The Department of Soil_ Water and Environmental Science _SWES .pdf

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					Department of Soil, Water and
   Environmental Science
Academic Program Review and CSREES Review
          SELF-STUDY REPORT

               February 2009
                              Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science
                                     ACADEMIC PROGRAM REVIEW

A. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION AND GOALS.............................................................................1
     1. Mission of the Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science .........................1
     2. SWES Academic Degree Programs................................................................................1
     3. Major Goals in the SWES Department...........................................................................2
     4. How do these goals relate to the University’s strategic plan and
        mission as expressed in the University of Arizona Five-Year Strategic Plan?...............3

B. PROGRAM HISTORY..............................................................................................................5
     1. History Since Last Program Review (2002) ...................................................................5
     2. Recommendations and Responses to 2002 Academic Program Review........................6

C. OVERVIEW OF THE PROGRAM’S ACADEMIC QUALITY ............................................15
     1. Overall Quality...............................................................................................................15
     2. Program changes within the last 5 to 7 years.................................................................16
     3. New Directions ..............................................................................................................17
     4. Comparison to Other Programs .....................................................................................18

D. FACULTY ...............................................................................................................................20
     1. Faculty Strengths and Weaknesses ...............................................................................20
     2. Nature and Breadth of Faculty Research ......................................................................20
         Subsurface Processes
            Soil Physics and Subsurface Hydrology ................................................................20
            Geomicrobiology ...................................................................................................21
            Biogeochemistry and Pedogenesis.........................................................................22
            Contaminant Transport and Fate............................................................................22
         Climate-Ecosystem Interactions
            Soil Carbon Cycling and Climate Change .............................................................23
            Regional Climate Data and Global Change ...........................................................23
            Tropical Ecosystem Response ...............................................................................23
            Satellite Based Monitoring of the Earth's Environment ........................................23
         Water – Quality and Policy
            Water Quality and Use...........................................................................................24
            Water Reuse – Effect on Communities..................................................................24
            Urban Microbiology...............................................................................................25
            Tropical Ecosystem Response ...............................................................................25
            Water Reuse – Effect on Riparian Systems ...........................................................25
            Irrigation Technology – Water Quantity, Water Quality and Salinity...................25
            Water Policy...........................................................................................................26
         Land – Use, Management and Restoration
            Soil and Crop Management ...................................................................................26
            Soil and Groundwater Remediation.......................................................................27
            Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration ................................................................27
            Aquaculture and Aquatic Ecology .........................................................................27
          3.   Teaching Program and Responsibilities........................................................................28
          4.   Faculty Service..............................................................................................................31
          5.   Faculty Adaptiveness: Tradition vs. Change ................................................................32
          6.   Program Future .............................................................................................................33
          7.   Post-Tenure Review Results .........................................................................................35

E. UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAM..........................................................................................36
     1. Describe Undergraduate Programs Offered..................................................................36
           Environmental Science ........................................................................................36
           Crop Production .....................................................................................................37
     2. SWES Proficiency Courses...........................................................................................39
     3. General Education Courses...........................................................................................40
     4. Undergraduate Major(s) Curriculum and Courses........................................................41
     5. Undergraduate Students ................................................................................................42

F. GRADUATE PROGRAM........................................................................................................47
     1. Overview.......................................................................................................................47
     2. Curriculum and Courses ...............................................................................................47
     3. Graduate Students .........................................................................................................49
     4. Course Enrollment for non-SWES Graduate Students .................................................54
     5. Enrollment of SWES Graduate Students in non-SWES Courses .................................54
     6. Ph.D. Minors.................................................................................................................54

G. STUDENT OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT..............................................................................55
      1. Intended Student Outcomes ..........................................................................................55
      2. Relation to Program Mission and Goals .......................................................................57
      3. Faculty Involvement in Outcomes Measurement .........................................................57
      4. Methods Used to Assess Student Outcomes.................................................................58
      5. Data Collection and Analysis........................................................................................58
      6. Outcomes Assessment Results......................................................................................59
      7. Incorporation in Strategic Planning and Curricular Review.........................................59
      8. Feedback Mechanisms ..................................................................................................59

H. THRESHOLD FOR DEFINING PRODUCTIVE PROGRAMS...........................................63

I. ACADEMIC OUTREACH .......................................................................................................64
      1. Nature of Academic Outreach Activities......................................................................64
      2. Alignment of Outreach Activities with Departmental and University Goals ...............64
      3. Program Quality............................................................................................................67

J. COLLABORATION WITH OTHER UNITS ..........................................................................69
      1. Collaborations ...............................................................................................................69
      2. Changes Contemplated in Collaborative Efforts ......................................................... 71

K. RESOURCES...........................................................................................................................72
     1. Faculty Compensation Comparisons ...........................................................................72
          2. Unit Support Services ..................................................................................................72
          3. Resource needs..............................................................................................................74
          4. What changes in program quality might be projected if additional resources were
             available, and what would be the expected effects of those changes?.........................74

L. ADMINISTRATION ...............................................................................................................76
     1. How is the unit organized? Describe the unit’s governance structure and
        give an overview of the most important policies and procedures................................76
     2. Summarize the program-related aspects of the last unit review and
        efforts undertaken as a result of the review .................................................................77
     3. Description of classified and professional staff to include turnover rate
        and changes contemplated to strengthen the staff support for the
        academic program's activities ......................................................................................78

M. DIVERSITY............................................................................................................................81
     1. Faculty...........................................................................................................................81
     2. Staff...............................................................................................................................81
     3. Students.........................................................................................................................81
     4. Inclusive Climate ..........................................................................................................81

N. DEPARTMENT DATA PROFILES .......................................................................................82

APPENDIX 1.................................................................................................................................89
     History of the Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science.............................89

APPENDIX 2.................................................................................................................................91
     SWES Faculty Examples of Awards, Editorships, and Service on
           State, National and University of Arizona Committees since 2001 ......................91

APPENDIX 3.................................................................................................................................95
     Undergraduate curriculum for Environmental Science .....................................................95

APPENDIX 4...............................................................................................................................109
     Undergraduate curriculum for Crop Production ..............................................................109

APPENDIX 5...............................................................................................................................117
     Graduate Student Handbook ............................................................................................117

APPENDIX 6...............................................................................................................................135
     Water Quality Center (WQC) .........................................................................................135

APPENDIX 7...............................................................................................................................137
     The Water Village............................................................................................................137
APPENDIX 8...............................................................................................................................141
     Environmental Research Lab (ERL)................................................................................141

APPENDIX 9 .............................................................................................................................145
     Staff Personnel .................................................................................................................145

APPENDIX 10
            Faculty Curriculum Vita.................................................................................................147
            (not included in PDF version)
A.     PROGRAM DESCRIPTION AND GOALS

1.     Mission of the Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science

To support education and training, research, service, and extension/outreach in the broad area
of soil, water and environmental sciences.

SWES is comprised of 24 faculty (2 administration, 14 instruction, 8 extension), 13 adjunct/joint
faculty, 17 research associates and 23 staff. Personnel are reported by headcount and not FTE.
There are currently 117 undergraduate students and 55 graduate students enrolled in SWES
degree programs. SWES also houses several research and outreach units including the
Environmental Research Laboratory (ERL) and the Water Quality Center Laboratory. ERL is
the home of the National Science Foundation (NSF) Water Quality Center directed by Dr. Ian
Pepper.

2.     SWES Academic Degree Programs

Undergraduate programs

SWES offers two undergraduate programs, one in Environmental Science and one in Crop
Production.

The Environmental Science (ENVS) program is a university-wide major that is administratively
housed in SWES. The ENVS major offers focal areas in Biology, Chemistry, Microbiology,
Science and Technology, Science and Policy, Remote Sensing and Geospatial Analysis, Soil
Science, and Sustainable Land/Water Management. A focal area in Environmental Education is
being developed. The ENVS program prepares students for entry into a broad array of
environmentally related careers in industry and government.

The Crop Production (CROP) program is jointly managed with the Department of Plant Sciences
and offers two focal areas, Agronomy and Turf Science. This degree program provides a solid
foundation for students entering a career in modern agriculture and crop production. Students
are prepared for work associated with field crops, permanent tree crop production, turf science,
and/or a broad array of horticultural crops that are grown throughout the western United States
and other regions in the world. In addition, graduates from either the ENVS or CROP programs
will be well prepared academically to enter graduate degree programs.

Graduate programs

SWES offers graduate programs leading to M.S and Ph.D. degrees in Soil, Water and
Environmental Science. Two tracks are offered, “Environmental Science” or “Soil and Water
Science”. In addition to the major, each Ph.D. student must complete a minor, which can be
intra- or interdepartmental. The SWES graduate program is designed to produce scientists and
professionals that have a thorough understanding of advanced principles related to
environmental, soil, and water science. The program provides opportunities for education and
training in integrating biological, chemical, earth, and physical sciences toward the solution of



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environmental and agricultural problems. Students are prepared for careers in environmentally
related fields in industry, government and academia. Graduate Certificates in Aquaculture and
Water Policy are recently developed options for students seeking to enhance their professional
education.

3.     Major Goals of the SWES Department

The mission of the Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science (SWES) is to support
education and training, research, service, and extension/outreach in the broad area of soil, water
and environmental science. Faculty and staff are dedicated to establishing and maintaining
excellence in all four of these endeavors. The goal of our education and training program is to
produce graduates that have the necessary skills and knowledge to address issues associated with
abiotic-biotic interactions within the Earth’s near surface environment (e.g., biogeochemistry,
agriculture, land (soil) and water use, waste management, etc.) and interaction across the soil-
atmosphere interface.

The SWES Department addresses the management of soil and water resources primarily in the
context of terrestrial ecosystems and their sustainable management with good land and water
stewardship. These ecosystems include agricultural, urban, industrial and native systems.
Critical zone science encompasses the breadth of the programs in the SWES Department. The
Department integrates fundamental physical, chemical, and biological science with an
understanding of managed terrestrial ecosystems and strives to bring science to bear on practical
problems and issues in a sustainable manner.

Programs in the SWES Department are primarily oriented toward two areas:

       a.      Critical Zone Science - The critical zone is the “heterogeneous, near surface
               environment in which complex interactions involving rock, soil, water, air, and
               living organisms regulate the natural habitat and determine the availability of life-
               sustaining resources” (NRC, 2001). The critical zone, the most heterogeneous
               portion of the Earth, includes the land surface, vegetation, and water bodies, and
               extends through the pedosphere, unsaturated vadose zone, and saturated
               groundwater zone.

       b.      Water Quality (urban, industrial, and agricultural)

The programs are designed to integrate theory with practical applications, and to synthesize
cutting-edge research with basic knowledge.

The goals of our research activities are to produce new knowledge in environmental science and
relevant fields of study and to develop a better understanding of abiotic-biotic interactions within
the Earth’s Critical Zone.

The goal of our service and extension/outreach activities is to provide support and information in
relevant areas to the citizens of the state of Arizona, and to other interested parties (government




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agencies, industry, and other scientists) regarding better land and water stewardship and
sustainability.

Perhaps the most important limitation to the growth and prosperity of Arizona is water
availability and quality and the good stewardship of our water resources. Water is a limited
resource throughout the State and management of this precious resource is increasingly governed
by issues such as groundwater contamination from agricultural and industrial sources and
wastewater reuse. Sustainable soil management in relation to agricultural crop production
systems (agro-ecosystems) will continue to be an important area for sustainable food production
systems to support future populations. This Department, with strong areas of focus in
Environmental and Soil Sciences, is and will continue to be a key resource for the State in the
area of water quality and sustainable land and water management.

Critical zone science and water quality will continue to be the primary areas of focus for training,
research, and service/extension/outreach activities of the Department.

4.     How do these goals relate to the University’s strategic plan and mission as expressed
in the University of Arizona Five-Year Strategic Plan?

The goals of the SWES Department are excellently aligned with and supportive of the strategic
directions identified by the University of Arizona (UA) and the College of Agriculture and Life
Sciences (CALS). The UA has outlined four broad strategic directions:

       1)      Prepare Arizona’s youth and ensure access and opportunity.
       2)      Engage and graduate students who can contribute to the state, nation, and world.
       3)      Provide world-class research that improves the human condition and beyond.
       4)      Partner with and serve the people of Arizona.

Within the third directive listed above, the UA further defines the development of particular
emphasis in the following areas:

       •       Climate, Environmental, Water and Energy Sustainability
       •       Southwest, Native American, Borderlands, and Latin American Studies
       •       Biosciences and Biotechnology
       •       Optics
       •       Space Exploration and Observation
       •       Creative Arts, Languages and Language Acquisition
       •       Law, Public Policy and Entrepreneurship
       •       Biomedical and Behavioral Health
       •       Youth Development Programs

The CALS Strategic Plan identifies six areas of focus:

       1)      Environment, Water, Land, and Natural Resources
       2)      Plant Systems
       3)      Animal Systems


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       4)     Family, Youth, and Community
       5)     Human Nutrition, Health and Food Safety
       6)     Marketing, Trade, and Economics

Thus, the SWES Department operates in concert with the UA and CALS strategic plans. We are
directly involved in each of the four strategic directions and our programs are specifically
directed towards the primary UA emphasis area (Climate, Environmental, Water and
Sustainability). Furthermore, the SWES programs address the top three CALS focal areas in
corresponding order. Therefore, the SWES Department is very well aligned with both the
University and College level strategic plans.




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B.     PROGRAM HISTORY

1.     History Since Last Program Review (2002)

SWES was formally initiated in 1927 as the Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soils. In
1972 it merged with Agricultural Engineering to become the Department of Soils, Water and
Engineering. Due to divergent interests, Agricultural Engineering was split off again in 1985,
and the department was renamed to Department of Soil and Water Science. In 1988, Peter
Wierenga was hired as Department Head and during his tenure (1988 to 2000) he was
instrumental in redirecting much of the research and teaching effort in SWES to Environmental
Science to reflect a growing emphasis upon environmental issues and problems at the state and
national levels. In addition, the Environmental Research Lab was incorporated into SWES in
1995. As a result of these changes, the department name underwent a third change to Soil, Water
and Environmental Science, in 1996. Jeffrey C. Silvertooth became the Department head in May
2000.

SWES was last reviewed in 2002. Major changes in SWES since 2002 include:

•      Several new outstanding personnel have been added since 2002 to enhance our research
       and teaching efforts:

       2003   Kathy Jacobs           Water Policy
       2004   Craig Rasmussen        Environmental Pedology
       2005   Michael Crimmins       Extension in Climate Science
       2006   Marcel Schaap          Environmental Physics
       2007   Markus Tuller          Environmental Physics
       2007   Channah Rock           Extension in Water Quality

•      Retirements resulted in the loss of two faculty in soil chemistry, two faculty in soil
       physics, and one faculty member in soil morphology. A mid-career faculty member in
       soil fertility left for a promotion to a department head position at another university.

•      SWES secured additional space in Gould-Simpson to house the NSF and State of Arizona
       funded Arizona Laboratory for Emerging Contaminants (ALEC) directed by Dr. Jon
       Chorover.

•      Three faculty members (Rasmussen, Schaap and Tuller) established the Center for
       Environmental Physics and Mineralogy (CEPM) to provide state of the art analytical and
       interpretation services to academic and commercial customers.

•      The Soil, Water and Plant Analysis Laboratory (SWAPL) was moved to the Fleischman
       laboratory at ERL and renamed the Water Quality Center (WQC) Laboratory.

•      The Water Village research facility was established at ERL.




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•      Departmental research has expanded to include major projects at Biosphere 2 since its
       acquisition by the University of Arizona.

These achievements, among others, instill the strong sense of optimism currently found among
faculty, staff and students. This optimism is a result of leadership which has led to a strong sense
of direction and purpose. The future of the department is promising as we move into the 21st
century.

Additional information about the history of the department can be found in Appendix 1.

2.     Recommendations and Responses to 2002 Academic Program Review

Introductory comments and overall assessment

•      The review team applauds the SWES Dept. and its leadership for maintaining
       outstanding academic and research programs with state and national relevance.
•      The Review team was impressed with the departmental leadership as evidenced by the
       enthusiastic appraisal expressed by all departmental members and outside peers.
•      The SWES Dept. is renowned nationally and internationally for cutting-edge research
       programs in soil physics, environmental microbiology and surface chemistry.
•      SWES has a strong interdisciplinary program that adds value to the university
       undergraduate and graduate education and to the state

Recommendations

Facilities

a.     In the long term we recommend that central administration work with CALS to identify
       resources for housing the SWES in a modern facility (ENR-2).

Since 2002 the SWES Department has been working with the CALS administration to secure
space in a new building to consolidate the department. The department has been part of several
proposals for Environment and Natural Resources Buildings (ENRB) II and III. Each proposal
has changed several times. Current plans for the construction of an ENRB II are for a “dry”
building, meaning it will not have wet lab capabilities. Thus, the SWES Department will not be
accommodated in this facility.

b.     In the shorter term it is recommended that department programs and personnel be
       consolidated in fewer locations to reduce fragmentation and improve communication and
       efficiency.

