sat at the President's desk,   occupiers of Hamilton Hall could con-      see what kind of a man Dr. Kirk is;"
       lit up his cigars, drank his sherry,        ceivably expand into a racial riot of      "What about oLir rights?" "I hope they
       studied his library, and went through       grave proportions. When New York           don't hurt Harry Coleman;" and "It's a
       his files. Occasionally, when they found    City's Mayor Lindsay was told of the       double love-in, Southern style, you
       what they thought was a particularly        situation, he expressed a similar con-     know, segregated."
       juicy letter to some Establishment fig-     cern about a possible expansion of the        The displaced faculty drifted to-
       ure or Government agency they Xer-          Columbia revolt, and sent a few of his     gether in the large lobby of Philosophy
       oxed it. They hoped to find firm evi,       sidekicks up to see if they could help     Hall. (The majority of the faculty in
       dence of complicity in the Vietnam          work out a solution before police action   the Graduate Faculties, General Stud-
       war or examples of University racism,       was required. Actually, the seizure of     ies, and Engineering, and nearly all the
       but to their dismay found very little.      the President's office was almost inci-    faculty in the various professional
            early all the protestors expected      dental in the minds of most Colum~ia       schools held classes almost as if nothing
       the police to come to clear them out        officials on Wednesday morning, in-        had happened.) Associate Dean for
       within a few hours. There were plenty       cluding the mind of President Kirk, who    Academic Affairs Thomas Colahan '51
       of discussions but little agreement         had returned, using 109 Low, the suite     explained to the 80 professors there
       about what to do when the cops ar-          of the Dean of Graduate Faculties, as      what had happened step by step and
       rived. The police, about 10 of them,        his temporary headquarters.                informed them that a meeting of ~he
       did show up at approximately 7:30              Hence, the police who came to Co-       College Faculty had been called for
       a.m. Panicked, about 75 of the demon-       lumbia early \iVednesday morning were      3:00 p.m. Sociologist Daniel Bell got
       strators, including 1ark Rudd, climbed      few; they confined themselves to an        up to suggest that several senior prohs-
       out the windows to escape, while 25         exploratory visit to the President's of-   SOl'S go into both buildings to talk to
       remained in the President's suite. Sur-     fice; and they were on hand principally    the students. A young faculty member
       prisingly, the police merely removed        to see that no serious violence took       said that he had been with the radicals
       one of the barricades, inspected the        place. Following their visit inside Low,   most of the night and that control had
       scene, rescued a priceless Rembrandt        they stationed themselves outside Low      passed to older outside black militants.
       painting, and left!                         in front of the windows of the Presi-      "They have anTIS and gasoline," he said.
          Why did the police take no action?       den t's office.                            Chemist George Fraenkel, the newly-
       Why were there so few?                         The threat of counteraction was a       appointed Dean of the Graduate Facul-
          On Tuesday, when the students first      real one. Tuesday night until 3:00 a.m.    ties, reported that he, Dr. Kirk, and Dr.
       sat in Hamilton Hall, and President         a group of students varying at times       Truman had been talking about clear-
       Kirk was out of town, the police were       from 100 to 500 stood outside and in-      ing the buildings but that all were
       not called in instantly chiefly because     side Hamilton Hall, angry at the seizure   worried about Dean Coleman's safety.
       Vice President Truman held the tradi-       of the lobby and Dean Coleman. Some        He said that administration leaders
       tional view that a university is a pre-     wanted to clear the rebels out of Haal-    were in frequent telephone conversa-
       serve somewhat apart, a place that          ilton, but Dr. Truman, Dean Platt, and     tion with the rebel leaders in both
       should be governed by reason, mutual        others worked to prevent such action.      buildings. Professor Bell called Vice
       respect, speCial sympathy for young         The next morning, \Vednesday, the          President Truman, who said he wel-
       thinkers, and its own rules, and not only   threat was even greater. The remainder     comed faculty visits to the buildings,
       by the municipal laws and the police.       of the College's 2,700 young men and       but discouraged the offering of any per-
       He was supported by Dean Coleman of         numerous graduate students, arriving       sonal deals Or unauthorized compro-
       the College. Dr. Truman hoped also          for classes at Hamilton Hall, were         mises.
       that the protestors would discuss their     shocked to find the building barri-           Shortly before lunch time, New
       grievances openly; and he wanted a          caded, with furniture, ladders, and file   York's Human Rights Commissioner, a
       chance to consult the faculty before        cabinets, with the faces of solemn, men-   tall, dapper Negro named William
       acting. But when the black students         acing blacks behind the glass of the       Booth, climbed into Hamilton Hall.
       and the Harlem militants evicted the        doors. Tumerous faculty members, who       Outside, rock 'n roll music was throb-
       white SDS students in the early morn-       had offices in Hamilton, and were una-     bing out of a window in Hartley Hall


. .J
       ing hours of Wednesday morning, the
       situation took a new turn. By early
                                                   ware of the seizure, were equally sur-
                                                   prised and puzzled. "What on earth is
                                                                                              on the crowd below. About 40 members
                                                                                              of the press were on the scene. At Low

       SPRI:\'G, 1968                                                                                                               27
 Library, some of the student rebels
 were sitting on the window sill, alter-
 nately grim and gay. The crowd below
 stared up at them as if they were cap-
 tive orangutans.
    Around 1: 00 Commissioner Booth
 came out of Hamilton. Soon after,
 about a dozen older blacks climbed out
 one at a time. Wearing leather jackets,
 or skull caps, or colorful necklaces, they
 walked silently, emotionlessly, through
 the undergraduates and off the campus.
 No one tried to stop them or talk to
    Later in the day, Booth accompanied
by three Harlem politicians, Manhat-
 t,m Borough President Percy Sutton,
State Senator Basil Paterson, and As-
semblyman Charles Rangel, met with
President Kirk to convey their concern
about repercussions in Harlem and to
ask the University to reconsider its
gymnasium plans. Dr. Kirk promised to
call a meeting of the Board of Trustees
 the next day.
    At 2:00 Psychology Professor Eu-
gene Galanter, Assistant Dean Irwin
 Glikes, and several others decided to
put out a fact sheet to tell the faculty
and students what had happened. Ru-
mor and confusion were rife. Spectator
had not come out yet. The campus ra-
dio station, W'KCR, had not yet started
reporting the action promptly. Only
SDS was grinding out mimeographed
material, of an obviously self-serving
sort. But the College Faculty meeting
was imminent, so the professors and
deans postponed the idea.
   The communications gap between
the administration, faculty and majori-
ty of students, and the student rebels
was a wide one. With astonishing speed
and electronic sophistication, the SDS-       ex-Boston University newspaper editor        so that they could re-enter Low after
led whites, much less so the SAS blach,       who was noted on campus for his slash-       attending a meeting in their Ferris
had acquired thousands of dollars             ing assaults. And the SDS-Ied rebels         Booth headquarters. When the campus
worth of loudspeakers, 35mm. cameras,         put in thousands of telephone calls to       guards refused to grant passes, Rudd
moving picture equipment, mimeo-              friends and potential supporters.            exploded, "We have to maintain our
graph equipment and supplies, Xerox              In contrast, the Columbia Adminis-        internal unity too, you know!" The six
machines, and dozens of walkie-talkie         tration, its faculty, and most of the out-   left in a huff and climbed out the win-
radios. They had a public relations offi-     raged students scarcely knew how to          dows instead.
cer, Jonathan Shils '68, and frequent         deal with the problem of dispensing             The College Faculty met in the huge
press conferences. They were in con-          information on campus, or to the out-        amphitheater lecture room in Have-
stant touch with the Liberation News          side world, and, worse, seemed to dis-       meyer Hall. An enormously high pro-
Service, a revolutionary-hippy news           play surprisingly little sense of urgency    portion of the teaching faculty were
agency, founded last year by Marshall         about doing so.                              there. President Kirk chaired the meet-
Bloom, a 23-year old Amherst graduate            At 2:20 Mark Rudd and five other          ing. Vice President Truman reviewed
who was suspended from the London             SDS leaders, who had climbed back            the incidents of the previous 27 hours
School of Economics for radical activi-       into the President's office, appeared at     dispassionately and in detail. Then Pro-
ty, and Raymond Mungo, a 22·-year-old         the Low security desk to ask for passes      fessor Daniel Bell put forth four pro-

28                                                                                                  COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
                                                                                        Students in Low, soliciting support 11'Om
                                                                                        the President's office window. During the
                                                                                        first two days not much help came. The
                                                                                        faculty, most of the students, and even
                                                                                        the fairly mel-ical student newspaper
                                                                                        were critical of their actions.

                                                                                                cation and persuasion as thc
                                                                                                means of furthering that dis-
                                                                                          2.    That this Faculty endorses the
                                                                                                right to protest, but strongly con-
                                                                                                demns both obstructive behavior
                                                                                                and physical violence on this
                                                                                                campus. In this light we deplore
                                                                                                the use of coercion, and the seiz-
                                                                                                ure of Dean Coleman as a
                                                                                                hostage. Further we condemn the
                                                                                                act of invasion of the President's
                                                                                                office and the rifling of his files.
                                                                                           3.   That we believe that any differ-
                                                                                                ences have to be settled peace-
                                                                                                fully, and we h'ust that police
                                                                                                action will not be used to clear
                                                                                                Hamilton Hall or any other Uni-
                                                                                                versity building.
                                                                                           4.   That to the extent that the issues
                                                                                                which have arisen in the Univer-
                                                                                                sity community are due to a fail-
                                                                                                ure of communication and dis-
                                                                                                cussicn within the university, we
                                                                                                call upon the Administration to
                                                                                                set up a tripartite body to discuss
                                                                                                any disciplinary matters arising
                                                                                                out of the incidents yesterday
                                                                                                and today, the issue of the gym-
                                                                                                nasium and any other matters
                                                                                                which are subjects of legitimate
                                                                                                concern to the University com-
                                                              ===:=.-""=-'''--<            5.   That this Faculty respectfully
                                                                                                petitions the University adminis-
posals. The discussion was surprisingly     adopted.                                            tration
reasoned, considering the tense situa-         In the middle of the meeting, at 3:50,              a. to arrange the immediate
tion. Several instructors later suggested   Dean Henry Coleman suddenly walked                         suspension of on-site exca-
that this was due to the faculty's near     into the room. The faculty was jolted.                     vation of the gymnasium
unanimity of shock and distaste for the     As a body it rose to its feet and gave                     facility in Morningside
SDS-SAS moves, deriving from the fac-       the acting dean a four-minute ovation.                      Park.
ulty's traditional loathing for violence    Dean Coleman reported to the profes-                   b. to be prepared to review
and their protection of civil liberties.    sors that shortly after 3:00 five SAS                       the matter of the gymna-
Only Professor Marvin Harris '50, who       students simply opened his door and                         sium site with a group of
along with three other members of the       told him that he and Kahn and Car-                         community spokesmen; the
Anthropology Department, inh'oduced         linsky could leave. After 26 hours as a                     administration will imme-
other proposals, delivered a passionate,    prisoner, he was released perfunctorily.                    diately invite the Mayor to
highly partisan speech. More calmly,           The special meeting of the College                       designate a group who will
Professor Robert Belknap of the Rus-        faculty produced five resolutions:                          take counsel with the Uni-
sian studies introduced a resolution           1. That a University exists as a com-                    versity with respect to the
about suspending construction of the               munity dedicated to rational dis-                    location and character of
new University gymnasium. It was                   course, and the use of communi-                      the gymnasium.

SPRING, 1968                                                                                                                     29
    vVhile the College teachers were         President's office, estranged from their     cals had climbed back into Low
 meeting, Spectator was distributed on       black allies, disliked by most other stu-    through the windows. It was raining
campus. It too was somewhat critical         dents for halting classes and education,     rather hard so most of them arrived
of the student rebels on that Wednes-       chastised by the faculty for their thug-      quite soggy. The mood inside the Pres-
day. In an editorial: "While our basic      gery and serious disregard for law,           ident's office was a combination of gay
objection is to the blundering and in-      civil liberties, and non-violent proce-       mockery, quiet moral doggedness, aed
 transigence of the University, we also     dures ("Imagine SDS's howls if the            political scheming. This combination
deplore certain tactics of the demon-       John Birch Society seized the SDS             reRected the constituency of those 25
strators: the grave restrictions placed     headquarters in Chicago and riRed             students who chose to remain in Low
on the personal liberties of Dean Cole-      their Bles!" said one young College in-      rather than jump out the windows.
man; the violent actions that marked        structor), and criticized by most ofche       Honghly one-third were unpolitical ad-
 the demonstrations at the gymnasium        outside world. In the face of aU this,        venturers, the kind marvelously self-re-
construction site; and, most of all, the    ~Iark Rudd suggested that SDS call in         vealed in the two articles in the ~Iay
fact that effective leadership and con-     reinforcements and take over other            27 and June 10 issues of the New York
trol of the protest has to a great degree   campus buildings-to cripple the en-           Magazine by College Sophomore James
passed from Columbia students into the      tire university. But the majority pre-        Kunen. Another third were resolute
hands of people who are not members         fen'ed to sit tight and wait for student      aesthetes with keen moral sensibilities
of the University community but are         support to grow. Rudd argued that the         such as Les Gottesman, editor of Co-
outside agitators whose interests qnd       rebels' power base was too small. (E.1r-      lumbia's Literary Review, and several
goals may bear little relationship to the   lier, he had told the 25 students in the      of his fellow poets and editors. The last
ends desired by the demonstrators."         President's office that they ought to         third were the political knowledgeables
    And the inRuential New York Times       leave because the group was too small         and activists.
the next morning editorialized: "The        to be effective, but was voted down              Among the politicos there was vari-
destructive minority of students at Co-     then too.) He rushed out of the session       ety too. There was Juan Gonzalez, a
lumbia University, along with their not     and announced his resignation from th8        lean, good looking, very likeable Col-
so friendly allies among community          Strike's leadership. He was soon urged        lege senior born in Ponce, Puerto Rico,
militants, have offered a degrading         to reconsider and did.                        who rose to scholarly excellence and
spectacle of hoodlum tactics-the exal-           The rebel leaders in both buildings      editorship of his Brooklyn high school
tation of irresponsibility over reason.     decided to hold meetings that night.          newspaper, even though his father died
Whatever causes these students claim        The black students of Hamilton Hall           of cancer when Juan was 16, and then
to be supporting have been defiled by       chose a rally at College Walk and Am-         to heights of compassion for the poor
their vandalism."                           sterdam Avenue at 6: 30, while the SDS         (and of hatred for all official authority)
    Thus, the initial response to the Co-   chiefs opted for a big information-dis·       in the University's Citizenship Pro-
lumbia rebellion among the overwhelm-       cussion session later in an effort to         gram. vVhat Gonzalez lacked in politi-
ing number of faculty, students, alumni     change student opinion. The SDS Riel'         cal sophistication, he made up for in
 (telegrams had started pouring in to       read:                                         dedication and unbending effort. There
Dr. Kirk), and the interested American             W'hat's happening at Columbia?         was John Jacobs, "J.J.," a bearded,
public was highly critical of the SDS-          'vVhy have black students and comuni-     sandy-haired junior with a resemblance
led students and their SAS allies.              ty people barricaded themselves in        to Che Guervara, who had dropped out
                                                Hamilton Hall? Why have white stu-
    After its meeting the College faculty       dents barricaded themselves in Low        of the College a few months earlier. His
dispersed, neglecting to arrange for the        Library?                                  readiness to use the most audacious
immediate distribution of its resolu-              What's going to happen?? What          means, to attempt the most reckless
tions. Said one annoyed professor, "The         should happen??!!                         deeds, to suggest the wildest tactics in
                                                   Earl Hall. Tonight. 8:00 P.M. In-
student rebels are all tactics and no           formation. Discussion.                    order to overturn things, caused some
principles. We're all principles and no            Help plan student support action!!!    of the other rebels to regard him as
tactics." Not until 9:35 that night did         Boycott?? Strike??                        being slightly mad. And there was
WKCR broadcast the contents of the               Meanwhile, faculty members had           Anthony Papert, who had graduated
faculty statement. A few minutes ear-       begun trying to talk to the rebels in         from the College the previous June.
lier on ''''KCR, Juan Gonzalez '68, :l      their strongholds. Professor Immanuel         The son of a lawyer and fur broker, he
Strike Steering Committee member,           '''Tallerstein '51, an authority on African   grew up in the prosperous liberal, pre-
had said, "We heard that the Faculty        sociology and politics, climbed over the      dominantly Jewish suburb of Great
turned down our demand for amnesty          eight-foot high barrier in Hamilton's         Neck, Long Island. He started college
by a narrow vote." (In fact, scarcely a     doorway in an attempt to discover what        at Princeton, where he took Chinese
single member of the faculty had even       the exact demands of the blacks were.         history and literature, but transferred
en~ertained the idea of amnesty.) Such      And several professors, most notably          to Columbia because he said he found
were the consequences of the faculty        Dr. Orest Ranum, a young scholar in           Princeton conformist, dull, and reac-
and administration slowness about           European history who was reared in a          tionary. After a Ring as a pre-medical
communications.                             milieu of Christian radicalism and            student, Papert became a serious, revo-
    Late on Wednesday afternoon the         idealism, visited the students inside         lutionary tactician affiliating with the
SDS leaders held a strategy session.        Low.                                          ~Iaoist Progressive Labor Party. He
Here they were: self-imprisoned in the           By late afternoon, more of the radi-     had been found guilty and chastised for

30                                                                                                 COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
                                                                                            Hamilton, who might have voted for
                                                                                            acceptance. Others feel that the Steer-
                                                                                            ing Committee was persuaded against
                                                                                            the idea by the SDS whites in Strike
                                                                                            Central, who argued that the Univer-
                                                                                            sity was trying to "split the revolution-
                                                                                            ary forces." Still others contend that the
                                                                                            offer to reconsider the gymnasium was
                                                                                            not strong enough and that the Steer-
                                                                                            ing Committee wanted construction
                                                                                            stopped forever, with a hard guarantee.
                                                                                               The matter of the Columbia gym-
                                                                                            nasium is one surrounded by inaccura-
                                                                                            cies and misconceptions. Particularly
                                                                                            clouded is the origin and history of the
                                                                                            idea. (See "Morningside's Late, Late
                                                                                            Show" in Columbia College Today,
                                                                                            Fall, 1966.) When the idea for its con-
                                                                                            struction was born in 1960 in the minds
                                                                                            of Columbia Vice President Lawrence
                                                                                            Chamberlain, Park Department offi-
                                                                                            cials, various political leaders in Har-
                                                                                            lem and      ew York City, and West
                                                                                            Harlem residents, it seemed like a fine
                                                                                            idea, a pioneering effort in university-
                                                                                            community relations, a bold push for
                                                                                            better racial integration between the
John Jacobs, known as ''].].,'' was Ol1e of the wildest, most audacious 1'evolut'ioI101'y
                                                                                            mixed but largely white residents of
leaders. A College dropout, he was thought by some to IlOve "~ipped out" or gone
                                                                                            ~Iorningside Heights and the black res-
slightly mad. Others though saw him as an imaginatively bold guerilla fighter.
                                                                                            idents below in Harlem. A "bridge" to
                                                                                            promote better relations between the
                                                                                            two areas, it was called.        umerous
an illegal sit-in in February, 1967, and      in~l charges pressed against them, only       Negro groups from Harlem went before
almost failed to graduate because of          disciplinary probation for the rest of        the City Council to ask that it be built.
the time he devoted to his political          the semester, which had only five weeks       None other than James L. 'Watson, the
activities. Very bright, calm, and well-      left. Moreover, President Kirk said he        Negro State Senator who represented
dressed-unlike many of his comrades           would "ask the Chairman of the Trus-          \Vest Harlem, a fierce spokesman for
he is shaven, short-haired, often wears       tees to call a special meeting of the         Negro rights, introduced the bill asking
a white shirt and tie, and is partial to      Board at the earliest practicable time        Governor Rockefeller to grant the city
white socks-Papert was later seen tlY         to consider the Faculty recommenda-           permission to lease the land to Colum-
some as the little-known guiding spirit       tions concerning the gymnasium." (The         bia. Percy Sutton, then a Negro Assem-
behind the Columbia revolution. He            University charter requires that before       blyman, now Manhattan Borough Pres-
shuns publicity and refuses press inter-      a Trustee's meeting can be held three         ident, voted for the bill.
views, again unlike many of his fellow        days notice must be given.) It was an            By using a rocky slope in the park
activists, who tend to be candid, out-        offer of virtual amnesty plus a promise       instead of a city block, no Morningside
spoken, and publicity-conscious.              to reconsider the gymnasium promptly.         residents would be displaced. (Univer-
   At nightfall it was still raining. The     The Steering Committee discussed the          sity expansion was already an issue in
6: 30 outdoor rally with black speakers       proposal, then turned it down, saying         those days.) Also, the park, by becom-
from SNCC, Harlem CORE, and the               that disciplinary probation would ex-         ing an interracial meeting place full
Mau Mau Society thus failed to ma-            clude them from continuing their work         of activity, would become a safe place
terialize. Discussions between the            in the Students' Afro-American Society.       in which to walk and play again. The
Negro students in Hamilton Hall and           Quickly, they were informed that this         Community Gymnasium, and later, the
the College's deans and University's          was not the case, that such probation         swimming pool, would be West Har-
adminish'ators had intensified. At 8:00       would not exclude them from any 0X-           lem's only decent indoor recreational
p.m. Associate Dean Platt climbed into        tracurricular activities. More delibera-      facility. Columbia's commihnent for
Hamilton to notify the Hamilton Hall          tion. Another refusal.                        the 100-year lease and the community
Steering Committee, composed of CIC-             Why didn't the black students accept       gym would be $3,000 a year rent,
ero 'Nilson, College senior Ray Brown,        the offer? It is not fully known. Some        $85,000 a year for trained staff and
and graduate student Bill Sales, that         observers claim that the Steering Com-        supervisors, and $3 million donation for
if the students left the building "by 10      mittee did not discuss the offer accu-        the Community Gymnasium and Pool
p.m. tonight" they would have no crim-        rately with the other black students in       -a total of over $12 million-for the

SPRIXG, 1968                                                                                                                       31

                                                     -   -    ~----------------- -                                      ~   -
financially-strapped city and the impov-   University facilities.                     them out! Get them out!" and "We
erished community. Nearly all Colum-          The SDS-Ied meeting, changed to         want Linda," a reference to Linda Le-
bia students, indeed almost everyone       \Vollman Auditorium, was late in get-      clair, a Barnard student in the building
except dedicated park-preservers, con-     tinq started. Around 8:00 p.m. a large     who had recently become notorious for
sidered it as an unusual but construc-     crowd of students, many, though by no      living off campus with a Columbia stu-
tive step forward.                         means all, athletes and fraternity mem-    dent. They also made numerous jeering
   But then, several things developed,     bers, gathered outside Low despite the     and humorous remarks at the rebek
the most important of which was the        drizzling rain. While a dozen police-      Though the mood of the 400 or so stu-
black power movement. Racial integra-      men were stationed outside the win-        dents was boisterouslv derisive, many
tion suddenly became an undesirable        dows of the President's suite, the crowd   SDS supporters rushed to the scene to
pattern among many blacks. ew black        of anti-rebels shouted chants like "Get    lend support to their comrades inside
leaders appeared, and the old ones
changed. Also, a new Park Commis-
sioner, socialite Thomas Hoving III,
opposed the idea. Columbia fumbled
the fund-raising drive and chose an
experienced but mediocre architect
who came up with a mediocre and
insensitive exterior design. Columbia's
publicity, its response to wild charges,
and its community relations were al-
most nil last year, when campus radicals
seized upon the gym as a "symbolic"
issue of racism and administrative high-
   Despite mounting opposition, how-
ever, no demonstration on the gym site
was able to round up more than a hand-
ful of Negroes or many whites. Negro
parents and the Harlem youngsters
themselves still overwhelmingly favor
the new gymnasium. In October 1967,
for example, Mrs. Lucretia Lamb, di-
rector of the Citizens' Care Committee,
a large group of 'West Harlem residents
b'ying to improve the city, said it was
mainly outsiders, mostly white, who
"never used the park" but see it as a
way of advancing their own crusades
for power, who were taking up the
gym as an issue. She and her com-
munity followers strongly favored its
   Also, when the black students of
SAS appeared before the Faculty Civil
Rights Committee a few 1110nths earlier
to talk about their problems and griev-
ances, the Columbia-Community gym-
nasium was not even mentioned.
    10st of this was either unknown or
overlooked by the principal critics this
Spring. The gymnasium was suddenly
labelled a "racist" building and the
"two entrances"-one for the commu-
nity gym and one for the University
gym-were seen as a form of segrega-
tion, even though Puerto Ricans, As-
ians, and whites as well as Negroes,
would use the community gym, and           Associate professor Orest Ranum, in academic gown, and Assistant director of Col-
black students as well as community        lege admissions Philip Benson '56, on Ranum's ";ght, discussing the occupation of
groups all summer long, would use the      the President's suite with the Low occupallts. They got 11Owhere.

32                                                                                             COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
Low, in case of a storming of the build-
ings by the so-called "jocks." After a
period of tension most of both groups
decided to go to Wollman to catch the          "That third night was the time when the somewhat hap-
SDS open meeting.                              hazard demonstrations turned into a more smoothly
   A student tried to moderate the
meeting impartially but it was fairly          engineered takeover of the University and possibly much
turbulent nonetheless. About 1,100
students were on hand. A few SDS
                                               more, by a tiny band of audacious tacticians seized by
students said that they had to do what         notions of guerilla warfare . ... "
they did. "The only way open to us was
to coerce the faculty and administra-
tion," said one. The University, they
alleged, did not consult the Harlem
community about the gym nor the stu-
dents on anything important to their        made a few converts. They did call for          One group that did not sleep at all
lives. An SDS critic took the stage and     a student strike, a boycott of all classes   that night was the SDS leaders. In the
said, "It's a question of SDS tactics.      in the University, on Thursday to show       early morning hours of that Thursday
You guys are super-righteous law            "sympathy and solidarity with this           they decided to expand the sit-ins to a
breakers. You've taken away the rights      movement."                                   full-fledged revolution. That third
of all of us who want to study. It's           Around midnight, some of the older        night was the time when the somewhat
obvious that SDS is now running the         leaders of Harlem exh'emist groups be-       haphazard demonstrations turned into
University." Wild cheers and sustained      gan to appear in front of Hamilton Hall,     a more smoothly engineered takeover
applause from the audience, which was       possibly fearing a police bust was com-      of the University and possibly much
about one-half against SDS, one-quar-       ing that night. Also, hundreds of stu-       more, by a tiny band of audacious tac-
ter for the radicals, and one-quarter       dents milled around in front of Low,         ticians, seized by notions of guerilla
neuh'al and curious. Then David Gil-        Hamilton, and Avery, and in the lob-         warfare and the necessity of destroying
bert '66, former SDS chairman at Co-        bies of Hartley and Ferris Booth Halls.      Columbia and the society around it in
lumbia and now a graduate student at        The reason for the sudden interest in        order to move into something better.
the New School in New York coun-            Avery, home of Columbia's Graduate           Outsiders, many of them dedicated
tered, "Sure, we've made tactical mis-      School of Architecture, was that most        revolutionaries or anarchists, began to
takes. But it's the whole capitalist and    of the architecture students had de-         flock to Columbia by car, bus, or train.
university system that makes all the        cided early in the evening to stay in        Dozens of walkie-talkie radios were
real decisions. We had to take the Pres-    their building all night in sympathy         brought in to aid the strike leaders co-
ident's office to smash this rotten sys-    with the College revolutionaries. The        ordinate the revolt more neatly. Chap-
tem of social coercion."                    deans tried to impose a 1:00 a.m. dead-      ters of SDS, Youth Against War and
   Several anti-rebels tried to get the     line on the sit-in, but the students re-     Fascism, YOWlg Socialist Alliance, and
radical students to discuss the specifics   fused to accept it and instead occupied      similar groups at other colleges were
of why they were disrupting the entire      the building day and night.                  solicited for support to compensate for
University or to respond to the Faculty        Most of the students in Avery were        the relative lack of student support en
resolution but the radicals skillfully      aesthetic rather than political rebels.      the Columbia campus. Things got or-
evaded such questions. Instead, Shl-         (A good number were not rebels at all       ganized at Strike Central in Ferris
dents like Ted Gold or Paul Rockwell,       but students who thought it would be         Booth Hall that night.
an intense, loquacious graduate stu-        exciting to sit-in and form a better            The whole tone of the demonsh'ation
dent, made long speeches about repres-      community among themselves.) They            changed. Violence was now seen by
sion of the young, the Vietnam war,         felt that the University's long-range        many of the student leaders as being
imperialism, and the race problem.          planning was very weak, that the de-         inevitable, even desirable, if it could be
   At one point, Rich Wojculewski, a        sign of the gymnasium was lousy, that        made to seem that it was brought 0n
sophomore football player who had re-       the University's expansion was not           by the wicked University and city offi-
cently won the award as the top aca-        humane enough or imaginatively con-          cials and not by the student rebe]~.
demic student on the football team,         ceived, that their deans were not            Police action would swing the vacillat-
said "I agree with the professors on        audacious or forceful enough, and that       ing, principled, bourgeois liberals away
this point. We ought to get the Colum-      students did not have a powerful             from their hangups about law and or-
bia gymnasium out of Morningside            enough voice in the school's program         der, academic freedom, and objectivity,
Park. Columbia ought to build its own       and policy-making. Unlike the other          toward sympathy for the radicals and
gym, on its own land, and build a           demonstrators, they had the sympathy         their revolutionary program.
great gym. And, we ought not to give        of a considerable portion of their fac.         "We had to go for broke. We had to
an inch to anyone else." This remark        ulty.                                        find tactics that would radicalize the
brought thunderous applause. The               Many persons did not go to sleep          majority of the students and the young-
meeting broke up shortly before mid-        early that night. By 2:00 a.m. the rain      er and more progressive faculty mem-
night. SDS leaders seemed to have           had stopped. It was a starless night.        bers. Or we'd get clobbered and lose

SPRING, 1968                                                                                                                    33
everything." So said one student rebel.      announced a 10:00 a.m. SDS meeting            pickets "to show our great strength."
    At 4:00 on that Thursday morn-           in \Vollman Auditorium. The other was         Ahout 50 students volunteered to help.
ing about 40 left-wing students were         mimeographed by an SDS-allied group,              ~Ieanwhile, outside of Wollman,
dispatched to seize Fayerweather Hall,       the "Columbia Chapter of the Peace            most of the University seemed to take
the building that houses many of the         and Freedom Party." It read, in part:         on a more in tense in lerest in the strike
offices of the graduate departments in                                                     and to develop hotter feelings about the
social studies and numerous graduate                                                       student insurrectionists. Professors
classrooms. They sat behind the doors              Student power-that's what it's all
                                               about. Students at Columbia have fully      again congregated in the spacious
and put a sign in the 'vvindow, "This is       realized that they can exert their coUec-   lounge in Philosophy Hall. At an in-
a liberated building. Support the              ti ve energies, their power, to bring       formal meeting, led by Dr. Thomas
strike." Thus, including Avery Hall,           about real change. After many years of      Colahan, Vice Dean of the College, the
with its architecture students, there          theorizing, students have begun to take
                                               as their own the problems of the COlll-     60 or so faculty members in Philosophy
were four University buildings occu-           munity-the university, the neighbor-        selected Professors Lionel Trilling '25
pied by students when most persons ar-         hood, and the nation. A part of this has    and Carl Hovde '50 of the English De-
rived on campus for classes on Thurs-          been the realization of the need to edu-    parh11ent and Professor Eugene Galan-
day, April 25.                                 cate these communities through struggle
                                               about the nature and substance of the       ter of the Psychology Deparhnent to
    That Thursday was to be, in some           society in which we live.                   visit President Grayson Kirk and see if
ways, the most decisive day of the                 Students at Columbia, like their        the tri-partite disciplinary tribunal,
whole rebellion.                               brothers at Berkeley and Orangeburg         suggested by the College Faculty the
    It began with thousands of students        have taken the first steps toward estab-    day before, could be set up and its
and hundreds of professors waking up           lishing the university as a base for        members picked immediately.
                                               movements to educate, radicalize, and
to learn by word of mouth and through          mobilize the community as a whole for           Students were congregating every-
\VKCR, the student-run radio station,          change. Here at Columbia a movement         where, and more classes were cancell-
which had begun broadcasting a blow-           has been born.                              ed, to debate and criticize the SDS dis-
by-blow description of the student riot-                                                   ruption. A dominant note was the grow-
ing, that Avery and Fayerweather had            The sheet also praised "the initiative     ing and massive impatience with the
also been seized. Surprise and indigna-      of these groups in organizing a long          apparent reluctance of President Kirk,
tion was enormous and widespread. It         overdue confrontation with the Univer-        with or without the University Council
was the conviction of numerous stud-         sity's administration and faculty." It        (a key 68-man body of faculty, deans,
ents that SDS and their fellow travel-       also urged all students to "support the       and administrators) or the assembled
lers had given up their pretense of a        strike."                                      deans, to take some strong, imaginative
protest and now aimed at nothing less           Only 350 students showed up to hear        step to end the revolt. One annoyed
than a complete takeover of the Univer-      Mark Rudd and others at the 10:00             senior, headed for graduate school,
sity, with an eye toward starting a na-      a.m. meeting. The meeting made it             said, "This is ridiculous. A handful of
tional student strike and striking a first   clear that the six demands were now           bearded zealots take over half of one of
revolutionary blow at the American           small potatoes. In response to his own        the world's great universities and the
"system" that SDS loathed.                   question about why the student radi-          President is mute and indignant, the
    Surprisingly, most faculty members       cals have called for a general strike,        faculty runs around cowardly and con-
developed no such conviction and in-         Mark Rudd told the mostly sympathe-            fused, and we students are told by om
stead carried an air of puzzlement and       tic audience: "We want to be free stu-         deans to do nothing in order to avoid
disbelief. When noted sociologist Paul       dents. vVe can't be free in an institution     violence."
 Lazarsfeld was denied entrance to Fay-      which supports racism and an imperial-            On the other hand, President Kirk's
 erweather by the radicals that morning,     ist foreign policy. Columbia University        reluctance to act quickly and decisive-
 for example, he verbally protested but      has had many chances to demonstrate            ly, and his refusal to appear in front of
 accepted the ban. Many others, includ-      its willingness to negotiate with us. In-      any group personally was serving to re-
 ing some of the world's greatest scho-      stead it has provoked us and refused to        inforce the charges of those critical stu-
 lars, did the same thing, professing be-    engage in rational discussions. There-         dents who contended that the Presi-
 wilderment. Some teachers, however,         fore, we're striking for the right to be       dent was inept, aloof, and incapable of
 were not so compliant. Historian \Vil-      free students." Juan Gonzalez read a           swift, intelligent action based on key
 liam Leuchtenberg merely climbed            message of support said to come from           consultations. More and more students
 over the 40 student bodies in the door-     the young SNCC chairman H. Rap                 were coming to feel that the derisive
 way of Fayerweather, announcing first,      Brown: "Sometimes freedom must be              "Kirk is a jerk" signs of the SDS may he
"I have a doctoral dissertation defense      bought with a revolution. Keep up the          justified.
 to attend. The student has put in five      good work." The SDS leaders made                   One of the chief places of student
 years of important, backbreaking scho-      much of their "solidarity," especially         argument was the courtyard in front of
 Im·ship. I will not be forced to desert     with the black students; but while del-        Fayerweather Hall. While 40 students,
 him at this point."                         egates from Low, Avery, and Fayer-             sullen, defiant, wittily derisive, blocked
    Two fliers were being distributed by     weather reported on how great things           the doorway to Fayerweather from in-
 SDS workers in the early morning. One       were inside their buildings no delegate        side, and four pickets with signs stood
 reiterated the six demands, urged "No       from Hamilton Hall was at the meeting.         outside, a growing crowd of perhaps
 deals! No separate negotiations!", and      The SDS leaders pleaded for additional         300 students critical of the SDS meet-

