Acid and Base Review Worksheet - DOC by Gallows


									                             Acid and Base Review Worksheet

Naming Acids: Nonmetal Anion “ide”  hydro______ ic acid
        Polyatomic Anion “ate”  __________ ic acid
        Polyatomic Anion “ite”  __________ ous acid
        Bases: cation (metal or polyatomic) and hydroxide OR memorize bases…Like ammonia
Properties of Acids and Bases
Measuring       Acids pH < 7 and pOH > 7 pH = -log [H+]                 [H+] = 10x -pH
                Bases pH > 7 and pOH < 7 pOH = -log [OH-]               [OH-] = 10x -pOH
                pH + pOH = 14                    [H+][OH-]=1.0x10 M
Theories -      Arrhenius: Acid (H+) + Base (OH-)  salt + water (H2O)
                Bronsted-Lowry: dissociation/ionization Reactions
                         Acid donates a H+ ion to the Base which accepts the H+ ion
                         Acid + Water (Base)  Conjugate Base + Conjugate Acid (H3O+)
                         Base + Water (Acid)  Conjugate Acid + Conjugate Base (OH-)
Neutralization Reactions:         Strong Acid + Strong Base  Neutral Salt Water
                                  Strong Acid + Weak Base  Acidic Salt Water
                                  Weak Acid + Strong Base  Basic Salt Water
        Strong Acids and Bases – completely dissociate in water – weak bonds
        Weak Acids and Bases – not all of the sample dissociates in water – strong bonds
Don’t Forget Molarity M = mol/liter 1L = 1000ml H2O = H+ + OH-
                (+)(-) = 0 zero, neutral compound and Balancing Chemical Reactions
                Converting form grams to moles using the periodic table
                Polyatomic Ions

   1. What are the chemical formulas for the following acids and Bases:
           a. Perchloric Acid                    Aluminum Hydroxide
           b. Sulfurous Acid                     Nitric Acid
           c. Calcium Hydroxide                  Phosphoric Acid
           d. Ammonia                            Hydrobromic Acid
   2. What are three properties of an acid?
   3. Write a balanced chemical reaction for calcium metal in hydrofluoric acid.
   4. What are three properties of a base?
   5. Write a dissociation equation for the reaction of perchloric acid in water. Label the acid, base,
       conjugate acid, and conjugate base.
   6. Define what it means to be a strong acid or strong base.
   7. Fill in the table:
       Acid or Base        pH                   pOH                 [H+]                 [OH-]
   8. Define what it means to be a weak acid or weak base.
   9. Write a balanced chemical reaction for the neutralization of hydrophosphoric acid and beryllium
   10. Define an amphoteric substance. Give an example.
11. Write the equation for the following neutralization reactions:
    NaOH + H3PO4 
    LiOH + HNO3 
    Ca(OH)2 + HCl 
12. As 0.1M HCl is added to 0.1M KOH, what happens to the pH of the basic solution? Does the
    basicity or acidity decrease?
13. Which of the following solutions would contain the highest concentration of OH- ions if 1mol of
    each was dissolved in water: H2SO4, NH4Cl, KNO3, NaOH?
14. As the H3O+ ion concentration of a solution increases, what happens to the pH?
15. What is produced by a neutralization reaction?
16. What is the pH of pure water?
17. Find the pH of the following and classify them as acidic (A), basic (B), or neutral (N)
                                              pH                       Classification
             +            -9
      a) [H ] = 2.5 x 10
      b) 3.5 x 10-6 M H3P
      c) [OH-] = 9.8 x 10-11
      d) [H+] = 1.0 x10-7
      e) 6.0 x 10-3 M Ba(OH)2
18. According to Bronsted-Lowry, when is H2O considered a base?
19. Complete and balance:
    Mg + HNO3 →
    Na + H2SO4 →
20. Use (A) to indicate an acid only, (B) to indicate a base only, and (C) to indicate both.
    Turns litmus paper red   _______        Is a good conductor                      _______
    Has a pH of 3            _______        Produced when sodium reacts with water   _______
    Tastes sour              _______        Reacts with zinc to produce hydrogen     _______
    Feels slippery           _______        Turns pink with phenolphthalein          _______
    Tastes bitter            _______        React with carbonates to produce CO2     _______
21. Name the following acids and bases:
         a. CH3COOH                          Mg(OH)2
         b. H2CO3                            HNO2
         c. H2SO4                            KOH
         d. HCl                              HClO
         e. NH3
22. The pH of an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide is 12.9. What is the molarity of the solution?
23. What is the pH of a 0.000460 M solution of Ca(OH)2? (10.96)
24. A student titrates a 20.00 mL sample of a solution of HBr with unknown molarity. The titration
    requires 20.05 mL of a 0.1819 M solution of NaOH. What is the molarity of the HBr solution?
    (0.1824 M HBr)
25. A 50.00 mL sample of a potassium hydroxide is titrated with a 0.8186 M HCl solution. The
    titration requires 27.87 mL of the HCl solution to reach the equivalence point. What is the
    molarity of the KOH solution? (0.4563 M KOH)

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