Although this is a good idea, space is not available for this type of consolidation. When the
School of Family and Consumer Sciences vacated the FCS Building, where the SWES
Department occupies the third floor, we hoped to gain some of that space. However, the CALS
administration opted to offer that space to the Department of Agricultural Education and the
School of Natural Resources because the SWES Department programs would require more


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significant renovation requirements and costs (more wet labs).

c.     In the interim, the department leadership could enhance interactions by providing
       opportunities for academic and social gathering and exchange such as encouraging
       faculty and students to attend seminars, provide refreshments, and perhaps form a focal
       point for gatherings.

There has been a consistent effort to address this need in the SWES Department and each of
these recommendations have been implemented and consistently maintained over the past six
years. We have had some success in this area but we still have a lot of room for improvement.

d.     Seek assistance from administration to obtain help from the University Office of Space
       Planning and Space Management for space solution problems.

This has been done (refer to point #1).

e.     Investigate space and feasibility of a common equipment room, with adequate security
       and supervision.

This has been addressed in several cases and we do have better use of common lab facilities.
The recent development of the Center for Environmental Physics and Mineralogy (CEPM) by
Drs. Rasmussen, Schaap, and Tuller is a good example of this type facility. Also, Dr. Chorover’s
development of the Arizona Laboratory of Emerging Contaminants (ALEC) is another good
example. This facility provides state-of-the-art analyses to the UA, ASU, and NAU scientific
communities. In support of this facility 2,000 ft2 of newly remodeled laboratory space has been
acquired in the Gould-Simpson Building (courtesy of the College of Science Dean Joaquin
Ruiz).

f.     Investigate with college and university the means to improve levels of service and
       maintenance of facilities.

We have been successful in the improvement of our facilities in a few cases, particularly when
we are renovating labs to accommodate new faculty.

g.     Renovate soil chemistry laboratories for Chorover program.

This was done and it has been very successful. Dr. Chorover now has several very nice labs
operating in support of his Environmental Biogeochemistry program that are equipped to analyze
major and trace elements in environmental matrices (soil, sediment, biomass and water).

h.     Obtain space for departmental conference room.

A new conference room (and two small conference rooms) was built in the Shantz Building
basement. The SWES Department has joint ownership with the Departments of Animal
Sciences, Nutritional Science, and Agriculture and Biosystems Engineering.




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i.     Acquire field sites for real-world vadose and subsurface physics studies.

Drs. Markus Tuller and Marcel Schaap have secured an NSF grant that is supporting the
renovation of the lysimeter facilities at the Campus Agricultural Center in Tucson.

j.     Upgrade computers for computer-intensive programs, such as remote sensing.

We have continued to address these needs. The primary base of funding support has been
secured by Dr. Huete and other related programs. Dr. Schaap and Dr. Tuller used part of their
startup funds to renew teaching computers and install a server in Vet Sci 105. These computers
are utilized for the remote sensing courses. The SWES Department has been provided the
technical and IT support for this program.

k.     Pursue $200,000 in extramural grant support for new instrumentation.

Several programs in the SWES Department have been very successful in this effort. Examples
are the CEPM and ALEC facilities previously described (#5) and the lysimeter renovations (#9).
Collectively, the extramural support that has been secured for this objective greatly exceeds the
$200K recommended amount.

Faculty and Staff

l.     Recruit replacement for soil genesis and morphology with emphasis at the landscape
       scale to support soil and water management and other related areas.

We have been very successful in this effort. Dr. Craig Rasmussen (Environmental Pedologist)
was hired in January 2005.

m.     Recruit replacements for the upcoming loss of two soil physics faculty.

Dr. Marcel Schaap was hired in July 2006 and Dr. Markus Tuller was hired in January 2007.

n.     Provide funding for a biogeochemistry position.

This has continued to be one of our priority positions in our strategic plan but we have not been
successful in developing this position due to budget and funding limitations within CALS.

o.     Pursue appointment of faculty position in anaerobic microbiology.

This has not been a top priority position and we were not able to further develop other positions,
including this one due to budget and funding limitations within CALS.

p.     Hire a new environmental toxicologist.

We have discussed this position in the SWES Department many times in the past six years. I
have also had discussions with colleagues in the UA College of Public Health. This is a position



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and program area that is more appropriate for their departments/divisions, and is therefore not a
high priority in relation to other positions and programs needed in the SWES Department.

q.     Fill position for soil and water quality at the Maricopa Agriculture Center (MAC).

Dr. Channah Rock was hired in August 2007 as the Extension Water Quality Specialist. She is
based at MAC.

r.     Examine needs for a specialist in cotton production.

This is not a priority position for the SWES Department. This falls more to program
responsibility of the Plant Sciences Department. However, Dr. Randy Norton, Area Extension
Specialist and Director of the Safford Agricultural Center directs a research and extension
program in cotton agronomy and he serves in this capacity to a large extent. Dr. Norton has an
academic appointment in the SWES Department.

s.     Establish a research/extension position and recruit for a specialist in air quality air-borne
       particulates.

This has not been a top priority position and we were not able to further develop other positions,
including this one due to budget and funding limitations within CALS.

t.     Review the policy of three-way appointments and those of less than ten percent for
       extension faculty to prevent burn-out and enhance quality of performance.

Dr. Tom Thompson had one of these positions. He left the UA in August 2006 for a position at
Texas Tech University (Head of the Department of Plant and Soil Science). We have not been
able to replace that position (Soil-Plant Relationships) and this has further exacerbated the
“stretch” for Dr. Jim Walworth (70% Extension, 20% Research, and 10% Instruction) who has
stepped up his teaching responsibilities considerably to help fill this gap. The result is a
substantial increase in his time and commitment to instruction primarily at the cost of his
Extension program. Dr. Kevin Fitzsimmons (30% Extension, 50% Research, and 20%
Instruction) maintained this three-way split until July 2008 when he accepted 0.50 time
responsibilities as the Director for the CALS International Programs.

u.     Address means to enhance extension operating budgets, including external grants for
       extension and applied research, or interdisciplinary collaboration projects.

The reality of the past six years is that we have been forced to substantially reduce our budgets
(allocated funds) due to university-wide budget reductions. As a result, we have been reducing
the level of support for extension programs and applied research. However, the faculty have
been doing an outstanding job in terms of competing for and securing external grants to support
their programs. Most of the funding they are able to bring into their programs is directed toward
research projects. Therefore, the extension faculty are essentially subsidizing their extension
program with their applied research program funding.




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v.     Add a position in remote sensing to complement program staff support.

There are at least two other departments/units in CALS (School of Natural Resources, SNR and
Office of Arid Land Studies, OALS) with programs in remote sensing and one other in another
college (Geography and Regional Development). A new position in remote sensing must be
developed and substantiated in concert with those other departments and programs. We cannot
afford, nor do we want to pursue a duplication of efforts of other programs. Thus, this not been a
top priority position and we were not able to further develop this position due to budget and
funding limitations within CALS.

w.     Fill computer support system position using funding recently provided to the department.

A computer/IT support position is fully funded (1.0 FTE) by the department (Sheri Musil).

x.     Establish priorities and funding for technical support.

Due to university-wide budget reductions and the cuts that have imposed on the SWES
Department since 2002, technical support has been continually diminishing. In 2002 we had
9.85 FTE as state-funded research technicians on department support and in 2008 we now have
2.56 FTE (these numbers include the ERL technical staff). This is a net loss of more than seven
positions in the past six years.

y.     Technical support positions (hardline) need to be increased.

We agree. However, the reality is outlined in #13.

z.     Continue to provide opportunities for professional development of staff.

We have continued to support staff and encourage their participation and involvement in
professional development activities.

aa.    Improve communication with and among staff by regular program and staff meetings
       with faculty and administration.

Efforts have been made to improve communications and interactions among all department
personnel throughout the past six years. This has been initiated by the department head and
department administration and implemented in the form of regular (monthly) newsletters, faculty
meetings (monthly), staff meetings (2-3 times per year), meetings with graduate students (1-2
times per year), and departmental functions held several times each year.

Undergraduate Program

bb.    Integrate the SWS curriculum into the Environmental Science major as a focal area to
       meet current student interests. The SWS curriculum should be preserved to meet the
       needs for professional soil scientists and agronomists, and associated certifications.




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The Soil and Water Science B.S. program was eliminated in 2002 and a new Soil Science focal
area was developed in the Environmental Science program.

cc.    Enhance recruiting efforts at all levels (K-12) to include orientation of potential and
       incoming students and use of “Student Ambassadors”.

This has been addressed each year with trips to local and regional school systems by the
department head and some of the instructional faculty.

Graduate Program

dd.    Increase interaction between sub disciplines.

Efforts have been made to enhance this interaction. However it remains an area in need of
improvement. One obstacle is the high degree of physical separation among SWES faculty and
programs among six buildings/locations (Shantz, FCS, Vet. Sci. Micro., Forbes, Gould-Simpson
and ERL)

ee.    Establish a stronger orientation program for new students.

We have been conducting new graduate student orientation sessions annually at the beginning of
the new academic year. This has been managed by the SWES Graduate Program and supported
by the department head and faculty. This has been a very good improvement and it continues to
improve each year.

ff.    Investigate payment of in-state fees ($2400 per year).

There have been limitations to this and this has not been implemented.

gg.    More opportunities to teach.

Graduate students supported with TA funds have been involved in instruction activities in
support of our teaching program. With the budget cuts the number of these positions have
actually declined (from 14 TA lines in 2002 to 5 in 2008) so there are now fewer opportunities
for teaching.

hh.    Equity of tuition rebate between RA’s and TA’s could be solved by calling them
       Graduate Assistants.

All graduate students are referred to and classified as Graduate Assistants and they are treated
equitably in terms of tuition and tuition remission. Students supported on department funds have
teaching responsibilities and are functionally referred to as TAs.

ii.    Restructure soil chemistry courses to boost enrollment.

Our soil chemistry and environmental chemistry courses have been restructured since 2002 by



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Drs. Chorover, Curry, and Artiola.

SWPAL Analytical Facilities - The current facility and service are inadequate. With
restructuring, SWPAL can become an important asset for the department and the university.

jj.    Relocate SWPAL to suitable facilities at ERL.

SWPAL was moved to ERL in 2003 and re-named the Water Quality Lab.

kk.    Develop means to improve turn-around time for samples.

This has been a continual issue with Dr. Artiola and the lab. There has been some improvement
but additional gains are still needed.

ll.    Allocate positions for lab manager and technical support.

That would be nice but it has not been possible (see #13 above).

mm.    Establish departmental QA/QC oversight committee.

That has been done.

nn.    Set up financial mechanisms for equipment replacement.

This has to be done with the management of the revenue with the lab.

ERL and Water Quality Center

oo.    Address the current needs and inattention to facility maintenance.

This has been addressed substantially. Dr. Pepper has been serving as the ERL Director and
facility maintenance has improved. In fact, the Water Village has been developed substantially
in the past four years and is a state-of-the-art facility.

pp.    Upgrade the telephone and computer network.

This has been done and significant improvements have been realized through the process of
several upgrades in the system.

Student Outcome Assessment

qq.    Finalize the list of desired student outcomes, and the development of assessment tools.

After a review by the SWES faculty, the list of desired Student Outcomes for the CROP and
ENVS majors was finalized in 2003, subject to periodic review and revision as necessary.
Assessment tools include Teacher Course Evaluation summaries and an exit interview by the



                                                                                           12
SWES department head. We recommend that graduating seniors complete a CALS exit survey
(this was proposed but not uniformly implemented until 2008) which incorporates questions
specific to our Desired Outcomes.

rr.        Implement the assessment tools and regularly monitor progress. (see above).

Diversity Issues

ss.        Address diversity deficiencies in the faculty to reflect the student population and state
           workforce.

tt.        Continue efforts to attract under represented minorities into all levels and programs in the
           department.

uu.        Strengthen recruitment of outstanding minorities into SWES graduate programs under the
           Sloan Scholars program.

In relation to points ss-uu, we have been constantly working to address each of these issues. The
following information is offered as an example of the demographics of our graduate education
programs. Data is from departmental records.

SPRING 2007 Enrolled Graduate Students

      70
      65
      60
      55
      50
      45
      40
      35
      30
      25
      20
      15
      10
       5
       0
                 M.S./Ph.D           ES/SWS              Female/Male       Domes./Internat.

Of the 44 Domestic Students, 12 are “under-represented,” including 9 Hispanic, and 3 African-
American. Nine under-represented students are Sloan Scholars. Of the 23 International students,
15 are from Mexico (4 CONACYT, 2 PROMEP, 1 INIFAP), 2 from Eritrea, and 1 each from
China, India, Japan, Korea, Peru and The Netherlands.




                                                                                                 13
FALL 2007 Enrolled Graduate Students

         70
         65
         60
         55
         50
         45
         40
         35
         30
         25
         20
         15
         10
          5
          0
                 M.S./Ph.D            ES/SWS             Female/Male           Domes./Internat.


Of the 38 Domestic Students, 13 are “under-represented,” including 9 Hispanic, and 4 African-
American. Eight under-represented students are Sloan Scholars. One African-American M.S.
student is a UA “Arizona Scholar.” Of the 19 International students, 10 are from Mexico (4
CONACYT, 3 PROMEP, 1 INIFAP, 1 TIES), 2 each are from Japan and Eritrea, and 1 each
from China, India, Japan, Peru and The Netherlands.

May, August and December 2007 M.S. and Ph.D. Graduates

    14
    12
    10
    8
    6
    4
    2
    0
              M.S./Ph.D      ES/SWS        Female/Male      Domes./Internat.

Of the 12 Domestic graduates, 3 were “under-represented,” including 2 Hispanic (one a Sloan
Scholar), and 1 African-American. Of the 9 International graduates, 6 are from Mexico and 1
each from S. Korea, Eritrea, and India.




                                                                                                  14
C.     OVERVIEW OF THE PROGRAM’S ACADEMIC QUALITY

1.     Overall Quality

The SWES Department contributes to the UA and CALS strategic objectives with distinction.
Based on the Faculty Scholarly Productivity (FSP) Index for 2006-2007 recently published by
Academic Analytics the SWES department is identified as:

No. 6 in Soil Science
No. 8 in Natural Resources

http://www.academicanalytics.com/TopSchools/TopPrograms.aspx#1

The FSP Index is determined for doctoral programs at 387 US research universities and is based
on publications (books and journal articles), citations of journal publications, federal research
funding and awards and honors. The SWES Department was the only UA Department identified
in each of these categories. Based on these measures, the SWES Department is clearly
performing at an excellent level. As we look to the future, we not only seek to maintain this
level of excellence in our programs but to improve upon the quality and efficiency of our
programs in this department.

The SWES faculty are productive and successful in their research endeavors. This is best
exemplified by their success in obtaining research funding and in publishing scientific literature.
While both are variable among the individual faculty, overall success is indicated by evaluating
average values. For the years 2002 to 2008, the faculty have published approximately 4 articles
(journal articles/book chapters) per year per faculty member (this is exclusive of proceedings,
reports, etc). For the years 2002 to the present, the faculty have received external research
funding in the amount of $26,916,712. A yearly breakdown of competitive grant dollars
obtained is shown in Figure C-1.


                                            5000
                Sponsored Projects Awards




                                            4500
                                            4000
                      (thousands $)




                                            3500
                                            3000
                                            2500
                                            2000
                                            1500
                                            1000
                                             500
                                               0
                                                   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008
                                                                        Year

                 Figure C-1. External sponsored projects awarded to SWES



                                                                                                    15
The department is comprised of many faculty who have established prominent positions in
respective fields. This is indicated by the numerous positions the faculty hold and have held in
international/national/state technical organizations and the associate editor positions for scientific
journals (Appendix 2). This is also reflected clearly by positions some of the faculty have or
have had on national advisory boards. At the national level Dr. Ian Pepper (2006) and Dr.
Charles Gerba (2008) received the prestigious honor of being named a Fellow of the American
Association for the Advancement of Science AAAS. At the University of Arizona, Dr. Raina
Maier earned the CALS Research Faculty of the year award in 2007. Dr. James Riley earned the
CALS Teaching Faculty of the year award in 2008. Dr. Jeffrey Silvertooth earned the CALS
Administrator of the year award in 2008. The Environmental Research Laboratory (ERL)
Maintenance team won the CALS Outstanding Team award in 2006. Additionally, the
department as a whole won the first place award for outstanding diversity in a graduate program
awarded by the Graduate Student Professional Council in 2008.