34                                                                                                   COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
ing developed in the late morning.           Latin America." \Vhen this remark was        to back up Greeman, "This is the big-
Chants of "Throw them out" and "We           booed, several SDS leaders decided to        gest and best class I have attended in
want in" were started. "Are we going to      cool things by holding a "rational" dis-     my six years as a student at Columbia.
let SDS dictate to all of us what to do?"    cussion. As moderator of the "rational"      Education is happening right here!"
screamed one student. "No!" roared           discussion they appointed Assistant              By 1:00 in the early afternoon
back the assembled students. An SDS          Professor Jeffrey Kaplow, one of the         mounting resentment against the SDS
follower countered, "You guys are just       dozen or so faculty members almost           and SAS seizures and the silence and
dumb jocks. The majority of students         totally in league with the rebels, and as    inactivity of President Kirk caused two
are with us." Fred Lowell, the College's     speakers they asked Sociology Professor      things to happen.
Freshman Class vice-president, chal-         Amitai Etzioni, a well-known liberal;            About 450 students, half of them
lenged that opinion and dared SDS to         Assistant Professor of French Richard        members of Columbia's athletic teams,
conduct a student referendum. "Set it        Greeman, like Kaplow a dedicated aide        had gathered in University Gymnas-
up yourself," came back the answer.          of the rebels; ~lark Naison '66, a           ium at 1: 30 p.m. to plan action against
 (Later in the day a referendum W:lS         Columbia graduate student who h:lS            the insurrectionists because, as one stu-
drawn up and circulated, but was op-         been in SDS for several years; and           dent put it, "No one else around here
posed by the SDS and administered so         other SDS partisans.                         seems to have the guts to defend Co-
poorly because of the unusual campus             Etzioni surprised the student rebels     lumbia from these crazy revolutionar-
 conditions that its results were mean-      by being critical of them. "This seizure      ies." There was talk of forming a block-
 ingless. )                                  of buildings is a sad mistake. The edu-       ade around Low and Hamilton Halls to
    At one point around 11:30 a.m. a         cational process is not like the manu-        allow no one and no things in or out.
 wedge of angry students tried to rush       facturing process. You should not be          James Quattrochi '69 said, "We're sick
 the Fayerweather entrance and dis-          blocking the way to my office. As much        and tired of SDS pushing this university
 lodge the SDS students but were pre-        as I svmpathize with your aims, I would       around with their lies and storm troop-
 vented by SDS reinforcements and sev-        tell the University not to negotiate any-    er tactics. It's just as much our univer-
 eral younger faculty members. "Our           thing so long as you use force and vio-      sity as theirs. If they want to destroy,
 reason for closing Fayerweather," ex-       lence to disrupt the educational pro-         to reduce America to a barbaric society,
 plained an SDS speaker with a bull-          cess." His colleague Greeman quickly         it's survival of the fittest. And we are
 horn, "is to call attention to the uncon-    disagreed, "I don't think that the edu-      the fittest." Cheers and applause. Then
 scionable violence in Vietnam, the           cational process has been truly disrupt-     Associate Professor of Physical Educa-
 police state in Harlem, and the intoler-     ed by these seizures. I think it's only      tion Jack Rohan '53, the highly capable
 able oppression by the United States in      beginning!" A rebel student jumped lip       Light Blue basketball coach, stepped

On Thursday, April 25, after 40 leftists had seized Fayerweather Hall, an angry group of students gathered outside to take swift
counteraction. They were dissuaded by SDS leaders and leftist faculty members, who explained the "necessity" of the seizure.
New York CUy's Human Rights Commis-         Government professor Joseph Rothschild         Physical education prOfessor Jack Rohan
sioner 'William Booth: "[ can sympathize    '52: "Our faculty group was Tising above       '53: "You are impatient and so am I. But
with some of the protestors' aims, but 1    principle to expediency. We acted like         the maior issue is law and order. You'd
cannot support most of their tactic5."      value-fl'ee mediators ill a labor dispute."    be foolish to become pwt of the anal'chy."

before the angry crowd. He said he          and grim, held a press conference at            'vVhen Truman excused himself, plead-
was a little ashamed that they seemed       2:30. Earlier, they had been in touch          ing urgent obligations elsewhere, most
to be acting like the "heavies in a grade   with student rebel leaders, who insist-         of the faculty also got up to leave.
B movie." "I know you are impatient,        ed that amnesty was a pre-condition                But suddenly, Professor \Vestin rose
and so am 1. But the major issue here is    for all talks. The two former govern-          from behind the speaker's table and
law and order. You would be foolish to      ment professors told the press that they       asked everyone to stay. "As much as I
become part of the anarchy and disre-       would definitely not grant amnesty be-         love Dave Truman as a friend and re-
gard for rights that SDS has initiated."    cause "such a concession would destroy         spect him as a scholar and administra-
Rohan added that if the new gymnas-         the whole fabric of the University com-         tor, I think that the Faculty of this Uni-
ium had to be given up, it would not be     munity and make a sham of all past             versity must playa separate role, an ac-
that serious. "I have always had a lot of   and future disciplinary procedures ut          tive and independent role." He said
pride in Columbia and that is not the       Columbia." What about calling in the           that he had heard that Dean Coleman
great gymnasium we deserve anyway."         police? Said Dr. Kirk: "We have exer-          had hinted at possible police action
   Rohan's talk had an immense impact       cised grea t restrain t in the use of police   that night, said that he and others were
on the students, who now quieted            because at almost all costs we wish to         strongly opposed to police coming onto
down, mumbled agreement with the            avoid a physical confrontation. We wi!!        a university campus, and urged that
coach, but still wanted to see something    continue to try to do so."                     the professors immediately form an ad
done so that classes could continue.           Among those present at the press            hoc committee to see if they could med-
Dean Coleman then spoke, also urging        conference were Dr. Alan \Vestin, pro-         iate between the student rebels and the
patience and restraint. He said, "I have    fessor of public law and director of the       administrators before nightfall. There
no intention of letting down 2,500 stu-     Center for Research and Education in           was some reluctance, but nearly all 125
dents in the College because of the tac-    American Liberties. After the confer-          teachers stayed. At 3:45 that afternoon
tics of the other 200." He told them the    ence was over, \iVestin invited David          the Ad Hoc Faculty Committee was
President and nearly all the faculty        Truman, a close personal friend, to            born.
were opposed to the granting of amnes-      speak to the confused and concerned                While the Ad Hoc Faculty Commit-
ty to the rebels, a remark that brought     faculty members gathered in the Phil-          tee hastily formed an executive com-
great cheers, and that he expected Dr.      osophy Hall Lounge. Truman accepted            mittee, and argued about what form
Kirk to "take definitive action, possibly   and at 3: 15 he told the 125 faculty           their action should take, most students
by this evening." The latter remark         members gathered there that the ad-            either wandered around outdoors de-
went like wind through the campus,          ministration leaders were trying, by           bating about the SDS-led rebellion or
causing many persons to think the           phone, directly, and through intermed-         continued to work around the rebels.
police would remove the students from       iaries, to reach a peaceful agreement;         Many classes, particularly in the grad-
the buildings that night.                   but that the strikers seemed totally in-       uate professional schools continued to
   A short while after the gymnasium        h·ansigent. He spoke for 25 minutes,           be held, and Butler Library and other
meeting, President Kirk and Vice Pres-      giving a full and candid report with           libraries were unusually full with stu-
ident Truman, looking unusually tired       gravity and a touch of pessimism.              dents who were using the time to com-

36                                                                                                  COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
plete their term papers or catch up with            sity of assuming responsibility for one's     the rights of the majority of students,
course assignments.                                 actions. )                                    the faculty, Dr. Kirk or Dean Coleman
                                                       Let us make ourselves clear ... We
   To the annoyance of some rebel lead-             consider that re-evaluation of the Uni-       and seemed to be adopting a "peace at
ers, the movement wasn't going so well.             versity's functions both with respect to      any price" position. But the majority
The rebel picket lines refused to in-               the external community and to its own         of the instructors in Philosophy
crease, staying at approximately 150,               members is a critical necessity ... [But]     Lounge, now nearly 250 but still less
despite mimeographed pleas, recruit-                authoritarian solutions, left or right, are   than 10 per cent of the total faculty, ac-
                                                    not solutions.
ing in the dormitories by left-wing stu-                                                          cepted the Ad Hoc faculty's role as in-
dents, and constant bullhorn propa-                   By 4:00 that Thursday afternoon             dependent mediator. "It's our only
ganda. While some additional students             over 1,700 students had signed a peti-          hope to prevent violence," said one
climbed in the windows of Low or Fay-             tion castigating SDS and calling for a          English teacher. "We're their teachers.
erweather to join those inside, many              swift restoration of order and educa-           They'll listen to us," said another scho-
were merely curious and left after a              tion at Morningside. Also, by 4: 00             lar confidently.
brief stay. 'Norse, a few students were           President Kirk had agreed to the set-              The other disagreement was over
beginning to desert the movement.                 ting up of a tripartite disciplinary com-       planks in the platform which the facul-
One young man who had left Low told               mission recommended by the College              ty would present to both sides. Espe-
us: "Mark Rudd thinks he is Che Gue-              faculty the previous afternoon, and             cially controversial was Assistant Pro-
vara, Lenin, and Lenny Bruce all coll-            said that he would ask the Trustees             fessor of History Robert Fogelson's
ed into one. J. J. (John Jacobs) has              immediately to approve a halt to the            idea of using a faculty strike to bring
completely flipped out and wants to               gym construction-concessions that               both sides to their knees. The strike was
blow up America. And Tony Papert is               strengthened the students in the mid-           accepted, about 5: 30, after several
playing Stalin-cool, unyielding, ruth-            dle. Shortly after, Human Rights Com-           dozen younger teachers-preceptors,
less, hungry for blood. Worst of all,             missioner William Booth told a large            instructors, and teaching assistants
they keep trying to use the Harlem                student group that while he sympathiz-          sympathetic to tI:e student strike-be-
Negro extremists and teenagers as their           ed with some of the strikers' aims, "I          gan to fill the Lounge and vote. At one
private army to threaten that block-              do not support their tactics."                  point before that, a professor came in
head Kirk. The blacks in Hamilton dig                 In Philosophy Hall, the Ad Hoc Fac-         to say that President Kirk had agreed
it though and are more and more going             ulty Committee was having consider-             to the tri-partite disciplinary commis-
their own way. It's too wild."                    able difficulty agreeing on a proper            sion and to asking the Trustees to stop
   Also, a growing majority of Colum-             course of action. There was a hot feel-         gym consh'uction, as the College Fac-
bia's 17,000 students were adopting "a            ing of urgency and some panic because           ulty had requested the day before.
plague on both your houses" position.             of the Coleman remark about a possible          Whereupon philosopher Sidney Mor-
An example of this was the mimeo-                 police raid that night. Generally, the          genbesser said that perhaps the Ad
graphed sheet signed and distributed              disagreemen t was on two levels: pro-           Hoc Committee ought merely to re-
by seven students (M. Brodin, R. Dick-            cedure and planks. At the level of pra-         endorse the College Faculty resolution
man, J. Meltzer, P. Miller, J. Souweine,          cedure, numerous professors, though a           of yesterday instead of presenting Dr.
and L. Zell) in the College, titled               minority, had grave reservations about          Kirk with another rump faculty set of
"What is to Be Done-Another View."                the decision of Professors Westin, So-          requests. He was shouted down.
        Today, no perceptive individual can       viet expert Alexander Dallin, sociolo-             About 6: 15 the following resolution
   deny that American society (and the            gist Daniel Bell, and African authority          was agreed upon.
   Columbia microcosm of that society) is
   wracked by grave and complex prob-             Immanuel Wallerstein to proceed as if                vVe, the undersigned members of the
   lems ... Given the complexity of these          they were trying to resolve a dispute            Columbia University Faculty and teach-
    problems, especially as they relate to        between two equal, legitimate parti,cs.           ing staff, make the following proposal
    Columbia, and the concomitant implica-                                                          to resolve the present crisis:
                                                  "Kirk and the administration aren't an               1. 'We request the Trustees to imple-
    tion that no simple solutions exist, we
    feel obligated to confront the intolerable     auto company, Rudd and SDS are not               ment the immediate cessation of excava-
    tactics of SDS, and to look forward to a       Reuther and the United Auto Workers,             tion on the gymnasium site, by tele-
    viable alternative.                            and the faculty is not a neutral party           phone vote if necessary.
        \lVe are deeply concerned that the         with no interest in either side" said one           2. \Ve request the administration to
    events of the past two days have polar-                                                         delegate all disciplinary power on mat-
                                                   professor. East European expert Joseph           ters related to the present crisis to the
    ized the Columbia community without
    reflecting the views of what we feel is        Rothschild '52 said, "This group is ris-         tripartite committee, consisting of Shl-
    the vast majority of concerned shldents        ing above principle to expedien8y.               dents, faculty, and administration.
    who will not sacrifice rational order for      We're acting like value-free mediators              3. vVe request the students to evacu-
    emotional expedience.                                                                           ate all buildings now, and we pledge
                                                   choosing between $2.75 or $3.00 an               our faith and influence towards a solu-
        FACT: SDS by its coercive actions          hour. Have we forgotten about civn
    has denied our right to attend classes.                                                         tion. Should the students be willing to
     (Apparently SDS values an attempt at          liberties, what a University is all about,       evacuate the buildings, we will not meet
    the solution of legitimate problems            and what is necessary to sustain an in-          classes until the crisis is resolved along
    through illegitimate means.)                   ternational fellowship of civilized dis-         the above lines.
         FACT: SDS demands amnesty for all                                                             4. Until the crisis is settled, we will
                                                   course?" Another teacher found it                stand before the occupied buildings to
    members participating in the current           strange that Westin, director of the
    disturbances as a precondition for set-                                                         prevent forcible entry by police or
                                                   Center for Research in Education and             others.
     tlement. (Social protest, in the tradition
    of Gandhi and King, entails the neces-         American Liberties, hardly mentioned              Professors Westin and vVallerstein

 SPRING, 1968                                                                                                                              37
Dean Clarence Walton of the adult school of General Studies adcb'essing students in front of Lewisohn Hall, his main build-
ing. He kept the building open, served coffee, and engaged in jaw-to-jaw combat with students daily.

then left immediately to bring the res-      had in mind, but the Ad Hoc faculty      "The United Black Front."
olution to the SAS leaders in Hamilton       mem bel's did not.                          That afternoon, while the Ad Hoc
Hall; and others brought the resolution         "'Then the professors left for some   Faculty Committee met, Charles 37X
to Strike Central in Ferris Booth and to     supper they found that President Kirk    Kenyatta, leader of the extremist Mau
Dr. Kirk.                                    had suspended all classes and ordered    Mau Society in Harlem, had harangued
    Point 4 of the resolution was meant      all buildings on campus emptied and      a crowd of over 500 students in front of
to prevent police action and violence        closed. At Lewisohn Hall, the head-      Hamilton Hall, making some inflamma-
on campus. Most of those who voted for       quarters of the University's adult       tory remarks. Among other things he
it clearly did so because they believed it   School of General Studies, about 200     said that Columbia was trying to take
would help bring an eventual return to       G.S. students met with their dean, Dr.   over Harlem, that Morningside Heights
reason, compromise, and peace. It was        Clarence \¥alton, and some faculty and   should now become a part of Harlem,
also clear that a significant portion uf     decided to keep the building open, de-   that the gym ought to be re-negotiated
those voting were also largely ignorant      fying both the Administration and SDS    with "the people" of Harlem, and that
of the aims, tactics, and mood of SDS        guerillas. Student and faculty volun-    whites ought to turn Columbia over to
and other student left groups, and of        teers manned the entrance, and con-      black people.
the new militant attitudes in the black      tinued to do so until the end of the        These remarks by Kenyatta, plus the
communi tv. Also, they voted without a       rebellion.                               fact that several dozen faculty members
single mention of what was brewing in           The professors also were handed       of more liberal and radical persuasion
New York the next night and Saturd2Y         leaflets announcing a "March on Col-     had put on white armbands and were
-a huge anti-war rally in the Sheep          umbia" and a big rally at 1I6th Street   sitting on the steps in front of Hamilton
\[eadow of Central Park. Leftist stu-        and Broadway at 7:30 p.m. The leaflet    and Fayerweather to protect the SDS
dents had designated April 26 as             promised that Borough President Per~y    and black students from the police,
"International Student Strike Day" and       Sutton, State Senator Basil Paterson,    caused several hundred of the more
the celebration could bring several hun-     State Assemblvman Charles Rangel,        conservative students to be screwed
dred or a thousand outside allies to         Harlem CORE chairman Victor Solo-        up to a new fury. "Kenyatta is as bad ;IS
Columbia's SDS. \Vith such reinforce-        mon, Civil Rights Commissioner Wil-      Lincoln Rockwell. They ought to throw
ments two days away, SDS was in no           liam Booth, and Negro militant Omar      him off campus," said one student. Said
hurry to draw things to a close that         Ahmed-all black leaders-would be         another, "Fil"st we get called white
Thursday night. This Kirk and Truman         present to speak. The sheet was signed    racists by SDS, then we get called scum

38                                                                                             COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
 by a black racist." But most of the fury   SDS students in a vigilante mood, amI     dents to let Kenyatta through. They
of the conservative students was direct-    several hundred curious onlookers,        were reluctant. Then a group of -10
ed at the Ad Hoc Faculty Committee.         many from the Morningside com-            police rushed from the other side of
"The faculty has sold us out," was          munity. At 8:40 Charles 37X Kenyatta      Broadway and smashed the con-
a widespread comment. "They've re-          appeared outside the campus gates and     servatives' blockade. Kenyatta entered,
versed their position of yesterday and      started speaking, reiterating his black   walking through College walk, escorted
have now decided to support the rev-        power claims and anti-white remarks.      by Dean Coleman, to Amsterdam and
 olutionaries with their bodies." "SDS      Some conservative students started        down to the gymnasium site, where his
can do anything it wants, like storm        heckling Kenyatta, who suddenly told      rally ended.
troopers, and that's O.K. But us? vVe       the crowd that, "If one Negro student        The conservative students, now nWTI-
are told to be non-violent, to be nice      gets hurt the people of Harlem would      bering about 700, gathered in front of
and rational, to do nothing. How ridic-     come up and wipe out the students and     the Sundial. Furious, they decided that
ulous can the faculty get?" "We have        the whole University." The conserva-      Dean Coleman had reneged on his
no choice," said Paul Vilardi, an in-       tives bristled. At 9:30 Kenvatta then     pledge of "definitive action" and had
censed College senior. "The President       started, with a wedge of young black      deserted the cause of law and order too.
is doing nothing. The faculty is now        supporters, to walk through the Colum-    Some went to Hamilton, where a few
backing the radicals. The only ones         bia gate to continue speaking with his    students, angry at what they felt were
who can bring this nonsense to a halt       brothers on campus. The conservatives     the black extremists' threats to burn
is us."                                     locked arms to prevent his eiltry, and    down Columbia, climbed up onto the
   By 8:30 not a single Negro leader        it looked like a fight was imminent.      windows and second story ledge of
had shown up for the rally. On hand,        Five white SDS supporters raced down      Hamilton. But most of the mob went
however, were several hundred pro-          to Harlem to get help for Kenyatta.       to the quadrangle in front of Fayer-
Negro (though not necessarily pro-             Dean Harry Coleman, using a mega-      weather at 10:30, determined "to pull
SDS) students, several hundred anti-        phone, begged the conservative stu-       the hippies, Commies, and pukes out of

                      An undergraduate opposed to the SDS-led rebellion drums tip support for his views.
the building," as one put it.              swer: "Nuts! The faculty has sold this       The stiffness of the three surprised many
   In front of Fayerweather there stood    University down the river. You've got        of the liberal professors, who were
a battery of professors and deans, sev-    to get those guys out of Low, Fayer-         hoping for a peaceful, compromise
eral of whom addressed and pleaded         weather, and Hamilton. They've been          solution. Allan Silver, Assistant Profes-
with the conservative crowd for order.     in there so long thev're going to get        SOr of Sociology, and a strong partisan
Some like Seymour ~[elman, Professor       tenure." (Laughter) Westin: "No, they        of movements for greater social justice,
of Industrial Engineering, a well-         won't, they haven't published yet."          rose and asked the SDS representa-
known radical who was almost com-          Reply: "What are you talking about?          tives: 'Isn't there anything at all about
pletely on the side of the student         They're putting out a mimeod propa-          Columbia College or the University
revolutionaries, were booed; but others,   ganda sheet every hOUl'!" (More laugh-       that you can find favorable and worth
like Russian professor Robert Belkn:tp,    ter. )                                       preserving? If so, isn't there something
had a calming inRuence. Vice Dean of          This banter seemed to ease things.        you do to revise your tactics and your
the College Thomas Colahan told the        \Vestin then invited any four or five        stand of absolute firmness?" The ques-
mob that the Trustees and President        anti-sh'ike leaders to appear before the     tion shook the three, who suddenly re-
Kirk were conferring by phone and          Ad Hoc Faculty Committee in :20              cognized that their all-or-nothing stand,
that "some action" could be expected       minutes to put forward their case.           far from "radicalizing" and earning
soon. He counseled patience. "\Ve've       The group reluctantly agreed, and the        plaudits from the liberal faculty, was
waited long enough. \,Ve're fed up,"       crowd slowly began to disperse. Shortly      turning some of the sympathetic pro-
someone shouted, and three anti-           after, five students did appear before       fessors against the strike. Rudd, Gon-
revolutionary students who had found        the faculty group to explain their po-      zales, and Gilbert left without answer-
a window open on the left side of          sition, which they did with more con-        ing.
Fayerweather jumped up onto the            viction than skill.                              During that entire evening, Presi-
ledge. Several SDS students moved to          Three representatives of SDS also         dent Kirk was in the office at 109 Low,
get them off the window, but one con-      appeared before the Ad Hoc Com-              busily consulting with senior Columbia
servative said, "You lay one hand on       mittee before midnight-.\1ark Rudd,           professors, calling Trustees, talking
us, and 1,000 guys will be all over        Juan Gonzalez, and David Gilbert '66,        with the ~Iayor's office, civil rights
you." The SDS students withdrew ami        a former SDS chairman at Columbia,           leaders, and police officials. Hundreds
prepared for a mob rush from the           now a graduate student at the ew             of telegrams had started pouring in,
"jocks," as they called them.              School for Social Research. They an-         many from important persons and uni-
   Then Professor Alan \'Vestin ap-        swered questions, making it transparent      versity leaders around the nation,
peared before the hostile crowd in the     that they were in no mood to compro-         nearly all urging him to end the
near darkness. He told them that the       mise. Said Rudd at one point, "We            seizures immediately "before anarchy
Ad Hoc Faculity Committee was trving       have made you guys a facility. You           and insurrection spreads through the
to resolve the situation quickly. An-      ought to thank us, not be against us."       country," as one telegram read. Per-
                                                                                        sonally, Dr. Kirk was outraged by the
                                                                                        strike, but he appeared amazingly
Vice President David Truman, [dill bullhorn, announcing the cancellation of the          calm throughout the evening. He's as
first planned police remot;al al 2:30 a.m. on Friday, April 26. He and President Kirk    poised as the British Ambassador in
did so in respome to the Ad Hoc Faculty Committee's request that it be allowed          Hong Kong during a Communist riot
to negotiate and solve the confrontation rapidly and peacefully.                      I against the Embassy," observed one
                                                                                        astonished faculty member.
                                                                                            The pressure on Kirk to call in the
                                                                                        police and terminate the sit-ins was
                                                                                         enormous. Several of Mayor Lindsay's
                                                                                         aides counseled, as one said, "a quick,
                                                                                         surgical removal of the students be-
                                                                                         fore the sit-ins turned to bloody riot-
                                                                                         ing." "We don't want the long, hot
                                                                                         summer to start in April," quipped
                                                                                         another. Several trustees and leading
                                                                                         alumni urged the same thing. The
                                                                                         deans of the prestigious Graduate
                                                                                        Schools of Law, Business, and Medi-
                                                                                         cine, backed by most of their faculty
                                                                                         and many of their students, also in-
                                                                                        sisted on a rapid restoration of classes
                                                                                         and learning. By 11:40 on Thursday
                                                                                         night, President Kirk had had what he
                                                                                         believed were clear indications both
                                                                                         from the SDS leaders and the blacks in
                                                                                         Hamilton Hall that they were prepared

                                                                                                 COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
to compromise on nothing whatever            mittee of the faculty of the btest              While Professur Westin and his col-
 (they demanded total amnesty and            seizure and to inform them of Dr. Kirk's     leagues "vere meeting with Dr. Kirk, a
wanted "to win"), so he called Mayor         decision and the impending police ac-        group of 40 or so faculty members,
Lindsay, who assented to police clear-       tion a few hours away. "I felt a deep        mostly left-wing and younger teachers,
ance of the buildings in the early hours     obligation to my colleagues," he said        locked arms outside Low to prevent
of that morning.                             later. Without ceremony, a bit embar-        the police from entering the building.
   Kirk and Truman then began to ar-         rassed, and terribly saddened-as if he       The police had orders to keep the
range for special precautions with the       had to announce a faculty salary cut-        Low entrance open; the strike-svm-
police: no nightsticks in the buildings;     he entered the lounge and stood at the       pathizing faculty were expecting a
ample bullhorn warning to all the de-        back. When he got the surprised at-          police "bust," as it is called, so there
monstrators allowing any of them to          tention of the 200 disputing teachers,       was a nastv clash of teachers and
leave without arrest before police           he said: "Gentlemen, I want to make          police in front of the doors at Low at
entry; four policemen to every rebel in      an announcement that I expect most           2:00 a.m. Pro-rebel French instructor
the buildings so that recalcitrants could    of you will not like. Another building,      Richard Greeman suffered a cut on the
be peacefully carried out; paddy wag-        Mathematics, has just been taken over        head from a plainclothesman's club.
ons at the side exits to the campus for      by the striking students and the situ-          At 2:2,5 a.m. Vice President Truman
swift, undramatic removal of the stu-        ation has reached such a point that          stepped outside and announced to 300
dents. Kirk requested that each detach-      we now have no alternative except to         teachers and students at the Low Li-
ment of police be lectured at length by      call in the police. In 10 minutes the        brary east door that the police action
a senior police officer in the several       President will call Mayor Lindsay to         for that night had been cancelled at the
precincts in which thev gathered, so         request such action. Thank you for yOiJr     request of some professors, that con-
that the students would be treated as        concern and efforts. I'm terribl~, sorry."   sh'uction of the gymnasium had been
"student demonstrators not common            Truman turned and walked out.                suspended, and that the University
criminals." Chief Police Inspector Gare-        There was a moment of stunned             would be officially closed until Mond:1Y
lik was involved in the arrangements         silence and several gasps, then cries of     morning. No library use, no classes, no
and agreed to carry them out.                "No, no!" and "Shame" rang out above         laboratories.
   GareJik and his top aides were re-        the few murmurs of "It's about time."           Hoping to convince the rebel leaders
lieved that it would probably be Thurs-      Professors Westin and DaIlin, along          to compromise a bit since Dr. Kirk had
day night, or rather early Friday morn-      with several others, bolted out of the       given in on several matters, vVestin,
ing, that Columbia had selected as the       door to catch up with Truman. Th3Y           sociologist Allan Silver, historian David
time for removal because the police          succeeded. Inside Low, they pleaded          Rothman ',58, and College dean Alex-
officials estimated that New York's          with Kirk and Truman to "give us more        ander Platt, accompanied by Spectator
force would be so busy on Friday and         time." They voiced their belief that the     editor Robert Friedman '69, met with
Saturday nights handling the huge            rebellious students would be reason-         Mark Rudd and other sh-ike heads in
peace demonstration in Cenral Park           able and that the faculty, having a          the Mathematics Librarv at 2:4,5 a.m.
that they would not help Columbia.           closer tie to the young students than        and talked for one and a half hours. The
   Shortly after 1: 00 a.m., about 20 stu-   the administrative officials, would be       Ad Hoc faculty were trying to deliv~r
dent rebels from Low led by "J. J."          able to bring about a compromise reso-       on the three points of their resolution
Jacobs ("SDS's answer to the jocks," as      lution fairly quickly. Dr. Kirk yielded.     of nine hours earlier: a halt to the gym
one admiring protester put it), Tom          The President promptly called off the        construction, a tripartite disciplinary
Havden, former SDS national chair-           police operation, to the annoyance of        tribunal with final power, and evacua-
man and now agitator in Newark,              several police officials who had been        tion of the buildings. They asked Rudd
N. J., and the revolutionary Protestant      making intricate preparations.               and his colleagues to leave the build-
chaplain William Starr, with another            One condition that President Kirk         ings, and negotiate matters. "You can
15 of the most radical students from         made, though, was that the Ad Hoc            always go back in," said Westin. Rudd
Fayerweather, sprinted across the            Faculty Committee, in asking for power       replied, according to Professor vVestin,
campus into Mathematics Hall. They           and time to effect a solution, had tQ        "Are you crazy? Listen, so many of our
threw out the two janitors and piled a       assume responsibility themselves for         people are studious types that they
half ton of furniture in front of the        dealing with the increasing threat of        would never go back in. We'd lose our
door as a barricade, scribbled revo-         violence and destruction both inside         revolutionary cohesion. You don't give
lutionary slogans on the walls, and          the campus and from without. Pro-            up a neat situation like this once YOH
held a meeting to decide what to do          fessor Westin agreed on behalf of his        have it." The faculty representatives
when the police came.                        colleagues, and beginning that night         left around 4:00 a.m. a bit shaken at
   As soon as the news of the seizure        24-hour faculty patrols were set up at       the sh-ikers' rigidity and revolutionary
of the Math building reached 109 Low         each building, especially Low, and full      fervor, but both sides agreed to talk
Library, President Kirk definitely de-       professors of Japanese and chemish'Y,        again the next day.
cided to go ahead with the police            and instructors of sociology and Eng-           The Ad Hoc Faculty Committee
action. Vice President Truman took it        lish checked identificaion cards day         was now on the spot, and the best of
upon himself to walk over to Phil-           and night at both the Amsterdam              them knew it. They met almost con-
osophy Hall to tell the Ad Hoc Com-          Avenue and Broadway entrances.               tinuously from 10 o'clock in the morn-

SPRING, 1968                                                                                                                    41
ing till well after midnight that Fri-        then the Ad Hoc faculty voted 196-125             as much an aesthetic act as a political
day, April 26, and their leaders and          to surround at least one building, Low            one, as much an emotional and irration-
representatives feverishly sought to ef-      Library, after consulting with the SDS            al step as a conscious, rational decision.
fect some sort of quick solution.             leaders. From Friday noon on, a ring of           One could hear, and did, over and over
    Soon after they convened on Friday        teachers stood underneath President               again about the SDS-Ied revolution,
morning, a College senior named Paul          Kirk's windows to see that no other               exclamations such as, "It's so fantastic,
Vilardi, one of the anti-strike leaders,      rebels entered or left Low's occupied             so beautiful!" or "\Vhat a tremendously
appeared before them. He said that the        offices.                                          bold thing!" or "Isn't it wild and excit-
students opposed to the seizures and             As word spread that the police threat          ing?" \\Then most of these exclaiming
disruption, "over three-quarters of this      had been postponed by the Ad Huc                  students were asked why using a lead-
campus," had decided to form a group          faculty group, and that the deans and             ing university to start a national social
called the Majority Coalition. He asked       Ad Hoc professors were being protec-              revolution was "beautiful," they could
the Ad Hoc professors to stop acting          tive and conciliatory toward the pro-             only repeat their adjectives of awe and
as the "private police force" of the          testing groups, other students began to           approbation.
rebels, protecting the strikers from the      enter the buildings. On that Friday the              Among those who began to join the
administrators, the cops, and the other       revolution acquired a kind of quasi-              sit-ins, or lockouts in the barricaded
students while allowing the rebels to         legitimacy. This near-legitimacy was in           buildings that Friday were dozens of
mO\'e about freely, propagandize for          great part due to the Ad Hoc Faculty              students who felt that President Kirk's
support, bring in outside agitators and       Committee's approach toward the SDS-              administration had been weak, foolish,
Harlem zealots, and print libelous lit-       led rebels, which was one of recogniz-            and aloof; others who believed the fac-
erature. He reminded the faculty, "Yon        ing them and treating them as if the              ulty had too long neglected good teach-
did not stop the violence last night. We      dissenters were a bOlla fide labor union          ing and the personal growth of the
did." He said that while the Ad Hoc           with stature, knowledge, and authority            students; and still others who were
faculty were pretending to be impartial       equal to that of the Administration,              bored with their overly methodological
and fair, their every deed was in sup-        Trustees, and the Faculty. Peter Gay,             and heavily mathematical courses, were
port of the revolution, of violence,          Shepherd Professor of History, wrote              adrift about a major subject, or were
of anti-Columbia and anti-intellectual        about this approach of the liberal and            unhappy about their graduate school
acts. Outside, later on, he added,            left-wing professors later (in the Sum-           or General Studies academic programs.
"\Ve're the only guys on this campus          mer issue of the Partisan Review) :               In short, a new group interested main-
who are supporting the College Faculty              They were attempting to set up an           ly in improving Columbia University
resolutions, non-violence, and return            unreal situation-that is, they were            rather than in capturing it swelled the
                                                 treating it ,1S though it were, let's say, a   ranks of the student protestors. These
to normal educational practices; and,            labor dispute between equals: union on
it's so crazy, but we are the very guys          one side, management on the other. [n          "liberals" or "reformers," as the SDS
who get dumped on the most."                     fact, the situation never even remotely        radicals called them, were to give the
    Several of the 325 professors in             resembled this. There were students il-        Strike Steering Committee much trou-
Philosophy Hall Lounge acknowledged              legally occupying buildings; it was un-        ble.
                                                 derstood that sooner or later they would
that, in effect, their actions had been          have to get out. And on the other side             By Friday at sundown the number
supportive and protective of the rebels.         there was the Administration which,            of young strikers in the buildings had
Assistant Professor of History Robert            however unjust or unpopular it might           risen from 250 early that morning to
Fogelson then proposed that the facIlI-          be, was nevertheless the legi timate           450.
                                                 power. Under these circumstances ...              Woodberrv Profesor of English,
ty could not continue to protect the             for the faculty to put itself in the mid-
unlimited rights of access and seizure           dle, as though the students and Admin-         Lionel Trilling '25, one of the most
of buildings of the left wing students           istration were two equals confronting          morally sensible figures of our time, has
while denying all rights of access and           one another, was really a tactical and         written apropos of the Columbia rebels,
                                                 in the long run a strategic mistake.           also in the Pari isall Review, Summer
study to the center and right wing stu-
                                                    ot only Columbia students entered           issue:
dents. "If we are prepared to block the
                                              the seized buildings. Girls from Sarah
Majority Coalition's entry into the                                                                   There has developed among young
                                              Lawrence and N.Y.U. and young men                    people an appetite for gratuitous politi-
buildings, we ought to be prepared to
                                              from C.C.N.Y. and the East Village                   cal activity. In speaking of their political
block the entry and exit of the SDS                                                                activity as gratuitous, I don't mean to
                                              came in. Some Columbia students were
students." There was applause, and                                                                 say that it has no relation to actuaUty;
                                              merely curious and stayed only a few
                                                                                                   but quite apart from all actual and prac-
                                              hours, but others joined the intermina-              tical ends in view, there is, I think, the
                                              ble meetings and discussions inside and              desire to be politically involved, in some
Student rebels on Low Library window          found new meaning and importance in                  extreme and exciting way. . . . The
ledge. On Friday, April 26, the revolu-                                                            gratuitous element is considerably great-
                                              life. "It's like some beautiful kibbutz,
tiO!l acquired a quasi-legitimacy. The                                                             er than it was in the thirties. For YOUll;.(
                                              without the daily chores to do," said                people now, being political serves much
strikers were protected from the conse1'()-
ative students by the police and from.        one G.S. student. ''I'll never have to ~ee           the same purpose as being literary has
the police by the faculty. The Faculty's      my shrink [psychoanalyst] again," saiJ               long done--it expresses and validates
withdrawal of its earlier condemnation        an elated female graduate student leav-              the personaljty. III saying this, I don't
                                              ing Fayerweather.                                    mean to questioll the authenticity of
of the rebellion allowed many other dis-                                                           their emotions and motives, but I do
contented students to ;oi/1 the revolt.           For many, "joining the strike" was               mean to suggest that many-not all-