The production of textbooks and laboratory manuals is yet another indicator of faculty
achievement and productivity. The SWES Department continues to make significant
contributions in this regard. The second edition of the interdisciplinary textbook Environmental
and Pollution Science by Drs. Pepper, Gerba and Brusseau which integrates the physical
sciences, engineering, and mathematics as applied to environmental processes, was published in
2006. This textbook was the result of a highly collaborative endeavor wherein chapters were
contributed by just about every faculty member of the department. The second edition of
Environmental Microbiology by Drs. Maier, Pepper and Gerba was published in 2008, and was a
collaborative project among the microbiology faculty, staff, post-docs, and graduate students.
The second edition of the accompanying Environmental Microbiology Laboratory Manual was
published in 2004. Soil Water Dynamics by Dr. Warrick was published in 2003. A third
collaborative textbook edited by Drs. Artiola, Pepper and Brusseau, Environmental Monitoring
and Characterization, was published in 2004.

One of the clearest indicators of overall program quality is the professional success of graduates.
From 1998 to 2008, 27 graduate students working with SWES faculty have obtained faculty
positions at four-year colleges and universities.

2.     Program Changes within the Last 5 to 7 Years

In recent years (since 2002) the SWES Department has strengthened its programs in critical zone
science and the water quality focus area. Key positions and faculty have been added to the
Department in the following areas: Environmental Soil Chemistry (Chorover), Environmental
Pedology (Rasmussen), Climate Science (Crimmins), Water Resource Management (Jacobs),
Environmental Physics (Schaap and Tuller), and Extension Water Quality (Rock). Thus, we
have specifically addressed each of these very important program areas in concert with our earth
and environmental science focus and to further strengthen our focus on critical zone science and
water quality.

In 2004 Dr. Tom Thompson left the SWES Department for a new position at Texas Tech
University (Professor and Head of the Plant and Soil Science Department). As a result the
SWES Department lost a valuable faculty member and program in Soil-Plant Relations. Tom



                                                                                               16
had a very strong research and teaching program. Collectively, the SWES Department has
considered this loss as significant and feels that this is an important position for us to replace.
We formed a search and screen committee who in turn developed a position description for a
new program in Soil-Plant Relations. However, due to serious budget constraints we have not
been able to gain authority from CALS to restructure this position and conduct a search and
screening process. In response, we have shifted some of the teaching responsibilities to other
faculty. However, one major upper division course (SWES 602, Nutrient Dynamics) has not
been offered for several years. Our graduate level curriculum has suffered as a result. It is
interesting to note that CALS did grant authority to another unit in this college during this time-
frame to fill a position with an excellent young scientist with very strong and complimentary
skills in Soil-Plant Relations. We feel this position (and program) should be based in the SWES
Department. This is an issue that has been brought to the attention of the CALS Executive
Council and the other unit in the college and it still needs to be addressed.

3.     New Directions

SWES is pursuing collaborations with other departments (listed below) to form a formal
collaboration that is currently being referred to as the School of Earth, Climate, Energy and
Environment.

Vision:
Formation of a School of Earth, Climate, Energy and Environment is a rare opportunity to focus
the UA’s already formidable strengths directly related to research, teaching, and outreach in
geosciences, climate, water, natural resources, environmental sciences and engineering,
renewable energy technology, sustainable high tech manufacturing, and material resource
engineering. These disciplines, now arrayed across three colleges, address scientific grand
challenges and the UA’s Strategic Plan priority in “Climate, Environmental, Water, and Energy
Sustainability.”

This School will be a cross‐college federation of units* that will produce: 1) new knowledge
about earth processes and human‐environment interactions at all geographic and temporal scales,
2) generate holistic solutions for the sustainable utilization of natural and material resources, and
3) disseminate knowledge and solutions for the benefit of students and society. The School has a
unique opportunity to create a new and fundamental understanding of the interactions among
environmental processes and engineered infrastructures and to develop the basis for the
transformation to a green economy.

The School will maintain existing disciplinary strengths while exploiting opportunities arising
from interdisciplinary synergies. The School will immediately provide UA with a distinctive
national profile, which would enhance our capacity to compete for external and University
resources. The School will be well‐positioned to coordinate and expand general education
offerings and to improve undergraduate programs through increased efficiencies. New synergies
will likely emerge in our research, graduate programs, and extension and outreach efforts.




                                                                                               17
Structure and Responsibilities:
Participating units will continue to report to their current deans. Salary lines for faculty and staff
will continue to reside in the respective colleges. The School will be managed by a Director and
an Executive Council. The Director shall be chosen for a two‐year term from one of the
participating unit heads or directors. The Executive Council will consist of the heads and
directors of the participating units. The Director will inform the participating deans of School
activities and work directly with particular deans on issues pertinent to that College’s mission
(e.g., faculty lines, staff lines, GTAs, Tier One and Two teaching).

School‐level responsibilities will include Tier One and Tier Two teaching, School‐level
undergraduate curriculum enhancements, new fund‐raising initiatives targeted to broadly support
the School, and support of cross‐departmental/unit teaching, research and outreach activities.

Departmental/unit‐level responsibilities will include promotion and tenure, post‐tenure review
and annual faculty review, salary adjustments, discipline‐specific undergraduate and graduate
degree‐granting programs (current programs and degrees will continue), graduate admissions,
allocation of graduate student support, and allocation of space.

Responsibilities coordinated between the School and individual departments/units may include
securing new and replacement faculty and staff lines, business functions, IT and other
non‐granted‐funded technical support, teaching workload (i.e., with regard to Tier One and Tier
Two teaching), allocation of GTAs (i.e., with regard to Tier One and Tier Two teaching).

Final decisions on the allocation of responsibilities between the School and the participating
departments/units, and on particular administrative procedures will be made by faculty vote
following the development of guidelines by interdepartmental committees consisting of faculty,
classified staff, appointed personnel and students.

*Participating Units:
Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory (CoS), Atmospheric Sciences (CoS), Chemical and
Environmental Engineering (CoE), Geosciences (CoS), Hydrology and Water Resources (CoE),
Laboratory of Tree Ring Research (CoS), Materials Science and Engineering (CoE), Mining and
Geological Engineering (CoE), School of Natural Resources (CALS), Soil, Water and
Environmental Science (CALS)

4.     Comparison to Other Programs

Examples of other diverse Soil/Environmental Science departments for comparison include:

University of California-Riverside (Environmental Sciences)
University of California-Davis (Land, Air and Water Resources)
University of Florida (Soil and Water Science)
Iowa State University (Agronomy)
Cornell University (Crop and Soil Sciences)

SWES compares very favorably with these programs. Along with SWES almost all of these


                                                                                                18
departments have programs in the top ten in either soil science or natural resources and
conservation based on the FSP Index determined by Academic Analytics for 2006-2007.

Top 10 programs in Soil Science (Academic Analytics)

   1. University of California - Davis (Agricultural & Environmental Chemistry)
   2. University of California - Davis (Soils and Biogeochemistry)
   3. Michigan State University (Crop and Soil Sciences)
   4. University of California - Riverside (Soil and Water Science)
   5. Cornell University (Soil and Crop Sciences)
   6. University of Arizona (Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences)
   7. University of Minnesota - Twin Cities (Soil Science)
   8. Iowa State University (Soil Science)
   9. University of Wisconsin - Madison (Soil Science)
   10. Pennsylvania State University (Soil Science)

Top 10 programs in Natural Resources and Conservation (Academic Analytics)

   1. University of California - San Diego (Marine Biodiversity and Conservation)
   2. UNC - Chapel Hill (Environmental Sciences Engineering)
   3. Stanford University (Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Environment and Resources)
   4. University of Washington (Quantitative Ecology & Resource Management)
   5. University of California - Riverside (Soil and Water Science)
   6. Cornell University (Natural Resources)
   7. University of Montana - Missoula (Wildlife Biology)
   8. University of Arizona (Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences)
   9. Iowa State University (Biorenewable Resources and Technology)
   10. University of Minnesota - Twin Cities (Water Resources Science)




                                                                                           19
D.     FACULTY

1.     Faculty Strengths and Weaknesses

Faculty in SWES is a diverse group of outstanding scientists (4 female, 21 male; 3 Hispanic; 22
Caucasian), distinguished by their understanding of interactions among soil, water, and the larger
environment, and their ability to carry out research, planning, and educational programs oriented
towards the solution of environmental and resource use problems. One of the greatest challenges
facing faculty is the lack of support personnel in the form of state-funded research technicians
and administrative staff. These positions have been greatly reduced in recent years despite their
importance for maintaining institutional history and building research and teaching programs in
SWES, and strengthening the Department’s leadership role in the area of Soil, Water and
Environmental Science.

2.     Nature and Breadth of Faculty Research

The SWES faculty have disciplinary expertise in environmental biology, chemistry, physics, soil
science and crop management, and water management and policy. The current research interests
of the SWES faculty can be grouped into a number of systems-level research areas: water
systems management, land management, mass and energy transport processes, and
biogeochemistry/geomicrobiology. Thus, SWES plays a major role in water quality research,
water management, and land management in the State of Arizona. Current areas of strength
traverse the full range from basic to applied environmental science research and include (A)
Subsurface Processes, (B) Climate-Ecosystem Interactions, (C) Water – Quality and Policy, (D)
Land – Use, Management and Restoration. These are discussed in the following sections.

a.     Subsurface Processes: Research in SWES encompasses the full range of basic
physical, chemical and biological processes – including their couplings – in the heterogeneous
subsurface environment (soil, vadose zone and saturated zone).

(i)     Soil Physics and Subsurface Hydrology: Characterization, monitoring, and simulation
of dynamic vadose and saturated zone processes are critically important to many activities,
including those associated with environmental management and remediation, sustainability and
quality of water resources, agricultural management and sustainability of soil resources,
forestry, hydrology, and engineering. Semi-arid environments are characterized by a
particularly deep vadose zone with large gas-liquid-solid interfacial areas that exert strong
controls on resident hydro- and eco- systems.

One of the program focal areas is characterization of physical porous media properties and
monitoring of mass and energy transport processes in soils with state-of-the-art analytical
equipment and sensor technology. The Center for Environmental Physics and Mineralogy
(CEPM), which also offers analytical and interpretation services to academic and commercial
customers, encompasses these research activities (Rasmussen, Schaap, and Tuller). A second
research area involves recent advances in high-resolution, nondestructive imaging and
computational techniques which provide exciting new means to advance our understanding of
interfacial phenomena, flow processes, and contaminant, microbial, and colloidal transport at the



                                                                                           20
pore scale. With some experimental limitations, we are now able to map pore geometry, fluid
distribution, and pore-scale flow and transport processes with high spatial resolution.
Computational developments, such as smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) or the lattice
Boltzmann modeling approach, allow interpretation of microscale observations and extrapolation
to larger scales. Better understanding of fundamental mass and energy flow and transport
phenomena is of crucial importance for critical zone science and aids development of advanced
strategies for resources conservation, pollution prevention, and remediation of natural resources.
We are focused on the application and improvement of cutting-edge imaging methods (e.g., X-
Ray Computed Tomography) that are applied in combination with advanced fluid dynamics
modeling approaches for pore-scale characterization and simulation of multi-phase flow and
transport processes (Brusseau, Schaap and Tuller). Large-scale numerical modeling approaches
facilitate investigation of deep vadose zone systems, hillslope hydrological processes, and
fundamentals of groundwater recharge (Schaap and Tuller). A third area of research is focused
on development and improvement of electromagnetic measurement and sensor technology for
monitoring of soil water status (Schaap and Tuller).

(ii)    Geomicrobiology: The field of geomicrobiology is a sub-discipline of microbiology that
interfaces with Earth science and is concerned with the role of microbes and microbial activities
in geological and geochemical processes. As a relatively young interdisciplinary field that
relates microbial activity to the composition and structure of environmental and geological
systems, it is one that is especially fitting for the SWES Department.

A focal area within SWES that best illustrates the potential for interdisciplinary research is the
study of microbial-mediated metal transformations. These processes influence the fate, toxicity
and bioavailability of metals and metalloids in the environment. Current areas of focus in SWES
include arsenite and manganese oxidation and methylation of arsenic. Key enzymes responsible
for these reactions have been identified and purified. For example, arsenite(III)-
methyltransferase from a diverse array of microorganisms was isolated and characterized
(Rensing). Manganese and iron bio-oxidation is being examined using both spectroscopic and
biochemical techniques. An important aspect of geomicrobiology involves the interaction of
bacteria with natural (and manufactured) surfaces which is key to understanding bacterial
adhesion and the subsequent biofilm formation (Curry). The role of extracellular polymeric
substances, lipopolysaccharides and phospholipids in conditioning surfaces for biofilm formation
is being explored in studies that combine macroscopic measurements with molecular
spectroscopy (Chorover). How microorganisms and their communities adapt to metal-
contaminated environments, such as mine tailings, is being studied using molecular methods
(Rensing, Maier). Metal homeostasis and molecular mechanisms of toxicity are being examined
using a wide variety of biochemical techniques (Rensing). An active area of research in the
SWES Department that is funded currently by federal and state agencies involves examining the
ability of bacteria to survive and metabolize in oligotrophic environments and defining patterns
in the diversity and community structure of bacteria in these environments including subsurface
soils, Sonoran and Atacama Desert soils, carbonate caves, and desert mine tailings sites (Maier,
Rasmussen). Since some of these environments are considered extreme and unique, resident
microorganisms are being interrogated for novel activities or natural products. This has led to
the development of collaborative research that explores the behavior and activity of a group of
natural compounds known as biosurfactants (Maier).



                                                                                            21
(iii) Biogeochemistry and Pedogenesis: Focus in this broad area within SWES ranges from
molecular-scale studies of metal(loid) and organic contaminant sorption-desorption in soils and
sediments, to pedon- and landscape-scale investigations of subsurface structure evolution and
solute flux.

The abiotic and biotic processes that contribute to mineral weathering and humification in soils
and sediments also impact the immobilization of metals, radionuclides and trace organic
contaminants in geomedia. The rates, extents and mechanisms of these processes are the focus
of ongoing laboratory experimental work that is being coupled to specific field sites of high
priority (e.g., Superfund and DoE waste legacy sites) (Chorover, Brusseau). Fundamental
studies are also being conducted on the interaction between mineral surfaces and soil organic
matter as a means to quantify local and regional controls of soil carbon sequestration and
terrestrial carbon cycling (Rasmussen, Chorover). Knowledge of soil forming processes and the
distribution of soils on the landscape is fundamental to understanding landscape evolution and
how agricultural and non-agricultural systems respond to natural and anthropogenic perturbation,
including climate change (Rasmussen). The spatial distribution of soils across a landscape
provides a direct measure of long-term landscape evolution processes in addition to quantifying
spatial variation in soil properties important to water quality, availability and biogeochemical
cycling. Soil processes and morphology strongly impact water availability and quality through
physical soil-water interactions, adsorption/desorption of nutrients and pollutants, and
dissolution/precipitation reactions. Current projects include quantifying soil genesis and mineral
transformation across hillslopes (e.g., Biosphere 2), regional environmental gradients, and
chronosequences (Rasmussen, Chorover).

(iv)   Contaminant Transport and Fate: Numerous human activities (food production, energy
and mineral production, manufacturing, waste generation) can create impacts that are
potentially deleterious to human health and the environment.

To assess the potential impact of and the risk associated with organic and inorganic chemicals
and pathogens we need to understand their behavior in the environment. This is the focus of the
Contaminant Transport and Fate program in the Department. Specifically, the many physical,
chemical, and microbiological processes and factors that influence the speciation, transport and
fate of contaminants in soil and water are under investigation through a combination of
laboratory and field experimentation and computational modeling. Areas of investigation
include dissolution dynamics of immiscible-liquid contaminants, bioavailability and
biodegradation of organic contaminants, liquid-phase transport of organic and inorganic
chemicals, vapor-phase transport of volatile organic contaminants in the vadose zone,
sorption/desorption kinetics of metals and radionuclides, xenobiotic transformation reactions,
and development and application of mathematical models for describing contaminant transport
and fate (Brusseau, Maier, Chorover). An important research area involves microbial food safety
of agriculture food products and environmental factors impacting microbial food safety. Related
to this are studies on the presence, potential food chain transfer, and human exposure of
contaminants such as perchlorate, radionuclides such uranium, heavy metals such as Cd and Pb,
and pharmaceuticals (Sanchez). Other research topics include the fate of inorganic nitrogen
compounds in soil systems (Walworth, Sanchez, Silvertooth, Glenn, Brusseau) and the



                                                                                           22
occurrence and fate of human pathogens of bacterial or viral origin (Gerba, Pepper, Rock,
Brusseau).

b.     Climate-Ecosystem Interactions: The space- and time-scale impacts of global change
and climate variability on soil and ecosystem processes, particularly in arid and semiarid
regions of the world are not well understood. Yet this information is a fundamental
requirement for future land and water use planning.

(i)     Soil Carbon Cycling and Climate Change: An area of current focus is the response of
soil carbon cycling to climate change and the mechanisms controlling organic and inorganic soil
carbon sequestration in arid and semiarid ecosystems (Rasmussen). Additional work is aiming to
investigate of how climatic and soil factors impact agricultural and non-agricultural lands in arid
and semiarid regions. Specifically, this research addresses how agriculture systems affect the
global environment through release of trace gases and altered carbon cycles, as well as soil-
plant-atmosphere boundary effects on the global environment, including evapotranspiration
(Matthias).

(ii)    Regional Climate Data and Global Change: Arizona Meteorological Network
(AZMET): A second area addressing global change is the operation of AZMET which has
collected weather and rainfall information for southern Arizona for the last 25 years (Brown).
This database is a potentially useful tool in studying global change. Climate data from AZMET
and other observation networks are being used to assess the sensitivity of different arid and semi-
arid ecosystems to recent climatic changes. Connections between wildfire activity, drought
impacts, and species level phenological shifts are being assessed with respect to climate
monitoring data to support resource management decision making and the development of
climate change adaptation plans (Crimmins).

(iii) Tropical Ecosystem Response: A third area of global change research is focused on
tropical ecosystems, primarily in the Amazon, and their response to climate change, fire, and
land use activities (Saleska (adjunct), Huete). We are studying the role of light and moisture
limitations on forest productivity and carbon cycling, associated with drought events and
anticipated long term drying trends in the tropics. We also plan to focus on savanna-forest
ecotone transitional areas over light and moisture gradients. This work has resulted in an NSF-
PIRE project and is closely being linked to research in the rainforest biome at Biosphere2.

(iv)     Satellite Based Monitoring of the Earth’s Environment: A fourth area of research is a
large NASA project aimed at monitoring changes in the Earth's environment through the use of
satellite-based sensors (Huete). Specific impacts under investigation include shifting seasonal
and phenology cycles and above ground productivity resulting from land degradation, land-use
change and climate forcing; land-coastal interactions in the Gulf of California; and public health
impacts from pollen emissions from juniper woodlands. We are also involved in the
development of a deterministic model for predicting and simulating Juniper species pollen
emission and downwind concentration to study details of phenology and meteorology and their
dependencies. This is in support of public health organizations for enhancement of their
operational asthma surveillance decision support systems (DSS) to serve their management,
business, and policy responsibilities. One important goal is to develop a real time and rapid



                                                                                            23
c.      Water – Quality and Policy: The importance of scarce water to the rapidly growing
cities and rural communities in the desert Southwest can not be overstated. A principal goal
of the SWES department is to develop science-based approaches to enable efficient,
environmentally-sound, and health-sustaining approaches to water use and recycling.
         
(i)     Water Quality and Use: Departmental research pertaining to ground and surface water
contamination (Brusseau, Maier, Fitzsimmons, Glenn, Artiola) and crop/landscape water use
(Brown, Sanchez, Silvertooth, Walworth) provide critical input into important policy issues
pertaining to the quality and effective utilization of Arizona’s limited water resources. Water
harvesting, a relatively new research direction, has received much attention at the state and local
level through on and off campus demonstration projects (Riley). Rainfall in Tucson equals 75%
of the potable water deliveries in urban Tucson. Efforts to stimulate use of rainfall via water
harvesting are being supplemented with efforts to gain recognition of the importance of
considering harvested rainwater as another source of water for Tucson and not just a localized
conservation effort.

(ii)    Water Reuse – Effect on Communities: Increasing demands on limited water resources
such as population growth, ongoing drought, and preservation of ecological systems, such as
riparian areas, have made wastewater reclamation for municipal irrigation an attractive option for
extending water supplies in the semiarid Southwest. Reclaimed water use on a volume basis is
growing at an estimated 15 percent per year, demonstrating its growing acceptance as a clean,
safe product. However, there remain questions about the long-term sustainability as well as
human health risk of reclaimed water use for irrigating public and recreational areas. Our
program goals are to facilitate information transfer on the safe and effective use of reclaimed
water within communities across the state of Arizona. Our research team is currently
documenting scientific information regarding benefits and risks of using recycled water in
municipal and agricultural systems through interactive learning and education. Current and
future programming and funding will focus on the assessment of microbial risk of various
reclaimed water quality classes and designated water uses. Additionally, research will focus on
the selection of applicable microbial indicator organisms to accurately assess reclaimed water
quality since currently no standards exist. Current research focuses on the effect of reclaimed
water use on microbial transport in the environments through irrigated systems in both municipal
and agricultural irrigation practices (Rock). The presence of water micropollutants (trace
organic and inorganic contaminants) is a problem of growing concern in semi-arid environments
where water reuse is increasingly employed. Detection and quantification of these constituents
requires sensitive mass spectrometric instrumentation dedicated to the purpose of environmental
sample analysis. SWES faculty (Chorover, Maier, Pepper, Brusseau) and collaborators in four



                                                                                             24
colleges at UA have recently received NSF and State of Arizona funding to establish a new
collaborative, analytical facility (Arizona Laboratory for Emerging Contaminants) for this
purpose.

(iii) Urban Microbiology: A unique feature of the SWES department is its strength in the
area of health related environmental microbiology which focuses on the impact of
environmentally transmitted pathogens on humans during their domestic daily life. Studies have
focused on the fate and transport of pathogens on fomites within households and indoor
environments (Gerba); municipal wastes and effluents (Gerba, Pepper); and household water
distribution systems (Pepper). Additional areas have included novel disinfection strategies,
molecular and real-time sensor detection technologies and microbial risk assessments (Gerba,
Pepper). Pathogens studied have included bacteria, viruses and protozoan parasites of fecal
origin, as well as emerging microbial pathogens including the SARS virus and prions. These
studies led to the development of a unique facility known as the Water Village and collaborative
studies across campus, as well as two center grants from federal agencies (National Science
Foundation, Department Of Homeland Security, Environmental Protection Agency)

(iv)    Water Reuse – Effect on Riparian Systems: With the increased value of riparian areas
throughout the semi-arid southwest there is escalating pressure to support ecological systems.
Many riparian areas are being lost through groundwater extraction that diminishes surface flows.
Others, particularly those in proximity to wastewater treatment plants, are often classified as
“effluent dependent” indicating ecosystem dependence on treated wastewater discharges. Future
policy decisions will be based on scientific research of the value, impacts and biological risks of
treated waste waters to these systems (Glenn).

(v)     Irrigation Technology – Water Quantity, Water Quality and Salinity: The conventional
agricultural industry consumes more water than urban and industrial users combined (70% of the
freshwater in Arizona). We have initiated new studies to more thoroughly examine the water
requirements of the key agronomic cropping systems with the goal of improving best
management practices related to irrigation and nutrient management (Brown, Rock, Sanchez,
Silvertooth, Walworth). Plant systems under study include traditional desert cropping systems as
well as turfgrass, landscape plants and native species, and wetlands (Artiola, Brown, Gerba,
Glenn, Silvertooth, Walworth). We have developed effective research and extension programs to
address a growing list of concerns related to management of irrigation and salinity in high
maintenance turf systems such as golf courses and athletic fields. Areas of active research
include quantifying the impact of irrigation management on crop and turf performance, crop and
turf consumptive use studies, irrigation efficiency, assessment of alternative irrigation systems,
and nutrient mobility. Salinity dynamics, distribution, and management are additional areas of
focus (Brown, Sanchez, Silvertooth, Walworth). Implementation of smart irrigation systems and
optimization of novel growth substrates for greenhouse agriculture (Tuller) is also underway.
Landscape and crop irrigation with poor quality and/or non-traditional water sources such as
effluent from municipal treatment plants, industrial operations (e.g. mines and electrical
generation), sea water, human and aquaculture effluents and household grey water can introduce
adverse environmental impacts that are also the subject of SWES research (Fitzsimmons, Pepper,
Rock, Brown, Gerba, Glenn, Walworth, Chorover, Artiola, Silvertooth). Research is also active




                                                                                             25
in irrigation of halophytes from concentrate from a reverse osmosis desalting plant (Riley,
Yoklic, Glenn).

(vi)    Water Policy: A SWES goal is to generate information derived from basic and applied
research to help develop a cogent water policy for the State of Arizona. The Department is also
involved in efforts to research and/or help develop public water policy on such diverse areas as
riparian water rights, groundwater management legislation, effective utilization of water from the
Central Arizona Project, and drought preparedness and planning (Megdal (joint), Fitzsimmons,
Glenn, Brown, Silvertooth, Walworth, Rock).

d.     Land – Use, Management and Restoration: The southwestern U.S. is undergoing a
rapid change in land use as agriculture and ranching are increasingly giving way to urban,
suburban and exurban development pressures. In terms of population, Arizona was the fastest
growing state in the U.S. in 2007, reflecting a trend that is projected to continue over the next
decade. Superimposed on this growth are model projections of temperature and drought
conditions to exceed those encountered in recent history. SWES faculty are in a unique
position help the State adapt land use and management to a changing climate.

(i)     Soil and Crop Management: Efficient water management for crop production continues
to increase in importance, and is addressed in research and extension programs focused on
agricultural crops such as vegetables, cotton, tree fruit and nut crops, ornamental horticultural
plants and turfgrasses (Brown, Sanchez, Silvertooth, Walworth). Closely related to water
management are issues associated with salt and sodium accumulation in irrigated soils. This is
an intensifying issue as lower quality reclaimed water is being used more widely, and as
allocations for water for agricultural and horticultural uses decline. Extensive efforts are
underway to determine long-term impacts of salt buildup on plant production and soil quality, to
improve methods of evaluating the extent of this problem, and to develop and improve
appropriate management practices (Brown, Sanchez, Walworth).

There is also a resurgence of interest in efficiency of nutrient management as costs associated
with fertilizer use increase, and as public awareness grows in relation to environmental
degradation linked to nutrient loss (e.g. nitrate in water supplies, nitrous oxide loss to the
atmosphere). Current projects involve nutrient management on a wide range of horticultural and
agricultural crops grown in Arizona (Brown, Sanchez, Silvertooth, and Walworth). Nutrient
behavior and management are also studied in projects involving restoration of disturbed and
contaminated soils (Maier, Walworth).

An emerging area of soil and crop management research involves the use of biochar and
pyrolysis products as amendments in agricultural systems to enhance soil water and nutrient
holding capacity, and soil carbon sequestration (Rasmussen, Artiola). Transformations and fate
of other wastes and residues (e.g., biosolids) applied to soils, including their effects on water
quality, are also relevant topics of study. Chemical and environmental aspects of land
application of wastes and residues are under investigation in several research groups (Artiola,
Pepper, Rock, Walworth).




                                                                                              26
(ii)    Soil and Groundwater Remediation: As a result of various human activities, soil and
groundwater contamination is widespread in the U.S. These contaminated sites must be cleaned
up to restore beneficial use. Successful remediation of contaminated sites requires adequate site
characterization, knowledge of the speciation, transport and fate behavior of the contaminants,
and an understanding of the design and performance factors associated with potential
remediation technologies. Approaches used to examine these sites range from the molecular-
and nano-scales, where cutting technologies are providing new information about contaminant
speciation, sorption, and distribution, to the field-scale where innovative technologies are being
tested to achieve either removal or stabilization of contaminants in situ. Major research efforts
involve studies at State and Federal Superfund sites. One example is the Tucson International
Airport Authority (TIAA) Superfund site in Tucson that is contaminated with a mixture of
chlorinated solvents and 1,4-dioxane. An integrated study, involving innovative in-situ
characterization methods, large-scale mathematical modeling, and laboratory investigations, has
been conducted at this site for 15 years to improve understanding of contaminant transport and
removal at the field scale (Brusseau). In addition, pilot tests of innovative remediation
technologies have been conducted at the site. A second example is the Iron King Mine
Superfund Site that is contaminated with high levels of toxic metals including arsenic.
Revegetation is being explored as a remedial option to stabilize metals in situ and to reduce wind
and water erosion of the tailings materials. A combination of fluorescence in situ hybridization
(FISH) and synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis is providing micro-scale
information about microbial colonization and distribution on plant roots and the influence of
colonization on metal speciation and bioavailability (Maier, Chorover). Controlled nutrient
delivery systems for remediation of contaminated cold region soils and runoff water are being
developed and evaluated at sites in southern Australia and Antarctica (Walworth).

(iii) Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration: This has become an active research area within
the SWES Department with projects typically funded by state and federal natural resource
agencies or by industry. Studies involve an initial assessment of the ecological status of a
disturbed ecosystem, followed by development and testing of a recovery or restoration plan.
Examples of projects currently underway are: species inventories and restoration projects on
wetland and riparian areas in the Colorado River Delta, Mexico (Glenn, Huete); revegetation of
mine tailings (Artiola, Glenn, Maier, Schaap, Tuller), including former uranium mill sites on the
Navajo Nation (Glenn); assessment of nuisance aquatic plants in Arizona waters (Fitzsimmons);
and conversion of abandoned farmland into wildlife habitat as an environmental offset for
construction of a power plant near Gila Bend, Arizona (Glenn). These projects are almost
always multidisciplinary, requiring expertise in water and soil sciences as well as ecology and
conservation biology, in addition to specific knowledge of individual ecosystems. Faculty from
SWES provide leadership for teams of experts or supply their expertise within teams, depending
on how projects are organized. Western states and federal agencies are increasingly engaging in
ecosystem assessment and restoration projects, as they attempt to repair past environmental
damage and develop master plans to conserve wild areas in the face of regional population
growth. This could be an increasingly important research area for SWES.

(iv)    Aquaculture and Aquatic Ecology: Water quality and management of riparian areas and
managed systems (e.g. wetlands and aquaculture) in arid regions is of increasing importance with
current rates of population growth and water usage. The Aquaculture and Aquatic Ecology



                                                                                            27
program, centered at the Environmental Research Laboratory, addresses this important research
area in the context of fisheries production, which is increasingly dependent on aquaculture rather
than wild catch fisheries. The program addresses associated environmental problems that remain
to be solved. It is expected that aquaculture will continue to grow in importance within the state
and that a vigorous research program continue at ERL, led by Kevin Fitzsimmons, who is also
the state Aquaculture Extension Agent. SWES is and will continue to be active in outreach,
training and extension in aquaculture projects around the world. Current research topics cover
multiple use of water for aquaculture and field crop irrigation, algae aquaculture, seaweed and
fish polyculture, seawater terrestrial crops (halophytes), shrimp aquaculture, freshwater fish,
nuisance aquatic plants, and algae characterization in natural and manmade aquatic systems
(Glenn, Fitzsimmons, Walker, and Nelson (adjunct)). This program complements the other
University of Arizona groups engaged in aquaculture and aquatic biology (shrimp pathology and
general aquaculture, Don Lightner, Department of Veterinary Science and Microbiology, Scott
Bonar, School of Natural Resources, restoration of native fishes). Algal production of biofuels
and other uses is also studied in other departments. It might be possible to unite the UA
aquaculture efforts into a program area that cuts across departments.

3.     Teaching Program and Responsibilities

All SWES faculty members direct educational programs. SWES faculty members with
Extension appointments emphasize the direction and development of Extension education
programs with statewide and regional application.

All of the SWES faculty members with instruction appointments are responsible for developing
and offering classes on a regular basis. Many of the SWES faculty teach courses at both the
undergraduate and graduate levels. A number of SWES courses are taught at both the 400 and
500 levels (upper division undergraduate and graduate level). Most of the SWES faculty have
appointments with 20 to 30% of their responsibility devoted to teaching. The remaining 70 to
80% of their appointments are directed towards research and university service.

SWES courses cover the basic areas in Soil and Water Science as well a broad range of
Environmental Science topics. A complete listing of SWES faculty and their teaching
assignments is provided below.

Graduate Teaching Assistants (TAs) have primarily been used to support courses with laboratory
or activity session components. As shown in Figure D-1 below the number of TAs was at least
ten from 2003 to 2007 but has now been cut to five as a result of budget reductions. Generally a
GTA is 0.5 FTE. In terms of FTEs the GTA-FTE dropped from 5.5 in Fall 02 to 3.5 in Fall 07 as
shown in Table D-1 . Starting in 2002 the college began decreasing the funding base for TAs
20% per year. The SWES Department has reallocated some staff funding toward maintaining
TA lines, and some funding was provided by ERL, however numbers of TAs have continued to
drop. One consequence has been elimination of the laboratory/activity session component of
NATS 101, Introduction to Environmental Science. This course now will consist of a lecture
only.

Dr. Jim Riley developed a course (SWES 397a), Teaching Workshop, to train undergraduates to



                                                                                           28
be preceptors as a way to provide student teaching opportunities. Most of these students assist
with the NATS 101 Introduction to Environmental Science course which typically has an
enrollment of 200 students. Other preceptors assist with SWES 201 (Soils Laboratory) and
occasionally other classes.