42                                                                                                         COLU~lBIA     COLLEGE TODAY
  of the issues they raised were adventi-       a philosophical sort.                         machines in the early 19th century to
  tious or symbolic.                                Anarchism is largely a European ide-      halt the advance of industrialism.) Al-
    The political stance of those in the        ology. Its chief explicators are the Eng-     exander Gray in his brilliant volume
buildings was blurred, but vaguely in           lishmen Gerard \Vinstanlev and his            The Socialist Tradition: Moses to Lenin
agreement. Professor Julian Franklin,           Diggers, William Godwin, Bertrand             writes:
an astute political theorist, summed it         Russell, and Herbert Read; Frenchmen               The fundamental trouble with the
up best as "anarcho-syndicalism with            like P. J. Proudhon and possibly                anarchist is that, though he may be
Leninist overtones." That is, the stu-          Georges Sorel; and the Russians :\,1 i-         highly intelligent, he has no sense. It
dents were at bottom anarchists who             chael Bakunin and Prince Kropotkin. Its         follows that a fruitful discussion of an-
                                                                                                archism is almost an impossibility. If
felt that somehow society could be run          basic ingredients are a belief that hu-         they do not realize that they have set
by a confederation of small communes            man nature is basically good, loving,           their net among the stars, no word of
or decentralized, democratic organiza-          and cooperative and that all kinds of           man will persuade them that their
tions, possibly kept in line, however, by       thority are bad. People should live to-         thoughts are moving in a world unreal
                                                                                                and unrealizable. Anarchists are a race
a small, authoritarian, one-party group         gether in peace and brotherhood, work-
                                                                                                of highly intelligent and imaginative
of enlightened young political leaders,         ing and playing in small voluntary asso-        children.
totally committed to social justice and         ciations, ruled only by reason and sym-
                                                                                                  Nonetheless, anarchism-not often
maximum individualism.                          pathy. Work should be pleasurable, but
                                                                                              recognized openly by its advocates as
    Anarchism has never been a major            if idleness brings one pleasure, that's
                                                                                              such-is in vogue among an important
political outlook in America, but the           all right too.
                                                                                              segment of American youth, and in-
student left is giving it a new dignity,           Anarchism is humane and forever
                                                                                              deed youth of many other industrial
or at least notoriety. There is only one        progressive. It is also blatantly reac-
                                                                                              nations, at the present time. There is
early figure, scarcely known in Ameri-          tionary and conh'adictory, envisioning
                                                                                              even a new magazine, Anarchos, that
can history, who espoused anarchism             a return to some mythical primitive
                                                                                              began publishing in New York's East
philosophically, Josiah Warren (1798-           state while keeping most of the com-
                                                                                              Village in February, 1968. Written by
1874), who wrote one book, True C ivi-          forts and bountiful possessions of
                                                                                              a group of people in ew York City
li;:;ation. Warren wrote in an article in       modern, bureaucratic industrial life.
                                                                                              who seek to advance "non authoritarian
1848:                                           (A knowledgeable British journalist
                                                                                              approaches to revolutionary theory and
       In a progressive state there is no de-   promptly dubbed the Columbia rebels
                                                                                              practice," the magazine's young sup-
    mand for conformity. \Ve build on           "The Ruddites," after the Luddites,
    individuality.... With regard to mere                                                     porters believe that "a qualitatively
                                                English workers who smashed their
    difference of opinion in taste, conven-                                                   new order of possibility faces our gen-
    ience, economy, equality, or even right                                                   eration-the possibility of a free, non-
    and wrong, good and bad, sanity and                                                       repressive, stateless and decenh'alized
    insanity-all must be left to the supreme
                                                                                            ~ society based on face-to-face democ-
    decision of each individual, whenever
    he can take on himself the cost of his                                              !     racy, conln1unity, spontaneity and a
    decisions.                                                                                new meaningful sense of human soli-
Everyone, according to vVarren, should                                                        darity." In an impressive article in the
be completely free to do "his own                                                             first issue, Robert Keller writes:
thing." And only one major American                                                                There is no "revolutionary situation"
philosophical anarchist appears in more                                                         at this time in America. . . . Once we
recent history, Emma Goldman (1869-                                                             grant that a revolutionary situation does
                                                                                                not exist now, we can add with the
1940) .                                                                                         justification of a clear perspective that
   Of course, many Americans of a                                                               the potential for a future revolution is
strong Jeffersonian bent have long prac-                                                        greater in the United States than in any
ticed a kind of passive anarchism, sheep                                                        other industrialized country in the
                                                                                                world. We can begin to deal with that
ranching in northern New Mexico, run-
                                                                                                potential, not as Iightminded adven-
ning a gas station in an almost deserted                                                        turers or academic theorists, but rather
area of Montana, or living without                                                              as significant catalysts who can offer
newspapers, TV, or magazines in Bos-                                                            consciousness and a clear sense of di-
ton, Atlanta, or San Francisco. And                                                             rection to the elemental forces at work.
there have been active anarchists in                                                            \Vhat are the elemental forces at
America from time to time, such as                                                            work?
"Big Bill" Haywood and his action-                                                                 The most important process going on
oriented street fighters of the Industrial                                                      in America today is the sweeping de-
Workers of the World. The Wobblies,                                                             institutionalization of the bourgeois so-
                                                                                                cial structure. A basic far-reaching dis-
as they were called, were active in the
                                                                                                respect and a profound disloyalty is de-
pre-\Vorld vVar I decade. But even to-                                                          veloping toward the values, the fon1lS,
                                                Dwight MacDonald, one of the few
day, there are only a few persons               acknowledged anarchists in America,             the aspirations, and above all, the insti-
around in the United States-Dwight                                                              tutions of the established order. On a
                                                speaking at Columbia this spring. An-
:\1acDonald and Paul Goodman are                                                                scale unprecedented in American his-
                                                archism has become popular among a              tory, millions of people are shedding
two-who openly profess anarchism of             portion of today's college students.            their commibllent to the society in

44                                                                                                      COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
 which they live. . . . This molecular           very few in their midst, and the strikers      listen to soul music and address the
 movement creates an atmosphere of               in Mathematics tended to be much               crowds of onlookers, who were mostly
 general lawlessness; a growing personal, .      more Leninist and strong-armed in their        curious, angry, or frightened. There
 day-to-day disobedience, a tendency not
 to "go along" with the existing system,         approach.                                      was a kind of assertive gaiety about
 a seemingly petty but nevertheless criti-           A half hour before noon, a professor       them, but some of the older young men
 cal attempt to circumvent restriction in        broke into the Ad Hoc Faculty meet-            swaggered and acted like braggadocios.
 every facet of daily life. The society, in                                                     "Columbia's got integration, but it's a
                                                 ing to announce that 150 Negro teen-
 effect, becomes disorderly, undisci-
 plined, Dionysian-a condition that re-          agers from nearby Harlem schools had           token integration. But we don't care
 veals itself most dramatically in an in-        pushed their way onto the campus past          about that any more. vVe blacks want
 creasing rate of official crimes. A vast        the four faculty members checking ID           the whole university now." So shouted
 critique develops of the system-[Jike           cards, and that 200 more were expected         one fellow. Several others talked about
 the Enlightenment during the French
                                                  to come after lunch hour. "They seem           taking over another building.
 revolution]-which seeps downward
 and accelerates the molecular movement          to want to help their black brothers in             Before very long, however, the teen-
 at the base ...                                 Hamilton and take over another build-           agers were spoken to by egro students
      A second parallel between the rClOln-      ing or two," someone else reported. The         from Columbia, who counseled them to
 tionary Enlightenment and our own               faculty disbanded to see if they could          cool down. One SAS member grabbed
 period is the emergence of the crowd,
 the so-called "mob," as a major vehicle          help keep order. Fearing possible vio-         the bullhorn from a fiery young speak-
  of social protest. ... Contrary to social       lence to faculty members, President            er, who was prodding his group to seize
  psychologists, who see in these modes           Kirk ordered police barricades to be set       a building, and admonished the young-
  of direct action the submission of the          up at the two open gates to the main           sters for their undisciplined enthusi-
  individual to a terrifying collective en-                                                      asm. The black students in Hamilton
  tity called the "mob," the truth is that        campus at either end of College Walk.
  riots and crowd actions represent the              The     egroes were mostly males,           Hall had clearly developed an amazing
  first gropings of the mass toward indi-         though roughly one-third were females,         control over themselves and considera-
  viduation. The mass tends to become             and they were young. About half of             ble purpose and poise in dealing with
  de-massi£ed in the cdical sense that it                                                         the many sympathetic Negroes in other
  begins to assert itself against the really       them were under 15, and some were
  massifying, automatic responses pro-             only 12 or 13 years old. Two of them          areas of Jew York. They had also de-
  duced by the bourgeois family, schoolo,         had bullhorns, and a number of them             veloped an independent position in the
  and media. The rebellious crowd marks            had transistor radios. All of them w:;re       strike, vigorously defending the inter-
  the beginning of a spontaneous transmu-                                                         ests of black citizens near Morningside,
  tation from personal to social revolt. ...       playing hooky from their high schools
      In the era when technological ad-            and junior high schools. They gathered         but playing down the demands of stu-
  vances and cybernation have brought              in groups of 40 or so on South Field to        dent power and a university takeover
  into question the exploitation of man by                                                        coming from the other buildings. They
   man, of toil, of material want in any                                                          began to feel that, as one of their in-
   form whatever, the cry-be it "Black is
                                                                                                  ternal Riers put it, "The SDS leaders
   beautiful" or "Make love, not war"-
   marks the transformation of the tradi-                                                         are clowns playing games." At 12:4.'5,
   tional demand for survival into a his-                                                         when the Ad Hoc Committee recon-
   torically new demand for life....                                                              vened, Professor Wallerstein, who had
      \Vhat we are witnessing, in short, i~                                                       again been in Hamilton with the blacks,
   the breakdown of a century and a half
   of embourgeoisment and a pulverization                                                         announced to his colleagues, "The
   of all bourgeois institutions at a point in                                                    blacks in Hamilton are now the most
   history when the boldest concepts of                                                           rational, disciplined group in the in-
   utopia are realizable. ...                                                                     surrection."
       In the epoch ahead, the goal of the                                                            Shortly after Wallerstein spoke, a
   revolutionary process will no longer be
   the seizure of power by a specific group                                                        small insurrection broke out among the
   or class, but the dissolution of power by                                                      Ad Hoc Faculty group. Alarmed by the
   society at large. . . What this means in                                                        possibility of hordes of young blacks
    the "private" sphere is that the indi-                                                         coming in from other parts of ew
   vidual finally gains control over all the                                                       York to roam around the campus in a
    conditions of his personal life. What
    this means in the "public" sphere is that                                                      violent mood, and angered by SDS's
    the popular assembly-emphatically not                                                          fury at being policed by the faculty,
    the "soviet" or the "worker's council,"                                                        numerous of the more senior professors
    with its indirect mode of representation                                                       began to have second thoughts about
    and its inherently hierarchical structure
    -gains control over a;} conditions of                                                          the wisdom of calling off the cops the
    social life. And, in the decentralized,                                                        previous evening. Said one professor:
    ecologically balanced community of                                                             "SDS is literally playing with fire. They
    free individuals and public assemblies,                                                        are going into Harlem to foment hah'ed
    the private sphere and public sphere
    merge-and re-emerge-as a qualita-                                                              and violence over which they clearly
    tively new domain of human freedom.           English professor Lionel '25 at a      will have no control." Three successive
     By Friday there were numerous an-            recent Class Dinner. "For yOUllg people           speakers got up and argued for "an end
archist-inclined students in the build-           now, being political serves lIwch the same        to faculty sympathy and support of
ings, though Hamilton's blacks had                purpose as being litenl1'y has long done."        reckless rebels who have lost all con-

SPRING, 1968                                                                                                                             45
About 150 Harlem high school students broke into the campus on Friday afternoon, April 26. Black students at Columbia
helped prevent possible vandalism and mayhem, however, and the teenagers left without incident.

cern for the work of this institution and and were headed for Hamilton Hall.         the Ad Hoc group negotiating comm:t-
the safety of its members." A law pro- The police responded quickly, station-        tee went to Strike Central on the third
fessor, irked at SDS demands for total ing 40 patrolmen very prominently on          floor of Ferris Booth Hall to talk again
amnesty or a tribunal over which they the steps of Low Library "as a show of         with Rudd and his comrades. Rudd re-
would have complete control, said "It is force" to deter possible violence.          ceived them sitting back with his stock-
wrong to allow anyone who has broken         About 1,500 students and teachers       ing feet on the desk, looking like a tired
laws and grossly violated people's civil  (and aln~ost 100 members of the press      Fidel Castro receiving a half dozen
liberties to dictate who will try them and the TV networks), were gathered           bloated sugar plantation owners. vVith
for their infractions." Finally, one outside Hamilton Hall waiting to hear           :Budd's black socks only 18 inches from
scholar rose, and finished his brief de-  what Brown and Carmichael would say        their noses, the seated professors again
nunciation of the revolutionary strikers to the Columbia community. At 1:55          pleaded that the rebels empty the
with the sentence, "Those who play the two black militants emerged from              buildings and submit to the just agreed
with Yiolent revolution have to expect Hamilton and a hush spread through            upon tripartite tribunal, "prepared to
counter-violence as part of their game." the crowd. Behind the two stood a cor-      be as lenient as possible."
Cheers and applause broke out, but don of facultv members, including gov-                Rudd, emboldened by the increased
there were also a few cries of "Shame!" ernment professor Bruce Smith with a         number of students in the buildings,
and "No, No!"                             handful of daffodils. Brown, wearing a     the presence of Rap Brown and Stoke-
    Professor Seymour Melman, a pro- black turtleneck shirt, a dungaree jack-        ly Carmichael on campus, and tlle pos-
strike member, tried to halt the mount- et, and blue jeans, repeated the four        sibility of a thousand peace marchers
ing disillusionment with the rebels by demands of the group inside Hamilton,         coming up to .\1orningside the next day,
switching all the blame to President said the college students inside were           scoffed at the idea. He said that in ad-
Kirk. "The kids are reasonable but the "fighting against the racist policies of      dition to amnesty for all and the other
Administration's position is rock-hard," this university and for the rights of the   demands, the strikers now demanded
contended :\Ielman. He partially suc- black community," and threatened                also the immediate resignation of Pres-
ceeded; but Professors Dallin and Wes- that, "If Columbia doesn't deal with           ident Kirk and Vice President Truman,
 tin reminded him and his supporters the brothers in there, they'll have to           and a change in the corporate structure
 that President Kirk had given in on at deal with the brothers in the streets."       of the Universitv so that the students
least a few points, but the Strike Steer-  Brown was surprisingly brief and luke-     and faculty would have all the power,
ing Committee seemed to be adopting warm, and to everyone's astonishment,             and the administrators and Trustees
 an all-or-nothing approach.               Carmichael chose to say notlung at all.    none.
    Then, the Ad Hoc Faculty meeting "Holy cow," exclaimed one awed grad-                The Ad Hoc representatives were
 broke up again at 1:30 because it was uate student, "the Hamilton guys told          stunned. Far from being willing to
 announced that SNCC leaders H. Rap them to cool it too!" Brown and Car-              compromise, the SDS leaders had es-
  Brown and Stokely Carmichael, accom- michael promptly left the campus,              calated their demands. The scholars
 panied by 100 young Negroes, had never to return.                                    told Rudd of their fears of another
  surged past the police at the Amster-      :\Ieanwhile, Professor Alan Westin       right-wing student reaction, worse than
  dam gate, knocking a professor down, and several other hopeful professors of        that of the previous night. Rudd dis-

46                                                                                            COLUylBIA COLLEGE TODAY
missed the possibility, arguing that the nald Hall with "No Amnesty" painted                 WE DE:\lAND: I) That the fate of the
moderates and conservatives were com- on it in red letters.                                    gym be decided in consultation with
                                                                                               responsible and representative opin-
pletely unorganized and that most of         The Majority Coalition was handing                ion from the Harlem community as
them would be leaving the campus in out two mimeographed leaflets. One                         a whole.
a few hours for a good time over the was a letter of introduction.                           2) That those who have broken Uni-
weekend. "vVe'lI have time to continue           We are the ~Iajority Coalition. We            versity regulations be punished in ac-
                                             represent the 2,000 students who signed           cordance with normal disciplinary
radicalizing you professors," said Rudd.                                                       standards.
Dazed and dejected, the faculty walked       the petition circulated on \Vednesday.
                                             Mr. Rudd has made his demands. We               \VE RESOLVE: To support the kind ot
back to Philosophy Hall to report the        dema~d nothing. \Ve can only request.
                                                                                               negotiation and actions that the facul-
disappointing news.                             vVe support any reasonable alterna-            ty are at present conducting.
    About 4:00 that afternoon, while         tive to SDS's ultimatum, including the
                                             Tripartite Commission. It is a positive           The Strike Steering Committee was
nearly 2,000 Columbia persons milled
                                             step. vVe look for others.                    obviously stung by the widespread
around on College Walk, South Field,             SDS demands amnesty. Amnesty is           criticism of their tactics and their de-
and Low Plaza, the Majority Coalition        out of the question. This is the feeling of
                                                                                           mand for total amnesty. \Vithin three
began to itch for some real action again.    the majority of the students and many
                                             of the faculty.                               hours, they had mimeographed three
 Neither the Ad Hoc Faculty group nor
                                                 We represent campus moderates, not        separate fliers of rebuttal. About their
President Kirk's office was printing any     the right wing as Mr. Rudd would lead         tactics, they claimed that they had tried
 news of their own efforts or their re-      you to believe. Internally we may differ      "dozens of times" to have open hear-
 sults, so rumors were rife. The atmos-      on substantive issues, but we are united
                                             in our condemnation of SDS tactics. We        ings on key issues, had exhausted every
 phere was full of distrust and derision
                                             have acted responsibly and rationally         possible channel for petition, redress,
 for nearly all the administrators, deans,
                                              in the face of provocation; yet, make no     and proper reform, and had been shut
 and professors, who, it was felt, stood     mistake, we are resolute in our purpose.      off or ignored every single time. Thus,
 inactive, helpless, naive, and stupidly                   THE ~IAJORITY COALITION         they had no recourse but violent, dra-
 sympathetic while several dozen, out-
                                           The other was a "Statement of Princi-           matic action. About amnesty, SDS
 spoken zealots held the entire Univer-
                                           ples" of the Majority Coalition.                wrote, "The amnesty demands are not
 sity paralyzed in their sneer-grip. Near-
                                              \VE REFUSE: To admit the principle of        advanced just to save our necks."
 ly 1,000 students wore light blue
                                                 govenmlent by a lawless and self-         Amnesty was "a vital precondition for
 buttons with "Stop SDS" printed in              appointed minority.                       fair negotiations on the other issues....
 white on them. Over 1,200 shldents           \~IE BELIEVE: That the demonstrators
                                                 are motivated not by a passion for        Negotiations are a sham while the
 had put on light blue crepe armbands.
                                                 justice, but by a desire to act like      Adminish'ation is trying to eliminate
 "The blue armbands stand for peace
                                                 professional revolu tionaries.            us as a political force." Anyway, said
 through a restoration of order on this        VVE AFFIR:\l: That the University has        the SDS spokesman, "The rules estab-
 campus," said College senior Louis              acted in good faith in respect to the
                                                 gym; that the gym would be wel-           lished by the Administration are not
 Orans, one of the Majority Coalition
                                                 comed by the Harlem community as          legitimate."
 leaders. Behind him the magnolia trees
                                                 a whole; and that the controversy has          At 5:00 the Majority Coalition met
 in front of Furnald were in full bloom          been stirred up by political oppor-        in vVollman Auditorium, about 700 of
 and a huge cloth sign hung from Fur-             tunists.
                                                                                            them. The meeting was somewhat dis-
                                                                                            orderly, and numerous athletes were
 Three College members of the Majority Coalition, the campus moderates and con-
                                                                                            among the 20 students who spoke. The
 servatives opposed to the SDS-led !·eheilion. Ince/1JSed at what they mganled as
                                                                                            general mood was one of impatience.
 Administration stalling and Faculty fellow-tmveling, they urged a quick removal of
                                                                                            As one speaker said, "Both the Admin-
 the rebels, punishment, and resumption of studies.                                         istration and the faculty are soft push-
                                                                                            overs. Yesterday they told us that the
                                                                                            majority of students would have some
                                                                                            resolution. What happened? Nothing.
                                                                                            In fact, the pukes took over another
                                                                                            building, and black militants are on
                                                                                            campus threatening to burn the Uni-
                                                                                            versity down." Possibly one third of the
                                                                                            group were in favor of some sb'ong,
                                                                                            affirmative action, like surrounding
                                                                                            Fayerweather so that no students or
                                                                                            supplies could get out of the building.
                                                                                            But most favored more moderate ac-
                                                                                            tion. "Let's back the three faculty pro-
                                                                                            posals;" said one, "the SDS will laugh
                                                                                            at the professors anyway, and the fac-
                                                                                             ulty will see then what crazy revolu-
                                                                                             tionaries they are trying to appease."
                                                                                            Another suggested suing SDS for $1
                                                                                             million in damages for depriving other

 students of the educatIon they had          fairness and alertness. They had stu-        handful of senior teachers supporting
 paid to receive.                            dent reporters with walkie-talkies at all    the sh·ikers and denouncing the Admin-
    Once, Spectator, the student daily,      key points, talking in the news, with a      istration, the athletes, fraternity stu-
 was mentioned, and there were boos.         minimum of opinion or editorial bias.        dents, and even the moderates and
"Spec is with the radicals 90 per cent,"     So impressive and unbiased-and in-           civil libertarians, it was felt.
 shouted one voice in the crowd. By          stant-was their coverage that possibly          Finallv, economics professor C.
 Friday, Spectator had dropped all pre-      a million interested people in metro-        Lowell Harris, a thin, greying, Je-
 tense of objective reporting and was        politan Jew York started listening to        braska-born expert on U.S. fiscal policy,
 almost totally supportive of the strike.    the student F~1 station (89.9 mega-          got up, after someone suggested that
A few of the reporters, such as Jerry        cycles) continuously as the chief source     the group sit-in in front of Philosophy
Avorn, a hard-working but somewhat           of news about Columbia; dozens of            Hall as a show of support of the fac-
puerile and volatile College junior,         young alumni came back to campus to          ulty proposals, and said, ''I'm very im-
were close to acting as spies for Strike     help the sleep-starved staff of 50; and      pressed by that suggestion. Let's all go
Central by abusing their press privi-        WKCR president Robert Papper of Al-          over to Philosophy Hall to show our
leges, while others almost abandoned         buquerque, New Mexico, and his staff         strength and opinions in peace." The
the paper's traditionally high profes-       were praised in Saturday's New York          700 students marched out of Ferris
sional standards of journalism. The          Times by TV-Radio critic Jack Gould.         Booth at 5:45 with Professor Harris as
ccnsensus among the students was that        "Under extraordinarily difficult condi-      their pied piper and sat and stood in
Spec had "sold out" to the revolution-       tions it has been doing a remarkably         front of the building in which the Ad
aries. The next day, Saturday, Spec's        alert and responsible job ... The ma-        Hoc Faculty group was meeting. Pro-
managing editor, Michael Rothfeld, re-       ture young people of WKCR are per-           fessor Harris told them: "I assure you
Signed because of what he felt was the       forming with a credit to themselves and      that some of the finest, most brilliant
blatant pro-rebel slanting and selection     broadcasting."                               persons in this University are working
of news. "Half the guys, including my           At the Majority Coalition meeting         around the clock to end t];js uglv affair.
roommate, also an editor, have become        one of the College's more popular his-       Right now, both SDS and the Admin-
~Che Guevara types."                         tory professors, James Shenton '49, was,     istration are deliberating on the three
   By contrast, the campus radio sta-        like Spectator, also booed. In fact, he      faculty proposals. Stay calm. Be reason-
tion, WKCR, had, after a shaky start,        was shouted out of Ferris Booth Hall         able." Frank Dann, the tall, blonde,
started reporting the rebellion blow-by-     when he asked to speak to the Majority       handsome captain of the College'S
blow with astounding thoroughness,           Coalition. Shenton had been one of the       swimming team, who was emerging as
                                                                                          the most articulate, sensible, and force-
                                                                                          ful leader of the Majority Coalition
Undergraduate e~gineer at ',VKCR. The student-ntn campus radio station drew high said, "Amnesty is the key issue. I don't
praise from many quarters for its reporting and reasonably obiectilJe reporting of the care if SDS gets out in three hours or
minute-by-minute developments during the spring uprising.                                 three days, so long as they get punished
                                                                                          for their incredible behavior, for the
                                                                                          damage they have done to Columbia,
                                                                                          for their violation of the rights of
                                                                                          thousands of students and faculty."
                                                                                             Several faculty members who saw
                                                                                          the Majority Coalition students on the
                                                                                          grass outside their windows expressed
                                                                                          their djstinct discomfort at having the
                                                                                          athletes, fraternity men, young Re-
                                                                                          publicans, and numerous moderates
                                                                                          staunchly supporting their proposals
                                                                                          while some of their favorite student
                                                                                          poets, intellectuals, and radicals were
                                                                                          calling the faculty obscenities.
                                                                                             While the Ad Hoc group talked, and
                                                                                          the Majority Coalition students sat ont-
                                                                                          side, SDS had called "an important
                                                                                          press conference" at 7 :30 in the Schiff
                                                                                          room of Ferris Booth Hall. (SDS had
                                                                                          begun playing heavily to the press,
                                                                                          hoping to use it as its broadcasting
                                                                                          arm.) Before 150 members of the press,
                                                                                       ., standing alone before four micro-
                                                                                      ~ phones, bathed in the intense, slightly
                                                                                      ~ eerie blue-white TV lights, a tired-look-
                                                                                      I ing l\Iark Rudd read his comlnittee's

                                                                                                   COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
statement. Echoing Frank Dann of the           ander Dallin, Law professor William ~
Majority Coalition, it read, in palt:          Carey, and obel Laureate physicist .t
                                               Polykarp Kusch.                             ~
     The key issue is whether or not the
  University will grant the demonstrators          The mood was glum. Several profes- '"
  a general amnesty.... The actions we         SOl'S had realized that their earnest and
  took were necessary and just and we          valiant attempts at a compromise,
  will not accept judgment or punishment
                                               peaceful solution had been sabotaged
  from an illegitimate authority-the Ad-
  ministration.                                by the unyielding, arrogant student
     Now the faculty is attempting to de-      leaders of the strike. One dean said
  vise compromises on account of what          sadly, "It has taken these liberal, sym-
  they think is a threat of violence either    pathetic faculty members two days to
  from campus right wingers or from the
  blacks. We feel the faculty is unrealis-     realize what Drs. Kirk and Truman
  tically panicky.... If the faculty wishes    knew earlier: that SDS leaders are not
  to prevent violence and resolve the en-      educational reformers but romantic
  tire crisis, they should support our de-     revolutionaries bent on capturing Co-
  mands ...
                                               lumbia as a dramatic gesture to radi-
    Said one TV reporter: "Well, that's        calize the nation."
it. The Ad Hoc Faculty have been                   Several left-wing professors, Mel-
destroyed as a negotiating body. Rudel         man, Hopkins of sociology, Shenton
has made it clear: total victory for SDS       and Kaplow in history - and a few
or the cops." An hour later one bearded        others desperately anxious to avoid
striker told a Columbia professor, "We          police action against the rebelling Co-
have you by the genitals. If you give us       lumbia students, suddenly began a
amnesty, we'll win; and the revolution          concerted push for amnesty. Marvin
will spread. If you don't grant amnesty,        Harris of anthropology said, "For every
you'll have to call in the cops. Then the       one of our moral principles, the striking
 whole world will see on television what        students have a moral principle. These
 fascists you guys really are. We'll win        balance out, and add up to a draw, to
 that way too."                                 amnesty." The push was resented by
     In Philosophy Hall, Professor Westin       many. "They are playing on the white,
 reported to the Ad Hoc group that              middle-class guilt feelings of some of
 Rudd and his colleagues had been un-           their colleagues," observed one profes- Senior Frank Dann (above), along with
 bending. In fact, they now wanted to           sor, The leftists, however, could con- classmate PattI Vilm'di, led the Maiority
 abolish the Administration and "radi-          vince, at best, one-Bfth of the 300 Coal'ition.
 calize" the professors. Philosopher            teachers in the Lounge.
 Samuel Coleman and literary historian              Professor "Val tel' Metzger, a strong Popular history p1'Ofess01' James Shenton
 Lionel Trilling also reported on their         left-of-center liberal spoke. "We must '49 was booed for his support of the
 meeting with the Majority Coalition             be compassionate, even grateful, but rebels as was Spectator, the campus daily.
  leaders. The Majority, they said, had          we must hold Brm against amnesty. The ~
  decided to back the Ad Hoc faculty             leaders are escalating every concession §
  proposals and to remain non-violent.           we make. They want judicial power. ~
     Three other professors reported on          We give them that, and they demand
  private attempts they had made in              legislative power. If we give that, they
  Avery, Math, and Fayerweather. Avery           will ask for administrative power; then
  was 'ncreasingly being "controlled" by         military power over the guards and po-
  a few revolutionary types, who we!'e           lice; and foreign power over Columbia's
  withholding information and limiting           dealings with all outside agencies and
  speech among the students sitting in, it       groups."
  was reported. Fayerweather students               A courier came in at 9:35 and said
  seemed the most mixed in opinions anel          that Rudd and his colleagues would
   a large minority was in favor of agree-       like to see Westin and his negotiating
  ing to the Faculty's three proposals.          team again. A 3D-minute recess was
   Mathematics, with Tom Hayden and              called, as Professors Westin, Silver, and
   numerous non-Columbia people inside,          Rothman left the room.
   was a fanatical revolutionary com-               At the recess about 20 professors,
   mune, holding incessant meetings and           mostly of senior rank, left the Ad Hoc
   granting enb'y to serious radicals only.      Faculty group for good, claiming vari-
      Professor Wallerstein reported that        ously that it had clearlv failed to
   President Grayson Kirk had selected            accomplish its purpose; that it was
   three faculty to advise him on the possi-      dominated or at least heavily influ-
   ble police action: Russian expert Alex-        enced by obviously left-wing professors

  SPRING, 1968
and, worse, young leftist preceptors !
and teaching assistants; that it had no ~
sense of reality any longer (ignoring :::;;
things like academic freedom, majority
sentiment, and alumni, administration,
trustee, and public opinion); and that
jt was acting as a representative of Co-
lumbia's faculty when in fact it was
only a small rump group of self-ap-
pointed "saviors," as one put it.
   "You can bet that Melman, Harris,
and that gang would not argue this
doctrine of 'necessary accommodation
to avoid bloodshed' if a right-wing
group had seized the University, de-
manding control," said one disgruntled
scholar. "Daniel Bell will have to write
a sequel to his End of Ideology, called
End of Standards. He and vVestin
seem determined to scrap every rem-
nant of academic principle to appease Engineering professor Seymo1t1" Melman, one of the most active pro-Strike support-
the left-wing kids, despite the rebels' ers, judging a paper airplane contest 011 campus last spring.
putschist tactics and their coarse anti-
intellectualism," another said angrily.
Several of the dissidents said they proposals. "We have the night," he Student Council in front of the faculty.
would ask President Kirk to call a "real said. After he finished, three students      Nevertheless, the appearance of the
faculty meeting," meaning a special from the Columbia University Student leftist student leaders served to kick off
convening of all assistant professors, Council, largely a do-little stronghold a stampede toward a vote for amnesty.
associate professors, and professors for leftists and politicos that has for With noise and tumult that the Ad Hoc
from all schools of the University.         years been out of touch with much of Faculty Committee had not seen here-
   The Ad Hoc group recessed again at the variety and breadth of Columbia tofore, moderate speakers were booed
11: 55, for 15 minutes. (All during the student opinion, spoke to the Faculty and pro-SDS and pro-amnesty speakers
faculty deliberations, teachers came and distributed a statement, backing were cheered wildly. Sensing a decline
and went in shifts to do guard duty in the striker's demands and demanding of re,lsoned discourse, the slightly pe-
front of Low, or at the campus gates.) also the "effective involvement of stu- culiar composition of the Ad Hoc body,
'Vhen the faculty group reconvened at dents and faculty in the governance of and the lateness of the hour (12:40),
12: 10 its composition was markedly the University." They urged the profes- economics professor Peter Kenen '54
smaller and was mysteriously different. sors to vote for amnesty since, as one of moved for adjournment. There were
Many of the senior professors had gone them put it, "The danger of violence is shouts of "No, No! Amnesty now!" but
home for the night and at least half so great that any solution that will pre- Kenen's motion was carried by a slim
the group was under 30 years of age. vent it is necessary." The three, Dan 70-64 majority.
Dozens of preceptors, teaching assist- Pellegrom, president of the Council,           'While the stampede for amnesty was
ants, and instructors -      some from Tomec Smith, president of the General taking place, Professor Westin and his
Teachers College, Barnard, and many Studies student body, and law student aides were meeting with Mark Rudd
from General Studies - packed the Peter Bierstedt '65, were then submit- and his aides in Ferris Booth Hall. Al-
room. Also present were almost a doz- ted to a series of questions, mostly by though Rudd sought the meeting, and
en non-Columbia persons, who had moderates. "Is this a personal statement although it lasted for two hours, from
slipped in somehow. There were two of the dozen students who signed it, or 10:30 to 12:30, nothing new was dis-
C.C.N.Y. instructors and one instruc- a document that represents the opinion
                                                                                    cussed. Rudd berated the Faculty ne-
tor from Queens College; two young of most of the University's students?"
                                                                                    gotiators because individual professors
College alumni who taught nowhere; Embarrassed, the three said it was their
                                                                                    were going into the "liberated" build-
 a young man who said he had been personal statement but represented
 asked to teach at Columbia "next year."    some "significant" student opinion. ings to encourage peaceful compro-
 Said one Government professor after "Doesn't this handbill totally support mise. "They are wrecking our solidar-
looking around him, "This is just like the SDS actions?" The three refused to ity." He also accused 'Vestin and his
 19351 The leftists are packing the answer directly. "Why do you propose colleagues of reporting inaccurately to
meeting."                                   amnesty?" Said one, "Because all of the Ad Hoc group what was actually
   At 12: 05 Professor Wallerstein, just vou have to deal with the facts, with going on between the two negotiating
back from Hamilton Hall, reported that reality, and forget about principles." teams. "The faculty is going to come
 the black students wanted the night to The three student leaders left, not hav- out for amnesty anyhow," said Rudd.
 deliberate some more about the faculty ing distinguished themselves or the 'Vestin said Rudd was crazy. Just then,