                              12

                              10
             Number of GTAs




                              8

                              6

                              4

                              2

                              0
                                       04




                                       06




                                       07




                                       09
                                       05




                                       08
                              Sp 07
                              Sp 05




                              Sp 06




                              Sp 08
                              Sp 03




                              Sp 04
                                   g




                                   g




                                   g




                                   g




                                   g
                                   g




                                    ll
                                    ll




                                    ll




                                    ll
                                    ll




                                    ll




                                Fa




                                Fa




                                Fa
                                Fa




                                Fa




                                Fa

                                rin




                                rin




                                rin




                                rin
                                rin




                                rin




                                   Figure D-1. Number of GTAs per semester

      Table D-1 Personnel Full Time Equivalent (FTE) - State funds
      Graduate
      Assistants -    4.51       5.50     3.38       3.31       3.54         3.86    3.50
      Teaching

Current Teaching Assignments

Artiola, Janick F.
        SWES 430/530, Environmental Monitoring and Remediation
        UNVR 195A, Water Quality and Environ
        SWES 405/505, Environmental, Soil and Water Chemistry Laboratory
Brusseau, Mark L.
        SWES 466/566, Soil & Groundwater Restoration
        SWES 565, Contaminant Transport in Porous Media
        SWES 665, Advanced Contaminant Transport
Chorover, Jon
        SWES 462/562, Environmental Soil and Water Chemistry
        SWES 563, Advanced Soil and Water Chemistry
        SWES 696B, Molecular Biogeochemistry (seminar)
        SWES 568, Molecular Biogeochemistry
Curry, Joan E.
        SWES 464/564, Environmental Chemistry
        SWES/CHEE 572, Interfacial Chemistry of Biomolecules in Environmental Systems


                                                                                            29
Fitzsimmons, Kevin
        SWES/ECOL/WFSC 474/574, Aquatic Plants and the Environment
        SWES/ECOL 475/575, Freshwater and Marine Algae
Gerba, Charles
        SWES/MIC 426/526, Environmental Microbiology Laboratory - Sec. 1 & 2
        SWES 305 Pollution Science
        CPH/SWES 418/518, Introduction to Human Health Risk Assessment
Glenn, Edward L.
        SWES/ECOL/WFSC 474/574, Aquatic Plants and the Environment
        SWES/ECOL 475/575, Freshwater and Marine Algae
        SWES 408/508, Scientific Writing, Environmental Agriculture
Huete, Alfredo R.
        SWES 453/553, Remote Sensing of the Environment
        SWES 573, Monitoring Biosphere Process
Maier, Raina M.
        SWES/MIC 425/525, Environmental Microbiology
        SWES/MIC 440/540, Biodegradation of Pollutants in Soil and Groundwater
Matthias, Allan D.
        NATS 101, Introduction to Environmental Science
        SWES 210, Fundamentals of Environmental Science
        SWES 105, Intro. To Env. Science
        SWES 106, Intro. To Env. Science
        SWES 696A, SWES Seminar
Megdal, Sharon
        SWES 596B, Arizona Water Policy
Pepper, Ian L.
        SWES 305, Pollution Science
        SWES/MIC 426/526, Environmental. Microbiology Lab - Sec. 1 & 2
Rasmussen, Craig
        SWES 431/531, Soil Genesis, Morphology, and Classification
        SWES 541, Advanced Soil Genesis
        GEOS 596c, Soils and the Past
Rensing, Chris
        SWES 568, Molecular Biogeochemistry
        SWES 546, Environmental Biotechnology
        SWES 696A, SWES Seminar
        SWES 280, Microbes in the Environment
Riley, James J.
        NATS 101, Introduction to Environmental Science
        UNVR 195A, Water Resources, Tucson Basin
        SWES 195A, Careers in Environmental Science
        SWES 397A, Teaching Workshop
        SWES 461/561, Soil and Water Conservation
        SWES/ECOL/WFSC 454/554, Water Harvesting




                                                                                 30
Sanchez, Charles
        SWES 316, Soil Fertility
Silvertooth, Jeffrey C.
        SWES 401/501, Management of Arid Lands and Salt Affected Soils
        SWES 406, Soils and Soil Fertility (1 credit modular course)
        SWES 200, Soils
        SWES 316, Soil Fertility
        PLS 306, Crop Science and Production
Schaap, Marcel
        SWES 420/520, Environmental Physics
        SWES/ABE/HWR 605, Modeling of Mass and Energy Flow in Soils
        SWES 625, Physical Characterization and Monitoring of the Critical Zone
Tuller, Markus
        SWES 470/570, Soil Physics
        SWES/ABE/HWR 605, Modeling of Mass and Energy Flow in Soils
        SWES/HWR 625, Physical Characterization and Monitoring of the Critical Zone
Walker, David
        SWES/WFSC 471/571, Stream Ecology
Walworth, James
        UNVR 195a, Careers in Environmental Science
        SWES 200, Soils
        SWES 316, Soil Fertility
        SWES 461/561, Soil and Water Conservation
Wilson, Thomas
        UNVR 195a, Careers in Environmental Science
        UNVR 195b, Careers in Crop Production
        SWES 201, Soils Laboratory

Courses crosslisted in SWES taught by faculty in other departments
      ATMO/SWES 436A -- Fundamentals of the Atmospheric Sciences
      CPH/SWES 418/518, Introduction to Human Health Risk Assessment
      AREC/SWES 479 -- Economics of Water Management and Policy
      WS M/SWES 444/544, Applied Environmental Law
      PL P/SWES 428 -- Microbial Genetics
      MIC/SWES 421B -- Microbiological Techniques
      RNR/SWES 417 -- Geographic Information Systems for Natural and Social Sciences
      GEOG/SWES 483 -- Geographic Applications of Remote Sensing
      REM/SWES 490 -- Remote Sensing for the Study of Planet Earth
      WS M/SWES 456A -- Watersheds and Ecosystem Function
      ASM/SWES 404/504 -- Irrigation Principles and Management
      RNR/SWES 495F -- Conservation Biology: Field Studies in Developing Countries

4.     Faculty Service

SWES faculty are actively involved in a variety of on-campus and regional and national level
committees and boards. See Appendix 2 for a detailed list.



                                                                                      31
5.     Faculty Adaptiveness: Tradition vs. Change –

The SWES faculty have demonstrated a remarkable ability to respond positively to changing
environments and demands. In the face of budget cuts and in a climate of decreasing resources
the group as a whole has continued to push critical zone science forward. Collaborative
activities have increased and the faculty attitude has remained positive. SWES faculty are
looking at ways to increase our efficiency and prioritize our commitments to provide the best
service to the University of Arizona. We are active in leadership roles outside the department
(Maier, Co-director of UA Superfund Basic Research Program; Fitzsimmons, Director of
International Programs in CALS; Pepper, Director of the NSF Water Quality Center). We
continue to develop both national and international collaborations within the academic and
industrial communities. Some of these are described in Section J (Superfund, Water Quality
Center, Water Village, Biosphere 2) and other innovative projects are described below.

Campbell Agricultural Center Lysimeter facility revitalization. The facility that is currently
renovated with competitive NSF grant support (Rasmussen, Schaap, Tuller) will allow for long-
term critical zone monitoring studies, with special attention to mass and energy transport in the
vadose zone and surface-atmosphere exchange.

SWES – Industrial Mining collaboration. A collaborative project was recently developed with
Resolution Copper Mining Company (Superior, AZ), the New Magma Irrigation and Drainage
District (NMIDD), the NewFields Consulting Company, and the University of Arizona SWES
Department (Artiola and Silvertooth). This project will involve the de-watering of a deep mine
shaft at the Resolution Mine, subsequent treatment of the water, and the transfer of the water by
pipeline to the NMIDD where the mine water is blended with Central Arizona Project (CAP)
water, and used for crop irrigation. The chemistry of the water will be closely monitored before
and after blending and at the points of delivery in the NMIDD system. The soil-plant systems in
the NMIDD receiving this water will be carefully monitored on a regular basis (soil and plant
tissue samples). The primary role of the SWES personnel will be to manage the water quality,
soil, and plant tissue sample collection and analysis and to provide the monitoring data to the
NMIDD members on a near-real time basis.

Water Harvesting at Biosphere 2: A SAHRA funded water harvesting demonstration on one of
the Biosphere 2 Casitas was completed with collaboration between Dr. Riley’s Water Harvesting
Class, SWES Club, PARASOL Club, Biosphere 2 staff. The Water Harvesting class also
evaluated facility-wide water harvesting at Biosphere 2.

SWES – Bureau of Reclamation – Water Utility collaboration. SWES (Riley, Yoklic, Glenn)
and CHEE faculty have developed a collaboration with the Bureau of Reclamation and five local
water utilities to use saline concentrate from reverse osmosis desalting plants to irrigate salt
tolerant plants (halophytes).




                                                                                           32
6.      Program Future

Research, teaching and outreach programs in SWES are evolving, focusing increasingly on that
part of the Earth’s land surface that extends from the outer periphery of the vegetation canopy to
the lower limits of groundwater penetration. This region of the landscape is traversed by water
in the terrestrial part of the hydrologic cycle. As a result, it controls water quality, flux and
storage; sequesters most of the carbon resident in the Earth’s surface; provides food and fiber,
attenuates the transport of contaminants in the environment; and is that portion of the Earth that
is most impacted by human activities. It has been termed the Earth’s critical zone because of is
essential role in sustaining ecological and human systems (NRC, 2001) (See Figure D-2).

Future programmatic foci
should continue to strengthen
SWES disciplinary depth and
systems-level breadth in
critical zone science.
Reasons for this are several:
(i) some of the most pressing
issues in environmental
science require deliberate
integration of Earth surface
science disciplines; (ii) the
UA Transformation process
currently underway dictates
that such development
complements rather than
duplicates existing UA
strengths in Earth and
Environmental Sciences
                                  Figure D-2. Catchment to pedon to micro-scale component interactions
(especially important at a        in the critical zone, which extends from the top of the vegetation canopy
time of budget contraction);      to the lowest reaches of groundwater (from Chorover et al., 2007). A
and (iii) a focus on the critical natural organic matter. B. nanoporous silicate minerals. C. mineral –
zone as a system addresses        microbe complexes. D. clays and their surface coatings. E. oxide or
some of the most important        carbonate coatings.
environmental issues facing
the Southwestern US where
rapid population growth is faced with severe water resource limitations.

It is essential that our program continue to evolve in association with the land grant mission of
the UA and CALS. The research, education, and outreach conducted by our faculty must address
front burner environmental issues that are even more urgent in the Southwest than in most other
parts of the US. The primary applications of our programs are to (i) soil
management/restoration, (ii) climate change (including mitigation, adaptation and assessment of
resilience), and (iii) water quality/quantity. Addressing these growing concerns will necessitate
continuous refinement of our tools and approaches to research, translation, and
extension/outreach.



                                                                                                      33
While we anticipate that future hires will help increase our capacity to address basic critical zone
science and its application to these high priority areas, we acknowledge that such growth will be
very limited in the near term because of current and anticipated budget constraints. However, we
are fortunate that the SWES department already contains the disciplinary and systems-level
expertise needed to move forward with coordinated efforts. SWES is unique relative to similar
programs nationwide in the placement within a single unit of multiple faculty positions with
specific disciplinary expertise in environmental science (i.e., multiple FTEs in environmental
microbiology, environmental chemistry, and environmental physics), along with multiple
positions with systems-level expertise (i.e., FTEs in pedology, remote sensing, climatology,
water resources, and soil-plant systems).

Our present capacity in both disciplinary and systems-level environmental science provides
unique opportunities for SWES to focus on the programmatic areas that require a multi-
disciplinary approach while not compromising disciplinary depth for inter-disciplinary breadth.
The cross-disciplinary areas where we have current strengths and, therefore, where future
investment is most likely to result in substantially greater return include:

a.      Biogeochemistry/Geomicrobiology: This area involves molecular to pedon to
catchment and landscape scale studies of biotic-abiotic component interactions (many of which
are catalyzed microbially) that influence the cycling of nutrients and pollutants in soil, sediment
and water, including mechanisms of carbon stabilization and sequestration, mineral and
metal(loid) transformation, and contaminant attenuation.

b.      Mass and Energy Transport Processes: This area involves the coupled physical-
chemical-biological processes that influence the transport of mass and energy through the critical
zone. It includes the effects of subsurface structure on diffusive and advective transport of fluids
and solutes, multi-phase flow, and subsurface geophysical characterization. Process
understanding is elucidated through combined use of modeling, experiment and monitoring from
pore to laboratory to field scales.

c.      Land Management: Sustainable food production in the future will require science-
based stewardship and management of the critical zone. This area involves the application of
state-of-the-art methods to assist in the development of cropping and aquaculture systems that
are environmentally and economically sustainable. It particularly focuses on water use
efficiency, effective and judicious use of low quality water, and solute management. It also
focuses on the fate of natural ecosystems in response to climate change and land use practices.

d.      Water Systems Management: Research and extension in this area emphasizes issues
that are particularly relevant to arid and semi-arid systems where water use efficiency, recycling,
harvesting, and re-utilization are becoming increasingly important to water providers and
consumers. Pertinent issues include aesthetic (taste and odor) and human health (e.g.,
micropollutant toxicity) considerations that must be addressed at both watershed and water
distribution systems scales.




                                                                                              34
SWES will maintain and, where possible, strengthen and further develop our ability to carry out
research programs in these areas, and to couple research programs to extension activities in water
policy, quantity, and quality; remediation of contaminated ground water sources; climate change;
biometeorology; stabilization and reclamation of disturbed lands; management of municipal
wastes and fertilizers; and protection of potable water delivery systems. Department faculty
composition must also sustain and build faculty expertise to provide support for undergraduate
and graduate curricula.

References:
Chorover, J., R. Kretzschmar, F. Garcia-Pichel and D. L. Sparks. 2007. Soil biogeochemical
       processes within the critical zone. Elements 3: 321-326.
NRC. 2001. Basic Research Opportunities in Earth Sciences. National Academies Press.
       Washington, DC, National Research Council.

7.       Post-tenure Review Results

The Arizona Board of Regents (ABOR) requires all departments to report the outcomes of the
annual performance/post-tenure review process. The review is completed by the Department
Head in conjunction with peer review reports and a CALS Post-Tenure Review Committee.
Table D-3 is drawn from our last report to the Vice President’s office.

     Table D-3 Total Faculty Reviewed in 2007: Soil, Water and Environmental Science

                                                                                    Rating of
     Total Tenured Faculty Reviewed =
                                        Teaching   Research   Extension   Service   Overall
                 Ratings:
                                                                                    Performance
     Truly Exceptional                     5          7          3          2           8
     Exceeds Expectations                 10          9          4          15          11
     Meets Expectations                    3          4          1          4           2
     Needs Improvement
     Unsatisfactory
     Not applicable/not rated in this
                                           3          1          13
     category
     Total                                21         21          21         21          21




                                                                                             35
E.      UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAM

1.      Describe Undergraduate Programs Offered

SWES offers two undergraduate degrees: Environmental Science and Crop Production. Each
includes multiple focal areas to choose from, after students complete core classes that offer a
common scholastic foundation. Students typically select their focal area after consulting with
their academic advisor towards the end of their sophomore year.

Environmental Science

The Environmental Science (ENVS) major was created in 1993. It is considered a “university-
wide” program because many of the required and elective courses are offered by departments
throughout the University. After completing foundation coursework during their first four
semesters, students can select from one of the following focal areas:

1)   Biology                                         5)   Science & Policy
2)   Chemistry                                       6)   Science & Technology
3)   Microbiology                                    7)   Soil Science *
4)   Remote Sensing & Geospatial Analysis            8)   Sustainable Land/Water Management

*The Soil & Water Science Major became the Soil Science focal area in 2003 when the Soil and
Water Science degree program was terminated due to low enrollment.

A ninth focal area in Environmental Education is under development. While this assortment
offers a variety of different career paths relevant to environmental science, students receive a
solid foundation in science, communication, economics, and policy. Students are also required to
participate in an internship (SWES 393/493), teaching workshop (SWES 397A), or independent
study (SWES 399/499), and take a capstone course (SWES 430 Environmental Monitoring &
Remediation). The curriculum for each focal area is shown in Appendix 3.

The CIP (Classification of Instructional Programs) code for the ENVS degree is currently
030103, ‘Environmental Studies’. The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)
classification scheme was consulted to determine if this code corresponds to the best description
of our program and it is clear that a more appropriate code for ENVS would be 030104,
‘Environmental Science’. Action will be taken to get this program code changed.

Since 2006 SWES has partnered with the Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department
(CHEE) in the Engineering College to offer a 3-2 program for a CHEE Masters Degree. Students
pursuing an ENVS degree focusing on Chemistry or Science & Technology can phase CHEE
courses into their senior year, allowing them to complete their Masters degree one year after
receiving their BES degree. Three students are currently working on this. The application for
status as an official UA Accelerated Master’s Program is in process.