50                                                                                          COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
Rudd was called to the telephone. It       you guys that our negotiations are go-               surmised that SDS was reaffirming its
was one of his spies at the Ad Hoc         ing well. I just want to say that that               desire to achieve a complete victory
meeting calling to say, at 12: 30, that    statement is bullshit." There was a col-             and guessed that SDS would scoff at
an amnesty vote was coming up any          lective gasp. Professor 'Westin, at                  further faculty negotiations. The two
minute and had a good chance of pass-      Rudd's left, turned a vivid red in em-               executives trudged home to bed at 2:30
ing. Westin and his group got up to        barrassment and fury. Rudd said,                     a.m. and had a decent night's sleep,
leave immediately, incredulous.            "Total amnesty is the only answer. We                their first in four days. Thousands of
   Westin, with sociologist Allan Silver   have committed a beautiful, political                others at Columbia used that Friday
at his side, burst into the Philosophy     act. It should be praised as such, not               night to catch up on postponed sleep,
Lounge just after the adjournment vote     punished. You faculty guys ought to be               too.
had narrowly passed. They told the         fighting with us, not against us. There                  As dawn slowly spread over Mor-
angrily split group of teachers of their   are no neutrals in this struggle."                   ningside Heights on Saturday, April 27,
meeting with Rudd, picking their words        Man y of the teachers still there, in-            it was accompanied by a thin, gentle
with extreme care. "There is some rea-     cluding some of the younger ones, were               rain. By 10:00 a.m., however, the driz-
son to believe that negotiations may be    shocked. Rudd's brazen, profane bit of               zle ended and the sun appeared in full
going fairly well. We would like more      preaching was a display of dedicated                 splendor. The thousands of vividly col-
time to continue what could conceiv-       vigor beyond their expectations. It                  ored tulips around Low Library, bent
ably be fruitful talks." There were        dashed the hopes of the many mod-                    slightly by the rain, slowly worked
some questions, then the faculty got up    erates and the innocents who still be-                their way back to dry erectness. The
to go home at 1: 10. As they were be-      lieved that the SDS students were                    cherry trees were in delicate pink
ginning to leave, an SDS messenger         idealistic reformers who would com-                  bloom, and the dogwood trees were
said that Mark Rudd would like to ad-      promise under intelligent faculty per-               preparing to burst out in bud. The
dress the group right away. Expectant-     suasion. 'Word of "the bullshit speech,"              two round fountains in front of Low
lv but somewhat reluctantly, the Ad        as it came to be called, spread rapidly,             splashed and tinkled. Just off campus
Hoc group agreed.                          even at that late hour. Professor \iVestin            the giant bells of Riverside Church and
   Mark Rudd strode to the center table    curtly informed Strike Central that he               St. John's Episcopal Cathedral chimed
in front. He had on a cotton flannel,      could no longer meet with their repre-               occasionally. That morning, Columbia,
plaid shirt open at the neck. His hair     sentatives.                                          smelling fresh as a country rye field,
was mussed and he hadn't shaved in             When President Kirk and Dr. Tru-                  had the quiet calm of Oxford in the
two days. He looked tired. "I under-       man heard about Rudd's attempt to                     16th century.
stand," Rudd began, "that Westin told      "radicalize" the Ad Hoc Faculty, they                    There were relatively few people on
                                                                                                 campus before noon. Over a thousand
                                                                                                 students had, as Mark Rudd had pre-
SDS chairman Mark Rudd stunned the Ad Hoc faculty group with a remarkable                        dicted, gone home, to other campuses,
midnight speech on Friday, April 26. He hoped to radicalize the Faculty.                         and to other New York City libraries to
                                                                                                 continue their studies, complete their
                                                                                                 research projects and their papers, and
                                                                                                 prepare for final examinations. In four
                                                                                                 of the "liberated" buildings (not Ham-
                                                                                                 ilton), SDS students and followers
                                                                                                 peeled off their shirts, rolled up their
                                                                                                 pants and sunbathed cheerfully on the
                                                                                                 window ledges. Guitar music could be
                                                                                                 heard in Low and Fayerweather. The
                                                                                                 uccupants of Math, the grimmest revo-
                                                                                                 lutionaries, also sat outdoors, though
                                                                                                 they kept the shades down in most of
                                                                                                 the building. A huge poster portrait of
                                                                                                 Karl Marx and another one with Uncle
                                                                                                 Sam as a duck, saying "Quack," were
                                                                                                 prominent in the lower window of
                                                                                                 Mathematics. Outside Hamilton, two
                                                                                                 black students swept the littered stone
                                                                                                 stairs in front of their building, further
                                                                                                 underlining their orderliness and disci-
                                                                                                 pline, as well as their continued seri-
                                                                                                 ousness in the face of SDS' Saturday
                                                                                        ~        picnic gaiety.
                                                                                                    Before President Kirk went to bed
                                                                                         t       the previous evening, and even more
                                                                                        .."l     frequently that Saturday morning, sen-

SPRING, 1968                                                                                                                            51
ior faculty members, especially sever-        "radicalize" the Ad Hoc faculty mem-        tered in psychedelic style and colors on
al in the graduate schools of Law,            bers had been too swift and too crude.      it. Another banner said, "U.S. Get Out
Medicine, Business, and Engineering,          Three representatives, College seniors      of Vietnam." One of them alleged, "Co-
begged Dr. Kirk to call an "ll-faculty        Juan Gonzalez and Ted Gold and a sec-       lumbia is the main U.S. university sup-
meeting in some large hall because the        ond-year architecture student from Av-      porting the Vietnam war." After an
Ad Hoc Faculty group had failed in its        ery named Alan Feigenberg apologized        hour of noisy threats, and a brief ad-
mediating attempts. There was also a          to Professor Westin for Mark Rudd's         dress from Mark Rudd and Tom Hay-
feeling that the Ad Hoc group was             profane remarks of the previous night,      den, telling them that Columbia was
dominated by naive and leftist profes-        said that Rudd would not be part of the     the start of a series of revolutionary
sors and was being increasingly infil-        negotiating team any more, ?nd asked        seizures around the nation, both groups
tra ted by radical junior instructors, pre-   that "negotiations" continue.               left for the giant Central Park peace
ceptors, and teaching assistants; that it        Outside the campus just after noon,      rally.
had rudely neglected to make its mem-         about 200 militant blacks from Harlem           By noon, Drs. Kirk, Truman, and
bership more representative by not in-        and 200 whites from socialist and ex-       Fraenkel, dean of Graduate Faculties,
viting professors from other University       tremist groups like the Young Socialist     had received several hundred more let-
schools to attend; that it had arrogated      Alliance and Youth Against War and          ters and telegrams in the morning mail,
for itself the position of being the Uni-     Fascism massed on Amsterdam Avenue          nearly all of them urging President
versity's "faculty" voice; and that it was    in front of the east gate on College        Kirk to take swift and positive action
being "radicalized" by the rebel stu-         Walk. The blacks had banners: "Don't        against the rebels. From one of Colum-
dents. One professor who overheard            Mess with Black Students" and "Stop         bia's most distinguished professors em-
Professor Seymour Melman say late on          Killing Black Leaders." About half the      eriti: "Congratulations on your firm
Friday night, "We must avoid an all-          blacks were high school students, 16 or     stand against amnesty.... The dignity
faculty meeting at all costs. We'll be        younger, another third were older per-      and integrity of the academic commu-
outvoted by the moderates," was hOlTi-        sons in their 30s or 40s. One black lead-   nity are at stake." From the president
fled and promptly telephoned Low Li-          er, talking with a bullhorn atop an         of a noted California university: "In the
brary to request such a meeting. That         automobile said, ''The system and Co-       interest of all hir;her education I urge
Saturday morning, therefore, President        lumbia are both corrupt. Both must be       you to stand firm. The ordeal into
Kirk called an unprecedented all-Fac-         destroyed!" A woman said to the stu-        which Columbia has been plunged is of
ulty meeting for the next morning, Sun-       dents inside Hamilton, who paid almost      consequence to us all. The kind of aca-
day, in the Law School and ordered tel-       no attention to the presence of the zea-    demic freedom that Columbia and you
egrams to be sent to the nearly 1,400         lots outside their windows, "If Colum-      stand for is hard won and must be
faculty persons of assistant professor        bia expels you, we'll expel them."          maintained...." From the vice presi-
rank and above in every branch of the            The whites were almost all college       dent of the student body at a leading
University.                                   age, and many were from C.C. .Y.            college: "At our campus we have had
   Just before noon, some of the SDS          They carried a 12-foot long banner          our Placement Office ransacked and the
leaders realized that their attempts to       with the word "REVOLUTION" let-             Administration building disrupted and

Leftist students from other New York colleges massed on Amsterdam Avenue on Saturday, April 27. A huge Strike for Peace
rally took place in Central Park that day, and some of the young protestors came to Momingside Heights after the rally.

                                                  Thousands of other Columbia alum-          Columbia's Board has been criticized
                                              ni, including many who were critical of        numerous times on several counts.
                                              President Kirk and the faculty, were to        Some alumni and faculty have com-
                                              express their dismay in the ensuing            plained of its "lack of national stature,"
                                              weeks over what they considered an             that is, its sluggishness in convincing
                                              SDS foray depriving several thousand           some of the nation's most distinguished
                                              scholars and 15,000 students of their          persons to serve on the board. "They
                                              freedom to learn; and over what they           are all Rnanciers, corporation execu-
                                              thought was the Administration's, and          tives, and lawyers from New York
                                              especially the Ad Hoc Faculty Com-             City," said one long-time critic in the
                                              mittee's, silence and spinelessness in at-     College's Class of 1925. Others have
                                              tacking the clear breach of academic           charged that the Trustees lack variety.
                                              freedom. As one College alumnus said           "Not one Ralph Bunche, or David Ries-
                                              to us, "How will Kirk and the faculty          man, or vValter Reuther sits on that
                                              ever be able to ask the alumni to help         board. Nor does a large city mayor or a
                                              them against any attacks on their aca-         great city planner to lend expertise in
                                              demic freedom in the future? They              these critical areas," objected one pro-
                                              have lost our allegiance with their un-        fessor. Still others have alleged that Co-
                                              principled 'no enemies to the Left' poli-      lumbia's trustees have been too easy-
College Alumni Association president          ticking."                                      going with President Kirk, allowing
Henry King '48 and the Association's              The most noteworthy of all the sug-        him to have a weak executive staff, al-
Board of Di-recto-rs sent a telegmm to        gestions of Rrmness came from Colum-           most no public information program,
Dr. Kirk reaffi-rming thei'r "unremitting     bia's Trustees, who on Saturday around         mediocre architecture, and an insuffi-
commitment to the fundamental rights                                                         ciently aggressive Rnancial develop-
                                              noon delivered a statement to the Pres-
of free speech and assembly" and con-
                                              ident. It was the Rrst official action by      ment operation. The purpose of Trus-
demning SDS "anarchy and mob rule."
                                              the Trustees, who had met on Friday            tees, it has been said, is to give three
vandalized.... Students must under-           afternoon for the Rrst time since the          things: "brains, hard work, and mon-
stand that with student power there           protest started. (By law, three days' no-      ey." Columbia has numerous members
must always be student responsibility,         tice must be given before any Trustees'       that have worked extremely hard, and
and when one abuses his rights and            meeting.) It was mimeographed by the           a few who have given intellectual coun-
power, he must accept the conse-              News Office and disb'ibuted widely, It         sel or generous gifts; but it is widely
quences." From a rabbi, College '44:           landed like a crippled jet plane on the       agreed that the board as a whole has
"Do not be intimidated by the criminal        campus.                                        seldom risen to heights of brilliant di-
behavior of a minority of students and            A word about the Trustees of Co-           rection or exemplary generosity.
faculty." From a housewife in Long             lumbia University. Since World War II            The Trustees' statement was given
Island. "If you don't have the guts to
get those revolutionaries out of the          White-haired dean of the School of International AffairS Andrew Co-rdier at a recent
buildings, resign and get someone who         Columbia football game with diplomat Ralph Bunche. Columbia's Board of Trustees
can."                                         came under fire during the riot as lacking insufficient men of stature (like Bunche), fail-
   One of the telegrams was from the          ing to prooide careful enough surveillance of the University's operations. and nnt
College's Alumni Association whose            being close enough to Morningside affairs.
four top officers, authorized by their
Board of Directors and prodded by                                                          ""'"
hundreds of puzzled, or angry alumni,
sent a message to the President reaf-
Rrming the "basic principle" of "unre-
mitting commitment to the fundamen-
tal rights of free speech and assembly,"
which they felt had yielded to SDS "an-
archy and mob rule." Alumni President
Henry King'48 and his fellow elected
 leaders urged Dr. Kirk to reject any
SDS ultimatums, retain the Rnal right
 to discipline, and not shy away from
 discipline that is "swift, strong, and ap-
 propriate to the circumstances." Any
 action short of that, they said, "will re-
 sult in an invitation for further trouble
 of a higher order; further, the affection
 and support which you have from the
 alumni will be lost."

 SPRING, 1968                                                                                                                          53
bv William Peterson '31, a prominent                              {iiiiiii••~"                derived in part also from the Strike
   ew York banker and the newly-elect-                                       !                leaders' "radicalizing" efforts on the Ad
ed chairman of the board. After com-                                                     g.   Hoc faculty. The All-Faculty meeting
mending the "restraint" of the admin-                                                    I    called for the next day, in particular,
istration, and the huge majority of                                                           sparked an angry revolt among those
faculty and students in the face of dis-                                                      instructors below assistant professor
ruption and illegal acts, the Trustees                                                        rank, who would not be able to attend.
took positions on three issues. One, they                                                     Several younger teachers proposed that
said they "wholeheartedly support the                                                         the definition of Columbia's "voting
administration position that there shall                                                      facultv" be changed on the spot. A pro-
be no amnesty." Two, in response to                                                           fessor from the graduate program in
the suggestion that all disciplinary                                                          Theatre Arts actually moved that ev-
power at Columbia be delegated to a                                                           eryone from preceptor up be allowed
tri-partite board, they said they "affir-                                                     to participate in the Sunday meeting,
matively direct that [the president]                                                          with voting privileges; but it was de-
shall maintain the ultimate disciplinary                                                      feated. (:\1any of the younger leftist in-
power over the conduct of the univer-                                                         structors and their older collaborators
sity, as required by the charter and                                                          interpreted the Sunday meeting as a
statutes of the university." Three, they                                                      "deft power play" by the wily Grayson
felt that "the attempt to depict the con-                                                     Kirk to outflank their liberal-left Ad
struction of [the gymnasium] as a                                                             Hoc group.) Later in the evening, As-
                                            Professor of Chinese and Japanese "Vm.
matter involving a racial issue or dis-                                                       sistant Professor Jeffrey Kaplow pro-
                                            Theodore de Bary '41 organized ttCO
crimination is an attempt to create an      meetings of leading professors and stu-           posed that all teachers, from teaching
entirely false issue by individuals who     dents in Wollman Auditorium to help               assistants up, from Teachers College,
are either not conversant with or who       keep everyone's perspective and ration-           Barnard, and even Union Theological
disregard the facts." They said, how-       ality alive during the emotionally-charged        Seminary, be invited to the meeting.
ever, that they approved of President       rebellion.                                        Where would we get ahall big enough?"
Kirk's action to halt gym construction                                                        asked one professor. "That's Kirk's
pending further discussions. (The third                                                       problem." "How could we notify ev-
point was interpreted by some as a slap     packed the Philosophy Hall lounge.                eryone in the 14 hours left?" asked
at Dr. Kirk's baffling unwillingness to     The first item of business was a ques-            another. "That's Kirk's problem too,"
refute publicly the factual errors and      tion by Drs. Kirk and Truman: Does                answered Kaplow. The proposal was
wild charges surrounding the gvmnasi-       the Ad Hoc Faculty Committee intend               defeated.
um issue.)                                  to honor its pledge to prevent leftist               Several other young instructors
   The Trustees' statement hoped for a      students from entering and leaving                made impassioned speeches that Satur-
peaceful solution, but authorized Presi-    Low? A faculty member quickly rose to             day about how several University rules,
dent Kirk "to take all further steps        admit that, "Last night the SDS came              procedures, and statutes ought to be
which he may deem necessary or advis-       and went and defiantly made a mock-               changed immediately. Then English
able to enable the University to resume     ery of the faculty regulation of traffic."        professor Quentin Anderson '37 rose
its normal activities."                     Engineering professor Edward Leon-                slowly late in the afternoon and made
    Many students and alumni, and           ard, who had put long hours on the                a speech that electrified the faculty
some faculty were pleased by the            Low patrol line, added, "We are not               gathering. With his voice quivering
board's strong stand. But a majority of     policing it well. The SDS is taking ad-           slightly with emotion, Anderson ob-
the Ad Hoc Faculty Committee were           vantage of us - of our leniency, our              served that the Ad Hoc group was
furious at what they felt was the Trus-     age." Psychologist Eugene Galanter                slowly changing its function from the
tees' untimely stiffness "right in the      then said, "We have to decide a simple            mediating body it called itself to a
middle of our negotiations," as Profes-     thing. Will we stand by our decision to           "transforming body." Said Anderson,
sor Dallin put it. And, of course, the      police Low? If this faculty group un-             'This group is no longer primarily a ne-
student leftists to a man howled with       dertakes any obligations, it must be              gotiating body seeking a peaceful solu-
indignation at what thev considered "a      prepared to stand by them." There was             tion but a revolutionary body seeking
reactionary, fascist document such as       a motion to tighten the patrol oper-              an instant revocation of the University
one would expect from fat capitalists       ation. It passed by a large majority.             statutes. Some of us here are now ac-
unacquainted with the Columbia                 More crucial, however, a ground                tivelv in collaboration with the SDS.
scene," as one student told us.             swell of loathing for administrators and          We are being radicalized. SDS is split-
    At 1:30 the Ad Hoc group recon-         administration developed that Satur-              ting Columbia's faculty, as they want
vened, with the biggest crowd so far in     dav afternoon and evening among the               to do." There was an outburst of ap-
attendance. Not only did manv of the        Ad Hoc group. It derived chiefly from             plause, then an awkward silence. Nu-
most illustrious scholars from the grad-    the vounger instructors and older left-           merous professors suddenlv realized
uate and professional schools appear        wing professors (although slamming                that Rudd's intransigence was forcing
for the first time, but two dozen addi-     the Administration is a popular sport             them into a horrible police bust-or-am-
tional young preceptors and instructors     among the faculty at most colleges). It           nesty position, neither of which they

54                                                                                                     COLU~1BIA    COLLEGE TODAY
wanted, and subtly compelling them to           thizers to angry counterrevolutionaries.   "Roman Saturnalia," an anCIent cele-
transform themselves into University            There were 15 professors on the stage      bration that allowed unrestrained be-
reconstructionists as a way out of the          and another 40 to 50 in the audience.      havior, outrageous speech, and gay
dilemma. Philosophy Professor Arthur            Professor of Chinese and Japanese Wil-     playacting among the citizens.
Danto seconded Professor Anderson's             liam Theodore de Bary '41, who orga-          The most eloquent and touching
remarks. "If we shift suddenly from be-         nized the meeting, gave a terse objec-     talk, however, was given by Dr. Don-
ing a mediating body to being a revolu-         tive summary of attempts to solve the      ald Keene '42, one of the world's great-
tionary one, we shall need a new medi-          crisis, and then said, "You will now       est authorities on Japanese life and
ating group to mediate between the              hear numerous of my colleagues ex-         literature. He described how student
Administration and us."                         press their feelings about the strike."    strikes were prevalent in Japan.
    The Saturday afternoon sunshine             One by one, the learned men expressed      "Scarcely a Japanese university exists
seemed to inspire some students to add          their sadness; reaffirmed the impor-       that has not had a strike from two
more color to the campus. By 3:00 sev-          tance of free, intellectual inquiry and    weeks to two years. Many students no
eral hundred students had put on green          the trust and respect that such inquiry    longer attend classes or learn very
arm bands, signifying their desire to           requires; granted that Columbia, along     much. Professors are badgered and
grant amnesty. "It's not that I agree           with all modern universities, needed       blackmailed by student bullies. At To-
with the SDS tactics," one green-band-          changes; and asked everyone to use ev-     kyo University, one of Japan's best, no
ed student told us, "but they have shak-        ery ounce of reason they could muster.     medical degrees will be awarded this
en things up around here and anything               The most prolonged applause came       year. Hundreds of Japan's most bril-
is better than a police raid." Also, the        when a Graduate Business School pro-       liant professors have gone abroad to
SDS rebels pasted bright red adhesive           fessor said that most professors, and he   other countries or stopped teaching,
tapes on their left arms, and planted           himself, strongly believed in "no am-      and so have the more serious students.
large red flags on the roofs of Fayer-          nesty." Later, physics professor Henry     If you think this could not happen in
weather Hall and the :'.1athematics              Foley drew heavy applause also for his    America, you are mistaken. I beg you:
 building. The green, red, light blue,           statement, "The SDS should be treated      do not let it."
 and white (faculty) armbands made               just as the Ku Klux Klan would if they        As the students left ,,vollman, many
Columbia look something like the in-             tried to take over Columbia." But not      of them visibly sobered by the power-
 side of a color-coded computer.                 all were that firm. Professors Arthur      ful display of eloquence, reason, world
     Two important meetings took place           Danto and Orest Ranum were poignant        perspective, and commitment to both
 at 4:00 on Saturday. One was a session          and compassionate. Russian scholar         learning and reform that they had wit-
 between Vice President David Truman             Robert Belknap was funny, describing       nessed, they saw a crowd gathered at
 and the SDS leaders. The SDS chiefs             the event as a modern-day version of a     the Sundial around several half-naked
 treated Dr. Truman as a totally discred-
 ited official though, and the meeting
 only reinforced further the Administra-
 tion's conviction that SDS would com-
 promise on nothing whatever. (Earlier,
 at 3:45 p.m., two SDS students ap-
 peared at the Ad Hoc Faculty Commit-
 tee meeting to ask if some faculty mem-
 bers would help mediate the growing
 split within the Strike between the lib-
 eral reformers and the revolutionaries!)
     The other meeting was one called by
 several dozen leading professors in
  ,,vollman Auditorium. The teachers,
  mostly all moderates who were fiercely
  dedicated to a defense of the Univer-
  sity, its scholarly enterprise, its inde-
  pendence, and its freedoms, but con-
  vinced also of the need for changes and
  reforms, had two purposes in mind:
  one, to inform the students of the actu-
  al, factual state of the situation (as nei-
  ther the Administration, nor the SDS,
  nor the Ad Hoc faculty group was do-
  ing), and two, to inject some perspec-
  tive and reason and proposals for             In a comic parody, on Saturday afternoon, April 27, three College students staged a
  feasible reforms into the emotionally         mlly denU/nding that Manhattan be given back to the Indians ("the real minority
  worked up students. Nearly 1,000 stu-         grOltp, the real people of this land"), and that all bUildings be destroyed so that the
   dents showed up, from SDS s)'mpa-            buffalo could roam again.

 SPRING, 1968                                                                                                                       55
student speakers. The Sundial speakers           The Ad Hoc Faculty met at 10:15          physically assaulting the faculty in
were three fraternity members dressed         p.m. again, only to adjourn in some de-     front of Low, and within 10 minutes
as Indians, in old shorts and handker-        spair at 11:30. As they adjourned, the      500 students from the ~1ajority Coali-
chief headbands. They were handing            Rev. William Starr, Assistant Professor     tion had gathered at Low, ready to tear
out leaflets:                                 of French Richard Greeman, G. S. En-        into the SDS guerillas. The professors,
   vVe, the Indians of Manhattan, feel        glish instructor Rubin Rabinovitz, and      puffing a bit from the exercise, then
that because we have a significant mi-        research assistant David Goodman            had to calm the incensed right wing
nority, we can demand the following:          called for a "radical caucus" to plan for   and moderate students in the semi-
   1. Give Manhattan back to the Indians.
   2. Destroy all buildings on Manhattan
                                              an amnesty push and tactics on how to       darkness. Said Assistant Professor of
so the buffalo can roam again.                handle the next morning's all-faculty       English (in General Studies) Harold
  3. Reserve the state of Indiana for In-     meeting, from which most of them            Ferrar, a relatively sympathetic sup-
dians only.                                   were excluded. About 35 persons,            porter of the SDS up to then, "I can't
  4. Reinstate the Indian head nickel.        mostlv under 35 years of age, split off     believe it. These guys will really settle
  5. Halt classes on Sitting Bull's birth-
day.                                          and met in a room in the fifth floor of     for nothing other than total victory or
  6. Grant complete amnesty for Geroni-       Philosophy Hall.                            the police dragging them out."
mo.                                              As the young radical instructors            (Actually, a few hours earlier, at an
  If these demands are not met, we will       were deliberating separately, SDS           SDS meeting, Jonathan Shils, the
hold l\lark Rudd hostage.
                                              leaders and supporters engaged in an        Strike's press officer, and a few other
  Support your local Indian. Injun Pow-
er!                                           extraordinary tactic. Hoping to "radi-      students tried to urge some form of
      P.I.S. (Pupils for an Indian Society)   calize" the faculty further by a dramat-    compromise, but ''J.J.'' Jacobs got up
    The leading young man was a fresh-        ic act, about 60 SDS students and true      and said, "No concessions. vVe're here
man football player built like Burt Lan-      believers decided to storm the faculty      to win!" vVe've got to win the whole
caster, Carl Hillstrom of Corry, Penn-        line around Low at midnight. While          war." The students from Mathematics
sylvania. He was slightly inebriated,         150 or so faculty members, including        applauded vigorously. Compromise
but displayed an amazing touch for            SDS sympathizers like Professors Kap-       was out of the question.)
the comic. With superb timing and deft        low and Shenton stood guard, they              Also, that Saturday night Jay Krie-
satire, Hillstrom kept over 400 listeners     were rushed by the rebel students in        gel, Sid Davidoff, and Barry Gottehrer,
roaring with hilarity for nearly 20 min-      an angry, athletic maneuver. About 15       riot aides of Mayor John Lindsay, who
utes as he explained the "Indian" posi-       students broke through the line and         was very anxious to end the Columbia
tion. Said a graduate student in En-          started climbing into the windows of        uprising, talked with SDS chiefs. The
glish, "Even Shakespeare would not            Low, as Low leader Tony Papert and          city officials were told by the Strikers
have injected such a perfect piece of         others aided them from inside Low.          that a police bust probably would nev-
comic relief in the midst of this mess."      The faculty forcibly pulled eight or        er come because of the liberal senti-
   Saturday night was rather calm, un-        nine students down from the ledges,         ments of the faculty, and that if it did it
til late in the evening. A few hundred        but six or seven got through. As some       would be a good thing, demonstrating
peace marchers, nearly all white, re-         faculty pulled students down, the           the oppressive nature of University life
turned to the Amsterdam Avenue gate           teachers were booed and shouted at by       and radicalizing the campus as nothing
after the Central Park festivities were       other rebels. Two students inside Low       else could.
over, but it was a disappointingly small      spat upon faculty members below. "We           All this, the executive committee of
group and provided SDS leaders with           do not recognize city police. vVe will      the Ad Hoc faculty knew when they re-
no dramatic or mass support.                  not recognize faculty police." "You         convened past midnight following the
    Inside Low Library President Kirk         brains ought to be on the barricades        surprising SDS charge on their ranks.
and his top aides were thinking about         with us, not policing against us." And      However, they decided that the only
the next day's big faculty meeting. Vice       1ark Rudd denounced the "merely in-        hope to prevent police action on cam-
President Truman voiced the opinion           tellectual support" of the Ad Hoc           pus - the main thing in their minds,
that, "The Administration has been re-        group, and said "It's action that           overriding everything else - was to
sponsive-on the gym, on the h'i-par-          counts."                                    draw up a third faculty proposal. This
tite tribunal, on coming as close to             Even the dedicated history teacher       one was to be a kind of ultimatum, "a
amnesty as possible with mere discipli-       Jeffrey Kaplow was shocked. ''I'm           bitter pill for all sides to swallow," that
nary probation, on yielding to faculty        through supporting you guys totally.        would be the Ad Hoc's desperate, last-
opinion, on trying to talk repeatedly         This is an insane tactic," he shouted to    desk attempt to stave off violence and
with the protesting students. But there       the SDS leaders. The rush removed the       force compromise. Accordingly, the
has been no response whatever, not one        scales from the eyes of numerous other      whole group adjourned for the night,
crumb of evidence of flexibility, from        professors who until that moment had        but the steering committee stayed up
the SDS leaders. They no longer recog-        kind of admired the radicals' elan and      all night hammering out their resolu-
nize any authority at Columbia, and           commitment to social justice. The tac-      tion. By daylight they had it finished,
see due process as a show. They even          tic not only backfired; it presaged the     and it was approved at an early morn-
refuse to respect faculty power. It           tactics against the police-provocation      ing session bv a large majority of the
doesn't look good." Shortly after, Pro-       of violence by the other side by quasi-     relatively small Ad Hoc group that was
fessor Alan Westin confessed, "W'e are        violent attacks of one's own.               on campus at 9:00 a.m.
at a log jam."                                   Word quickly spread that SDS was            The proposal was peculiar. \Vhat it

56                                                                                                 COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY

Political scientist Alan Westin (left) and African scholar Immanuel Wallerstein '51, leaders of the Ad Hoc Faculty Committee.
announcing a new plan for a last-hour solution to the sit-ins. The two, and their colleagues, labored day and night to effect a
peaceful compromise, but were foiled.

did was escalate the Ad Hoc group's          protect the Strike's leaders, a device     was room. Said Assistant Professor
demands upon the Administration,             that would punish the dedicated revo-      Greeman of the Kirk concession, "\Ve
while softening the castigation of the       lutionaries and the sympathetic sitters-   younger teachers regard this as a pro-
SDS-led strike!·s. As such, it was           in with "uniform penalties." And it pro-   found humiliation. This campus is not
praised by the small number of leftist       posed a high-level panel to review the     Alabama in 1956!" As it turned out,
faculty members but criticized sharply       gym and "adopt an alternative to the       the Law School lecture room was so
by the moderates and conservative pro-       present plans."                            crowded with over 500 senior profes-
fessors. "vVe had to establish credibility      As for the student rebels, the Ad Hoc   sors (including 100 standees) that only
among the Left," Professor 'Vestin ex-       leaders asked that "once the President     a few of the radical young instructors
plained later on. In gallantly reaching      indicates that he accepts these resolu-    got in.
for some position that would lure the        tions" the students "vacate these build-      At the all-faculty meeting, presided
SDSers out of their all-or-nothing, no       ings immediately," or else the Ad Hoc      over by President Kirk, there was a
compromise approach, the Ad Hoc Ex-          faculty would no longer "interpose         standing ovation for the efforts of the
ecutive committee came into heavy fire       [them]selves between the Administra-       steering committee of the Ad Hoc Fac-
for neglecting to consider its "credibili-   tion and the students."                    ulty Group. Then, after considerable
ty" among other campus groups and               On Sunday morning, an almost hot,       discussion, the collected faculty ap-
the outside world. "The Ad Hoc leaders       sunny morning, Columbia's Law              proved a resoultion drawn up largely
keep playing to the small pack of left-      School looked a bit like a medieval ca-    by economist Peter Kenen '54. The
wing kids as if laws, principles, institu-   thedral in modern glass and concrete       document, which offered nothing spe-
tions, and everybody else did not exist.     dress, with hundreds of professors         cific, passed by a vote of 466 to 40. Es-
Everything they do is directed at woo-       streaming into it in tweeds and seer-      sentially, it praised the Ad Hoc group;
ing guys who have let them know a            suckers, looking bleary-eyed or bellig-    expressed appreciation for the "pa-
dozen times that they don't give a           erent.                                     tience and restraint" of the Administra-
damn about Columbia or free academic            Outside the Law building, huddled       tion and the majority of students and
inquiry," said one indignant professor.      in a corner of the bridge across Am-       faculty; pledged faculty effort for bet-
   The Ad Hoc Resolution recommend-          sterdam, the radical caucus, about 25      ter communication with students; con-
ed that the President relinquish all         strong, met with Drama Professor Eric      demned the student "violence' and
power over disciplinary matters at the       Bentley the only senior teacher present.   "disruption"; and called upon the SDS
University to a tripartite commission,       President Kirk had met their howls of      rebels to help resolve the crisis peace-
and that the University statutes be re-      protest by agreeing to let "up to 20" of   ably.
vised to allow that. It urged "a new ap-     the younger instructors in the faculty        The Ad Hoc resolution was intro-
proach of collective responsibility" to      meeting, on a non-voting basis, if there   duced by Professor Westin, but he did

SPRIl\'G, 1968                                                                                                                57
Participatory meeting inside Mathematics Hall, the most militant l'evolutionary stronghold. On Sunday numerous meetings teem
held in all the buildings as faculty opposition stiffened and some "liberals" among the rebels urged a compromise solution.

not request that it be voted upon.         C.C.N.Y., father of Hilton Clark '66, a      are right and we represent the majority
   At the beginning of the all-faculty     respected egro scholar, and a person-        of students." Journalist: "Would the
meeting, President Kirk said he had        al friend. The day before, Professor         strikers then submit to a poll of all Co-
called it to find out what the faculty's   Clark had volunteered his services to        lumbia students and abide by its re-
"sentiment and opinion" was about the      see if he could help with negotiations       sults?" Gilbert: "\Vell, no. You see, we
disruption. He found out that the fac-     in Hamilton Hall between the students        represent not only Columbia's students,
ulty overwhelmingly opposed amnesty,       and the Adminisb·ation. The Universi-        but the majority of the \ ietnamese
but almost as strongly feared police ac-   ty had continued to talk separately          people, the soldiers who are dying
tion on the campus-a sentiment that        with the black collegians because the        there, the oppressed blacks in America,
was hardly helpful in pointing to a        black students had relatively little to      in fact, the struggling masses every-
course of action, given SDS intransi-      do with the Strike Coordinating Com-         where." Journalist: "I see." Then he
gence.                                     mittee. (They seldom even sent repre-        turned to a press colleague and whis-
   \Vhile the meeting was in session,      sentatives to Ferris Booth to participate    pered, "The voice of the Columbia Left
several dozen protestors in the build-     in the Strike Coordinating Committee.)       is the voice of the world."
ings came out and strolled around the      Dr. Clark went into Hamilton on Sun-            What made the SDS statement
campus with a mixture of good cheer        day but reported that his first effort was   strange was its sudden shift to interest
and tense anxiety. There were by Sun-      unsuccessfu I.                               in university reform. ("Our goal is to
day morning about 625 young people            At noon the Strike Steering Commit-       create a functioning participatory de-
in the occupied buildings: roughly 75      tee held a press conference and issued       mocracy ..."); its unusually obtuse and
in Low, Avery and Hamilton, and 200        a strange, long-winded statement to the      involved argument; and its conb'adic-
in Mathematics and Fayerweather. A         press, who by then were becoming a bit       tions. ("\Ve have been very anxious to
few of the protestors' mothers drove to    sour about the radicals for what the         continue the discussions we had with
the campus that Sunday to bring fried      press regarded as SDS's increasingly         the faculty Ad Hoc committee." [And]
chicken or roast beef sandwiches to        deceptive and dishonest manipulating         "It is pointless to continue negotiating
their rebel children, causing a dozen or   of the University, the other students,       with a committee that does not have
so "Jewish mother" jokes to start circu-   the community, and the press itself.         the authority to put forth a solution
lating around the campus.                  For example, when Strike leader David        that recognizes that discipline is inap-
   Shortly before noon Vice President      Gilbert was asked by a journalist why        propriate for actions that are right and
Truman had a visit from Dr. Kenneth        his group persisted in their no compro-      necessarv. We thus ask the Faculty Ad
Clark, a professor of psychology at        mise stand, he answered "Because we          Hoc Committee to stop trying to per-

58                                                                                               COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
form a meditating function they cannot       was a time; and that we are seeking to        and while Ad Hoc professors tried des-
carry out.")                                 form a radical faculty group which will       peratelv to round up support for their
    Actually, the striking students in the   encourage the faculty to move toward          last-chance resolution, College Walk
buildings were going through consider-       the left." The SDS document also says:        had facultv wives strolling with bab~'
able inner turmoil. They held meetings       "Talks will resume with the faculty to-       carriages; student lovers walked hand
among themselves during much of Sun-         morrow. I emphasize that these are            in hand around the campus brick paths,
day to talk about amnesty, how to radi-      only clarifying talks and not negoti-         at the edge of which thousands of
calize the faculty and their fellow stu-     ations. It was felt to be tactically im-      grape hyacinths and flame azaleas
dents, and what to do when the police        portant in providing sympathy for the         bloomed; and clusters of faculty, a few
came, a development that many ex-            strikers in case of a bust, to reassure       with their dogs, chatted about the situ-
pected to happen Sunday night so that        Fayerwether and people in other build-        ation.
classes could resume on Monday. A            ings, and to mobilize the campus and               When the :\1ajority Coalition Shl-
large majority of the students in Faver-     the faculty."                                 dents received the news of the all-fac-
weather, who constituted almost half             The rebel leaders by Sunday had had       ulty resolution, which was something
of all the strikers (excluding those in      to adopt a tight Leninist revolution-         they could support, they were at first
Hamilton), began to think that the de-       ary discipline over the increasingly           comforted. But then news of the Ad
mand for total amnesty was unreason-         multi-opinioned lunges and leanings of         Hoc "bitter pill" resolution reached
able and made the strikers look bad.          their participatory democracy. They al-       them and they became incensed. Said
 But the Fayerweather "liberals," as          so had to impose a censorship of sorts.       one member, "The Ad Hocs have lost
they were dubbed, were overruled by           Numerous reports later on from stu-           touch with reality. The SDS has done
 the dedicated commune in ~Iath, and          dents inside Avery and Fayerweather           evervthing but crap in their faces and
 the leaders in Low and Averv. The SDS       -and even Hamilton-indicate that               they are still trying to pretend that
minutes of that day note: "The general        many of the students in the buildings         negotiations are possible. Their latest
 answer to Fayerwether [sic] was that         were not informed of some outside de-         theory seems to be that if they cut
 ... the fight for amnesty makes the for-     velopments or were deliberately misin-        Grayson Kirk's legs off, the pukes will
 mal structure real by politicizing the       formed by the strike leaders. The Ad          start talking."
 students and by making our position          Hoc steering committee found this an               Earlv on Sunday afternoon, there-
 crystal clear; that [any] new struchlres     acute problem in trying to present its        fore, the :\Iajority Coalition, still com-
 may have to be acted against and that        "bitter pill" resolution to all the strik-    posed heavilv of undergraduate stu-
 a political principle must be estab-         ers in the captured buildings.                dent athletes, fraternity members, and
 lished of being able to act against ille-       While the rebel students argued and        young Republican types, but now bol-
 gitimate authority; that we are becom-       spread vaseline on their faces against        stered by some graduate and profes-
 ing stronger and that the time had not       :\Iace, a chemical irritant sometimes         sional school students, decided to cor-
 yet come for negotiations, if ever there     used in anti-riot work by the police,         don off Low, allowing nothing (except
                                                                                             medical supplies) to go in or out of
                                                                                             tlle President's suite. They called it a
                                                                                             "silent Vigil," asked all participants to
                                                                                             wear coats and ties, and meet at 5:00.
 At 5:00 p. m. on Sunday, April 28, the :',Ia;ority Coalition cordoned off Low Library
                                                                                                 :\Ieanwhile, the Ad Hoc faculty
 to block all help 01' food from reaching the 'rebel occupants. Theil' Tanks were assulted   group was meeting in Philosophy Hall
 by SDS aides, who hoped to smash the blockade.                                              again, in the late afternoon. There was
                                                                                             a lot of quibbling about the wording in
                                                                                             the "bitter pill" resolution. Then Psv-
                                                                                             chologist Eugene GalanteI' said, "Let's
                                                                                             face it. SDS regards our negotiations as
                                                                                             an intellectual exercise. \Ve have
                                                                                             changed nothing. They reallv do want
                                                                                             -and need for their movement-a big
                                                                                             confrontation with the police. Let's not
                                                                                             let them become martyrs. I suggest
                                                                                             that this faculty go into the buildings
                                                                                              and bring the students out non-vi-
                                                                                             olently." Someone immediately asked,
                                                                                             "What about the 200 girls in the build-
                                                                                              ings?" Galanter's suggestion received
                                                                                              no heavy support. Phvsical action was
                                                                                              not the intellectuals' cup of tea. "Do we
                                                                                              let the police do it then?" asked Galan-
                                                                                              teI'. Silence, and many looks of sheep-
                                                                                              ishness and helplessness. Bv 6: 15 p.m.
                                                                                              another 20 professors walked out of the