Since 2004 enrollment in the ENVS major has steadily increased, with 10 more students in the
past year alone (Figure E-1). While this roughly parallels overall University enrollment, we



                                                                                             36
believe it reflects an increase in student concern over the welfare of the environment and the
increased exposure of environmental topics in the media over the past five years. We have been
active in recruiting on local and regional campuses, the Southern Arizona Regional Science &
Engineering Fair, and the International Science & Engineering Fair. We also offer a Careers in
Environmental Science class (SWES 195A), and two General Education Classes (NATS 101 and
SWES 210), which allows us the opportunity to share our academic programs with a broad
variety of U of A students.


                                120

                                100

                                80
                   # Enrolled




                                                                                        Major
                                60
                                                                                        Minor
                                40

                                20

                                 0
                                      2001 2002   2003   2004 2005   2006   2007 2008
                                                           Year



                 Figure E-1: ENVS Undergraduate Enrollment 2001 – 2008.

Crop Production

The Crop Production (CROP) major was created in 2005, partially in response to demands by
employers for potential employees with a solid foundation in plant and soil science. It is offered
in partnership with SWES and the Plant Science Department. This degree program provides a
good base for students interested in work associated with field crops, permanent tree crop
production, turf science, and/or a broad array of horticultural crops that are grown throughout the
western United States and other regions in the world. Students can elect to focus on either
Agronomy or Turf Science. Fundamentals derived from this program can be applied to crop
production systems and land management programs locally, regionally, or globally. In 2007 we
added an option for a minor in Crop Production. The curriculum is shown in Appendix 4.

Enrollment in this major has doubled in the last three years, to a current total of ten students
(Figure E-2). While this is a modest start, we are confident that this will increase as students
become aware of the major, its importance, and the job opportunities associated with the degree.
Our recruiting efforts include developing a brochure, attending recruiting events at High Schools,
Community Colleges, and the U of A, and offering a Careers in Crop Production First-Year
Colloquia class (SWES 195B).




                                                                                                37
                                                    12

                                                    10

                                                    8




                                       # Enrolled
                                                                                                        Major
                                                    6
                                                                                                        Minor
                                                    4

                                                    2

                                                    0
                                                                2006            2007        2008
                                                                            Year




                                 Figure E-2: CROP Undergraduate Enrollment 2006 - 2008.

The CIP code for the CROP degree is currently 011102, ‘Agronomy and Crop Science’. This is
an appropriate code according to the NCES classification scheme.

SWES Students

The SWES undergraduate student body is about half male and half female. This has been
consistent over this APR reporting period (see Figure E-3).


                                                         Undergraduate Majors by Gender
                                140

                                120
           Number of students




                                100

                                80
                                                                                                                Male
                                60
                                                                                                                Female
                                40

                                20

                                 0
                                      2001               2002     2003   2004     2005   2006   2007   2008



                                 Figure E-3: Undergraduate Majors by Gender: 2001-2008

Underrepresented ethnic groups are well represented in the SWES undergraduate student body as
shown in Figure E-4 below.




                                                                                                                         38
                                                     Undergraduate Students by Ethnicity

                                120

           Number of Students   100                                                                 White

                                80                                                                  Unknown / Other

                                60                                                                  Non-resident/
                                                                                                    International
                                                                                                    Native American
                                40
                                                                                                    Hispanic
                                20
                                                                                                    Asian American
                                 0
                                                                                                    African American
                                      2001    2002    2003    2004    2005    2006    2007
                                                        Fall Semester



                                 Figure E-4: Undergraduate Students by Ethnicity: 2001-2007

Table E-1 shows a comparison of completed ENVS majors with enrolled ENVS majors per year.
The average number of enrolled majors per year is 76 with a standard deviation of 10.6. The
average number of completed majors is 15 with a standard deviation of 4.5. The fluctuation in
the ratio of Enrolled Majors/Completed Majors (an indication of retention) largely reflects the
variation in the number of completed majors. There does not seem to be a consistent trend in
either the number of completed majors or the ratio of enrolled majors/completed majors rather
the extremes are a result of normal fluctuations in student populations.

     Table E-1. Comparison of completed ENVS majors with enrolled ENVS majors.

MAJORS BY                                                             FISCAL YEAR (Aug/Dec/May)
CAREER                                FY 01-02       FY 02-03        FY 03-04 FY 04-05   FY 05-06           FY 06-07   FY 07-08
Undergraduate
Enrolled Majors -                        72             78             76            63      70                78         97
Fall Census Date
Undergraduate
Completed Majors -                       15             23             17             9      18                12         14
Fiscal Year
Enrolled UG Majors/
                                         4.80          3.39            4.47          7.00    3.89              6.50      6.93
Completed Major

2.     SWES Proficiency Courses

SWES offers one writing emphasis course for both undergraduate and graduate students,
Scientific Writing for Environmental, Agricultural and Life Science (SWES 408/508). It is
coordinated and taught by Dr. Glenn and has had consistently high enrollment since its inception
in 2002. It was designed to serve all students in CALS.




                                                                                                                           39
3.     General Education Courses

General Education – Introduction to Environmental Science (NATS 101) - The largest class
offered by SWES is NATS 101, Introduction to Environmental Science. Typical fall enrollment
exceeds 220, while the spring enrollment is approximately 200. This class is offered to non-
science majors who take the class to fulfill their science requirement. Since the students are not
ENVS majors we are not involved in coordinating their enrollment in this course with that in
other courses. This class emphasizes critical thinking and the scientific method while giving
students information about environmental topics at global, regional, and local levels. The class
includes biweekly lectures taught by faculty and has included a fifty minute lab period taught by
TAs (with one Honors section taught by faculty). Beginning Spring 2009 the laboratory activity
sessions will not be offered due to the lack of TAs available to teach them.

General Education – Fundamentals of Environmental Science and Sustainability (SWES 210) -
During the spring of 2008 we added SWES 210 Fundamentals of Environmental Science &
Sustainability. This class was created because we lacked an introductory environmental science
class for our ENVS majors (NATS 101 does not apply for the ENVS degree). While required for
ENVS majors, this class is also a Tier II NATS class available to non-science and undecided
majors across campus. If enrolled students decide to become an ENVS major this class can be
applied to their degree. During the spring of 2008, 34 students enrolled. The class is offered
spring and fall.

Careers colloquia - Since fall 2002 we have offered a First-Year Colloquium class called Careers
in Environmental Science (SWES 195A, formerly UNVR 195A). Each fall semester class
enrollment has reached its maximum, and in 2004 we began offering it during the spring as well.
It serves approximately 75 students per year. This class is open to students from across campus,
and it is required for the ENVS degree. This class familiarizes students with environmental
science. It helps them identify career opportunities and to determine if this degree is appropriate
for them. We also require students to develop a resume and visit the UA Career Service Center.
Since fall 2006 we have offered a similar class called Careers in Crop Production (SWES 195B,
formerly UNVR 195A).

Introduction to Soil Science - The department offers SWES 200/201 Introduction to Soil Science
(lecture/lab), each spring and fall semester. The enrollment in these courses, while always high,
has shown consistent growth in the past several semesters. SWES 200 is required for ENVS and
CROP majors and they comprise about a third of the class. It is required by the School of
Natural Resources and the departments of Plant Science and Agricultural Education, whose
students make up a large portion (~40%) of the class. Additionally, each semester quite a few
students from various programs that do not require the course take it as an elective

Off-campus courses - The department also offers courses off campus. In particular in Yuma Dr.
Sanchez teaches Soils and Soil Fertility (SWES 316), every other year. Dr. Silvertooth is
currently offering Crop Science and Production (PLS 306) in lecture format on the UA campus,
live via an audio-video connection in Yuma and as a web-based course with class lectures
offered by web-streaming.




                                                                                             40
4.     Undergraduate major(s) curriculum and courses

The undergraduate curriculum directly reflects the basic goals of our academic program. It is
flexible but is consistent in requiring a rigorous science foundation. The curriculum is not
prescribed by an accrediting body but students who select a sufficient number of soils-focused
courses are well prepared to take the Certified Soil Scientists exam administered by the Soil
Science Society of America in March and October each year. Approximately two students take
this exam each year and the pass rate is very high.

We have formally compared our course content with the performance objectives of the Certified
Soil Scientists exam and have found that our curriculum includes almost all of these objectives
as reflected in our overall successful performance on this test. A similar comparison for
Environmental Science as a whole does not exist but our students largely find employment in
their chosen field, a direct reflection of the quality preparation provided by the SWES
curriculum.

Courses in the undergraduate curriculum are coordinated by the departmental Curriculum
Committee under oversight of the Department Head with active input from the faculty. In
addition to the three formal academic advisors faculty with specialties in each of the focal areas
periodically review focal area curriculum and help advise students on specialty issues.

The SWES curriculum is constantly evolving as faculty are exposed to new ideas and current
research. There is a high level of involvement by the faculty as a whole in the overall curriculum
structure and degree requirements. Between 2003 and 2006 the SWES Curriculum Committee
coordinated an internal evaluation of all courses taught by the department. Each review was
conducted by a team of three faculty who interviewed the course instructor and examined all
major course-related materials. This review not only resulted in improvements to the courses
offered, it also allowed the faculty to familiarize themselves with the concepts presented in class
by their fellow faculty. Recent curriculum/course modifications include;

•      SWES 210 Fundamentals of Env. Sci. & Sustainability (described above)
•      SWES 280 Microbes in the Environment (to be offered Spring 2009)
•      SWES 420/520 Environmental Physics (since 2007 increased emphasis on climate
       systems)
•      SWES 431/531 Soil Genesis, Morphology, and Classification (since 2005 increased
       emphasis on soil genesis and soil forming processes; increased field trip frequency)
•      SWES 454/554 Water Harvesting (since 2007)
•      SWES 470/570 Soil Physics (since 2007 increased modeling emphasis)
•      SWES 495/595 Desert Ecology & Conservation Biology in Namibia (cross-listed with
       RNR in 2008)

SWES students are required to participate in an internship as part of their degree program. The
intent is to give student exposure to a field of interest that interests them. The internship is
coordinated by the SWES advisors. There are no prescribed internships but as opportunities
present themselves, the advisors make them known to students through the SWES Club listserv
and other contacts. In general the advisors begin talking to students in their sophomore year
about this requirement so they begin to think about internships. The students can choose


                                                                                             41
between an internship, independent study, or a preceptor position. They are encouraged to do
internships in the field in which they have the most interest. They are required to do 50-60 hours
of paid or unpaid service, write a 10 page paper summarizing what they did, and have their
supervisor write a letter confirming that they did it. Students are encouraged to prepare a resume
and transmittal letter. The advisors try to suggest 3-4 options in their area of interest. Students
have worked with the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, the City of Tucson, local
or Pima County law offices, the Nature Conservancy, the Bureau of Reclamation, and other
similar organizations.

5.      Undergraduate Students

The quality of SWES undergraduates is high. Table E-2 shows that the ACT and SAT scores for
incoming SWES freshman are consistently above the averages for CALS and the UA. This is
likely a reflection of the relatively high number of math and science courses required during the
freshman and sophomore year.

     Table E-2. Comparison of ACT and SAT Scores for SWES Incoming Freshmen with
                              Average CALS and UA Scores

                    SWES                          CALS                           UA
                         AVERAGE                       AVERAGE                      AVERAGE
                        COMPOSITE                     COMPOSITE                    COMPOSITE
           FRESHMAN       SCORES       FRESHMAN         SCORES       FRESHMAN        SCORES
 TERM        COUNT*   ACT   SAT     COUNT       ACT     SAT     COUNT      ACT     SAT
 Fall 07       23     27.9 1184      330        23.6 1,087      7,959      23.5 1,102
 Fall 06       13     24.2 1221      322        23.3 1,108      7,233      23.4 1,106
 Fall 05       13     24.3 1219      335        23.9 1,100      7,415      23.5 1,121
 Fall 04       10     26.9 1193      260        23.8 1,090      7,269      23.7 1,118
 Fall 03        8     31.0 1256      281        23.8 1,105      7,625      23.6 1,115
 Fall 02       11     25.6 1180      253        22.9 1,072      7,343      23.4 1,099
 Fall 01       14     23.0 1185      283        22.6 1,078      7,573      23.7 1,106
* The SWES average composite admission scores are for ENVS students only, no scores were
available for CROP majors.

Over this reporting period the grade point average (GPA) of graduating ENVS majors has
fluctuated above and below the average CALS and UA graduation GPAs (see Table E-3).
Greater fluctuations are expected due to the small number of students in the SWES graduating
group compared to the CALS or UA pools. Over three years the Crop Sciences major average
GPA was 3.07, and over the past six years the average GPA of Environmental Science majors
was 3.10, which are very close to the CALS and UA values. FY 06-07 was particularly
noteworthy in that the SWES graduating average was 3.509, well above the CALS and UA
averages. A number of students in that graduating class excelled in both academics and
department and UA service activities.




                                                                                             42
Table E-3. Comparison of Grade Point Average (GPA) at Graduation for ENVS and Crop
            Production Students with CALS and UA Undergraduate Students

                  CROP             ENVIRONMENTAL
               PRODUCTION              SCIENCE                   CALS                   UA
  FISCAL
  YEAR:                  CROP                  ENVS                 CALS
  AUG,                   AVG                   AVG                  AVG                      AVG
  DEC,        CROP       GRAD       ENVS       GRAD      CALS       GRAD          UA         GRAD
  MAY        MAJORS       GPA      MAJORS       GPA     MAJORS       GPA        MAJORS        GPA
  FY 07-08       2        2.812        6        3.213      131          3.021    2412        3.084
  FY 06-07       0        0.000       12        3.509      238          3.163    5569        3.199
  FY 05-06       4        3.204       14        2.944      245          3.115    5613        3.177
  FY 04-05                             9        3.125      240          3.121    5749        3.182
  FY 03-04                            17        3.036      213          3.026    5302        3.171
  FY 02-03                            23        3.037      232          3.073    5349        3.142
  FY 01-02                            15        3.005      225          3.103    4977        3.131

The percentage of Honors ENVS students was 20.8% in FY 01-02. It decreased to a low of
15.7% in Fall 05 and increased up to 19.6% in Fall 07. Due to the small size of our program it is
difficult to discern a trend, however, it is noteworthy that the percentage of Honors students is
however consistently higher than the overall CALS (~10%) and UA (~14%) percentages.

Historically the number of ENVS minors has always remained relatively low. Since the ENVS
major incorporates courses from disciplines across campus, students tend to major in our
program while pursuing other minors.

A variety of methods are used to recruit students into the SWES programs. Faculty visit high
schools and SWES advisors attend the annual “Meet your Major fairs”. During this reporting
period we have developed and offered the “Careers in Environmental Science” course which has
served as an effective way to expose undecided students to the field of Environmental Science.
The success of this course motivated the recent development of the “Careers in Crop Production”
course.

Time degree data for SWES undergraduates is shown in the Table E-4 below along with
comparison data for CALS and the UA. This is the average number of years for first-year, full-
time freshmen to complete their degree. An average weighted by the number of graduates over
the seven years of data gives an overall average time to degree of 4.67 for UA students, 4.77
years for CALS students and 5.00 years for SWES Environmental Science students. This
suggests it takes longer for ENVR students to graduate compared to CALS and UA students,
however, if the average is taken over the most recent 6 years (excluding FY 01-02) SWES
ENVR time to degree drops to 4.84 years which is similar to the CALS and UA averages.




                                                                                              43
                Table E-4. Time to Degree Data for SWES Undergraduates

                                    Environmental
                Crop Production        Science               CALS                  UA

                        Avg Yrs             Avg Yrs            Avg Yrs              Avg Yrs
     FISCAL      # of     to        # of      to       # of      to         # of      to
      YEAR      Grads   Degree     Grads    Degree    Grads    Degree      Grads    Degree
     FY07-08      1       3.50       3       5.00      112          4.36   2771         4.49
     FY06-07      0                  8       4.56      139          4.95   3319         4.59
     FY05-06      1       5.00       7       4.43      124          4.62   3069         4.67
     FY04-05                         5       4.35      116          4.72   3179         4.72
     FY03-04                         9       5.36      119          5.09   2954         4.76
     FY02-03                         11      5.09      103          4.90   2936         4.70
     FY01-02                         9       5.78      101          4.69   2883         4.73

Three SWES faculty serve as undergraduate advisors. They are members of the departmental
curriculum committee and they attend monthly meetings for all CALS advisors. They team-
teach Introduction to Environmental Science (NATS 101), allowing them to be in regular
contact. Dr. Allan Matthias advises 36 ENVS majors and 3 ENVS minors. Dr. James Riley
advises 28 ENVS majors and 9 ENVS minors, and Dr. Thomas Wilson advises 48 ENVS majors,
7 ENVS minors, and 10 CROP majors.

Currently, alumni views are obtained informally through individual conversations with graduates
who contact the department for recommendation letters and information. CALS conducts a
formal survey of CALS graduating seniors. Table E-5 is the summary report for ENVS students
graduating in 07-08. Eight students responded.