Ad Hoc body, swearing nevel: to return     the well-groomed students presented a      Graduate Faculties, chemist George
again. "This group will never face up to   striking contrast to the male rebels,      Fraenkel, shouted "Stop! Evervbody"
the situation and its painful necessi-     most of whom were either bearded or        and held out his arms like an Indian
ties," sighed one faculty member.          long-haired and dressed like dock          chief. He said he wanted to talk with
   At 5:00 p.m. promptly about 250         workers, cowboys, or rock n' roll band     all parties about whether the food
:\1ajority Coalition members formed a      members. Despite all the talk about        could go through. He did. It was de-
line in front of the faculty line around   politics, the revolution seemed like a     cided that it could not. The SDS mem-
Low. They were led by 20 marshals,         cultural one as well.                      bers were furious and promptly
who urged everyone to be non-violent          At 6:45 p.m. about 100 strikers,        launched a scurrilous verbal attack on
at all costs, and directed by College      pulled chiefly from the other buildings,   the faculty. "We don't recognize this
seniors Paul Vilardi and Frank Dann,       appeared in front of the double line in    ... faculty decision," said SDS soph-
both of whom were premedical stu-          front of Low, desirous of testing the      more Robert Roth. The radical stu-
dents, athletes, and Roman Catholics.      blockade. Ted Kaptchuk shouted,            dents, watched by nearly 1,000 specta-
\Vithin an hour they were joined by        "Starvation is a form of violence," and    tors, including nearly 100 alumni and
100 other students. Coffee carts were      25 SDS students attempted to smash         two trustees who had come to the cam-
brought up, and blankets were sent so      through the ranks. Most of them were       pus, then began throwing eggs, toma-
that the vigil could go on indefinitely.   stopped by the Majority Coalition line     toes, oranges, and the like at the win-
Looking alternately grim and amiable,      or the faculty line behind. Dean of the    dows above the faculty line. Much of
the food fell short or hit the walls and    resolution carefully, the University        administrators, several senior profes-
splattered down on the professors. Said     would continue to be closed officially      sors, and a few trustees the "bitter pill"
one professor, wiping tomato juice          on Monday. (The Strike leaders had de-      resolution. By 10:00 a.m. he was ready
from his shoulders, "I never thought        nounced the compromise as soon as it        with an answer, which he gave in per-
I'd see the day. Progressive students       appeared, but Dr. Kirk, trying to re-       son to Professors Westin and Daniel
behaving like Mafia goons, and burly        spect faculty wishes, decided to re-        Bell in Low Library. As the president
conservatives standing there stiff and      spond to it anyway.) To many, that          soon after put it in writing for everyone
dignified as Martin Luther King." Said      signalled no police raid on Sunday          on campus to read:
another professor, "Now the liberal         night, and most persons used the night           I commend and fully share the ob-
professors know what it is to 'negotiate'   to sleep.                                     jectives of the resolution adopted by
                                                                                          the ad hoc faculty group on April 28.
with orth Vietnam." By 8:00 the stu-           The only dramatic event that broke
                                                                                          I am deeply grateful for the dedicated
dent radicals gave up trying to break       the stillness on Sunday night was a           concern for the integrity of the Univcr-
the blockade and withdrew to the Sun-       "wedding" at 11:30 p.m. Two of the            sity that their proposals imply. I am
dial to have a participatory session        radical students in Fayerweather Hall,        confident that the following decisions
about further tactics.                      Richard Egan and Andrea Burrow, de-           carry out the essential spirit of their
   At 7:15 p.m. President Kirk an-          cided to marry suddenly and the Rev-
nounced that, owing to his desire to        erend William Starr, Episcopalian rev-      Dr. Kirk reaffirmed his willingness to
study the Ad Hoc group's "bitter pill"      olutionary, agreed to marry them. The       go along with the new tri-partite com-
                                            bride wore a white sweater, jeans, and      mission whose decisions would be
                                            sneakers while the groom wore a white       "binding," and said he would "recom-
                                              Tehru jacket, jeans, and black boots.     mend to the Trustees that the statutes
                                            Reverend Starr pronounced them "chil-       of the University dealing with discipli-
                                            dren of the new age" at a ceremony in       nary matters be re-examined." As for
                                            Fayerweather. After the ceremony            the matter of uniform penalties, the
                                            they marched in a candlelight proces-       president said it "will be referred to the
                                            sion to the Sundial, where Starr kissed     tri-partite commission," since such mat-
                                            the bride, and someone hit a large pan      ters were aheady "part of the commis-
                                            to simulate the sound of a gong. The        sion's mandate." As for the gym, Dr.
                                            couple supposedly spent their wedding       Kirk said he would recommend to the
                                            night on the top Roor of Mathematics.       Trustees that they "proceed with dis-
                                               Monday, April 29 was proclaimed          cussions" as the Ad Hoc resolution rec-
                                            "The Day of Decision" by the desper-        ommended. Both President Kirk and
                                            ate Ad Hoc group leaders. Only par-         Vice President Truman felt that the re-
                                            tially aware that they had made un-         sponse was fairly positive and went as
                                            usual and somewhat radical demands          far as they could reasonably go.
                                            of President Kirk, and that the SDS            Professors Westin and Bell, howev-
                                            students were not taking the final at-      er, and especially Dr. Westin, felt the
                                            tempt at compromise seriously, the          response was unclear and "essentially
                                            Ad Hoc steering committee, hoping           negative." The two scholars then met
                                            against almost certain failure, that        with three SDS leaders, who came
                                            morning called and sent telegrams to        without Rudd, and told the rebels that
                                            everybody from Senator Jacob Javits to      they ought to consider the "bitter pill"
                                            the American Association of University      resolution seriously since it was their
                                            Professors, asking that they put pres-      last chance to avoid a police bust.
                                            sure on President Kirk to yield. (Al-          The Strike Coordinating Committee
                                            most no pressure was put on the strik-      met beginning at noon for nearly three
                                            ers.) They also collected signatures on     hours. The representatives from Avery
                                            a petition.                                 and Fayerweather said that although
                                               President Kirk had spent most of         they opposed the Ad Hoc "ultima-
                                            Sunday night deliberating with other        tum" they would like to continue talks
                                                                                        with faculty representatives. Those
                                                                                        from Low and Math opposed the vVes-
                                                                                        tin proposal outright. In fact, the rep-
                                                                                        resentatives from Low, where Maoist-
                                                                                        oriented Tony Papert held the reins,
                                                                                        proposed that the strikers, aided by
                                                                                        SDS-organized "green armbanders" at-
                                            011 Sunday afternoon, April 28, the Pres-
                                            ident's office in Low Library was sur-      tempt to smash the food blockade
                                            1"Ounded by nearly 1,000 faculty, "Maior-   again to protect the rebels' "ri!l;ht to
                                            ity Coalition pickets, and students Oil     food and free access," and to split the
                                            both sides of the sit-in.                   facultv further. Low shldents also ad-

                                                     Now it was the Administration's           2reasingly began to put forth legitimate
                                                  turn to try a last-trench effort at peace-   grievances with illegitimate means....
                                                  ful solution. Dr. Kenneth Clark offered      Authorities have failed to explain their
                                                  to Vice President Truman to bring in         deeds. Universities do need revisions.
                                                  Theodore Kheel, the well-known labor         Students commendably don't wish to
                                                  mediator, to attempt mediation. Kirk         lead hum-drum bourgeois lives.... But
                                                  and Truman accepted, and at 1:10 on          I cannot agree with that small, hard
                                                  Monday afternoon, Clark and Kheel            core of student activists who want to
                                                  entered Hamilton to see if they could        wreck the universities in order to trans-
                   PE1IT!ON                       get the occupants of that building to        form the culture. Our universities es-
                        A6AI N51                  negotiate in good faith. It was hoped        pecially are movable by peaceful, ra-
                      ILL f GilL                " that a Hamilton agreement could be           tional means."
                                               .t used as a model for settlements in other        Richard Hofstadter, De Witt Clin-
                     ]) t f'l t r.: r r r :',
                                               .~ buildings to avoid police intervention.      ton Professor of American History,
               •••••                     a:.l~.,g    On the campus, positions were being       said, "We have been confronted in the
By Monday, April 29, many students felt           polarized. While sympathizers of the         past few days with an old-fashioned
that the "Adm'inistmtion can't act, and Strike, or at least amnesty, were in-                  putsch." The noted historian said he
the Faculty won't act," and called for an creasing in number, students opposed                 sympathized with the frustrations and
"end" of SDS "anarchy."                           to the Strike and SDS were becoming          problems of youth and agreed with the
                                                  more organized, more disciplined and         need for changes, but found it difficult
                                                  aggressive, and much larger in number.       to put up with the "incredible moral ar-
                                                  The campus on ~londay throbbed with          rogance" of a few activist leaders. "The
vocated a blockade of Philosophy Hall countless hot discussions of the Strike,                 demand for amnesty means that basic-
to deny all further access to that hall with professors and students arguing in                ally one accepts Columbia as a commu-
for the Ad Hoc committee. But the knots with a hitherto unknown intima-                        nity, but feels free to withdraw tempor-
Low proposal was defeated.                        cy and concern. "It is so beautiful,"        arily to strike a sensational death-blow
   Shortly after 1:00 p.m. Monday's said one College junior, observing the                     against it and then re-enter it as if noth-
Spectator was distributed. Though four dozen or so outdoor impromptu                           ing damaging had been done. Amnesty
b'ansparently enthusiastic about the re- seminars.                                             is an attempt to humiliate this commu-
volt, the editors seemed a bit puzzled               At 2:00 p.m. there was another hu-        nitv. ~lark Rudd's rhetoric is signifi-
by SDS's continued intransigence. In morous stunt. One College student got                     cant and revealing. It is profane, irra-
an editorial, they wrote, "What is at up on the Sundial and announced a                        tional, and romantically revolution-
stake is the restructuring of Columbia new petition that he hoped all Colum-                   ary." Said Professor Hofstadter: "De-
University. Yet throughout the latter bia people would sign. It read simply,                   mocracy is essentially proceduml.
part of the week, the demonstrators "I want control of the University."                        Some SDS students want to improvise
consistently refused to accept any so- Each person was to sign it, crossing out                the rules of society as they go along. No
lutions at all that were offered them by first the name of the person on top of                decent community can exist this way.
the faculty group." The Spec editors, his signature. "It will give each person                 A democratic community, protecting
like Professors Westin, Bell, Dallin, Sil- a new sense of having asserted himself,             individual rights, certainly cannot." In
ver, et al, and reporter Sylvan Fox of asked for more power, and put down                      closing, Dr. Hofstadter said, "We pro-
the N.Y. Times, had still not grasped someone else, while allowing total an-                   pose to resume classes, despite the sit-
the higher revolutionary aims and tac- archy to continue undisturbed," ex-                     ins. Would you like us to do this?"
tics of the Strike leaders and kept plained another student.                                   There was a deafening roar of "Yes!"
thinking of the students as idealistic               For the second time, important fac-          University Professor Ernest Nagel,
education reformers. At no point had ulty members called a "Student-Facul-                     one of the world's greatest living phi-
the Strike leaders asked for any major ty Meeting" in Wollman, at 3:00. The                    losophers, argued that, "What is implied
educational reforms at Columbia, other list was even more impressive than the                  in this uprising is a revolt against man's
than the resignations of Drs. Kirk and Saturday meeting, but only 800 stu-                     intellect." Dr. Nagel said one student
Truman. (Later, at Harvard, Mark dents came to listen. This may have                           had quoted Goethe at him, "Great is
Rudd told a student audience, as re- been because of growing disappoint-                       feeling." Nagel said he had to remind
ported in the Boston Globe: "We man- ment with all the faculty. As one stu-                    him that it was Mephistopholes who
ufactured the issues. The IDA is noth- dent told us, "All the faculty do is talk,              said that in Faust. "Impulse and a sense
ing at Columbia. Just three professors.            theorize, and analyze. They can't act.      of messianic mission have brought un-
And the gym issue is bull. It doesn't They're going to let Kirk and Truman                     told suffering to mankind," noted the
mean anything to anybody. I had never do all their dirty work, so they can                     philosopher. Professor Nagel also ob-
been to the gym site before the demon- blame the Administration and pretend                    served that all the talk about "turning
strations began. I didn't even know to remain pure themselves."                                the University over to the facultv and
how to get: there.") And, as Rudd                    The talk, however, was splendid           the shldents" was, as he put it, "silly."
wrote subsequently for the Saturday once again. Seth Low Professor of Eu-                      He granted that greater student and
Evening Post (for a reported $1,500), ropean History Fritz Stern '46 said                      facultv participation is necessary, but
"We want a revolution."                            that: "In the early 1960's students in-     that faculty "need their precious time

62                                                                                                      COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
                                                                                               The Ad Hoc Faculty meeting that
                                                                                           Monday night was a sorrowful aftair.
                                                                                           Knowing that their negotiation at-
                                                                                           tempts had failed and recognizing now
                                                                                           that some of the SDS' leaders actually
                                                                                           wanted a police bust to "radicalize"
                                                                                           and further advance their cause, but
                                                                                           detesting the idea of forceful police
                                                                                           ejections, the professors were tragically
                                                                                           torn. \IVhat made their meeting particu-
Historian Richard H ofstadter (left): "Democracy is essentially procedural;" Philosopher   larly excruciating was their Hamlet-
Ernest Nagel (center): "Turning the University over to the faculty and students is         like inability to face the consequence of
silly;" Historian Peter Gay (right): "There are things that can happen to this nation      their dilemma. Faced with nasty
that are tcorse than a local police action."                                               choices, they chose to do nothing.
                                                                                           "They're passing the buck back to
primarily for research, writing, and Van \iVinkle announced to a cheering                  Kirk," said one teacher.
above all, good teaching." Lastly, he crowd of 1,200 students that he had                      Of course, there were numerous sug-
urged students not to equate com- initiated a half million dollar law suit                 gestions of various kinds. Professor Jef-
promise with a "sellout." Nagel: "Com- against the officers of SDS for forcing a           frey Kaplow urged, along with the Ad
promise is crucial to a pluralistic, breach of contract by Columbia by pre-                Hoc Steering Committee, that the fac-
democratic society. The cry of 'no com- venting the University from teaching               ulty call Governor Nelson Rockefeller
promise' is tantamount to a denial of courses he had paid for. A group called              in to negotiate. But someone else
the democratic way of life."              The Committee for the Defense of                 quickly reminded the audience of the
    A half dozen other noted scholars, Property Rights, who compared SDS                   Governor's strange "negotiation" in the
again assembled by Professor de Bary, to the Nazis, announced a press confer-              New York City Sanitation strike earlier
spoke. Nearly all of them were sympa- ence at 10:00 a.m. the next morning.                 in the year, when he simply capitulated
thetic with progressive movements, but Nearly 2,000 students, many from the                 to the sanitation workers. Professor
unalterably opposed to what they be- graduate and professional schools,                     James Shenton, showing signs of disil-
lieved were strong-arm takeovers by were being "conservatized." The mood                   lusionment with the leftist students,
students unwilling to compromise, appeared to be one of a student vs. stu-                  recommended that given the unbend-
armed with inaccurate criticisms and dent showdown. "The Administration                     ing nature of the SDS leaders, the Ad
vaguely defined goals. It was a power- can't act, and the faculty won't act,"               Hoc faculty withdraw their protective
ful performance.                          said one angry student in graduate his-           lines around all buildings. This notion
    While the professors were talking to tory. "Wait till night comes later."               was opposed because it was thought it
students in Wollman Auditorium, SDS
leaders decided to attack the Majority
                                          Last-hom negotiation was attempted by the Administration after faculty efforts had
Coalition and faculty lines around Low
                                          failed. Noted labor mediator Theodore Kheel (with braces), Mayor Lindsay's aides
Librarv once more, at 4:00. Feeling the
                                          Jay Kriegel (with glasses) and Barry Gottehrer, along with Dr. Kenneth Clark (in the
sting of mounting criticism of their lack
 of concern for higher education and      left rear with pope-smoking P1'Ofessor Robe1t Merton), sought a peaceful solution.
 Columbia, the Strike chiefs coupled
 their attack with an announcement that
 the Strikers would hold "hearings" on
"university re-structuring" in \i\Tollman
 at 7:30 p.m. that night. The SDS rush
 was even more violent and verbally
 abusive than that of the day before.
 "vVe want the real cops," one SDS stu-
 dent screamed twice. Fruit and a few
 eggs were pitched at Low's windows
 with full knowledge that most would
 land on professors' and instructms'
 heads, as they did. Rebel runners
 crashed into conservative students and
 Columbia teachers. Again, students in
 Low cursed and spat upon faculty
 members below. Rut the lines held
     By 5:00 dozens of placards appeared
 saying "SDS = SS" and "SDS = Fas-
  cism of the Left." A student in the
  Graduate School of Business named
would leave the way wide open for                and procellures ot a very small minor-    the noted Negro protestor, the Rev. A.
                                                 ity of students, and some non-students,   Kendall Smith, who had be::n arrested
either student vigilantes or police ac-
                                                 clearly against the wishes of the ma-
tion.                                                                                      several times in the pa~t; some black
                                                 jority of the students and the faculty,
   William Shepherd Professor of His-            and the administration. These actions     militants; leftist medical students; and
tory Peter Gay, a refugee from Nazi              have been in total disregard of the       leftist priests and nuns; SDS organizers
Germany, then spoke movingly of how              fundamental tenets of, and respect for,   hoped to embarrass the faculty and stu-
                                                 academic freedom and its implied dis-     dents in front of the press and the TV
he, and other scholars and students,             cipline, and a direct violation of our
had not been treated by anyone in the            democratic process.                       cameras with a white-collar and white
manner that the strikers were treating                                                     coat spearhead of clergymen and
everyone at Columbia "since I was a            It also said: "We urge a prompt resto-      would-be doctors and indignant "com-
boy in Nazi Germany." He ended,                ration of law and order at Columbia,        munity representatives." This tactic
"There are things that can happen to           and support the Administration in tak-      didn't work either, though, despite the
this nation that are worse than a local        jng strong and appropriate discipli-        fact that the white-coated medics and
police action." There were none of the         nary action." Copies of the resolution      the six priests and two nuns carried
boos and hisses from the young leftist         were delivered by hand to President         walkie-talkies like infantry reconnais-
instructors after Gay spoke; but there         Kirk and the University's News Office.      sance troops, obeying Strike Central di-
was no widespread agreement with his              The President had already acted to       rections.
bravely cautious suggestion that per-          restore "law and order." Shortly after         Earlier, Dr. Clark and Theodore
haps a police bust that night was the          6:00 on Monday evening he called Po-        Kheel had tried to work out a peaceful
lesser of two evils.                           lice Commissioner Howard Leary to           settlement with the SAS students in
   In the Columbia University Club at          ask him to prepare again for a police       Hamilton, who promised to reply to a
4 West 43d Street downtown, from               removal of students. Leary put Chief        Kheel proposal by 8:00 p.m. that night.
5:30 to 9:30, the Alumni Federation            Inspector Sanford Garelik personally in     At 10:45 the black students turned it
Board of Directors was meeting. Rep-           charge, and several police commanders       down. The last chance for mediation
resenting nearly 100,000 Columbia              began planning the action in accord-        had vanished.
alumni in all University branches, the         ance with Administration requests for a        The police bust was a well-guarded
Board unanimously adopted a resolu-            minimum of force.                           secret; only a very few persons knew it
tion that read in part:                           At 10:00 p.m. the Strike leaders tried   was definitely to come in the early
                                               to crash the Faculty and student block-     hours of Tuesday morning. Many per-
     The Alwnni Federation of Colum-
  bia University is strongly opposed to        ade of Low a third time. This time it       sons, however, sensed that it would
  the deliberately illegal actions, tactics,   was done more ingeniously. Calling up       probably come that night. Striking stu-


Columbia's Office of Public Information in Dodge Hall was filled with dozens of newsmen for weeks. Although there were
over 100 sit-ins and rebellions on American college campuses last spring, Columbia received the most publicity. Few people
seemed satisfied with the press for its handling and understanding of the action at Momingside.

64                                                                                                  COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
dents in the building prepared for the        1,000 policemen were assembled at downtown station, where they were
worst, while SDS leaders started plan-        five different station houses on :\Ianhat- booked for "criminal trespass."
ning tactics for after the police raid-       tan's upper West Side. With a Colum-         The other building that was acces-
maneuvers and statements that would           bia representative present to answer sible by underground tunnel was Low
"use" the bust to enlarge the revolution      questions, each contingent of cops was Library, and that building was entered
at Columbia and spread it to other            carefully briefed for an hour and a half next. Inspector Frederick Kowski and
campuses.                                     on the special nature of the action. his men, including six policewomen,
    A key factor was the press and tele-      Each Police Inspector in charge told left the 25th Precinct at 148 East 126th
vision. This is the first television-reared   the men several times, "Remember, Sh'eet drove into the campus via the
generation in America's colleges, tele-       these are college kids, not hardened 119th Street driveway. They went
vision having been introduced com-            criminals." Most of the police seemed through a tunnel and re-formed in Low
mercially in 1948, and the Columbia           matter-of-fact, as if they were being Rotunda behind the curtain in front of
rebels played to its omnivorous need          dispatched to a City Councilman's fu- the Faculty Room. They then proceed-
for visually dramatic and sensational         neral or the arrival of the Beatles. The ed to the oak double door of the Presi-
material. The press generally, but tele-      officers in charge seemed highly pro- dent's suite, where University Vice
vision in particular, were used fre-          fessional and conscientious, like brain Provost Paul Carter read the University
quently and effectively, even brilliant-      surgeons about to operate on Robert statement through a bullhorn. The po-
lyon occasion, by the young leftist           Kennedy's son. The first police arrived lice statement followed 10 minutes af-
intellectuals. "The whole world is go-        on campus around 2:00 a.m., two hours ter. The double door had to be opened
ing to see the pigheadedness and bru-         earlier than the University requested. with police crowbars since the rebel
tality of the power structure. Just           About 1,500 students, mostly under- students had locked it and piled a half
watch," said one leftist. That Monday         graduates and many sympathetic to the ton of desks, file cabinets, and furniture
night nearly 300 journalists, TV cam-         rebels, were still walking around on behind it. Then, on the left was another
eramen and reporters, left-wing film          campus.                                    door leading to a corridor that ended in
makers, free-lance photographers, and             The first building the police ap- a third door to the President's office.
amateur picture-takers and writers            proached was Hamilton. There were The second door was also locked and
 were on the Morningside campus.              about 10 young faculty members and barricaded and the entire corridor was
    Drs. Kirk and Truman took what            about 30 students in front of the doors piled with furniture. The policemen
 they hoped would be sufficient steps to       to prevent the police from entering. At spent over a half hour moving furni-
 minimize the use of force. They speci-        2: 00 a.m. a University official read a ture, which they placed in other offices.
 fied two warnings by megaphone to             prepared statement through a bull- At approximately 3:00 a.m. the cops
 those in the buildings: one by a Univer-      horn to the Negro students inside ask- had cleared a path from the President's
 sity representative, followed by an an-       ing the students to leave immediately office, and asked the students once
 nouncement by a police representative.        without punishment or be subject to ar- again to come out. The students sat
 The police were to allow anyone who           rest on the charges of trespass. 10 one still inside, singing "We Shall Not Be
 wanted to do so to leave the buildings,       came out. Ten minutes later a police of- Moved." The police had to break down
 without arrest, before their entry. They      ficial read a similar statement of warn- the third door too.
 were to enter the buildings wherever          ing. Another 10 minutes passed. Then         All 93 students in Low had decided
 possible through the University below-        Inspector Eldridge Waithe, a Negro, to offer "passive resistance." That is,
 ground tunnels to prevent front-door          tried the front doors, but they were they would not get up when asked,
 entry. No nightsticks were to be al-           locked. At the same time, however clung to other students with locked
 lowed inside the buildings. The Police         (2: 20), about 100 police broke into the anTIS when the police tried to take them
 Department was to provide stations of         basement through an underground tun- out, went limp as wet rags when lifted
 medical aid in case of violent resistance     nel, after clearing away a pile of office up or ushered out bv officers. "Half
 by some protestors. The paddy wagons          furniture. All 86 black students, includ- leech, half dead man," as one student
 were to be on Amsterdam Avenue and            ing 14 females, were in the main lobby, described it. This required the police to
 Broadway to hasten and de-centralize          accompanied by a lawyer, who said: carry them out, drag them out, or push
  the removal of students. There was to        "These people are not leaving volun- most of them out-which they did. The
 be no effort to clear the campus of the        tarily. They want to be arrested.' The Tactical Police Force contingent, wear-
 expected crowd of pro-Strike specta-          police, led by three egro officers and ing black leather jackets, formed a
  tors. The action was to be undertaken        accompanied by Civil Rights Commis- gauntlet in the corridor from President
  largelv by uniformed police; detectives      siOller \Villiam Booth, then ushered the Kirk's office to the center of the Rotun-
  and plainclothesmen were to be few           students, who walked with calm digni- da and the slouchy resisters were
  and on hand chieBy for interrogation,         tv, out through the tunnel to Amster- shoved expeditiously down the line.
  for making arrests, and for protection        dam Avenue, where several police bus- Twice, the fast shoving of the limp stu-
  against violent zealots among the spec-       es were parked. No student offered any dents resulted in pileups of students on
  tators. And, the bust was to begin            resistance. 10 handcuffs were used. the Boor near the end of the gauntlet.
  about 4: 00 a.m., when, it was felt, most     Not one student was pushed or prod- While some students walked out pout-
  spectators would have gone to their           ded. "Smooth as glass," said one police ing. about 15 students resisted actively,
  rooms to sleep.                               sergeant. "I hope each building goes refusing to allow the police to touch
     At midnight, a selected group of           that way." They were driven to a them and Bailing at the policemen's

 SPRING, 1968                                                                                                                65
                                                                                         coats, and hair; handcuffed them; and
                                                                                         pushed the limp students down the cir-
                                                                                         cular stairs. One pair of reluctant stu-
                                                                                         dents was hit by a policeman with his
                                                                                         handcuffs to hasten their movement,
                                                                                         another pair was ki<:ked by a plain-
                                                                                         clothesman down several stairs; a third
                                                                                         abrasive pair was dragged down one
                                                                                         Bight of stairs by their feet, their bot-
                                                                                         tomsides bouncing down the marble
                                                                                         staircase. The whole building was
                                                                                         cleared in just 20 minutes. Throughout,
                                                                                         nearly all the police appeared casual
                                                                                         and acted as if the removal operation
                                                                                         were routine. "These kids need to be
                                                                                      .= spanked," said one cop. Avery had a
                                                                                      "limere 42 students, only 18 of whom
                                                                                      ~ were archi tecture studen ts.
                                                                                       '" Shortly after the police appeared
 Leftist students and young faculty, singing, with arms locked, in a cordon around the outside Avery, another contingent ap-
entrance to Fayerweather Hall in an attempt to block police removal of the rebels.       peared outside Fayerweather. There
                                                                                         were about 150 uniformed police and
                                                                                         20 plainclothesmen, who had come
                                                                                         from the 30th precinct on 152nd Street,
                                                                                         led by Inspector Casimir Krasewski.
arms. Several of these active resisters "We Shall Overcome." Behind the po- The cops strolled almost lazily up to
were dragged out by their long hairdos, lice, on the brick walks were about 900 the entrance in a tactic designed to
a painful process. Two girls had to be spectators, both booing and shouting maintain calm. Leonard DeFiore, as-
carried out by the anns and legs. Once, obscenities and cheering and applaud- sistant director of Engineering School
a plainclothesman kicked one of the ac- ing for the police. It made the bullhorn admissions, read the University's warn-
tive resisters. There were no beatings warnings hard for the students in the ing, which was followed by a police
or clubbings inside Low, as some rebels buildings to hear.                               warning. No one came out. There was
alleged the next day, but there was             The police removed the 30 persons singing coming from inside the build-
considerable manhandling. A police- in front of the door by throwing them ing. A crowd of perhaps 400 specta-
man defended this action, "When the aside, then stood there for 10 minutes tors stood on the grass in the quad-
kids go limp and refuse to budge or while the special squad cut through the rangle. In front of the two doors were
be touched, all you can do is carry them heavy chains with which the students several dozen students and some facul-
out individually or push and drag had locked the door. ome of the police ty members, many of whom had locked
them. To carry them out separately appeared slightly nervous because of arms. To get through the doors the po-
would have required three times the the unexpectedly large, partly hostile lice had to physically remove the rigid
force we had at the time, and would crowd pushing in on them. 'When the phalanx of sympathizers. They did,
have taken half the night. We had to do doors opened, Inspector James Kelly pulling and shoving them out of the
it. Not one student was seriously hurt told the police to "Go to the top floor way and throwing them down on the
inside [Low]." The Low revolutionar- first and work down, quickly."The cops grass quadrangle nearby. The police
ies were gathered in the center of Low found a few students in the foyer, and spent another 10 minutes opening the
Rotunda and handcuffed preparatory several officers pulled them outside im- door and removing the furniture barri-
to going out to the police buses. Three mediately. The rcst of the force raced cades in front of the northernmost door
girls complained that their handcuffs up to the sixth, and top, floor, found no- facing west.
were too tight, whereupon the police body; then ran down to the fifth Boor                  The police went up the wide marble
loosened them promptly.                       where there were about 15 students stairway to the seventh, and top, Boor.
    Avery, the home of the Graduate who had decided to walk out peaceful- They searched each room, but found
School of Architecture, was the first ly. They were promptly escorted down no one. No students were on the sixth,
building that the police had to enter to the front door. On the fourth Hoar fifth, or fourth Boors either. On the
from the front, the first part of the bust were the 20 or so students who had de- third Boor, the main entrance floor,
that was visible to many of the 1,500 cided on passive resistance. They were they confronted two groups of stu-
spectators on campus. At 3:00 a.m. barricaded behind the 12-foot-Iong dents: a band of nearly 70 that were
about 100 uniformed police, 20 plains- large wood-and-cork display struc- sitting down singing "'We Shall Over-
clothesmen, and a small special squad tures. The protestors were seated and come" in the 5 x 40-foot corridor, and                   c
to break down doors, appeared in front singing, and refused the police orders a larger cluster of about 130 students                 Q.
of Avery. In front of them were 30 stu- to leave. The police, acting with great standing at the north end of the hall                c

dents and several instructors singing haste, pulled them up by the shirts, and on the stairs down to the second                       '"

66                                                                                                COLUlvIBIA COLLEGE TODAY
    floor. A police officer asked the seated    quered hoodlums in a Batman film.             dent hurled a wooden chair at two po-
    students to rise and leave peacefully.         The 130 students standing at the           licemen. The police seized, cuffed, and
    They refused to budge. Several stu-         north corridor of Fayerweather all            dragged most of these die-hards out.
    dents seemed frightened, and one girl       walked out peacefully, and were b'eat-        Se\'eral students were pummeled or
    began to cry out of fear. The cops then     ed in the same austere but gentle man-        sb'uck with handcuffs. In Fayer-
    began handcuffing students, lifting         ner that the Hamilton Hall students           weather, 268 students and outsiders
    them up, dragging them out by the           were.                                         were arrested.
    jackets or dresses, or in some cases by        Behind the north corridor in Fayer-           lVlathematics, the most revolution-
    the hair. A few walked out, most went       weather on the same third floor is a 40x      ary commune, was the last building to
    limp and had to be dragged out, and a       40-foot lounge with red leather chairs,       be cleared. About 150 policemen ar-
    few were violent or colorfully resistant.   round wooden tables, and standing             rived at 3:45 a.m. and pried open the
    One girl, for instance, bit a cop in the    lamps. In this lounge, the 70 rebels          door and finished cutting its chains at
    belly; another bit a policeman's fingers    who chose to resist arrest violently had      4: 00. While the police waited outside,
    to bleeding. The most colorful were one     locked and barricaded themselves. The         several students threw bottles, bulbs,
    boy and one girl who had pulled their       police forced the door open and then          and pieces of furniture down on them
    pants and underclothes down to their        remO\'ed the leather chairs, ta l,lles, and   from the upper windows. \Vhile stu-
    knees to embarrass the police and make      lamps tllat had been piled up by the          dents in the other buildings preferred
    good copy for the TV and movie cam-         students behind the door. Instantly, the      singing, the revolutionaries in iVlath
    eras, which they did. The resisting stu-    cops were assaulted with obscenities          chose slogans and torrents of profanity.
    dents were roughly stacked up on the        and revolutionary slogans, coke bottles,      Cries of "Fascist Pigs," "Bastards,' "Up
    quadrangle grass like the bodies of con-    light bulbs, erasers, and boxes. One stu-     Against the Wall, :\lotherfuckers," and

College ',Valk at three ill the moming on April 3D, Shortly after, this area became the scene of considerable police l,;iolence,
cousing new anti-Admil,istration hostility and bringing new SDS support.
                                                                                          . . . . ~.I.....;t   . .W ~"                                       ..,
                                                                                                                         . .. . . , ~ t 4 W . . . ....--..~'UJ