                                                                                               44
Table E-5 CALS graduating senior survey for ENVS students graduating in 07-08

                                        Excellent         Good                 Poor               Very Poor
   How do you rate your overall
   experience with the College of
   Agriculture and Life Sciences
   (CALS)?                                           4                   4

   Indicate your overall level of satisfaction with the following within CALS:
                                        Very              Somewhat             Somewhat           Very
                                        Satisfied         satisfied            dissatisfied       dissatisfied
   The opportunity for interactions
   with CALS faculty                                 6                   2
   The quality of instruction                        5                   3
   Interactions with CALS staff                      6                   2
   The content of your courses                       5                   3
   Navigating through your major
   curriculum                                        2                   6
   General academic advising
   from advisors in academic
   programs                                          5                   3
   Advising you received in your
   department or major                               6                   2
   The availability of academic
   advising when you needed it                       7                   1
   Student involvement
   opportunities (independent
   study, internships, etc)                          5                   3
   Student involvement
   opportunities (clubs, sports, etc)                4                   3                    1

                                        Once         Every          A few
                                        per          few            times a        Once a
                                        week         weeks          semester       semester          Never
   How often did you visit your
   CALS instructors during office
   hours (or by appointment) to
   discuss coursework or
   assignments?                                               1                7


                                        None        One       Two      Three       Four       Five     Six +
   With how many CALS faculty
   have you discussed subjects
   not related to coursework (e.g.
   career, graduate school,
   personal matters, etc.)                                1                    3          3                      1




                                                                                                                     45
To what extent have the following factors been a problem in your experience
registering for REQUIRED courses in your MAJOR?
                                      No Problem     Some Problem   Big Problem
Required course(s) not offered                   2              6
Required course(s) closed                        6              2
Required course(s) time
conflicted with my other classes                                6              2
Required course(s) time
conflicted with my job                           6              2
Required course(s) scheduled
at an inconvenient time                          5              3

The following questions relate to the Desired Student Outcomes for CALS. CALS students
should be able to:
                                      Strongly                                     Strongly
                                      Agree          Agree          Disagree       disagree
Demonstrate competencies in
subject matter by applying
knowledge and solving
problems                                         8
Become involved in a
productive career                                6              2
Develop leadership and
interpersonal skills                             5              3
Understand evolving principles
in a discipline and be able to
transfer knowledge to new
situations                                       7              1
Be open to new ideas and
information                                      6              2
Appreciate the integrative
nature of knowledge                              8
Understand the relationship of
the Agricultural and Life
Sciences to other areas of study
and be able to make informed
and ethical choices of benefit to
society                                          7              1
Understand social, economic,
political and scientific principles
                                                 6              2




                                                                                              46
F.     GRADUATE PROGRAM

1.     Overview

The SWES Department offers M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Soil, Water and Environmental
Science. Two tracks are offered, “Environmental Science” and “Soil and Water Science”. This
two-track system, which was implemented in the mid 1990's, reflects the fact that Environmental
Science is a major component of the SWES Department. The graduate program is designed to
represent the multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary nature of the department.

The quality of the graduate program can be judged by evaluating the success of its graduates.
For example, from 1998 to 2008, 27 graduate students working with SWES faculty have
obtained faculty positions at four-year colleges and universities (see Table F-4).

The average time to degree for PhD students who graduated in years 2001 to 2008 was 4.9 years
based on a departmental evaluation of student data. For MS students the average time to degree
for this same time span is 2.6 years. Based on the National Research Council data the time to
degree for SWES students compares well with other UA programs.

2.     Curriculum and Courses

Overall Program

The graduate program is designed to be very flexible, providing maximum opportunity to be
tailored to each student’s specific needs. A small set of core courses is required for all students
following either the Environmental Science or Soil and Water Science track. The Environmental
Science track consists of an Environmental Chemistry course, and Environmental
Biology/Microbiology, and an Environmental Physics/Hydrology course. These three courses
comprise a comprehensive integration of the chemical, biological, and physical principles and
factors that govern environmental processes. These courses provide a common body of
education for all Environmental Science graduate students and serve as a framework for their
future course work and research. A separate set of core courses (four selected from Soil
Chemistry, Soil Morphology, Soil Physics, Soil/Plant Relationships, and Environmental
Biology) exists for the Soil and Water Science graduate students. The curriculum for each track
is shown in Appendix 5.

The CIP code for the SWES M.S. and Ph.D. degrees is currently 011201, ‘Soil Science and
Agronomy, General’. The NCES classification scheme was consulted to determine if this code
corresponds to the best description of our program. This code will be reviewed and potentially
revised.

The graduate courses offered in the SWES Department are presented in Table F-1, organized by
subject area. The available courses provide breadth in the subject areas encompassed by SWES.
A factor noted in the last review was a dearth of advanced courses in some of the subject areas.
This has since been rectified by adding new advanced courses, such as 568 Molecular
Biogeochemistry, 572 Interfacial Chemistry of Biomolecules in Environmental Systems, and 625
Physical Characterization in Monitoring of the Critical Zone. We have also added new courses


                                                                                            47
such as 508 Scientific Writing for Environmental, Agricultural, and Life Sciences, 518
Introduction to Human Health Risk Assessment, 596B Arizona Water Policy, and 554 Water
Harvesting to ensure a well-rounded curriculum. With these additions, we believe we have a
balanced curriculum of introductory and advanced courses covering several aspects of
Environmental and Soil sciences. In addition, recently, effort has been made to ensure that the
graduate courses are distributed more uniformly between Fall and Spring semesters.

           Table F-1. Primary Graduate Courses Available in SWES Department

   General Environmental Science                      Environmental/Soil Chemistry
   544   Applied Environmental Law                    562     Environmental Soil & Water Chemistry
   554   Water Harvesting                             563     Advanced Soil and Water Chemistry
   566   Soil and Groundwater Remediation             564     Environmental Chemistry
   596B Arizona Water Policy                          568     Molecular Biogeochemistry
   530   Environmental Monitoring & Remediation       572     Interfacial Chemistry of Biomolecules
                                                      in Environmental Systems
   508    Scientific Writing for Environmental,
   Agricultural and Life Sciences
   518    Introduction to Human Health Risk
   Assessment

   Environmental Microbiology & Biology               Environmental Physics
   525    Environmental Microbiology                  520    Environmental Physics
   526    Environmental Microbiology Laboratory       553    Remote Sensing of the Environment
   540    Biodegradation of Pollutants                565    Contaminant Transport in Porous Media
   546    Environmental Biotechnology                 570    Soil Physics
   574    Aquatic Plants and the Environment          573    Monitoring Biosphere Processes
   575    Freshwater & Marine Algae                   605    Mass and Energy Transport in Soils
                                                      625    Physical Characterization and
                                                      Monitoring of the Critical Zone
   Soil Science                                       665    Advanced Contaminant Transport
   501     Management of Arid Lands and Salt-
   Affected Soils
   531     Soil Genesis, Morphology, Classification
   541     Advanced Soil Genesis
   561     Soil and Water Conservation
   602     Nutrient Dynamics in Soil

All graduate students are required to take the seminar course for credit. A plan under
consideration for future action is to develop one ore more special topic colloquia courses that
will focus on significant issues and allow critical thinking and discussion in a participatory
manner.

Students generally have adequate resources to carry out their studies. Students are not accepted
in to the graduate program unless a faculty member commits to advise them and to provide
sufficient resources to support them. This includes office and lab space, supplies, and travel.
The majority of graduate students are supported by RA's, which originate from faculty grants.
However, over the past two years there has been a significant reduction in the number of TA's



                                                                                             48
provided to the department. This has resulted in a significant drop in enrollment (noted below).

Certificate Programs

In addition to our formal graduate degree programs, we have recently been involved in the
establishment of two post-baccalaureate certificate programs, a Graduate Certificate in Water
Policy and a Graduate Certificate in Aquaculture. The number of students who have completed
SWES Graduate Certificate programs from 2005-2007 is contained in Table F-2.

Graduate Certificate in Aquaculture - The Aquaculture Certificate is administered by the
SWES department and provides a post graduate practical education especially designed for
agency personnel and international students. The program is flexible and can be completed by
full time students in one year, or in several semesters by part-time, working students who gain
additional education needed for professional advancement. The course includes classroom,
laboratory, and on-farm education. Although no students have completed the program yet, the
program typically has three to four students enrolled per semester. There are plans to improve
web publicity on program information and requirements.

Graduate Certificate in Water Policy - The University of Arizona's Graduate Certificate in
Water Policy is an interdisciplinary program administered by an executive council with members
from seven colleges. It offers interdisciplinary breadth and depth of education. The Certificate is
intended for two different and complementary groups of people who want to build their expertise
in water policy: working professionals pursuing the Certificate only and UA graduate students
concurrently enrolled in a graduate degree program. Both must meet the same requirements for
admittance to the program, but there is flexibility in both course selection and schedule to meet
the specific needs and interests of a variety of students.

                Table F-2 SWES Completed Graduate Certificates 2005-2007

                   SWES                FISCAL YEAR (Aug/Dec/May)          TOTAL
                CERTIFICATES         FY 05-06    FY 06-07    FY 07-08    AWARDED
                 Aquaculture             0           0          0             0
                 Water Policy            0           1          2             3
               Total Certificates        0           1          2             3

3.     Graduate Students

Figure F-1 shows graduate student enrollment for the past eight years. The graduate student
enrollment prior to the initiation of the ES program was consistently in the range of 30 to 40
students. Concurrent with the initiation of the Environmental Science focus, enrollment
increased significantly and averaged approximately 70-80 students from 1993 to 2000. From
2001 to 2007 enrollment was steady at approximately 70 students. There was a drop in 2007 to
57 students and the current enrollment is 55. This number is somewhat smaller than the average
for the last decade. This decline can be attributed in part to the impact of several successive
budget cuts, which have resulted in a loss of approximately 10 Teaching Assistant positions.




                                                                                            49
                                                    Graduate Enrollment
                                 80
                                 70
                                 60
             Enrollment
                                 50
                                 40                                                             PhD
                                 30                                                             MS

                                 20
                                 10
                                 0
                                      2001   2002   2003   2004   2005     2006   2007   2008
                                                           Fall semester



           Figure F-1: Graduate Student Enrollment: 2001-2008 (Fall Semesters)

Figure F-2 shows the number of graduate degrees that have been granted by the SWES
department over the past seven years, which has fluctuated between a low of 11 in FY 02-03 to
29 in FY 07-08. To put this into perspective this represents an average number of degrees
awarded per year of 18.3 compared with 21 degrees/year during the period 1994-2000.


                                               Graduate Degrees Awarded
                                 30
             Number of degrees




                                 25
                                 20
                                 15                                                             PhD

                                 10                                                             MS

                                 5
                                 0
                                      FY 01- FY 02- FY 03- FY 04- FY 05- FY 06- FY 07-
                                        02     03     04     05     06     07     08
                                                               Year



                                      Figure F-2: Graduate Degrees Awarded: 2001-2007

Based on an analysis of departmental data, over a seven-year period, approximately 10% of the
graduate students that entered SWES left without completing their degree, resulting in a retention
rate of 90%. Based on departmental records, of 67 Ph.D. students who completed their degrees
between May 2001 and August 2008, 47 completed their degrees in 6 years or less. This


                                                                                                      50
corresponds to a 70% 6-year completion rate. This is near the National Research Council 6-year
completion rate for full time Ph.D. students in our department of 64%.

Currently, 62% of the graduate students are female (Figure F-3). This represents a steady
increase from the 25% female enrollment that was typical in the mid 1990s. This change reflects
the initiation of the Environmental Science program. Over the last eight years, the number of
female students has increased slightly while the number of male students has declined.


                                                 Graduate Majors by Gender
                                  80
                                  70
             Number of students




                                  60
                                  50
                                  40                                                           Male
                                  30                                                           Female

                                  20
                                  10
                                  0
                                       2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008



                                       Figure F-3: Graduate Majors by Gender: 2001-2008

The enrollment of U.S citizen minority students was relatively low in the 1990’s. Efforts were
initiated to increase minority enrollment, including participation in the Sloan Foundation
program (starting in 2001) designed to support recruitment of outstanding minority students.
These efforts have contributed to a significant increase in the number of minorities in the
graduate program, which is currently approximately 30% (Figure F-4). The SWES Department
received the First Place Award for Outstanding Diversity by a Graduate Program by the UA
Graduate & Professional Student Council in 2008.

Currently, approximately 25% of the graduate students are international (non-U.S. citizens)
students. This has decreased from the early 90's when approximately 50% of the graduate
student body was international. This does not reflect a decrease in absolute numbers of
international students, but rather an increase in the number of U.S. students entering the program
resulting from initiation of the Environmental Science program. The largest numbers of
international students are from Mexico.




                                                                                                        51
                                               Graduate Students by Ethnicity

                                   80                                              White

              Number of Students
                                   70
                                                                                   Unknown / Other
                                   60
                                   50                                              Nonresident /
                                   40                                              International
                                                                                   Native American
                                   30
                                   20                                              Hispanic
                                   10
                                    0                                              Asian American
                                        2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007         African American
                                                     Fall Semester



                                        Figure F-4: Graduate Student Ethnicity: 2001-2007

The level of resources available to support graduate students in their studies (research and course
work) is generally high. As shown in Figure F-5, 80% of current graduate students are supported
by some form of research or teaching assistantship, or receive external support (i.e., scholarships
for foreign students).


                                                     other               TA


             own support



                                                                                        RA


                                        Conacyt/
                                                                   Tuition
                                     PROMET Mexico
                                                                 scholarship


                                   Figure F-5: Graduate Student support for Fall 2008 by type.

The level of stipend support was relatively low in the early 1990's (approximately $10,000 for
0.5-time appointment). However, as shown in Table F-3 the stipend level has increased
substantially to approximately $18,000 currently, plus full coverage of tuition and health
insurance. Considering cost of living and other factors, the current stipend levels appear to be
generally competitive with those offered by other Universities.




                                                                                                      52
            Table F-3 Change in Graduate Student Stipends from 2001 to 2008

                       Graduate Student Level      2001       2008       Increase
                                MS                 13500      17500        30%
                                PhD                14500      18500        28%

The number of graduate advisees per faculty member is quite variable. Considering aggregate
numbers, the average ratio is approximately 3 advisees per faculty member.

SWES graduates are highly employable and are hired for positions in industry, government and
academia. Table F-4 contains a list of the positions obtained by our graduates from 2005 to
2008. An exit survey is administered by the department to get information from graduates on
their UA experience.

        Table F-4. SWES Graduate Student Positions and Salary after Graduation

        Grad
         year   Position                           Salary   Location
Ph.D    2005    Asst professor                     70,000   Ohio Dominican University
Ph.D    2005    Lecturer Env Sci in Flagstaff               Northern Arizona University
Ph.D.   2005    Hydrologist                        70,000   USGS-Water Resources -Tucson, AZ
M.S.    2005    Ph.D. Student, Tampa, FL           18,000   University of Southern Florida
Ph.D    2005    Molecular Biology                           ARS-USDA
Ph.D    2005    Asst professor                     70,000   University of Georgia, Athens, GA
Ph.D    2006    Plant Physiologist                 50,000   USDA/ARS-Tucson, AZ
Ph.D    2006    Lecturer                                    University of San Antonio, TX
Ph.D    2006    Asst Professor                     60,000   Khon Kaen University, Thailand
Ph.D.   2006    Asst Professor                     40,000   University of Namibia, Africa
                                                            University Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Bogota,
Ph.D    2006    Professor-Environ Biology          42,000   Colombia
Ph.D    2006    Professor                                   Thailand
Ph.D    2006    Teaching English in Busan, Korea   30,000   self employed
Ph.D    2006    Asst Professor Soil Chemistry      80,000   University of California Davis
Ph.D    2006    Forestry                                    Oregon State University
M.S.    2006    Research Technician                         Arizona
Ph.D    2006    Director, Fellowship programs      55,000   EPA Office of Water in Washington, DC
Ph.D    2006    Public Health Scientist                     Clorox Company, Pleasanton,CA
Ph.D    2006    Electronics                        50,000   Samsung Electro-Mechanics, Korea
                                                            Faculty of Science, Damietta University,
Ph.D    2006    Environmental Science Dept         60,000   Egypt
M.S.    2007    Ph.D. Student in the SWES Dept.    16,923   Research Asst with Dr.Huete's Group
Ph.D    2007    Microbiologist                     35,000   Mexican Government
M.S.    2007    Geologist, Camp Dresser & McKee    50,000   Camp Dresser & McKee,Cambridge, Ma
M.S.    2007    Research Consultant                50,000   Rodney, Michigan
Ph.D    2007    Research Scientist                 60,000   US Food & Drug Admin-Gulf Breeze, FL
Ph.D    2007    Postdoctoral Fellow                50,000   UNC/ES&Eng-Chapel Hill-Mark Sobsey
Ph.D    2007    Director, Academic Nat Resources   50,000   Instituto Tecnologico de Sonora, Mexico



                                                                                                   53
 Ph.D    2007   Assistant Professor             45,000   Lander University, South Carolina
 Ph.D    2007   Senior Chemist                  50,000   Water Quality Lab, Orlando, FL
 Ph.D    2007   Postdoc- Research Specialist    45,000   UA/SWES
 Ph.D    2007   Professor                       50,000   Universidad de Tamaulipas, Mexico
 M.S.    2007   Microbiology Lab Mgr. Clorox    50,000   Clorox Company, Pleasanton, CA
 Ph.D    2007   Research Scientist              58,000   Freeze/Thaw Measurements
 Ph.D    2008   Scientist                       47,500   LFR - Areedis & Hydrocooigst
 Ph.D    2008   Scientist                       50,000   Synthetic Genomics, San Diego
                                                         Universidad Autónoma de Baja California,
 Ph.D    2008   Professor                       50,000   Mexico
 M.S.    2008   Lab Technician                           Seattle, Washington
 MS      2008   Postdoc-Research Specialist     41,000   UA/SWES Dr. Mark Brusseau's lab
 MS      2008   Soil Scientist                  35,000   USDA-NRCS-Flagstaff office

4.      Course Enrollment for non-SWES Graduate Students

A large number of graduate students from other programs enroll in SWES courses. For example,
a large number of students from Plant Sciences and Renewable Natural Resources enroll in
SWES 501, 531 and 632. Students from Hydrology and Water Resources enroll in SWES 566
and 570. Some of the SWES graduate courses are cross-listed with other departments, indicating
non-SWES demand.