                                                                                       '.:.     • •.. I        ~ii!..:;.-.'"
other one-time unprintable epithets         whom hated to see police dragging stu-
poured from the building for a half         dents into police wagons) was gath-
hour without cease. One student threat-     ered in precisely that area. About 400
ened to set the whole building on fire if   police outdoors, who did have night-
any cops came in. The two warnings of       sticks, tried to form a cordon to the
the University and the police were          buses; but the crowd kept pushing in
scarcely audible. After the doors were      on them. Many in the crowd were
opened, the police spent another 20         screaming unbelievable obscenities.
minutes removing a mountain of furni-       One group was chanting "Hei!, hei!!"
ture, taken from dozens of professors'      Some officer then ordered the police-
offices, from the entrance hall.            man to push the crowd back, which
   The police started up the stairs slow-   they did vigorously, causing several
ly, because each step was covered with      dozen students to fall back or down
soap or vaseline to cause the cops to       and get trampled. Then several hun-
slip and fall. Several persons started      dred students began pressing in around
throwing chairs down on the heads of        the police wagons, still shouting abuse.
the front police, but an officer warned     Some police officer, never identified,
the students that assaulting a police-      ordered his men to clear the area this
man is a serious charge, so the barrage     time. About 100 cops with raised night-
stopped. At the top of the stairs a group   clubs and numerous plainclothesmen
                                                                                       Indignation on campus against the police
of about 20 students chose to resist ar-    began beating students and onlookers       action teas high, although mail to Pl'esi-
rest and the police carried each of them    back into South Field in front of Butler   dent Kirk ran 10 to 1 in favor of the
out, four cops to each student. To many     Library. At least 20 angry patrolmen       police rem owl.
people's surprise, most of the other180     leapt over the hedges after especially
Strikers opted to walk out peacefully,      vociferous students in hot pursuit. Doz-
although a small group of those who         ens of students were clubbed bloody.       day. One Columbia high official said,
did suddenly charged their police es-          Fifteen students and one policeman      "If all the striking students had be-
cort at the doorway to provoke a little     were taken in the police ambulance to      haved as the ones in Hamilton Hall and
police brutality for the TV cameras         Knickerbocker Hospital; another 74         some in Avery and Fayerwether did,
trained on them. There were shrieks of      students, faculty, and administrators,     there would have been no violence.
"police brutality" from several of the      and 13 policemen, were treated in St.      What should be remembered is that
students leaving the building.              Luke's Hospital, adjacent to the cam-      numerous students resisted arrest either
   Near the end of the ~Iath evacua-        pus. Many of the injuries were nothing     passively or violently, and that several
tion, a middle-aged professional agita-     more than light bruises, slight sprains,   young faculty members tried to pre-
tor with a long criminal record pulled      small cuts, and severe fright; but at      vent the arrests with their bodies."
out a knife and tried to force several      least one-third of the 103 persons had     When asked about the police assault
students around him to resist violently     scalp lacerations and bone bruises.        and clubbings on College Walk and
against the police. He didn't succeed.      Only two persons had serious injuries:     South Field, he said, "That was another
He was charged with possession of a         one student with a fractured jaw and       matter. The police were obviously be-
dangerous weapon, inciting to riot, and     one policeman with a heart attack          ing verbally provoked, but they over-
resisting arrest, in addition to criminal   caused in part by a bull-like student      reacted to the student fear and abuse."
trespass. Mathematics was the only          charge.                                    A liberal professor on the scene said,
building with several older men in it.         Of the 692 persons arrested, 524, or    "The police seem to take a lot of petty
It also had such occupants as a 16-year-    75 per cent, were Columbia students;       violence-like yanking people out of
old boy from Texas and a mother of          178 were older persons, students from      doorways and throwing them aside-as
several children.                           other colleges, free-floating radicals,    a matter of course. Is this 'brutality'? I
   The police had expected to find          and 24 young Columbia alumni. Un-          don't know. Compared to most foreign
about 400 students in the buildings.        dergraduates made up three-quarters        police actions it certainly is not, but by
Instead they found 692. This caused         of the student group. A breakdown of       American standards it could be so de-
them to move several of the police vans     the 524 Columbia students by schools:      fined. The clubbings on South Field, in
from Broadway and Amsterdam Ave-                                                       my opinion were uncalled for, and def-
nue to College Walk, at the center of       College        239   Crad, Teachers        initely brutal-I mean unduly harsh,
                                            Barnard        III    College          6
the campus. Several of their buses          Graduate             Graduate Art      3   not savage."
parked to the east, or Amsterdam Ave-        Faculties      74   International            Chief Inspector Sanford Garelik vis-
nue side, of the famous Sundial. Thus       General               Affairs         3    ited Columbia for three straight nights
hundreds of arrested students had to be      Studies        44   Grad. Business    2   following the early Tuesday raid. He
                                            Architecture    18   Grad.                 observed philosophically, after the
brought down stairs through the plaza
                                            Engineering     11    Tournalism       1
in front of Low Library to enter the        Law             11   Dental Hygiene    1   raid, that Rudd and several other strike
vans.                                                                                  leaders were not in any buildings dur-
   But most of the now swollen crowd          About the "police brutality" that        ing the bust and that many in Mathe-
of 2,000 spectators (at least half of       was to become a central issue the next     matics walked out peacefully. "It of-

68                                                                                                  COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
                                                            A Remarkable Document
ten happens in demonstrations and             This fragment of a larger document was found in the Men's Room
strikes," he said. "The soft-hearted          in Low Library by GGT's editor following the police removal of
lambs get led to the slaughter, but the       revolutionary stlldents fTOm that building on April 30, 1968. 1t
wolves cleverly steal away to continue        was marked "Preamble" and was the opening of a statement
their attacks."                               titled "A Declaration of Libemtion."
    Around 4:00 a.m. President Grayson                      A DEGLARATlON OF LIRERATlON
Kirk entered his office for the first time         When things get so rotten and screwed up that the people and
in six davs. It was a shambles. His           the students of a country have to smash their power structure
great desl~ had been gashed and dam-          and the repressive, imperialist system that sustains it, and to go
aged. Several upholstered chairs were         it on their own, everyone doing his own thing-as their natural
ripped and broken. His bookshelves            riuhts entitle them to do-then they really should tell everybody,
had been rifled and hundreds of books         openly, why they arc forced to do it.
were spilled on the floor. One of his              Look there are certain truths that no one can deny. Everybody
                                              is creat~d good and beautiful and equal. So we're as great as
wastebaskets had a faint odor of urine.
 On a precious Oriental rug were              anybody else in this sick culture, and probably a hell of a lot
spilled tin cans of sardines and soup,        better. Second, everybody has their rights, lots of them, and no
half-eaten sandwiches and orange              one on earth, not even a professor or a mother, has any business
 peels, stained blankets and birth con-       interfering with any of them. Among these is the right to Life, a
 trol pills, boxes of band-aids and jars      birr full beautiful life-without middle-class hangups like mon-
 of vaseline. His personal pictures and       ey:' res;onsibility, examinations and grades, the Puritan ethic,
 private     possessions    were     either
                                              military service, and pressures. Another is Liberty, the right to
 smashed or had obscenities scrawled
                                              come and go as you please, whenever you please, without the
 on them. His files had been looted.
                                              government manipulators, crummy businessmen, religious spooks,
 The adjoining offices were almost as
                                              uptight parents, the stupid CIA, the sadistic cops, and the really
 messy. For the first time in the rebel-
                                               out-of-it college Administrators imposing their totalitarianism.
 lion, the icy, dignified Dr. Kirk lost
                                               Also, there is the pursuit of Happiness, the moral right to have a
 his composure. His eyes grew moist
                                               fun time, to blow your mind, to sleep around, to turn on, however
 and he shook his head in disbelief.
                                               and whenever you like-so long as you don't interfere with any-
 "How could civilized human beings
                                               body else.
 act this waY?" he asked. He wandered
                                                   Now, it's only because you sometimes have to protect these
 around the' suite as if in a trance. The
                                               rights from right-wing idiots and jocks that governments have any
 sight of his office pierced him in a wav
                                               right to exist at all. But politicians and everybody in authority
 that SDS rhetoric, profanity, and alle-
                                               must be totally and at every minute responsible to the people in
 gations had not.
                                               the streets and the students. That's where all power comes from.
     Shortlv after, Vice President David
                                               As soon as government, or authority of any kind, starts pushing
 B. Trun~an walked home to breakfast
                                               people around or impinging on any liberties with their decrees,
 in his Riverside Drive apartment. He
                                               the people have a perfect right to tear down that power structure
 wept like a bo:-,. He had heard the re-
                                               and build a better one based on love and total freedom.
 ports of the police action on College
                                                   Of course, you don't have to start a revolution every time some-
 Walk and South Field and hurt for the
                                               ~hing bugs you. You really should wait until the guys in charge
 students and faculty who were beaten.
                                               prove how totally corrupt and inept they actually are. If you
 He knew that the Administration's re-
                                               check out recent experiences, you'll see that most people do keep
 luctance to call in the police would
                                               their cool and tend to put up with an amazing amount of crap
 now be forgotten and that he and Dr.
                                               before they move into action.
 Kirk would be assailed as heartless
                                                   But, when things just get ridiculous, and one incredibly stupid
 criminals who relished the beating of
                                               or brutal act after another by The Establishment leaves you no
 teenage students. SDS rigidity and fa-
                                               choice except to become an alienated person, a digit in their IBM
 culty failures would be dismissed, and
                                               set-up, a helpless part of their murderous machine, you just have
 Administration brutality would be put
                                               to wipe it out. In fact, at such times it's the absolute moral obli-
 in their place.
                                               gation of the people in the streets and the students, who have
     The other buildings, except Math-
                                               thought a lot about these things (but not so much that they have
 ematics, showed less damage. Clean-
                                               become bogged down in facts and ideas and forgotten the neces-
 est of all was Hamilton, where only
                                               sity for action) to go into guerilla warfare, using wild, imagina-
 the Dean of Students' office, used as
                                               tive tactics-as well as the press and television-until they win.
 the black protestors' headquarters, was
                                               No compromises! No deals!
 untidy. No faculty offices were en-
                                                   That's the situation in this country, man, right now. Like here
tered. A sign in Room 303 read "Leave
                                               are the facts on some of the absurd and repressive deals we have
 everything alone." There were also
                                               had to put up with....
 sians for "Lost and Found," shower
 schedules (for boys and girls), a black-
 board of Chinese writing, poetry,

 SPRING, 1968                                                                                                         69
                                                                                               drawings of £lowers, and a cra\'oned
                                                                                               message on one wall "vVe All Slept
                                                                                                  Avery, too, was reasonably neat.
                                                                                               There were several peace and anti-
                                                                                               war messages on the walls, a few
                                                                                               smashed doors, and the cork-and-wood
                                                                                               barricades on the fourth £1001', but the
                                                                                               world's greatest architectural librarv
                                                                                               on the ground £1001' was untouched, as
                                                                                               was most of the building.
                                                                                                  In Faverweather, manv facultv of-
                                                                                               fices on the fourth, fifth, and sixth
                                                                                               £1001'S had been entered and the pro-
                                                                                               fessors' files inspected, but except for
                                                                                               slight untidiness, there was little dam-
                                                                                               age. A sign on the sixth Roar read,
                                                                                               "This area has been (1) liberated (2)
                                                                                               cleaned. Please keep it that wav."
                                                                                               Generall,·, the blackboard slogans in
                                                                                               Faverweather were wittier than those
                                                                                               in the other buildings, Sample: "Rev-
                                                                                               olutionarv Spice. A new ingredient in
                                                                                               Columbia involvement." These were
                                                                                               in addition to scribblings such as "Che
                                                                                               Lives, Do You?" and "Up Against thc
                                                                                               Wall." The third £1001' was less pristine.
                                                                                               But even there, onl~r the lounge, the
                                                                                               scene of man v meetings and the
                                                                                               stronghold of the most violent resist-
                                                                                               ers, suffered broken furniture, stains,
      Inside the occupied buildings on the moming after. Top left photograph shales            and general disarrav.
      President Kirk's suite; bottom left shales a comer of his desk top. Tlco photos on the      The Mathematics building, which
      right show the interior of Mathematics Hall, the most vandalized of the bUildings.       had had a $200,000 renovation onlv
                                                                                               six months before, was different. De-
                                                                                               struction there seemed almost wanton
                                                                                               and s~'stematic, Over $150,000 worth
                                                                                               of damage was done b~r the rebelling

 \ ; J.   rHJ?E:fj .•• i7IVIY                                                                  students. Virtually every office and
                                                                                               classroom had been entered, with

OL~         __]@JAS                                                                            manv of the locks and glass panels in
                                                                                                the doors smashed. Papers had bcen
                                                                                               riRed and, in a few cases, scattered
                                                                                               about. Librarv shelves had been dis-
                                                                                               mantled to make barricades for the
                                                                                               windows. Almost evervwhere-on the
                                                                                               blackboards, walls, t;ble tops-there
                                                                                               were slogans scrawled, in paint, chalk,
                                                                                               crayon, and ink. A national revolution
                                                                                               was dearlv on the minds of most of
                                                                                               the Mati; occupants, "Mathematics
                                                                                               translated into action     =  REVOLU-
                                                                                               TION," read one blackboard formula.
                                                                                               "It's only the beginning" and "Victorv
                                                                                               or death!" read two other huge pieces
                                                                                               of graffiti. Marx, Lenin, Trotsky, Gue-
                                                                                               vara, and Castro were deadv the
                                                                                               Math students' heroes. Huge "CHE"
                                                                                               signs were apparent, as were slogans
                                                                                               like "Create tIVO, three, malll' COllllll-
                                                                                               bias," an echo of Che's suggestion to

"Create two, three, many Vietnams"         istratlOn and Trustees, who he said         blared constantly, seeking sympathy
in order to tear down the capitalist       were "hopelessly tied to corporate in-      and support for a new, bigger effort.
forces around the world. "Trotskv          terests." He was very anxious to list       (On Low Plaza, about 30 students
Lives"; "Lenin won, Fidel won, \\'e        all the police "ab·ocities." Asked by       against the Strike also set up a table,
will win"; and "We'll be back!" read a     the press, who had been through the         and displayed signs such as "Thank
few other signs. There was not a single    buildings, about student vandalism,         You for the Police Action, Dr. Kirk."
slogan referring to Columbia's educa-      Gilbert replied indignantly: "The           Another table nearby had a large sign
tion program. "These students were         amount of destruction is a clear case       "Expel all 700.") SDS chiefs spent
cleat'lv not university reformers," said   of press distortion. There was abso-        most of the morning on the phone,
Robert Foster, the Math Department's       lutely no vandalism in Kirk's office. It    calling    for   reinforcements      from
administrative aide. Some striking stu-    was vacuumed twice a day. Any mess          C.C.N.Y., N.Y.U., Yale, and other col-
dents, embarrassed b~' the gross van-      in any of the buildings was a result        leges and from all of New York's radi-
dalism of the Math students, alleged       of police action." A half hour later,       cal organizations. By 1: 00 p.m. a crowd
the next day that "the police did most     J. Michael Nichols, vice president of       of perhaps 1,000 angry young people
of it." But Robert Foster, who was in      the student council and an activist,        had gathered at Amsterdam Avenue
the building on Fridav, April 26, and      called for an all-student strike against    and 116th Sh'eet, outside the Law
at least two students who had been in      the University, and the immediate res-      School. Mark Rudd addressed them
Mathematics Hall, reported that the        ignation of Drs. Kirk and Truman.           from the Law School terrace.
building looked pretty much that way       One journalist asked, "Isn't it true that       "Columbia University is now dead.
a few days before the police bust.         the University officials had no other       Columbia is dead!" Rudd called for a
    The police action on College Walk      recourse?" Nichols responded, "That's       massive student strike and shldent take-
and South Field stunned and shocked        a lot of nonsense. Negotiations were        over. "Only the students know what
most of the University community,          going on. There were still a large num-     the University should be and what
many of whom had middle-class sen-         ber of other avenues open." "vVhat          values it should have." He said he was
sibilities and had never witnessed vi-     were some of the other avenues?"            waiting for reinforcements to arrive be-
olence before. Even numerous under-        asked a newsman. "\Vell," answered          fore another assault. "Then we're going
graduates who detested the SDS               Tichols, "the Administration could        to go. We're going to win. Columbia is
seizures became almost sympathetic         have negotiated directly with the stu-      ours!" A second speaker denounced
to the striking students. The blame        dents. Something close to amnesty           Mayor John Lindsay, who, he said,
was placed almost exclusively on Drs.      could have been worked for."                "deserted the people and sold out to
Kirk and Truman, although some per-            At 10:00 a.m. the Ad Hoc Faculty        the capitalist interests who run this
sons felt that SDS intransigence and       group had what might be called its          city and this University." A third speak-
the Ad Hoc Faculty Committee's             last meeting. It was in the large Mc-       er called for a "rent strike" bv all resi-
postponements, protection, and re-         Millin Theater, which was packed            dents of University-owned buildings.
fusal to confront harsh reali ties were    with nearly 2,000 faculty, students,        A fourth person read telegrams from
contributing factors. The profession-      press members, outsiders. The mood          sympathetic students at San Francisco
ally-run College radio station lost its    was tense, chaotic, highly emotional.       State, Yale, Harvard, Einstein College
objectivity and perspective too on         Professor Alan "'estin introduced a         of :\1edicine, Berkeley, University of
Tuesday morning, as station president      motion that he claimed had been             Buffalo, and Fordham.
Papper and others editorialized pas-       drawn up by the Steering Committee,             By 2:30 other revolutionaries had
sionately and rounded up shldents to       to hold a faculty strike for 48 hours       appeared and the crowd outside the
speak, such as College senior Jeffrey      in sympathy. After some heated de-          Amsterdam Avenue gate swelled to
Rosen, who said on the air, "All al-       bate, it became obvious that several        nearlv 2,000. A contingent from the
umni should stop giving money to the       members of the Steering Committee           Socialist \Vorkers Party led a rhvthmic
$200 million capital campaign." (At        had not even seen the statement. Some       chant of "Fight, fight, fight." A gang
 10:25, however, a vVKCR announcer         radical faculty h'ied to have the mo-       from Youth Against \iV'ar and Fascism
said that the station had received sev-    tion voted upon, but it was evident         held a huge orange banner saving
eral phone calls about its intense par-    to many professors that possibly half       "Strike! Against Racist Trustees, Fas-
 tisanship. He apologized to the listen-   of the people in :\IcMillin were not        cist Police, and Imperialist Wars." One
ing public, and WKCR students tried        faculty members. \Vestin became con-        sign said, "Adolf Hilter is alive and
to regain a balanced perspective.)         fused and, looking tired and angry, he      well at Columbia University."
 Several left-wing faculty members         stormed off the stage saying "I will            Rudd decided to address the crowd
were close to being hysterical. There      not be radicalized by a portion of this     again. With remarkable showmanship,
was a widespread sense of horror at        faculty." The meeting slowly broke          he appeared on the Law School terrace,
 the police aggressiveness.                 up in turmoil and acrimony.                 20 feet above the mob on 116th Sb'eet,
    SDS leaders held a 9:00 a.m. press         The Strike leaders moved quickly         and said nothing for a few moments
 conference, with David Gilbert pro-       to capitalize on the police action. They     while the people quieted and concen-
claiming, "The nature of the modern        set up tables on South Field to ex-          trated. Then he put down his bullhorn,
 university is now revealed." He called    plain "the atrocities" to the television     raised his hands in the air, and barked
for an immediate student-faculty strike    cameramen. Several strikers wore their       exultantly, "This is a revolution, baby!"
 and the virtual abolition of all Admin-    bloodied shirts all day. SDS bullhorns      The crowd went wild. Around the

72                                                                                               COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
crowd and in front of Columbia's gates
about 300 policemen listened to the
revolutionary rhetoric pouring out oE
the student bullhorns with a mixture of
puzzlement, interest, good humor, and
    Inside the campus, two petitions be-
gan circulating among the professors.
One, urging a faculty sh'ike, was signed
largely by younger faculty members.
The other, "strongly opposing any
teaching strike," was signed largely by
senior professors.
    'While outrage against the use of po-
lice ran high on campus, parts oE the
outside world began to express a sense
oE relief. Ma~'or Lindsay said, "The
demonstration by a group oE Colum-
bia University students during the
past several days clearly exceeded
even the most liberal perimeters oE the
right to assemble and dissent. ... Only
after a remarkablv displa~l of patience
and restraint did the universitv file
criminal charges of trespass and finallv
 request the New York Citv police to
 remove the students. . . ." Hundreds
 oE telegrams began to Bood Dr, Kirk's
 desk with congratulations. At least 20
leading college and university presi-
 dents and numerous professors and
 students from all over the nation ex-
 pressed their support. The president
 also received many telegrams con-
 demning his use of the police, especial-
ly from leading liberals, young alumni,
 students, and pacifists. Within a few
 davs, however, the mail ran 10-1 in
 favor oE the police action.
     Some of the mail from unconnected
 citizens was Eetching. A ladv in Ames,
 Iowa, sent a check for $15 "to help
 pav for repairing the damage of the
 sit-ins." A seventh-grade student in
 Long Island asked President Kirk
 what the "student reaction" was to his
 decision because she was doing a re-
 port on the Columbia rebellion for her
 social studies class. A man in Kings-
 ton, Tennessee, sent a $5 bill to Dr.
 Kirk with the brief note, "Please go
 out and bu~' ~'ourself some cigars, or
 whatever else \'oU use for kicks,"
     Professor M~rvin Harris '49 of the
 Anthropologv Department, incensed at
 what he regarded as the bestiality of
 the police, the betrayal of ProEessor
 Westin, and the cold-heartedness and ~
 irresponsibility of Drs. Kirk and Tru- i
 man, called a special meeting of an Ad ,~
 Hoc "rump" group (later known as ~

 SPRI:-\C, 1968
The Independent Faculty Group) at              racv session in full view of 400 on-      students shouted obscenities, pressed
3:00. About 90 teachers, including a           lookers. While a few leftist students     in on the police with anns locked, and
dozen tenure professors, showed up.            wanted to block the faculty's exit from   threw newspapers, books, cigarette
They decided to support the student            the building with their bodies, the ma-   packs, and a wastebasket at the police.
strike and continue to battle for am-          jority- decided to form a narrow aisle    The police, in fear of being sand-
nesty. Said astronomer Lloyd Motz:             of seated students that the departing     wiched from front and back, asked all
"The striking students deserve amnesty         professors would have to file through.    the Columbia students on College
because they did what they did from            Said the leader, in a jaunty-, sardonic   Walk to clear the walk. "Please,
the highest motives."                          manner, "Don't yell obscenities at the    please, back away," shouted a police
   An hour later, at 4:00, the com-            faculty. Some of them don't under-        lieutenant. "Why should we?" asked
bined senior faculty that met on Sun-          stand our rage and might get up tight     one student, "It's our campus. You
day, met again in St. Paul's Chapel. A         about it."                                clear out!" The police then began
resolution that was largely the work              At 6:20 it began to rain. All day      pushing students back calmly and
of Professor Richal"d Hofstadter was           long the skies had been blue-gray- with   gentl~'. Several students pushed back,
submitted for discussion, but it was           tall, ominous clouds shifting about, as   though, and a few spat upon the po-
regarded as too vague. A substitute            if Nature were aware of the grief,        lice. About 40 police then rushed the
motion, drafted principally by Profes-         tumult, and bitterness on Morningside     300 students to break up the radical
sor Maurice Rosenberg of the Law               Heights. But with evening there came      student mob and clear College Walk
School, was then offered to the faculty        a wet stillness.                          behind them. As they did so, they hit
and passed by a large majority of the             The aftermath of the police action     several students with rubber black-
550 professors present. The complete           on campus brought three things: new       jacks and shoved dozens of students
resolution read:                               spasms of violence, countless meetings    very forcefully. The students fought
      In Oill niversity's hour of anguish,     and speeches, and the formation of        back, some of them punching and
   wc members of its faculties must as-        new committees for reform and re-         kicking policemen. One student
   sume responsibility to help return this     newal.                                    jumped from a second-story ledge of
   University to a community of reason.           The most serious clash occurred on     Hamilton onto the back of a police of-
   In this spirit we adopt the following
   resolutions:                                the next day, Wednesday May- 1, in        ficer, Patrolman Frank Gucciardi, who        'c"
      1. That the University set aside         the early afternoon. About 400 Ne-        was injured so badl~' he may- never          o
   Wednesday for reflection so that with-      groes, including man~1 teenagers, had     walk again. 'rVhen the melee ended 20
   out classes, students and faculty may       congregated at Columbia's Amsterdam       minutes later, six students and four
   meet and reason together about their        Avenuc gate around 1:00 p.m. The~'        policemen were treated for minor in-
      2. That there be an executive com-       were addressed by militant Charles        juries; and one policeman was hospi-
   mittee with power to caJl the faculty       37X Kenvatta and aided by Hamilton        talized indefinitely at St. Luke's Hospi-
   together and to take other needed           Hall black students Cicero Wilson '70,    tal. One student was arrested.
   steps to return the University to its       Ray- Brown '69, and graduate student          The other incident occurred the
   educational task at the earliest possible
   moment and that the committee be            William Sales. There were charges         next night, Thursday, at a meeting of
   composed of the foJlowing:                  that "Columbia is Harlem's biggest        200 of the Concerned Parents and
         Daniel Bell                           slumlord" and that "Columbia is ex-       Alumni in Riverside Church. Just after
         vValter P. Metzger                    panding into Harlem." (In actual fact,    the meeting began at 8:00 p.m. Gan-
         William Leuchtenberg                  Columbia University does not own a        dolph Vilardi, father of Majority Co-
         Alexander DaJlin                      single house or lot inside Harlem, and    alition leader Paul Vilardi '68, took
         Eli Ginzberg
         Polykarp Kusch                        has no intention of doing so.) The        the stage and named himself chair-
         Ernest agel                           black demonstrators were joined with      man of the meeting. He spoke, some-
         Michael Sovern                        an equal number of white radicals,         what abusively-, to the largel~' left-
         Lionel Trilling                       many from City- College and the East       wing audience. Then Rabbi Bruce
         Alan Westin                           Village. At the same time SDS was         Goldman, Columbia's COlUlselor to
   In addition, the Committee will co-opt
                                               holding a rally- on the Sundial. About     Jevvish students and a strike svmpath-
   two members of the junior faculty to
   sit as voting members.                      100 uniformed police on foot, and 10      izer, tried, with several others, to grab
      3. That the recently appointed tri-      police on horseback were stationed at      the microphone awa~' from him. "Are
   partite committee consisting of repre-      the gate to prevent outsiders from         vou trving to take this microphone
   sentatives of the faculty, student body     pouring onto the campus.                   awav from me b~' force, Rabbi?" Vil-
   and administration immediately begin
   functioning to assure due process and           Shortlv before 2:00 the mob outside    ardi asked. The College parent was
   equitable treahnent to students facing      the gates surged against the police,      wrestled away, while Vilardi fought
   charges.                                    but the mounted police nudged the          back. The parents and alumni then
      4. That each member of the Colum-        demonstrators back. Several more           called the police to restore order. Vil-
   bia community act in a mannlir show-
   ing respect for his coJleagues and as-       rushes on the police were also unsuc-     ardi poin ted out that his son, other
   suring the return to life and health of     cessful. The surge-and-hold action         Majority Coalition leaders, and mem-
   this great University.                       brought the 300 SDS members,              bers of Beta Theta Pi house had all
    Outside the Chapel about 200 left-         strike sympathizers, and cop haters        received several threats to their life
ist demonstl"ators had gathered. The~'          awav from the Sundial, down College       from leftist students. (President Kirk
 sat on the brick walk in front of the          Walk to the Amsterdam gate, directly-     and several Trustees also received nu-
 doors and held a participatory democ-          behind the police contingent. These       merous threats and bomb scares by

 74                                                                                               COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
     \Vhen some students taunted and surrounded policemen on \Vednesday, May 1, another flurry of violence broke out.

m\"Sterious callers.)                          shldent should receive an 'F' for the          Perhaps most amazing of all the
  .The Vice President of Antioch Col-          Spring term courses." On Sunday, an         after-effects of the strike and police
lege, Morton Rauh, wrote a letter to           all-College Faculty meeting approved        bust, though, was the flowering of new
the Jew York Times the following               these ideas, voted to resume classes on     organizations at Columbia. The most
dav, which said in part:                       :\Ionday, May 6, on whatever basis          important was the new 12-man Execu-
      The parents meet; they have a fracas     each professor chose, and to abolish        tive Committee of the Faculty, set up
   on the platform. What's the first thing     final examinations.                         by the entire senior faculty at its Tues-
   they do? Telephone for the police.              On Thursday, May 2, an expanded         day meeting in St. Paul's Chapel "to
   Then, with order restored, they spend
   the rest of the evening belaboring the      Strike Steering Committee met for the       rehlr11 the University to its educational
   Columbia administration for calling the     first time. The new policy-making           task." This group of illustrious scholars
   police.                                     group initially had 37 members, each        moved fast. Within a few days it rec-
      It' a tough business, college adminis-   representing about 70 students "in sup-     ommended that "all charges of criminal
   tration. Better to stay on the sidelines    port of the strike and not attending        trespass and resistance to arrest be
   where the consequences of a decision
   can't touch you, and you are free to        university classes." They decided, after    dropped"; that a fact-finding commis-
   criticize to your heart's content.          a marathon 10-hour meeting, on two          sion of the highest level be selected to
    On Wednesday, Thursday, and Fri-           primary conditions: total amnesty with      determine the origins and the facts of
day, meetings-indoors and outdoors,            no legal action against all strikers ar-    the rebellion; and that a studv be initi-
formal and informal, high-level and            rested, and a key role for the Strike       ated of the statutes and pres'ent struc-
participatOly for everyone-went on in          Steering Committee in restructuring         tures of the University with a view
each of the Universit\·'s schools. The         the University.                             toward improving and updating them.
College's powerful Committee on In-                At a large, open Student-Faculty           The Executive Committee was al-
struction, a faculty body that deter-          meeting on \,yednesday, Columbia an-        most instantly charged with being
mines the academic program and rules           thropologist :\Iargaret :\lead called Co-   "fellow-travelling radicals" by conserv-
 at the 2,700-man College, decided on          lumbia's struchlre "archaic," and liberal   ative faculty and students and casti-
Thursday to allow each student to              Professor Samuel Coleman said that the      gated for "selling-out" to the Adminis-
 choose the grade of "pass" or "incom-         demand for the resignation of Drs. Tru-     tration by the radical faculty and
 plete" instead of a letter grade for the      man and Kirk would only retard needed       students. The Strike Steering Commit-
 Spring term. They urged also that "No         University reforms.                         tee ridiculed it as both "undemocratic"

SPRING, 1968                                                                                                                     75
                                                                                "I bet this guy's telling the truth. He's so
      "Could you give us the group's reaction to Dr. Kirk's                                 tel'l'ijical1y critical."
                      Sherry and cigars?"

                                                                                         Spring Scenario

 "Seymour, I'm just an anthropology
major. 'Vhat does this sign mean?"
                                                              "Honi soit qUi mal y pense, you fascist!"

                                                                                   COLU.\IBIA COLLEGE TODA Y
                        "Please relax, Grayson. The facility expects to take concerted action soon."

                                                                                                       by Stanley Wyatt '43

"What if tomorrow bring . .. yeah . .. sorrow or anything           "After the bllst let's 'lOLl and I get some pizza and catch
               . yeah . . . other than joy?"                                   'La GlIerre Eot Finie' at the Thalia."

SPRING, 1968                                                                                                                 77
  (no students) and powerless. Professor     And we did it. We brought change to        broad-thinking persons. A politE; and
 Alan Westin, who along with law pro-        Morningside. It wouldn't have happen-       dignified man, he cannot abide those
 fessor Michael Sovern '53, was selected     ed without our strike. We deserve hon-      who are rude, coarse, or vociferously
 as co-chairman of the Executive Com-        orary doctorates, and Kirk wants to         ignorant or mendacious. A dedicated
 mittee, came into particularly heavy        hang us. Isn't amnesty a fair compro-       and loyal person, he has given most of
 criticism. After Westin blasted "power-     mise between the two?" But another          his productive years to Columbia, a
 brokers" Kirk and Truman in a Wed-          student nearby said: "Yes, but what         place he loves and has worked unceas-
 nesday afternoon speech at the Sidney       about the hatred, bitterness, and dis-      ingly for, but whose special brashness,
 Hillman Foundation Awards luncheon,         b'ust you guys have also brought? What      eagerness, intense intellectuality, bold
 he was assailed by some of his col-         about your lies about the gym and           artistry, and scientific assaults he has
 leagues as a self-righteous, ambitious,     LD.A.? What about the 10 or 20 mil-         never quite understood or fully encour-
 and naive critic. Eric Bentley, Brander     lion dollars you have probably cost         aged-though he has supported them
 Matthews Professor of Dramatic Lit-         the University in the $200 million cam-     because many of the scholars he re-
 erature and a strong strike supporter,      paign? What about the admissions           spects have pushed for it. As a one-
 accused Westin the next day at a news      losses? And the disgust of some pro-         time farm boy in Ohio, he is very con-
 conference of wanting "to become           fessors who may resign to go else-          scious of being president of one of the
president" of Columbia. Another facul-       where? What about the destruction of       world's great universities in one of the
 ty colleague of Westin's said: "Westin's   Dave Truman, one of the best scholar-       world's greatest cities. The license plate
 moxie is incredible. Here's a guy who      administra tors around? You bastards        on his black Cadillac is GK-l.
 is known for his lack of interest in       ought to be locked up for years!"               President Kirk is urbane without be-
 teaching and students. His students            A constant source of discussion dur-    ing an urban lover. He is a passionate
 complain that their term papers come       ing the aftermath, as before the police     democrat, but of the Woodrow Wilson
back without a mark on them. Here's         action, was President Grayson Louis         sort rather than the Abraham Lincoln
a guy who shuns University commit-          Kirk. Not only was he vilified, as most     or Franklin Roosevelt variety. He is
tees that help govern Columbia. Here's      persons in positions of authority are       without racial or religious prejudices,
a guy whose Civil Liberties Center is       these days. (As Kenneth Keniston has        but he is, like former Columbia Presi-
 almost a scandal. Here's a guy who has     pointed out in his recent book, Young       dent Nicholas Murray Butler, not with-
demanded a non-sabbatical leave next        Radicals, many persons, especially          out a certain class consciousness. He
year, and only a one-third teaching         young people and intellectuals, have        dresses well, speaks excellent French,
load when he returns. Here's a guy who      trouble relating to authority of any kind   and has refined tastes. In recent years,
knows very little about Columbia or         these days. The noted French political      as his work load has become crushing,
the student left. And yet he comes on       writer Raymond Aron has said of the         he has tended to drive to his country
suddenly like King Solomon and Job          present moment: "Radical criticism          place on weekends to refresh himself
combined." Others, however, defended        has abandoned the attempt to rethink        and read. This practice has removed
Westin's "brilliant mind" and his "ca-      the world or change it. It is simply        him further from the informal dinner
pacity for work."                           content to condemn it.") But Kirk's         parties and bull sessions with faculty
    The Trustees, after consultation with   special weaknesses were meticulously        and students that he was already too
the Faculty's Executive Committee,          documented and bared.                       loath to give, but which are so neces-
and a five-hour meeting at the Men's            President Kirk's shortcomings have      sary to keep abreast of current senti-
Faculty Club on the campus on Wed-          three sources: personal, organizational,    ments and to keep up morale. He has
nesday evening, May 1, appointed a          cultural.                                   been bothered in recent years by an
special Committee of the Board, head-           Personally, Dr. Kirk is, and always     aching back that has put him in terrible
ed by Trustee Alan Temple '17, "to          has been, a rather shy person. His pub-     pain sometimes. A rather modest per-
study and recommend changes in the          lic appearances and encounters are sel-     son, he shuns publicity. (Columbia is
basic structure of the University."         dom eager, natural, or memorable, al-       the only major American university
    New alumni groups, such as the radi-    though he can be relaxed and charm-         without a high public relations official
cal Alumni for a New Columbia and           ing in small groups of intimate ac-         and adequate staff.) A slightly unsure
the moderate Alumni for the Preserva-       quaintances. He is unfailingly cordial,     person, he tends to waver on key de-
tion of Columbia University, sprang         but often restrained and mechanical.        cisions and finds it hard to admit errors
up. And numerous academic depart-           He has been hampered since boyhood          or inadequacies with candor, wit, and
ments gave birth to new committees          by a stutter, which is revealed when-       grace. Like a fleet admiral, he has al-
to study and reform their operations.       ever he is under heavy pressure or in       most no close friends. He is very close
    The strikers set up their own           great speed. This causes him to speak       to his wife Marion only, who, being a
"counter-university" holding "libera-       very deliberately to avoid embarrass-       rather formal, aloof, aesthetically-ori-
tion classes" with their own insb'uctors    ment or loss of articulateness, a manner    ented person, is said by some to have
on South Field or in apartments near        that adds to his impression of stiffness    had a considerable influence on his life
the campus.                                 and lack of spontaneity. Despite his        style.
   One revolutionary student said to us:    many intellectual attainments, he is not       As for organization, Dr. Kirk prefers
"Look at this place. Columbia's jump-       at ease with blazing intellectuals or       to put his faith in a small band of
ing. It's moving and thinking about         daring artists, but prefers the company     trusted colleagues. "He simply does not
new and better forms. It's beautiful!       of sound, judicious, cooly rational,        think as an organization man," said one

78                                                                                               COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
high Columbia official. rhile he can be        proposed bill to punish economically       history of culture or in contemporary
a rather effective persuader and leader,       students who engaged in disruptive or      civilization. The professors' allegiance,
he has been reluctant, despite advice          destructive acts on the campus.) But       increasingly, is to their special craft,
from some trustees, leading alumni,            he is confronted with a resurgence of      their bureaucratic tasks, and their own
and numerous professors, to build up a         Jacksonian-like populism; a rampant        intellectual, economic, and status ad-
brilliant staff around him. Columbia,          moralism; and a return to Rousseauistic    vance. Not that Dr. Kirk is a Victorian
for example, has no vice president for         naturalism, with its primacy for feeling   bluenose-he is fond of racing fast
development despite the fact that it is        rather than thinking. Discretion, man-     sports cars and likes to wear ascots and
in the midst of a $200 million cam-            ners, and refinement are now "square"      sunglasses-but he is doing ~dozart,
paign and that Dr. Kirk has spoken             and in some circles, laughable. Rock'n     James .\[adison, Robert Oppenheimer,
eloquently about the frightening finan-        roll bands replace Bach, Bartok, and       George Kennan, and Ralph Bunche,
cial problems ahead for most univer-           Thelonius Monk. Thinkers like Herbert      while a large number of his critics are
sities. Despite an agitated town-gown          Marcuse, a favorite of some young left-    doing Bob Dylan, Andrew Jackson,
urban problem (not dissimilar from             ists, even deride democratic tolerance     Norman O. Brown, Che Guevara, and
that of most other urban colleges and          as a bourgeOiS trick to disperse concen-   Stokely Carmichael. Kirk likes wit;
universities), Dr. Kirk has no experts         trated assaults on the status quo. The     many students today prefer derision.
on community relations or city planning        movies, a mass, commercial art form,          In the face of this new cultural inva-
on his top staff. His feel for a first-rate    have become the favorite art of many,      sion of the universities, President Kirk,
bureaucracy, both formal and informal,         and cultural patterns for today's young    like most other university presiden ts
that can gather facts, analyze b'ends,         often stem from films, or from advertis-    (and most academic deparbnents) has
plan and project, persuade and press a         ing and television. It is suddenl~' hard   not been aggressive about working out
variety of constituencies and media,           to get faculty to teach courses in the     new university forms that "'ould bring
and maintain quality in all areas of the
University, is not sb·ong. When he
does select staff members, he has no
efficient search-and-chase unit to spot
 and recruit the nation's best minds, nor
 does he seem especially eager to use
 young persons of talent, or colorfully
 imaginative and innovative aides. The
 results of this tvpicallv professorial-
 but non-professional-approach have
 led on occasion into administrative
 slovenliness (as in the cigarette filter
 caper), slowness (as in the tardy re-
 sponse to the Student Life Commis-
 sion's report to him), inefficiency,
 breakdown of communications, and
 lack of foresight and audaCity. Indefa-
 tigable efforts by Dr. Kirk himself, or
 such brill ian t close aides as former Vice
 President Lawrence Chamberlain or
 the present Vice President for Aca-
 demic Affairs David Truman, are no
 longer enough to run a modern uni-
     Third, there is the cultural differ-
  ence between President Kirk and num-
  erous new faculty members and most
  students. The preSident admires good
  wines and great music, Oriental art
  and deft statesmanship, the philosophy
  of Aristotle and Jefferson, and the mira-
  cles of modern engineering. He be-
  lieves in good manners and tolerance as
  a prerequisite for intellectual discourse
  and democratic pluralism. He is highly
  discreet. He often does good deeds
  anonymously. (Only a few weeks after
  he re-entered his vandalized office, he
  raced up to Albany to fight against a                       Dr. Grayson Kirk: shy, formal, cultivated, careless about staffing.

  SPRING, 1968
vigorous cross-pollination and avoid        counterpuncher." The president sel-       ida. People quipped and wisecracked.
both ossification and a swinging non-       dom has answered charges against          Classes met over beer and pretzels in
intellectualism. Worst of all, in some      Columbia or higher education, no mat-     professors' homes or on the campus
C:)lumbia persons' eyes, he has not         ter how wild or untrue.                   lawns and talked generally about
been a fighter. "If he believes in intel-      The next two weeks, from Thurs-        American li~e and learning without
lect, accuracy, and high culture, why       day, May 2 to Thursday, May 16 were       much rigor or any limits. The Grateful
hasn't he denounced the new zealots,        relatively quiet. The campus was still    Dead, a rock 'n roll group, played on
rebutted the allegations being spread       torn into factions; tables on Low Plaza   Ferris Booth Plaza for two hours one
about Columbia, and criticized the re-      manned by students urged persons to       day with their sound so amplified that
cent emphasis among the young on in-        strike or to help expel all the rebels.   ordinary conversation elsewhere on
discriminate and instant gratification?"    But a kind of academic atmosphere re-     campus was obliterated. The police
one professor said to us. Said one ath-     turned. It was not Columbia's kind of     were gradually withdrawn from the
letic coach, "Kirk has phenomenal abil-     atmosphere, but more like that of a       campus. Visitors came by the dozens:
ity to absorb punishment, but he's no       "fun" university in California or Flor-   Allen Ginsberg'48, the bushy-bearded
                                                                                      poet, told a crowd, like some hippie
                                                                                      Christ, to practice love more diligently;
After the first police bust, SDS expanded its representation and organized a Strike   and Herbert Marcuse, the Hegelian
against academic classes. It was only partially successful, and numerous students     radical philosopher, said that he
soon broke with SDS because of tv hat they claimed was the group's preoccupation      thought it was foolish to begin the at-
with revolution and violence and not educational reforms.                             tack on capitalist restrictions and
                                                                                      policies by destroying the major uni-
                                                                                      versities, which are the precious oases
                                                                                      of criticism and free thought in our
                                                                                      capitalist society.
                                                                                         As for SDS and the Strike Com-
                                                                                      mittee, things did not go altogether
                                                                                      smoothly. A portion of the Strike Com-
                                                                                      mittee wanted to continue working for
                                                                                      a new attack on Columbia, for a soci-
                                                                                      etal revolution. But other shldent radi-
                                                                                      cals wanted the emphasis to shift to
                                                                                      university reform. SDS leaders did not
                                                                                      neglect university change. For exam-
                                                                                      ple, a flyer of theirs on May 2 urged,
                                                                                      among other things: (1) that Colum-
                                                                                      bia's budget be public and decided bv
                                                                                      students, faculty, and Harlem, (2) th'e
                                                                                      end of all military projects and grants,
                                                                                      (3) abolition of the NROTC, (4) free
                                                                                      classes and use of the library, (5) free
                                                                                      contraceptive information, and (6) a
                                                                                      course on student rebellions for credit.
                                                                                      But, for the most part, SDS chiefs pre-
                                                                                      ferred to change the whole "system"
                                                                                      and the style of learning. To this end,
                                                                                      they moved into a program of agitation
                                                                                      of the residential community around
                                                                                      the UniversitJ, claiming that Colum-
                                                                                      bia's expansion had been ruthless and
                                                                                      racist and would get brutally worse.
                                                                                         The move into community agitation
                                                                                      was in part an attempt to restock the
                                                                                      dropouts among the student left. Dur-
                                                                                      ing the hvo weeks, the Sh'ike leaders
                                                                                      repeatedly called for student pickets in
                                                                                      front of each campus building, only to
                                                                                      meet surprising apathy, resentment,
                                                                                      and disinterest. Some days only a few
                                                                                      buildings had placard carriers in front,
                                                                                      and often they numbered a paltry four
                                                                                      or six persons. The Strike was failing.

80                                                                                             COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
 Some of the Strike followers formed
 "alumni associations" of the "com-
 munes" in Math, Fayerweather, and
 Low to bolster morale, and for two
 days the Math commune alumni
 camped in a colorful tent, replete with
 red flags, in front of the Mathematics
    SDS ran an elaborate array of "liber-
ation classes," some of which were
attended by several dozen students.
Among the liberated classes were: Sex-
ual Intercourse as a Political and Hu-
man Reality, Power Structure Re-
search, Walt Whitman and Bob
Dylan: the Semi-Divine in America,
Imperialism and National Liberation
Movements, Motorcycle Mechanics,
The Role of Radical Publications, and
Moderately Liberated Talmud. One
dance class was in Arabic Belly Danc-
ing, with the instructions, "Dress to
move freely."
    One thing that gave some of the
conservatives a chuckle was the circula-
tion by the student radicals of a "Valu-    During the SDS-led strike in early May, the radical students ran "liberation classes"
able Property List," a list of cameras,     in such sub;ects as Po leer Structure Research, Imperialism and National Liberation
radios, guitars, sleeping bags, tape re-    ~1ovements, and even Motorcycle Mechanics and Arabic Belly Dancing.
corders, and books lost by the white
revolutionaries during their sit-ins and
the police action. Since one of the         though "various policemen apparently        writing to his 70-man constituency:
cries of the SDS had been "people not       committed acts of needless violence,"       "As a result of my experiences, on the
property," and since numerous leftists      and that "the possibility of police bru-    SCC, I have come to believe that they
had ridiculed the value of private prop-    tality was created in the first instance    are devoted to the complete destruction
erty, including university buildings and    not by Columbia, but by unyielding          of Columbia University. They have
equipment, as a "bourgeois hang-up,"        lawless intruders into the University's     now seized upon a plan for increased
the recovery hunt by the radicals for       structures"; and that "some advocates       levels of confrontation which may very
their middle-class possessions seemed       of 'student power' apparently seek the      well lead to further violence on cam-
deliciously contradictory.                  role of sole decider rather than ad-        pus. For this reason my position on the
    As time passed, the student revolu-     viser or even participant."                 SCC is now untenable." Two others
tionaries grew somewhat desperate. A           Mark Rudd, on May 9, told some           reSigned shortly after. Then, on 'Wed-
New York Times poll of citizens in the      listeners, "I have to keep holding these    nesday, Ma.v 15, after a vicious un-
greater New York area revealed that         liberals back. They think there can be      authorized radical statement against
55 per cent of the people blamed the        university reform without a revolution      the Faculty's Executive Committee
Columbia upheaval primarily on the          first to overthrow the corrupt, manipu-      ("they are a political force ... [and]
students, and a high 83 per cent felt       lative societv we live in. Our main         there's only 12 of them, which puts
that the University was correct in          work is to stage confrontations that will   them one step down from the jocks")
bringing in the police to remove the        educate people and radicalize them-         and a walkout by the rebel leaders
students from the occupied buildings.       to prepare them for that revolution."       from the Fact-Finding Commission,
Numerous national figures chasti~~d             Many members of the Strike Co-          headed by Harvard Law Professor
the leftists through the press. Espe-       ordinating Committee did not agree          Archibald Cox, 20 of the remaining
cially wounding was a statement by          with Rudd, Papert, and Lewis Cole, a        members broke all relations with the
 nearly the entire faculty of Columbia's    tall College senior whose relentless en-    Strike Co-ordinating Committee and
 prestigious Law School. The declara-       ergy and revolutionary fervor had           formed their own unit, Students for a
 tion said the radical seizures were "an    brought him into the forefront of the       Restructured Universitv. Said John
 effort to impose opinions by force";       Strike's leadership. Several were as-       Thoms, a Swarthmore' graduate and
 that "ransacking" the President's files    tounded to learn that the rebel leaders     Ph.D. candidate in English, "We still
 was not only a violation of the Fourth     were not idealistic educational reform-     support the strike and the demand for
 Amendment but also a "violation of         ers but tough tacticians bent on up-        amnesty, but we cannot agree with
 basic decency"; that the police action     heavals. First, one student, Joseph         their tactics, and not even some of
 was necessary and reasonable, even         Sussman '68E, resigned on May 9,            their aims." SCC wanted another vio-

SPRING, 1968                                                                                                                  81
 lent confrontation to keep pre-revolu-        Catholic with a strong devotion to the    "the people" of Morningside Heights,
 tionary education going; SRU wanted           downtrodden, read a statement from        only 75 students showed up. It was sup-
 university reform and student power.          a just-formed "community group"           posed to be part of what Rudd hoped
 Also, for all their talk of "participatory    called the Community Action Com-          would be a giant city-wide series of
 democracy," the SDS members on the           mittee. The statement, obViously writ-     ra1lies.
 SCC were rigid, unyielding, dictatorial.      ten by SDS members and not by                The day before the May 17 sit-in at
According to graduate student Thoms,           Morningside residents, demanded the       618 West 114th Street, on Thursday,
"Some of us have also felt uneasy with         end of all expansion by Columbia and      May 16, the dean of Columbia College
much of the rhetoric emanating from            a return of all University-purchased      sent registered letters to five of the
Strike Central, with its categorized rig-     buildings to "the people." Then, about     SDS leaders who had been diSCiplined
or, its moral blacks and whites, its          400 young persons, led by Colash, Mark     earlier for the Low Library indoor
tvpical reliance upon generalizations.        Rudd, and Paul Rockwell, solemnly          demonstration: Mark Rudd, Nick Freu-
This kind of diction, with its startling      marched to the house on 114th Street       denberg, Ted Cold, Ed Hyman, and
catchwords-racist imperialism, capital-        to join some 40 "community people"        Morris Crossner. They were asked to
ist corporate structure-is, we believe,       in the building. "\t\le are taking back    appear at the Dean's Office by 5:00
unsuited to the discourse of a univer-        one of the buildings Columbia has          p.m. on Tuesday, May 21, to answer
sitv."                                        taken from us," a statement said.          charges that they had participated in
    The resignations were prompted too           The whole thing was rather sad.         illegal acts or "be suspended from the
by the swift formation of reformist           There were relatively few residents        University." Because graduation was
committees, such as the College's Joint       from the Morningside community in          approaching, similar letters were also
Student-Faculty Commission to look            Sight anywhere, and the protest had        sent the next morning to all College
into College improvements, and the            an embarrassingly phony air. It wasn't     seniors who had been clearly identified
steady proposals and work of the Facul-       even a Columbia student protest; about     as participants, numbering 30.
ty's Executive Committee.                     half of the 400 young people came             This action was taken three days
    While the Strike Co-ordinating Com-       from such places as the East Village       after the new tripartite student-faculty-
mittee was falling apart, the SDS revo-       and City College, suburban high            administration Joint Commission on
lutionaries were preparing a dramatic         schools and Sarah Lawrence. One of         DiSCiplinary Affairs, which had grovvn
move that they hoped would mobilize           the tenants in the building protested      out of the Calanter-Hovde-Trilling
the residents on Morningside Heights          against the protest that was supposed      Committee, had announced its final
against Columbia, and possibly re-agi-        to be on his behalf.                       recommendations, following some lag-
tate Columbia students as well. They             For seven hours the demonstrators       ging that occurred because the com-
decided to occupy a 70-year-old, six-         sat on the window ledges and on the        mittee misunderstood the legal nature
story house that Columbia had pur-            sidewalk and street in front of the        of criminal charges and President Kirk
chased three years earlier in order to        building, while a large black flag, the    resolutely refused to surrender the ul-
build a new Craduate School of Social         flag of anarchy, hung from a first-floor   timate disciplinary power at the Uni-
Work on the site. Located at 618              balcony. At 4:00 a.m. 10 police vans       versity to the new committee. The
West 114th Street, between Broadway           pulled up on Broadway and unloaded         Joint Commission proposed: that each
and Riverside Drive, the house was            300 helmeted policemen. Led by As-         participant in the rebellion be put on
half vacant, half occupied still with         sistant Chief Inspector Eldridge           disciplinarv probation for a veal', until
five tenants.                                 vVaithe, who directed the clearing of      June, 1969 (those ah'ead~l in discipli-
    For over a decade, the University         Hamilton Hall, the police urged aU         narv trouble were to have stiffer penal-
had been buying buildings on Morning-         demonstrators to clear the block or be     ties); that the dean of each School or
side Heights in order to meet growing         subject to arrest. The protestors didn't   Faculty carr~r out the investigation
needs, just as most other leading urban       taunt the cops excessively or strike at    and discipline of his students as has
universities have been doing. Origi-          them at all, and the police were aston-    been customary; that each demon-
nally, many of the tenants were evicted       ishingly gentle, asking people to re-      strator have the right to appeal to the
rather coldly. But a new policy begun         move their eyeglasses and jewelry in       Joint Commission if he thinks the treat-
under Vice President Chamberlain sev-         case of an accident. About three-quar-     ment by his dean was unjust; that the
eral years ago began relocating the ten-      ters of the protestors were herded down    application of all University penalties
ants, frequently with a sizeable stipend.     to Riverside Drive; the rest walked into   be held back until after action in the
The tenants relocated have been both          the police buses of their own accord,
white and Negro, upper middle class           many gaily making V-Signs with their
and poor. In one or two buildings,            fingers. "Who's next? Anyone else
filled with persons with serious prob-        want to be arrested?" asked Inspector
lems, Columbia has even conducted             VVaithe. Mark Rudd, who was not ar-        On Friday night, May 17, SDS and some
expensive programs of rehabilitation.                                                    allies occu.pied a local apartment house
                                              rested during the police bust earlier,
                                                                                         in an attempt to get "the people" aroused
    At 8:00 p.m. on Friday, May 17,           entered a van voluntarily this time. Of
                                                                                         against Columbia. Here, Mark Rudd ad·
there was a brief rally at the Sundial        the 117 persons who sought arrest, only    dresses the protestOTs arou.nd midnight,
on campus, at which SDS member                56, or 48 per cent, were Columbia stu-     under an anarchist's black fiag. The police
Michael Colash, a soft-spoken engi-           dents. The next day, at a Saturday         removed the students several hours later,
neering student and a renegade Roman          noon rally on the Columbia campus for      without incident.

82                                                                                                COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
 courts had been decided; that if the        ing "chicken" and not sufficiently dedi-    rioting, which had begun on Saturday,
 President disagreed with any of the         cat(d to a social revolution. Rudd and     May 11. Perhaps the nationwide
Joint Commission's appellate decisions,      the other SDS leaders simply decided        French student strike, which several
a distinguished Columbia alumnus be          not to abide by the majority decision.      SDS leaders claim was inspired in part
called in to arbitrate; and that all stu-    "It's ridiculous to see the deans," said    by the Columbia up:-ising, would be
dents who failed to appear before their      Rudd. "Anyway they'll throw us out         emulated in America if dedicated lead-
deans would be suspended from the            of th3 College whether we go or not."      ership could be kept assembled.
University. It was with these recom-         Rudd and the other SDS leaders told            That Tuesday, 28 of the 30 seniors
mendations in hand that the letters          Associate Dean for Student Affairs         who were sent letters appeared in Dean
were sent out.                               Alexander Platt in person that they        Platt's office in Hamilton Hall. Thir-
   The letters precipitated anguished        would not appear, then had their law-      teen of them admitted their part in the
discussion within the Strike Co-ordi-        yers send a telegram to that effect on     demonstration, were put on disciplinary
nating Committee. Should the striking        the afternoon of Tuesday, May 21, a        probation for the remaining two weeks
students visit their deans or not? If        few hours before the 5:00 p.m. dead-       of the semester, and received their
they did, it would mean abandoning           line.                                      diplomas at graduation. Most of the 14
the demand for amnesty, recognizing             Rudd had become more Leninist by        others refused to answer Dean Platt's
the "legitimacy" of what they regarded       May 21. The "democratic" aspect of         inquiries; others denied any part in the
as a totally discredited administration,     the revolution had nearly disappeared.     rebellion. Their cases were referred to
and damaging the force of "the move-         On Monday, May 20, he and several          the Joint DiSCiplinary Commission. The
ment." If they did not visit the deans,      of his colleagues were forcibly evicted    two seniors who did not appear were
it would mean suspension, defiance of        from the Brooklyn College campus by        Juan Gonzalez and another stalwart.
a new, powerful disciplinary committee       moderate students when they tried to       Of course, the four other SDS leaders
with strong student participation, and       aid a tiny group of 38 leftists who had    did not appear either. (Senior Ted
probably loss of support among numer-        seized the Registrar's Office there. At    Gold apparently never received his let-
ous student sympathizers. A vote was         Columbia his active support was falling    ter from the dean.)
taken, and a large majority decided to       away too (though student sympathy              SDS held a Sundial rally at 4:00
visit the deans, as the Joint DiSciplinary   for the rebels was still widespread). He   p.m. on that Tuesday, May 21. Dean
Commission recommended.                      was forced to impose a strong minority     Platt ran out to the Sundial to try to
   However, Rudd, senior Juan Gon-           control to revive the dying flames of      meet with the four student rebels on       c
zalez, and a few others dissented from       the Columbia revolution. One thing         South Field to avoid the automatic         0.
the decision, accusing the others of be-     gave him hope: the French student          suspension that would have to be in-       c
                                                                                        voked in less than an hour. They re-       ;;;
                                                                                        fused to meet with him. Their lawyers
                                                                                        instead came to Dean Platt's office
                                                                                        around 5:00 p.m., but Dean Platt said
                                                                                        that the meeting was not a trial but
                                                                                        rather an in-house College inquiry and
                                                                                        hearing which required appearances
                                                                                        by the students themselves. At 5:30
                                                                                        or so, it was announced that the four
                                                                                        leaders, because they refused to ac-
                                                                                        knowledge the authority of the Col-
                                                                                        lege's officers or the University's
                                                                                        disciplinary commission, were suspend-
                                                                                        ed. Said one College official, "Any
                                                                                        person who refuses to abide by the
                                                                                        accepted and properly devised rules of
                                                                                        a community and prefers instead to do
                                                                                        only what he himself feels is right, can
                                                                                        no longer remain a member of that
                                                                                        community." A member of the
                                                                                        Majority Coalition agreed. "Who does
                                                                                        Rudd think he is, some kind of Roman
                                                                                        god, above all mortal rules?"
                                                                                           At the Sundial, SDS orators did not
                                                                                    ] tell anyone about their being outvoted
                                                                                    ~ in their own ranks on the matter of
                                                                                     >- seeing the deans.   They only told the
                                                                                    .3 crowd of some 200 listeners and 300
Acting Dean Coleman told the SDS-led strikers, after they seized Hamilton Hall again spectators that Kirk was out to "cut
on Tuesday, May 21, to leave the bUilding right away 01' be subject to suspension.      the head off the movement" by arbi-

84                                                                                              COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
Speaker in Hamilton Hall lobby w'ging his fellow protestors to stick with the tiny group of SDS leaders who refused to accept the
majority decision of their St'rike Coordinating Committee. The student with the dark shirt and jacket and the cigarette, stand-
ing in the center, is Tony Papert, poweljul rebel leader.

trarily, summarily, and illegally expel-    fight to end the Vietnam war, to stop       tive but to call the police. Any student
ling the leaders without so much as a       racism, to get total amnesty. vVe have      arrested will be subject to immediate
hearing. No one from the Dean's             become leaders of a young people's          suspension for an indefinite period."
Office or Low Library was on haml           movement around the whole nation,           There were more boos, and shouts of
to explain the actual situation and         around the world. vVe will continue         "Drop dead," "Bullshit," and "Up
prevent new student indignation from        to fight. We will win!"                     Against the Wall." An hour later the
rising against what sounded like a             At 7:20 p.m. Dean Harry Coleman          police began to assemble near the
brutal act.                                 appeared with a bullhorn in front of        campus once more.
   The SDS leaders were thus able           Hamilton Hall. He had discussed the            Despite the appearance of surly
to lead about 300 persons into Hamil-       new seizure of Hamilton with Presi-         hardness, however, the students were
ton Hall after the rally in order to        dent Kirk and Associate Dean Platt,         shaken. There was noisy discussion
re-capture Hamilton Hall. Of the 300        and they had decided to stop the            among those sitting in and consider-
persons, only half were Columbia            re-occupation quickly. He told the          able alarm. The leftists were encour-
students. The rest were collaborative       sitters-in, who had none of the jovial      aged and harangued continuously by
romantics, reformers, and revolution-       defiance of the sitters-in on April 23,     Tony Papert, Rudd, Gonzalez, and
aries from all over the New York area,      they they were acting "illegally and        others, but numerous demonstrators
especially the anarchist East Village.      against the rights of others" and said,     were not persuaded. Should they risk
 (Most of the "liberal reformers" had       "You are hereby directed to clear this      their academic careers to re-kindle
dropped out by this time.) Only two         lobby and leave the building." He was       Widespread student strikes and social
 or three young faculty members were        met with boos and profanit~!. After         upheaval? The leaders tried to reas-
 among them. Very soon a large por-         10 minutes, seeing that almost no stu-      sure them with comments like, "If we
 trait of Mao Tse-tung went up over         dents were leaving, Dean Coleman re-        stick together the University would
 Dean Coleman's door. One speaker           turned and announced: "Inasmuch as          never throw us all out. In unity we
 with a bullhorn said, directly in front    you have ignored my directive, as           have power." "Don't worry about bail
 of the poster, "'0le must continue our     dean of this College I have no alterna-     money. That will be taken care of."

SPRING, 1968                                                                                                                   85
"We have lots of help coming. Let's           phony, with its choral plea for all men       The announcement met with applause,
hang on." But some students began             to be brothers, to the crowd. After           boos, and puzzlement from the spec-
 to depart sheepishly. At 10: 10 p.m. a       SDS leaders lost the vote inside Ham-         tators.
 vote was taken to decide whether to          ilton, leader Ted Gold appeared on a             To almost no one's knowledge, the
leave the building. By a slim majority,       second-Boor balcony to request that           move was part of a sensational, auda-
 the protestors voted to end the si t-in      more students join the protestors in-         cious, last-ditch tactic. The tactic was
and leave. Again, the SDS leadership          side Hamilton. He was met with a              to turn the whole campus into a bar-
refused to accept the democratic              barrage of eggs, apples, and oranges          ricaded quarter, thus compelling every
majority decision and         exhorted,       from the crowd outside. By midnight           student and faculty member to be 1l11-
cajoled, and demanded that the stu-           the mood was ugly. Hundreds of stu-           prisoned on campus and attacked by
dents and outsiders remain. Nearly 50         dents became impatient with what              the cops. It was hoped that the great
left, but the others stayed.                  they called "University stalling" and         majority of Columbia people would
    Outside Hamilton, a throng of             wanted to remove the protestors               thus be "radicalized," and revolution-
nearly 1,000 students had gathered,           themselves. Said one College junior,          ary sentiment restored. Students who
mostly angry about the new seizure.           "The Administration and Faculty will          left Hamilton quickly tore up fences,
 (About 200 students sympathetic to           probably allow another week of take-          stole benches, ripped down gates,
 the seizure stood directly in front of       overs." A nasty fist fight broke out          seized tables and chairs, and brought
the doors of Hamilton to prevent              between rightist and leftist students         them to the Broadway and Amster-
vigilan te removal of the protestors.)        in front of the Hamilton doors at             dam gates-the only two places of
Chants broke out: "T P F! T P F!"             12: 20 a.m.; it was soon quelled by the       entry and exit to the campus at the
 (Tactical Police Force) and "SDS             College deans and moderate students.          time. Two 15-foot-high barricades
  1ust Go!" A huge red banner was                Suddenly at 12:45 a.m. a student           were erected by the revolutionaries
hung from a window in Hartley Hall            appeared outside Hamilton with a              by 1:30 a.m. No one on campus had
next to Hamilton saying "STOP SDS."           bullhorn and announced that "one-             any way of leaving the campus.
One resident in Hartley Hall, turned          half of us are staying in Hamilton in            At 2:15 a.m. Dean Coleman ap-
up his recording machine full force           solidarity with the four who have been        peared in front of Hamilton and asked
and blared Beethoven's Ninth Sym-             suspended; the other half are leaving."       the crowd of 1,000 onlookers to dis-

A student peers through the Broadu;ay gate barricade built by rer;o!lItiollaries ill the early morning !lOlirs of 'Vedllesday, ),[ay 22.
That night youllg radicals, mallY of them from outside Columbia,           set fires, broke will do lCS, alld struck cars alld police.
 perse. Some did, but most did not.         to restore order. He quickly ordered         Hartley and Livingston Halls to seize
 Ten minutes later 300 helmeted po-         a statement printed and distributed to       them or strike them. Plainclothesmen
 licemen broke through the heavy bar-       "clear the campus of all persons." He        in front of Furnald Hall pursued some
 ricades in the Hamilton basement and       wrote, "Dormitory residents are to           students as high as the fourth Boor
 poured out of the underground tunnel       remain in their rooms. All other per-        to administer clubbings of revenge. By
 to arrest the 100 or so studen ts left     sons, including dormitorv residents not      5:30 a.m. the campus was clear of
 in the building. The students surpris-     in their rooms, must leave the campus        marauders.
 ingly offered no resistance, so the        immediately via the nearest campus               Injuries, treated at St. Luke's Hos-
 police escorted them peacefully out        gate." The President read words of           pital, were numerous, though fortu-
 through the tunnels.                       similar effect over the campus radio         nately not very serious: 38 students
    Just as the spectators outside in       station WKCR at 4:05 a.m. Dean               (mostly with scalp lacerations), 9 non-
 Van Am quadrangle saw the police           Platt rushed out to the Sundial with         students, and 17 policemen. The police
 through the building's windows racing      a bullhorn and broadcast to the sev-         made 171 arrests, one-third of them
 up Hamilton's stairs, they spied gray-     eral hundred revolutionaries and the         non-Columbia people. Thirty-five were
 white smoke coming out of a sixth-         500 or so spectators that they should        were College students.
 Boor window.        "Fire!" numerous       go to their rooms or leave the campus.            As with the previous police bust,
 persons shouted. Within 10 minutes             At 4:30 the police, directed per-        SDS leaders moved quickly to capital-
 small clouds of smoke were puffing out     sonally by Chief Inspector Sanford           ize on the police-student violence. At
 of the sixth floor, and New York's         Garelik, began to try to break through       9:30 a.m., only five hours after the
 firemen had to be called to extinguish     the barricades. Some students, anxious       police raid, they held a press confer-
 the blaze at the west end of the           to leave the campus and frightened,          ence. Juan Gonzalez, flanked by Lew-
 sixth floor. That was only the begin-      helped remove the debris. But dozens         is Cole, Jonathan Shils, and Joshua
 ning. Small para-military units of the     of leftists kept piling things back al-      DeWind, a graduate student, made a
 rebels, adopting "mobile tactics," now     most as fast as the police removed           statement denouncing Columbia's ad-
 began a series of assaults and inci-        them. Some threw chairs, bottles, and       ministratioJ'l once again for their
 dents. One young leftist was over-         bricks at the police. Finally, the           "academic reprisals." He claimed "un-
 heard saying to his forces, "Let's go,     police dismantled the tangled barri-          told numbers" had been injured and
 man. We've got to strike like lightning,   cades. Nearly a hundred leftists locked       that "over 5,000" students had furi-
 all over this University. We've got to      arms inside the Amsterdam gate, but          ously battled against the shameful
 paralyze this place. It's got to be ours    the police moved in swiftly in a             presence of the police on campus.
 from now on!"                               wedge, and the hundred Bed. Inspec-          Said Gonzalez, using his media time
    Several students piled up furniture      tor Garelik announced over \VKCR, at         skillfully, "We call for a citv-wide
'and set fires in two places on the fifth    4:45, that anyone who did not leave         demonstration at 116th Street and Am-
 floor of Fayerweather Hall, causing a       the campus in 10 minutes would be            sterdam at 6:00 tonight, and we ask
 considerable blaze. Another group           arrested. At least six of his aides also     students at all other universities to
 was stopped at the door of Schermer-        made the same announcement with              join us in protest."
 horn, with cans of gasoline in their        loudspeakers around the campus.                  The press this time were tough.
 hands. Other students pried up the          About half of the students went to           "What do you want to accomplish?"
 red oblong bricks and the black as-         their rooms or ran off the campus.           Gonzalez: "To demonsh'ate that every-
 phalt hexagonal bricks from the walks       But nearly 300 others did not. They          one is on our side except the Admin-
 on campus and threw them through            shouted "Cops Must Go!" and ob-              istration." "Isn't your student violence
 dozens of windows on campus, espe-          scenities, taunted the police as "Fas-       as great as the police violence?" Gon-
 ciallv Low Librarv. Numerous bricks         cist pigs," and in some cases struck,        zalez: "We are prepared to do battle,
 wer~ hurled at po'licemen just outside       tackled, or threw things at the police      yes, because Columbia's administra-
 the two main gates and several cops         defiantly. At 5:00 a.m. over 100              tion is totally illegitimate." "Are you
 suffered concussions, serious bruises,      helmeted policemen, swinging night-           trying to spread this revolt to other
 and bloodv lacerations. The front wind-     sticks, rushed the leftist students and      areas?" Gonzalez: "Our revolt defin-
  shields ot'three parked police vehicles     their supporters. They were joined by        itely has outside implications." Im-
 were smashed. A tree, potted in a round      50 plainclothesmen with rubber               mediately after, SDS announced the
  concrete container, was dragged 20         blackjacks. They attempted to drive           formation of a "Summer Liberation
  yards across the Engineering School         the students up into their dormitory         School," which would begin with one
  terrace by several rebels and dropped      rooms. Many of the police were clearly        course that Wednesday morning, May
  40 feet below on a parked police bus.       fmious at the abuse and violence that        22, on the Ferris Booth patio. The
     President Kirk, meeting in Vice          the leftist studen ts had inflicted upon     Byer said, "Its purpose is to analyze
  President Truman's office with top          them, and chased students vigorously,        the rebellion and develop strategy for
  aides, several senior faculty, lawyers,     clubbing them repeatedly. A few              the summer and next year, with a view
  and Columbia College deans Coleman,         policemen even drew guns on small            to long-term revolutionary programs."
  Colahan, and Platt, decided at 3:45         mobs of students in a fiercely violent       The instructors were Tony Papert,
  that the revolutionaries, many of them      mood. Some police, especially numer-         ~'lark Rudd, and Juan Gonzalez.
  non-students, were running amuck            ous plainclothesmen, chased rebel stu-          This time, however, there was not
  and that the campus had to be cleared       dents into the ground floor lobbies of       the massive sympathy for the student

 SPRIl\G, 1968                                                                                                                 87
rebels that there had been after the      students saw that the protests were       go that far." But another rebel blithely
first police action. For one thing, the   transparently imposed and not indi-       blamed the fires on the police. "I bet
re-occupation was plainly a tiny          genous, and that they were being          a plainclothesman started those blazes
minority move, unlike the first demon-    pulled off increasingly with the aid of   to help cook our skins."
stration. Secondly, many were be-         non-academic outsiders.                       Examination of the Hamilton fire
coming convinced that SDS was not            But most determinative of all were     the next morning showed that some-
interested in academic reforms but in     the fires of the previous night. The      one had singled out the papers and
a national strike or at least a local     burnings shocked even some of the         files of Associate Professor Orest Ra-
revolution, and was merely using          student guerillas. One told us, "I        num for burning. Two years of re-
Columbia University. Thirdly, more        didn't know some of the guys would        search notes, much of his files and

88                                                                                           COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
                                                                                     Police on campus at sunrise the morning
                                                                                     after the second "bust." Some students
                                                                                     burned faculty 'research notes. New
                                                                                     yo,k's police chased and clubbed stu-
                                                                                     dents back into their dormitory rooms.

                                                                                       That Wednesday afternoon Presi-
                                                                                     dent Kirk held a press conference at
                                                                                     3:30 p.m. He said:
                                                                                          In case there remains a doubt in anv-
                                                                                       one's mind about the motivation behi~d
                                                                                       last night's actions, the Strike Commit-
                                                                                       tee's statement this morning clearly
                                                                                       demonsb'ates that theirs is a political
                                                                                       action-one that goes far beyond their
                                                                                       grievances with the University. \Vhen
                                                                                       they called for city-wide support, and
                                                                                       when they asked for risings on other
                                                                                       university campuses throughout thc
                                                                                       country, they showed the true nature
                                                                                       of their objectives. . . . All who are
                                                                                       genuinely concerned about academic
                                                                                       freedom, and the rights of students to
                                                                                       learn and of professors to teach, must
                                                                                       now see that the University is com-
                                                                                       pelled to use all measurcs necessary to
                                                                                       restore peace in the face of continuing
                                                                                       and expanding violence.
                                                                                     Shortly after, at 5:00, the Faculty's
                                                                                   Executive Committee also held a
                                                                                   press conference because as Professor
                                                                                   Michael Sovern put it, "We have a
                                                                                   sense of outrage, one that is widely
                                                                                   shared among our colleagues."
                                                                                         We, the Executive Committee of the
                                                                                     Faculty, regard the actions of the
                                                                                     students who seized and barricaded
                                                                                     Hamilton Hall on May 21 as destructive
                                                                                     of all efforts to create a climate of
                                                                                     mutual discourse, due process, and rea-
                                                                                     soned disagreement. In effect, the stu-
                                                                                     dents who participated in the incidents
                                                                                     of May 21 have said that whenever they
                                                                                     do not agree with an administrative
                                                                                     measure, they will seize a building or
                                                                                     resort to some other form of violence.
                                                                                         We are grieved that the action of the
                                                                                     police subsequent to the evacuation of
                                                                                      Hamilton Hall led to the injury of a
                                                                                      num ber of students. Our grief cannot,
                                                                                      however, blind us to certain facts. The
                                                                                      relatively calm evacuation of Hamilton
                                                                                      Hall soon gave way to individual and
                                                                                      group acts of violence. Bands of stu-
                                                                                      dents behaved in an extreme and un-
                                                                                      justifiable fashion. They deliberately
some of his library, and numerous          dignation about it, even superseded        broke into the office of a member of the
doctoral dissertations and student         the horror of new student injuries from    faculty, and removed and destroyed his
                                           police clubbings. All morning long,        papers, which included the irreplace-
essavs were sYstematicallv burned.                                                    able notes on two years of original re-
(RaI~um had be~n one of the key per-       faculty members came to visit Profes-      search. They vandalized buildings, go-
sons who tried to effect a compromise      sor Ranum's office in sympathy and          ing so far as to set fires in several of
solution earlier.) The discovery of this   disbelief. In Fa~'erweather, govern-       them, endangering the lives of mem-
                                           ment prufessor Lewis Edinger had           bers of the community.
piece of academic arson stunned many
                                                                                         \Vhat makes the students' conduct
students and alumni, but it roused the     some of his papers burned too. Much         the more intolerable is that it was in
faculty as no other SDS illegality had.    of the north end of the fifth Boor of      response to actions of Dean Platt that
  ews of that action, and furiolls in-     Fayerweather was black and charred.         were we!! within the guidelines estab-

SPRING, 1968                                                                                                                 89
                                   Is Fanaticism in the Saddle?
(Tile following are excerpts from a speech by philosophy professor Sidney Hook at the N.Y.U. Cilib on May 4, 1968.)

    If thc university is conceived as an agency of action to      in the country in which dissent and criticism of official
 transform society in behalf of a cause, no matter how ex-        views, of b'adition, of the conventional wisdom in all
 altcd, it loses its relative autonomy, imperils both its in-    fields, is freer and more prevalent than in the university.
 dependence and objectivity, and subjects itself to retali-      The very freedom of dissent that students today enjoy in
atory curbs and controls on the part of society on whose         our universities is in large measure a consequence of the
support and largesse it ultimately depends.                      spi.rit of experiment, openness to new ideas, absence of
    This is precisely the conception of a university which       conformity and readiness to undertake new initiati\'es
is basic to the whole strategy and tactics of the so-called      found among them.. "
Students for a Democratic Society. I say "so-called" be-              Let us not delude ourselves. Even when these mili-
cause thcir actions show that they are no more believers          tant students fail to achieve thcir ultimate purpose, they
in democracy than the leaders of the so-called Students          succeed in demoralizing the university by deliberately
Non- Violent Co-ordinating Committee are believers in            forcing a confrontation upon the academic community
non-violence. And indeed the leaders of the SDS make             which it is not prepared to face and which is fearful of
no boncs about that fact. In manifesto after manifesto           accepting its costs. In forcing the hand of the academic
they have declared that they want to use the university          community to mcet force ultimately with force, the cita-
as an instrument of revolution. To do so, they must de-          del of reason becomes a battlefield. The students glory in
stroy the university as it exists today.                         it, but the faint of heart among their teachers turn on
   I wish I had time to list some of the clever strategems       their own administrative leaders. These militants succeed
they have devised to focus their opposition. On every            in sowing distrust among shldents who do not see through
campus there are always some grievances. Instead of              their strategy. They also succeed in diViding the faculties.
seeking peacefully to resolve them through existing chan-        There is always a small group-a strange mixture of pur-
nels of consultation and deliberation, the SDS seeks to in-      ists and opportunists desi.rous of ingratiating themselves
flame them. \~lhere grievances don't exist, they can be          with shldents-who will never condemn the violence of
created. In one piece of advice to chapter members, they         shldents but only the violence required to stop it. These
wcre urged to sign up for certain courses in large num-          students succeed, even when they fail, in embittering re-
bers, and then denounce the University for its large             lations between the administration and some sections of
classes!                                                         the faculty. They succeed, even when they fail, in an-
   Freedom of dissent, speech, protest is never the real         tagonizing the larger community of which the university
issue. They are, of course, always legitimate. But the           is a part, and in arousing a vigilante spirit that demands
tactic of the SDS is to give dissent the immediate form          wholesale measures of repression and punishment that
of violent action. The measures necessarily adopted to           educators cannot properly accept. ...
counteract this lawless action then become the main issue,           I do not recall any other period in the last fifty years
as if the original provocation hadn't occurred. l\llario Savio   when intellectuals themselves have been so intolerant of
admitted after the Berkeley affair that the issue of "free       each other, when differences over complex issues have
speech" was a "pretext"-the word was his-to arouse the           been the occasion for denunciation rather than debate
students against the existing role of the university in          and analYSiS, when the use of violence-in the right
society. One of the Icadcrs of the SDS at Columbia is re·        cause, of coursel-is taken for granted, when dissent is
ported to have said: "As much as we would like to, we            not distinguished from civil disobedience, and civil dis-
are not strong enough as yet to destroy the United States.       obedience makes common cause with resistance, and
But we are strong enough to destroy Columbia!" He is             readiness for insurrection. A few short years ago, anti-
wrong about this, too-the only action that would destroy         intellectualism was an epithet of derogation. Today it is
Columbia would be faculty support of the students!-but           an expression of revolutionary virility.
his intent is clear.                                                  In the 50's I wrote an essay on "The Ethics of Contro-
   Actually, the only thing these groups, loosely associ-        versy" trying to suggest guidelines for controversy among
ated with the New Left, are clear about is what they             principled democrats no matter how widely they differed
want to destroy, not what they would put in its stead. In        on substantive issues. Today I would be talking into the
a debate with Gore Vidal, Tom Hayden, one of the New             wind for all the attention it would get. Fanaticism seems
Left leaders, was pOintedly asked what his revolutionary         to be in the saddle. That it is a fanaticism of conscience,
program was. He replied: "We haven't any. First we will          of self-proclaimed virtue, doesn't make it less dangerous.
make the revolution, and then we will find out what for."            This past year has presented the spectacle of militant
This is truly the politics of absurdity.                         minorities in our colleges from one end of the country
   The usual response present-day academic rebels make           to another, preventing or trying to prevent representa-
to this criticism is that the University today is nothing         tives of positions they disapprove of, from speaking to
but an instrument to preserve the status-quo, and there-          their fellow-students wishing to listen to them. The spec-
fore faithless to the ideals of a community of scholars.          tacle shows that we have failed to make our shldents
Even if this charge were true, even if the universities to-      understand the very rudiments of democracy, that to
day were bulwarks of the status quo, this would warrant           tolerate active intolerance is to compound it.
criticism and protest, not violent and lawless action in              If we judge commitment by action, the Simple truth
behalf of a contrary role, just as foreign to their true         is that the great body of our students is not firmly com-
function.                                                        mitted to democracy or to the liberal spirit without which
    But it is deCidedly not true! There is no institution        democracy may become the rule of the mob.
   ljshed by the joint Committee on DIs-       against a wall . . . vVe have to fight         the routine business of the meeting,
   ciplinary Affairs....                       police force with 1'Cvolutionary force.        they insisted on speaking, and did so
      The refusal of the four students to                                                     -over the objections of numerous old-
                                               Columbia is not the enemy, but only
  appear in person led, under the rules of
  the Joint Committee, to suspension.          a tool of racists, exploiters, and fascists.   er alumni present. One young almnus
   (Nineteen students did come forward         Our violence has to be properly di-            pleaded that the Association not take
  and appeared before Dean Platt.) We          rected, and it has to be organized, not        any more righteous stands and instead
  can only conclude that the refusal of        random and romantic. vVe have to be            help the efforts of constructive change.
  the four was a willful prelude to a pro-
  vocative action which is part of the         like the Viet Congo We can't just grab         But then Marc Kaminsky '64 read
  "politics of confrontation" which this       guns. That's stupid. vVe have to under-        derisivel~' and at great length from a
  group is pursuing. These are not actions     stand this rotten reality and tear it          written statement about the necessar~',
  which can lead to reconciliation or the      down shrewdly."                                "non-violent" force and noble efforts
  restructuring of the university. Those           On Thursday night, May 23, the             of the demonstrators and the savage
  students who engage in the politics of
  confrontation must bear the major re-        College's Alumni Association held its          brutality of the un~'ielding Adminis-
  sponsibility for the report to the civil     94th Annual Meeting at the Columbia            tration and the police. Twice, Alumni
  authorities....                              University Club. Over 275 alumni at-           Association preSident Henry King '48
      \,Vhatever errors of the University in   tended the dinner meeting, at which            tried to get him to cut short his baldly
  the past have contributed to the break-
  down of confIdence, the acts of violence     new officers were elected and during           partisan rhetoric, and then finally told
  by the students cannot be justilled. \~le    which a semblance of normalitv was             him to stop. Debate, sometimes acri-
  arc convinced that virtually all students    kept up. But toward the end of the             monious, followed. Alumni were
  deplore such actions. vVe fervently hope     meeting all hell seemed to break loose,        shouting at each other by 11:00 p.m.
  that the events of May 21 will lead all      and windy rhetoric, moral postures,            Then, Justin Feldman'40 got up and
  students, including those who for rea-
  sons of conscience and conviction have       and pleas for understanding were ex-           made an impassioned appeal to both
  been supporting the strike, to dissociate    changed hotlv.                                 sides to listen to each other, and to
  themselves from those who are clearlv            \"'hat sparked the controversy was         use less poetr~' and sanctimon~' and
  intent on the destruction of the Uni-        Executive Director Max Lovell's invi-          more facts and reason. He was round-
  versity....                                  tation to the championship basketball          h' applauded. The meeting was ad-
    (The next day Supreme Court Jus-           and fencing teams to attend the din-            journed.
tice Abe Fortas said that the Columbia         ner to receive something called the                During the last week in 1aY, while
left-wing students' behavior was "to-          Alumni Merit Award, an idea he                  the Strike leaders tried to keep their
tallv inexcusable from the point of            dreamed up two years ago to recog-             forces strong and united, the facult~,
view of even primitive behavior." He           nize undergraduates who have done               attempted to pull itself together to
added that campus liberals were afraid         meritorious work for the College. Some          effect reforms; the students tried to
of opposing wild and illegal tactics for       of the team members sympathetic to              complete term papers and find sum-
fear of being dubbed "White Uncle              the rebels wanted to read a statement           mer jobs; and the press and television
Toms.")                                        of their own views on the crisis. lVIax         were bus~' interviewing key people
    The SDS-sponsored rall~' that Wed-         Lovell '23 first consented to hear their       and analyzing Morningside's events.
nesc1a~, evening was fier~' but disap-         views, then had the Board of Directors          Columbia's confrontation had become
pointingly small. Onlv 350 leftists            of the Association withdraw the invi-           the biggest universitv thing since Ber-
were on hand outside the Amsterdam             tation for them to come to the meet-            kelev. Nearly everyone seemed un-
                                                                                                    .        .       .
gate, although almost 600 onlookers            ing, which ever~'one was anxious to             happv about the press and TV coYer-
stood around. There was onl~' a tin v          avoid having become another political           age. The radicals insisted that the
sprinkling of communitv residents, and         battleground. Therefore, 16 student             New York Times and CBS television
almost no Negroes. There were several          athletes picketed the meeting at the            were hopeless!.v biased against them,
red flags in the crowd.                        43rd Street club. Thev also distributed         possibly because of the influence of
    At 6:30, Mark Rudd, out on $2,500          a three-page mimeographed statement             Columbia Trustee and Times owner
bail, said into a bullhorn, "We can't          which responded to the two earlier              Arthur Sulzberger '13 and Trustee and
 get this University to move. \Ve've           College Alumni Association statements           CBS board chairman \,yilliam Palev.
tried ever~,thing to get them to the           condemning the radicals. The state-             The conservatives alleged that Ram-
 bargaining table with us. But they're         ment was critical of the Alumni Asso-           parts, Rat, and similar left-wing pub-
-what shall I sa~'?-bourgeois!" Ted            ciation's criticism of the student radi-        lications were writing paranOid polit-
 Gold, speaking longer, said, "This Ad-        cals, but it was deemed naive, over-            ical fiction. )Jew York's Police Com-
 ministration has no right to talk to us,      wrought ("Free speech is meaningless            missioner Howard Learv told NBC's
 to disclipline us. If all of us stick to-     at Columbia"), and inaccurate in places         Ed :-..iewman on Sundav, Mav 26, that
 gether, they can't discipline us. This        ("The Strike Committee now repre-                there was a shameful 'Iack ~f balance
 Universit\· could never open next Sep-        sents 5,000 members") upon examina-             in press and TV reports about the
 tember if 400 of us got bounced."              tion b~' many of the older alumni pres-        police. He said the media were onl~'
     An East \'iIlage revolutional'\' \\'as     ent.                                            interested in pol ice excesses and not
 the most inflammaton'. "'Up Against                At the rear of the great dining hall        in law enforcement or the student ex-
  the Wall' is not just a slogan. It's a        stood about 80 \'Ol1l1g alumni, manv            cesses.
 political statement. It means that we          from the newly organized, pro-Strike               The College decided to scrap its
  are going to have to put people up            "Alumni for a New Columbia." After              annual Baccalaureate Sunday service

 SPRI:"G, 1968                                                                                                                     91
and its traditional, friendly Class Day
on the Monday before graduation.
The grand, all-University Commence-
ment exercises, always on the first
Tuesday in June, were not cancelled,
however; althpugh they were planned
for inside St. John's Cathedral, the
site of rainy day graduations, for se-
curity reasons. Rumors buzzed for
days about what disruption the leftist
students and young instructors would
stage in the huge church on Amster-
dam Avenue, just south of the campus.
   As early as Friday, May 31, the
Students for a Restructured University
-the radical Strike group cool about
starting a national revolution-had
scheduled a separate Commencement
on the steps of Low Library and Low
Plaza. They urged an "orderly walk-
out" of students and faculty from the
regular Commencement in the middle
of the ceremony, asked for a large
gathering for their "Counter-Com-
mencement," and promised as speak-
ers Dr. Harold Taylor, former presi-
dent of Sarah Lawrence College and
educator with quasi-socialist views,
Dr. Erich Fromm, the noted psychia-
trist who has been said to be "a blend
of Karl Marx and Norman Vincent
Peale," and Dwight MacDonald, a so-        Students with red flags leading a "community action" group in pre-Commencement
cial critic and sportive anarchist.        march on Amsterdam Avenue.
   In response, the Students for Co-
lumbia University, the successor group
to the Majority Coalition, issued a
Monday plea to the students and a
Tuesday message to the graduation
                                            publiC as a whole for the acts of a few       children's illegal and immoral behavior,
audience. Under the title "Do Your          of our number. ...                            or who by silence and continuing pro-
Thing, But Let Us Do Ours," the                These elements, determined to tear         vision of financial aid seem to approve
group printed, on daffodil yellow           Columbia down, have labeled the Uni-          of that behavior, must share responsi-
paper, "a plea to all students and          versity "despotic," "oppressive," and         bility for what has happened at Colum-
members of the University community         "illegitimate." Such charges are patently     bia....
                                            absurd. The very reason the would-be             We realize that what has happened
to respect the meaning and tradition        destroyers have been able to attack Co-       will cause some to lose faith in the Uni-
of Commencement." Said the flyer:           lumbia so viciously is that a great mod-      verSity, and to condemn all Columbia
"There are those who look upon grad-        ern university such as ours does its ut-      students for the acts of a few. We wish
uation as another opportunity for con-      most to encourage free expression of          all to know that we will continue to
frontation. Disruption of Commence-         dissent. Columbia's liberal attitude is       fight those ~ho are attempting to de-
                                            part of its greatness, but to some stu-       stroy Columbia. Our hope is that you
ment would be an attack not on the          dents and outside supporters it was to        will support our effort.
administration but on other students        be perverted and callously exploited....
who have invested four years of their          A number of graduating students
lives in obtaining a diploma. In addi-      have threatened to walk out on gradu-          As for SDS, it planned to round
                                            ation. This rude, irresponSible, and hos-   up stu~e~ts, outsiders from" "peace
tion, there are the parents, many of        tile act against Columbia, fellow stu-
whom have provided an education for                                                     groups,    concerned parents, blacks
                                            dents and their families is indicative of
their children at great personal sacri-     the total disregard the strikers have       from Harlem, and residents from
fice."                                      shown for the rights of others. Though      Morningside Heights before the 3:00
   The message to Commencement              highly repugnant, it is only a mild sam-    graduat.ion ceremony; add to them the
                                            ple of the methods employed by the          walkers-out from St. John's Cathedral;
guests, printed on Columbia blue            strikers to show their contempt for
paper, read:                                                                            join SRU's "Counter-Commencement"
      As students of Columbia University       We suggest that the parents of these     on Low Plaza; then finish the day with
   we wish to apologize to the parents,     students reassess their own position.       a monster rally in Morningside Park,
   friends of the University, and to the    Parents who actively condone their          complete with poetry readings, rock

92                                                                                               COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
music, [dId a gala picnic. Their mimeo-
graphed sheet, given out on Com-
mencement morning, said, in part:
     ''''hile Columbia awards honorary de-
  grees to distinguished men for their
  contributions to society, it will con-
  tinue to sponsor IDA research, to sup-
  press the ghettos and perpetuate the
  inhuman war in
     While Columbia is afraid to hold its
 graduation outdoors where the com-
 munity members can participate, it is
 not ashamed to arbitrarily buy up and
 tear down their homes all over Morn-
 ingside Heights and West Harlem.
     vVhile Columbia congratulates stu-
 dents for their studies, it busts the
 unions of the employees who make that
 education possible....
     We invite the residents of the Har-
 lem and Morningside communities to
 join us in developing our political
 movements. . . .

   SDS leaders had decided to soft-
pedal their SLX demands and continue
their efforts to involve "the people" in
seizing Columbia. As another of their
fivers said, "1 one of those whose labor
allows the University to function are
represented at graduation," and "none
of those whom the University and its
policies affect-community people, in
particular-are allowed to attend grad-
uation." SDS thinking now seemed to
be that conb'ol of Columbia should be        Diplomat Charles "Chip" Bohlen, an honorary degree recipient, speaking at the
turned over to "the people in the            Alumni Federation's Commencement lu.ncheon on 4. At the luncheon, President
streets," that all University life should    Kirk was given a standing ovation by the alumni.
be directed by a vast consortium of
students and groundskeepers, profes-
sors and campus dishwashers, research
assistants and aged ladies in local rent-    Kirk, who rose and was given a stand-      ment began, Lewis Cole directed a
controlled apartments, alumni and            ing ovation by the alumni. President       march of some 20 radicals, led by two
Harlem blacks, administrators and            Kirk then spoke briefly, saying, among     girls carrying red flags, to the five
Vietnam veterans. Said one professor         other things, "Our Trustees are among      checkpoints to pick up the expected
of political science, after reading the      the finest in the nation." (Two days       great crowd to join the leftist students.
SDS notices, "It's a beautiful vision,       before, on "Meet the Press," an BC         At the site of the new School of Inter-
full of brotherhood and based on total       Sunday television show, President Kirk     national Affairs, the first stop, the pa-
equality. I can see 'the people' meet-       denied that there was anything "bas-       rade was to pick up members of the
ing once a week in participatory dem-        ically wrong" with Columbia, said that     Morningside community. Only 18 per-
ocracy sessions under the lights in          if he had to do it all over again he       sons were there. Worse, Cole and his
Yankee Stadium to decide on faculty          would not have done anything in the        marchers were booed and jeered at by
salaries, medical school admissions, or      past five weeks differently, and attrib-   the proletarian construction workers at
 the fate of the mathematics depart-         uted the student rebellion largely to      the building site. At the second stop,
 ment."                                      the Vietnam war and a "small, hard         Pupin Hall ("birthplace of the atom
    Commencement was preceded by             core" of anarchists and romantic revo-     bomb"), only a handful of peace group
 the usual Alumni Federation Lunch-          lutionaries.) Charles Eustis "Chip"        representatives were waiting. One girl,
 eon in Wollman Auditorium. Alumni           Bohlen, a career diplomat and an hon-      cheWing gum, held a sign, "Welcome
 Federation preSident Robert Lilley '33      orary degree recipient, was the guest      to Columbia, Home of Imperialism."
 said to the capacity crowd of alumni,       speaker. Labor leader David Dubin-         There were very few "concerned par-
 "This is the best attended Commence-        sky was on the dais as an honorary         ents" at Riverside Church; only a
 ment in years. We have six times the        doctorate recipient also, but there was    sprinkling of "students" at District At-
 number of proxy votes for the election      no Negro receiving an honorary de-         torney Frank Hogan's Riverside Drive
 of new officers that we normally have."     gree.                                      home; and almost no members of the
 With deep sincerity, Lilley praised Dr.        At 2:00, an hour before Commence-       "Harlem community" at the gym site.

SPRING, 1968                                                                                                                  93
It was sad. Long-haired maidens with                                                         sex and morals, of property and national
 steel-rimmed glasses and dungaree-                                                          loyalty. It is governed by the idea of
 clad ~'ouths themselves had to carry        A university LS not a serv-                     academic freedom, applicable both to
                                                                                             faculty and students. . . .
 the SDS-made signs meant to show            ice station. Neither is it a                       A university is not a service station.
 the widespread, grass roots, local                                                          Neither is it a political society, nor a
 hatred of "the people" for Columbia
                                             political society, nor a                        meeting place for political societies.
 University.                                 meeting place for political                     "Vith all its limitations and failures, and
                                                                                             they are invariably many, it is the best
    By 3:00, however, nearly 400 stu-        societies.                                      and most benign side of our society in-
 dents and outsiders had gathered at               RICHARD HOFSTADTER                        sofar as that society aims to cherish the
 Amsterdam Avenue, on the west side-                                                         human mind....
walk between 115th and 116th Streets.                                                           Some people argue that because the
The mood was half-angr~', half-festive.       SuddenlY,      someone       announced,       modern university, whether public or
                                           "The~,'re c~ming out." and the crowd              private, is supported by and is part of
 Many of the ~'oung leftists were deco-                                                      the larger society, it therefore shares in
rated in red-red scarves, red arm-         of protestors roared. "Listen," said the         all the evils of society, and must be
bands, red berets, and red Indian head-    student speaker, holding up a transis-           quite ruthlessly revolutionized as a ne-
bands. They held lots of balloons,         tor radio, "You can hear Bob Dylan               cessary step in social reform, or even in
many of them red, but some blue, yel-      singing 'Times Thev Are A-Changing.'             social revolution. That universities do
                                                                                            share in, and may even in some respects
low, and green. There were six large       It's coming from inside St. John's Ca-
                                                                                            propagate, certain ills of the society
red flags on six-foot poles in their       thedral!"                                        seems to me undeniable. But to imagine
midst. The whole scene was reminis-            Inside the huge church, several               that the best way to change a social or-
cent of a "Red Guard" rallv in Com-        thousand degree receipients and their            der is to start by assaulting its most
                                           parents and professors had gathered              accessible centers of thought and study
munist China-only with ;nuch less
                                                                                            and criticism is not only to show a com-
grimness. The youth carried signs:         for the solemn, dignity-stuffed rite.            plete disregard for the intrinsic charac-
"People Power," "Graduation-in the         President Kirk had, in an extraordi-             ter of the university but also to develop
Streets," "St. John the DiYine, Inc,,"     narv move, turned oyer the traditional           a curiously self-destructive strategy for
and "No Degree for Scab Dubinsk~'."        presidential Commencement address                social change. If an attempt is made to
                                           to DeWitt Clinton Professor of History           politicize completely our primary cen-
About 300 police, including 20 on                                                            ters of free argument and inqUiry, they
horseback, held the students in the ap-    Richard Hofstadter, one of the world's           will only in the end be forced to lose
pointed area.                              leading historians. Given the anti-Ad-           their character and be reduced to cen-
   \Vhile the protestors were waiting      ministration sentiment, and the special          ters of vocational training, nothing
                                           dissatisfaction with Dr. Kirk, nearly            more. . . .
for their graduating friends to walk
                                                                                                The technique of the forceable occu-
out of the Commencement exercises,         everyone agreed it was a wise move               pation and closure of a university's
thev were addressed bv a succession
    .                    .                 by the president.                                buildings with the intention of bringing
of speakers who spoke from on top of           Professor Hofstadter, father himself         its activities to a halt is no ordinary bar-
a parked automobile with a bullhorn.       of an angry, dissenting son, spoke               gaining device-it is a thrust at the
                                           about the onl~' subject an~'one wanted           vitals of university life. It is a powerful
The most interesting was SDS national                                                       device for control by a determined
leader Carl Oglesby. \'\Tearing a brown    to hear about: the state of Columbia             minority, and its continued use would
leather jacket and sunglasses, he told     University and academic freedom.                 be fatal to any university....
the demonstrators, "For the first time           For a long time, Columbia University           This brings me to our own problem.
                                              has been part of my life. I came here as      Our history and situation, our own mis-
American college students belong to
                                              a graduate student in 1937, returned          takes, have done a great deal to create
historY." Said Oglesby: "Our revolt           as a member of the faculty in 1946, and       this problem; but it must not be re-
doesn't stop at the oceans. It's world-       have since remained. In these years, I        garded as an isolated incident, since it
wide. What's it all about? Each col-          have had at this University many ad-          is only the most severe, among Ameri-
lege and countr~' has its own issues.         mired and cherished colleagues, and           can universities, of a number of such
                                              many able students. In this respect, I        incidents. Vve are at a crisis point in
But underneath them all is the com-           am but one of a large company of              the history of American education and
mon feeling that the old order is fall-       faculty members who, differing as they        probably in that of the Western world.
ing apart. If it were not for the rotten      do on many matters, are alike in their        Not only in J ew York and Berkeley,
police and militarv, we and our Chin-         sense of thc greatness of this institution    but in Madrid and Paris. Rome, Berlin,
ese brothers would be in solidarity and       and in their affection for it. In the hour    and London, and on many college and
                                              of its most terrible trial, it could surely   university campuses throughout this
at peace. We've got to create a new           have found a great many of US willing         country, students are disaffected, res-
order. The persons in power, the older        to speak....                                  tive and rebellious. . . .
people around, cannot solve the prob-            A university is a community, but it            Here at Columbia, we have suffered
lems. Thev cannot see the future. Only        is a community of a special kind-a            a disaster whose precise dimensions it
                                              community devoted to inquiry. It exists       is impossible to state, because the story
we can address the problems with              so that its members may inquire into          is not yet finished, and the measure of
imagination, insight, and vision. OnhJ        tru ths of all sorts. Its presence marks      our loss still depends upon what we do.
we can see the future." "Vhen he was          our commitment to the idea that some-         For every crisis, for every disaster, there
finished there were cheers, and shouts        where in society there must be an or-         has to be some constructive response.
of "Strike, Strike, Strike" which were        ganization in which anything can be           At Columbia the constructive response
                                              studied or questioned-not merely safe         has been a call for university refonn ....
accompanied by stiff one-ann salutes          and established things but difficult and          Columbia is a great-and in the way
-almost Jazi-like-with the two-fing-          inflammatory things, the most trouble-        Americans must reckon time-an an-
 ered V's stabbing the air.                   some questions of politiCS and war, of        cient university. In this immense, rich

94                                                                                                 COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY
                                            COllntry, we have only a limited num-
                                            ber of institutions of comparable (lual-
                                            ity. We are living through a period in
                                            which the need for teaching and re-
                                            search-for the services a universitv
                                            performs and the things it stands for'::'
                                            is greater than it ever was before. \Vhat
                                            kind of a people would we be if we al-
                                            lowed this center of our culture and our
                                            hope to languish and fail?

                                             The radicals among the degree re-
                                          cipients, and their svmpathizers, never
                                          heard Professor Hofstadter's remarks.
                                          Just prior to his address, at 3:35, Col-
                                          lege senior Ted Kaptchuk stood up
                                          and with the help of SDS marshals,
                                          led 240 students (110 of them \loung
                                          women, mostl\' Barnard girls) and 18
                                          young faculty members out of the ca-
                                          thedral. The marshals kept saying,
                                          "Please leave in a dignified manner,"
                                          and the students did. At one point in
                                          the exodus, SDS leader Ted Gold, a
                                          fellow student named Keith Kornof-
                                          sk~r, and an English department pre-
                                          ceptor named James Goldberg, turned
                                          on transistor radios that thev had hid·
                                          den under their academic gowns. But
                                          security guards quelled the noise
                                          quickly. (It was this music, b~' Bob
                                          Dylan and Countrv Joe and the Fish,
                                          to which the demonstrators outside
                                          had alluded. According to one pro-
                                          testor, it was made possible b~' re-
                                          questing some acquaintances with left-
                                          wing svmpathies at FM radio station
                                          WBAI to play those records at ex-
(Above) Radical students and sympa-       actly that houL)
thizers walking out of the Commence-          After the walkers-out and the pro-
ment ceremony in St. John the Divine       testors in the streets arrived on Low
Cathedral. (Below left) Ex-president of    Plaza, the Counter-Commencement
Sarah Lawrence Harold Taylor speaking     began. Rabbi Bruce Goldman gave the
at the leftists' Counter-Commencement.    invocation, standing 10 feet awav from
(Below right) Student with protest-ad-    a heavilv bearded \louth with a huge
vertisement sign at the Amsterdam Ave-     red Rag. He asked for a "restoration"
nue mlly during Commencement.
                                          based on the "highest law, the moral
                                          law." His partisan prayer said, ":\lay
                                          God grant wisdom and compassion to
                                           the administration and trustees b\· al-
                                          lowing them as a show of good faith
                                           to drop all charges against the stu-
                                           dents." Facing a long list of speeches,
                                          many of the 300 participants and 600
                                           spectators sprawled on the grass,
                                          found seats on ledges and steps, began
                                           looking for friends to chat with during
                                           the long ceremonv.
                                              A Columbia economist, Alexander
                                           Erhlich, spoke with passion; a College
                                          senior, Nigel Paneth, spoke dispassion-
                                           atelv; and a young College alumnus,
                                           Michael Nolan '64, said that his

 group, Alumni for a New Columbia,          the only worKing college administrator     Stu.dent protestors entermg M omingside
supported the SDS demands out of            among you, I confer upon you all the       Park tor a post-Commencement pic11lc.
"outrage against the Administration         B.A. degree: Beatification of the Arts."
for violating the Columbia family at-          After Taylor had finished, most per-
mosphere by bringing policemen on           sons were weary from all the talk, but     ing spread in America of both equali-
the campus."                                SDS leader David Gilbert rose as the       tarian democracy and meritocratic in-
    Dwight MacDonald, wearing a pur-        seventh (and unscheduled) speaker.         dustrialism may be bringing also in·
ple-and-white shirt, a lavendar silk tie,   He said, "If we made mistakes it was       creasing alienation, coldness, and dis·
a black-and-white checked suit, a "Mc-      because we were too modest," and           satisfaction. That is, the very rational-
Carthy for President" button, and a         added, "We're part of a struggle that      ity of modern democracy, with its
Kentucky colonel beard, said, "What         will go on for a long, long time. It       tendencies toward ever greater equal-
vou've done here is a little like the       will require great daring and terrific     ity, both economic and social, and
Boston Tea Party." He, being an an-         dedication." Gilbert then announced        toward more extensive individualism,
archist, asked why, among the six red       the opening of SDS's Summer Libera-        may produce inevitably a loss of Cl)ffi·
flags, there were no black ones for "my     tion School in the Alpha Epsilon Pi        munity, of personal attachments, of
anarchistic taste." MacDonald gen-          fraternity house at 534 West 114th         traditional loyalities, of stable status
erallv praised the rebels in a rambling     Street. (The house was immediately         settings. And large-scale organizations
fashion, but then drew a shower of          renamed by wits Sigma Delta Sigma.)        in business, labor, government, the
hisses from the leftists when he said,      And, he invited everyone down to           military, and even higher education-
''I'm for your revolution; but if you       Morningside Park for the post-Com-         with their emphasis cn rational pro-
carryon your tactics too long, you'll       mencement frolics, where, he said,         cedures, promotions, and placement-
destroy Columbia University. I don't        "We will expand our alliances with the     mav eliminate not only irrational ac-
 think our best universities ought to be    people we need to overthrow the            tions such as discrimination because of
used to start a social revolution in this   power structure."                          color or national background but also
country."                                      The Counter-Commencement end-           irrational things like intimate friend-
    When Dr. Erich Fromm got up to          ed with the radical Rev. William Starr     ships, small clubs, loyalties to position,
speak, everyone stood up and gave           praying for "the rebels who cry out        place, or institution, and a recogniz-
him an ovation. He is a small, neat         against the evils of our time," and        able sense of purpose. The ties that
man, and looked like a small-town           asking God to "give us the power to        bind are often irrational, not rational
banker in his gold-rimmed glasses,          transform this world." The student         and calculating. Heat and light may
 gray suit, white shirt, and dark red       leftists, with six red flag carriers up    not mix as easily as scotch and soda,
 tie. "Our society is approaching a low     front, marched almost triumphantly         or sex and politics.
grade schizophrenia," the noted psy-        down to Morningside Park. There                If this is the case, it is no wonder
chiatrist said, "a split between the        were few Negroes to join tLem, but it      that a whole new order is called for
 mind and the heart." Fromm con-            didn't seem to disturb them too much.      among some segments of the young.
 tended that rationally we all plan         A good time was had by all.                But what kind of new order? No one
beautifully for maximum efficiency,             Throughout the six weeks of tur-       knows, especially the young. How can
productivity, and conh'ol, but more         moil one thing seemed particularly         contemporary America make a cornu-
and mcwe we leave out human factors-        evident to manv of those observers of      copia of goods and make love at the
 the need for joy, love, friendship. We     the Columbia r~bellion who were able       same time? (Both are desired.) It may
are programming our society for prof-       to remain fairly objective, compassion-    be the greatest question of our time.
its and power, not people's sanity and      ate, and insightful. That was the          Whether it is or not, it is a question
 togetherness or the preservation and       touching and almost desperate longing       that most top persons in leading col-
advance of beauty, he said. "I for one      of many of the radical students to         leges and universities hardly recog-
 welcome this revolution. It is a revo-     establish stronger bonds with other        nize, much less address themselves to.
lution for life!" When he sat down, he      persons, to find new purpose and loy-      They are working feverishly on manu-
 received another ovation, and numer-       alties, to win a greater measure of        facturing greater rationality, but in
 ous shouts of "Bravo!"                     esteem, importance, and status. Power-      doing so, largely without heed to con-
     Harold Taylor also was cheered en-     lessness corrupts, and absolute power-     sequences, they may be making things
 thusiastically, though his speech was      lessness tends to corrupt absolutely.       worse. Obviously, it is time for stock-
 full of statements like "Education, like   The word "alienation" has become a         taking, for self-appraisal.
 love, is an art that can be practiced      bag into which every sin, anxiety, and         That is the mood in which many
 anywhere," and vague urgings like          shortcoming has been thrown, but it         Columbia students, faculty, and ad-
 "It's up to your generation to fill this   was on everyone's lips.                    ministrators left for the summer, or
 demoCl'acy with new content." He as-           It may be that there is a profound      decided to stay on Morningside for
 serted today's leading colleges and         irony at the root of much of the cam-      the summer in order to tackle reforms.
 universities have lost all sense of pur-    pus turmoil-or at the root of modern      "The clash of doctrines is not a dis-
 pose. They amass knowledge but ne-         man's turmoil, for it is not only the       aster; it is an opportunity," said Alfred
 glect to teach the young or to apply       students who are unhappy. As M.LT.         North Whitehead. Columbia Univer-                0'
 their knowledge to society's critical      political scientist Lucian Pye and a       sity may demonsh'ate whether White-          '"
 problems, he said. He concluded, "As       few others have suggested, the increas-    head was right.                              I

96                                                                                              COLUMBIA COLLEGE TODAY

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