5.      Enrollment of SWES Graduate Students in non-SWES Courses

Many, if not most, SWES graduate students enroll in several non-SWES courses as part of their
program. This reflects the multi-disciplinary characteristics of the SWES program in general,
and the minor requirement for SWES Ph.D. students. The most frequently used outside courses
are in Chemistry, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Hydrology and Water Resources,
and Microbiology. These Departments and individual teaching faculty have been supportive of
SWES students taking their courses. In fact, when possible, efforts have been made to cross-list
important outside courses with SWES.

6.      Ph.D. Minors

In 2008, 13 Ph.D. students are minoring in SWES and 3 are minoring in ENVS (source:
Information Warehouse). Some of these students are SWES students and some are from outside
the department. The Graduate College records of student majors and minors at graduation
indicate that from 2002 to 2008, of 63 PhDs awarded to SWES majors, 14 completed minors in
SWES fields (22%) and 78% completed minors outside of the department.




                                                                                               54
G.     STUDENT OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT

1.     Intended Student Outcomes

The SWES Curriculum Committee is responsible for developing and maintaining the list of
desired student outcomes for each major to be used by faculty in curriculum development. The
current desired student outcomes for the Environmental Science, Crop Production and SWEs
graduate majors are listed below. Course-specific intended student outcomes are a component of
the syllabus provided in each class taught by SWES faculty. This information is therefore
conveyed to each student at the beginning of the semester, and it functions as a guide for the
instructor when creating exams and assignments.

Bachelor’s degree in Environmental Science:

•      Be able to understand and describe the source and extent of current environmental
       pollution problems, and understand U.S. laws governing pollution and remediation.

•      Learn and integrate basic scientific principles involved in preventing soil and water
       degradation, and remediation of contaminated land and water.

•      Understand factors governing fate and transport of water and contaminants in the soil and
       vadose zone.

•      Have and appreciation and knowledge of the Earth with emphasis on a basic
       understanding of soils and water sources as critical entities in natural and human-
       impacted ecosystems.

•      Understand soils as natural entities and the factors of soil formation and erosion.

•      Understand important physical, chemical and biological properties of soils as they relate
       to their mineralogy, fertility, genesis and classification, biology and biochemistry, and
       land use management.

•      Understand important physical, chemical and biological properties of water with
       emphasis on water quality as it relates to human health, sustainable soil-plant systems and
       the preservation of the natural environment.

•      Understand how to properly collect soil and water samples, identify and implement
       appropriate analytical techniques, and interpret results.

•      Be proficient in writing a technical report or proposal in the field of Environmental
       Science.

•      Be able to create a hypothesis, design an experiment to test that hypothesis, analyze the
       results, and draw appropriate conclusions.




                                                                                               55
Bachelors degree in Crop Production:

•     Have an appreciation and knowledge of the physical Earth.

•     Understand the relationship of Crop Production to other areas of science and to society in
      general.

•     Integrate and apply the general principles of crop production to specific crop production
      systems.

•     Develop an awareness of the history, current conditions, and future challenges associated
      with crop science and production on a local and global scale.

•     Understand soils as natural entities and the factors of soil formation and erosion.

•     Understand important physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil and water.

•     Apply the basic principles of botany and plant biology to crop science.

•     Understand the functioning of nutrient cycles in terrestrial and aquatic systems.

•     Understand how to describe soils and soil profiles in the field, and relate field-observed
      properties to proper use of soils.

•     Understand how to properly collect soil and water samples, identify and implement
      appropriate analytical techniques, and interpret results.

•     Think critically as demonstrated by evaluating information from multiple perspectives,
      drawing reasonable conclusions, and defending them rationally.

•     Be able to create a hypothesis, design an experiment to test that hypothesis, analyze the
      results, and draw appropriate conclusions.

•     Communicate effectively both orally and in writing.

•     Be proficient in writing a technical report or proposal in the field of soil and crop science.

Graduate degrees in Soil, Water and Environmental Science

•     Students graduating with a M.S. degree are expected to acquire increased training and
      experience over the course of their graduate program through their coursework and the
      development and completion of a research project.




                                                                                             56
•      Graduates should be capable of applying knowledge of biological, chemical, earth, and
       physical sciences to formulate problem statements, design experiments, test hypotheses,
       and solve environmental and agricultural problems.

•      In addition, the program promotes the following skills:
       * effective oral and written communication,
       * teamwork and leadership,
       * critical thinking,
       * problem-solving,
       * cultural and global awareness
       * application of knowledge and skills to real-world problems.

•      Students graduating with a Ph.D. degree are expected to have the outcomes discussed
       above for the M.S. graduates.

•      Ph.D. graduates should gain a deeper understanding of designing and conducting
       scientific research.

•      Graduates should be able to independently conduct original research at and beyond the
       boundaries of current state of the art.

•      For those planning on academic careers, Ph.D. graduates should be capable of teaching
       formal courses and participating in professional activities (preparing research proposals,
       reviewing manuscripts, organizing symposia).

2.     Relation to Program Mission and Goals

The Student Outcomes for both Majors are consistent with the stated mission and goals of the
department (http://ag.arizona.edu/SWES/about/mission.htm). Specifically, our coursework is
designed to teach students to become proficient in the myriad disciplines related to human
interactions with the environment. Course-specific outcomes and the overall major outcomes are
designed to ensure that students are familiar with basic and advanced concepts related to the
environment in the classroom, laboratory, and field locations.

3.     Faculty Involvement in Outcomes Measurement

Each set of outcomes was identified with the input of the SWES Curriculum Committee and
several other SWES faculty. For example, SWES 430 Environmental Monitoring and
Remediation is the Capstone Course for ENVS Majors. The Curriculum Committee has paid
close attention to ensure that the outcomes for this course match those of the major. Similarly, all
new course outcomes have been examined by the SWES and CALS Curriculum Committees,
and existing SWES courses are periodically reviewed for updates and alterations, to ensure that
outcomes remain consistent with course content.




                                                                                             57
4.     Methods Used to Assess Student Outcomes

•      Teacher Course Evaluations (TCEs).

•      Final exams. SWES instructors use the student outcomes for each class to create
       questions for exams.

•      Student - Academic Advisor meetings. SWES is fortunate that for the current 116
       undergraduate students we have 3 faculty members serving as advisors. This enables the
       students to get frequent one-on-one attention in regard to the current performance and
       planning the up-coming semesters.

•      Graduating student luncheons. These luncheons enable the advisors and faculty,
       including the Department Head, to meet with students as they complete their academic
       work at the UA. This affords us the opportunity to gain feedback from them on what we
       have done right and what could be improved.

•      Individual exit assessment with advisors. SWES advisors personally interview senior
       ENVS and CROP majors prior to graduation.

•      Nationally-Recognized Certification exam results. In 2005 we conducted a comparison
       of the performance objectives of the Certified Soil Scientist Exam with our student
       outcomes for soils-related classes. Table G-1 lists the objectives and the SWES courses
       that address each objective.

•      Faculty review of graduate student progress. Faculty advisors closely monitor
       graduate students to include:

       Course performance (GPA).
       Preliminary written and oral examination (for the doctoral program only).
       Presentation requirement at the department seminar.
       Final oral defense (thesis and dissertation).
       Retention statistics and length of stay to obtain degree.
       Employment statistics.
       Peer-reviewed publications.
       Overall success of graduates in industries and academia.

5.     Data Collection and Analysis

The primary assessment tools currently used are informal meetings with students in a variety of
settings as listed above. We also critically review student feedback provided by teacher course
evaluations. The TCE evaluations for all individual courses taught by SWES Faculty were
summarized in the table below for the period of Fall 2002 to Spring 2008 for three questions;
namely: ‘overall rating of the course’, ‘amount learned’, and ‘treated with respect’. The
individual values, which range from a low of 1 to a high of 5, were averaged for each course.
“n” is the number of data points used to determine each average value. Some team taught
courses may have as many as three evaluations for a single course offering. In order to


                                                                                          58
determine how the ratings of the SWES courses compare to the equivalent UA courses, the
SWES values were divided by the UA equivalent course means for each course (Table G-2).
Courses with SWES/MEAN values equal to or greater than one for these questions indicates that
the SWES course was above the mean for those types of courses. Student response indicates that
SWES courses generally rank well compared with the equivalent courses.

6.      Outcomes Assessment Results

A departmental exit interview system has been recently implemented and utilized by the
Department Head. A summary of student responses will be posted on the UA Outcomes
Assessment website by June 2009. A departmental exit survey is currently under development.
We intend to administer this survey to graduating students online. This will be modeled
according to the CALS exit survey (see Table E-5) and will be implemented in June 2009.

7.      Incorporation in Strategic Planning and Curricular Review

All assessment information will be examined by the SWES curriculum committee and
incorporated in the curricular review process. Assessment information will also be used in
departmental strategic planning at the annual departmental retreat.

8.      Feedback Mechanisms

The SWES curriculum committee regularly shares curriculum related information with the
faculty at the monthly faculty meetings. Where more timely communication is required
information is distributed electronically. The SWES department works cooperatively and
electronic communication has proven to be very effective.

     Table G-1 Comparison of Certified Soil Scientist Examination Objectives with SWES
                                      Courses (2005)

         CSSE COMPETENCY AREAS                           SWES COURSES
     I. SOIL CHEMISTRY and MINERALOGY
     A. Basic Concepts of Soil Chemistry               200       316       462/562   401/501
     B. Solid Phase                                                        462/562
     C. Mineral Weathering                             200       316       462/562
     D. Solid/Solution Equilibria                                          462/562
     E. Ion Exchange                                   200       316       462/562   401/501
     F. Sorption and Precipitation Reactions           316       462/562
     G. Acidity                                        200       316       462/562
     H. Oxidation Reduction Reactions                  200       316       462/562   474/574




                                                                                             59
II. SOIL FERTILITY
A. Essential Plant Nutrients                       200       316
B. Roles Of Nutrients In Plants And Their
Availability In Soils                              316       474/574
C. pH                                              200       316
D. Acidifying and Liming Materials                 200       316
E. Salt Affected Soils                             200       316       401/501   461/561
F. Nutrient Sources                                200       316
G. Soil Fertility Sampling                         200       316
H. Soil and Plant Analysis and Interpretations               316
I. Nutrient Management                             200       316

III. SOIL PHYSICS
A.   Physical Properties                           200       401/501   461/561   470/570
B.   Soil-Water Relationships                      200       420/520   461/561   470/570
C.   Water Movement and Transport Processes        200       401/501   565       470/570
D.   Soil Temperature                              200       401/501   420/520   470/570
E.   Soil Gases                                    200       401/501             470/570
F.   Engineering Properties                        200

IV. SOIL GENESIS, MORPHOLOGY, and
CLASSIFICATION
A. Soil Forming Factors                            200       431/531   461
B. Horizon Forming Processes                       200       431/531   461
C. Soil Profile Descriptions                       200       401/501   431/531
D. Soil Interpretations and Land Use Management    200       401/501   431/531   461
E. Soil Classification Concepts                    200       431/531
F. Soil Mapping                                    200       401/501   431/531
G. Geomorphology                                   461
H. Soils in Ecosystems                             602
I. Soil Variability                                200       401/501   461

V. SOIL BIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
A.   Living Soil Constituents                      200       316
B.   Soil Ecology
C.   Biological and Biochemical Activities         200       440/540
D.   Soil Organic Matter                           200       316       401/501
E.   Environmental and Agricultural Applications   200       316       440/540

VI. LAND USE MANAGEMENT
A.   Erosion and Sediment Control                  200       401/501   461/561
B.   Wetland Soils                                 200       474/574
C.   Soil Quality                                  200       316       401/501
D.   Waste Management                              200       401/501
E.   Soil Assessment Strategies                    401/501   430       453/553
F.   Water Management                              316       461/561   474/574   401/501
G.   Regulatory and resource agencies              461       430       474/574



                                                                                       60
    Table G-2 Summary of selected questions on SWES TCEs: Fall 2002-Spring 2008

                                 SWES                        UA MEAN                    SWES/UA MEAN
                    Overall    Amount               Overall Amount                Overall Amount
Course         n    rating     learned    Respect   rating    learned Respect     rating   learned Respect
ECOL 475        6        4.8        4.5       5.0        4.0       4.1      4.6       1.20     1.10   1.08
ECOL 575        2        4.9        4.6       5.0        4.1       4.1      4.7       1.20     1.12   1.06
NATS 101 LAB   10        3.7        3.7       4.6        3.8       3.8      4.6       0.98     0.96   1.00
NATS 101 LEC   20        3.7        3.7       4.5        3.6       3.7      4.5       1.03     1.01   1.00
SWES 200       13        4.0        4.2       4.8        4.0       4.1      4.7       1.00     1.02   1.01
SWES 201       11        4.4        4.3       4.9        4.0       4.1      4.7       1.11     1.06   1.03
SWES 210        1        4.0        4.1       4.9        3.9       4.1      4.7       1.03     1.00   1.04
SWES 305        7        3.9        3.9       4.7        4.0       4.1      4.7       0.96     0.94   1.01
SWES 316        5        4.2        4.4       4.7        4.0       4.1      4.7       1.06     1.06   1.00
SWES 397a      13        4.3        4.0       4.7        4.4       4.0      4.8       0.98     1.00   0.99
SWES 418        2        4.0        4.0       4.8        4.0       4.1      4.7       0.99     0.96   1.01
SWES 420       11        3.9        3.9       4.8        4.0       4.1      4.7       0.98     0.95   1.02
SWES 425        6        4.1        4.1       4.7        4.0       4.1      4.7       1.01     0.99   1.00
SWES 426        6        4.2        4.2       4.9   No UA equivalent available
SWES 430 LAB    4        3.8        4.0       4.1        4.0       4.1      4.7     0.94     0.97        0.86
SWES 430LEC     4        3.8        4.0       4.1        4.0       4.1      4.7     0.95     0.97        0.86
SWES 431LAB     2        4.0        4.2       4.6   No UA equivalent available
SWES 431LEC     5        4.3        4.4       4.8        4.0       4.1      4.7     1.08     1.06        1.02
SWES 438/462    6        3.9        4.0       4.2        4.0       4.1      3.7     0.96     0.98        1.13
SWES 440        5        3.9        4.0       4.7        4.0       4.1      4.7     0.97     0.98        1.00
SWES 453        6        4.2        4.1       4.8        4.0       4.1      4.7     1.05     1.00        1.01
SWES 454        2        4.3        4.1       4.9        4.0       4.1      4.7     1.06     0.99        1.03
SWES 464        4        3.9        3.9       4.5        4.0       4.1      4.7     0.97     0.95        0.97
SWES 470LAB     1        3.5        3.8       4.3   No UA equivalent available
SWES 470LEC     7        4.0        4.1       4.6        4.0       4.1      4.7     0.99     0.99        0.98
SWES 474        4        4.4        4.4       4.9        4.0       4.1      4.7     1.10     1.07        1.04
SWES 490        1        4.0        3.9       4.9   No UA equivalent available
SWES 511        1        3.5        3.3       4.4        4.1       4.0      4.8     0.85     0.83        0.92
SWES 541        1        4.0        4.0       4.8        4.1       4.0      4.8     0.98     1.00        1.00
SWES 546        2        3.8        3.6       4.7        4.1       4.0      4.8     0.93     0.89        0.98
SWES 564        2        4.0        4.1       4.9        4.1       4.0      4.8     0.98     1.01        1.01
SWES 565        5        3.8        4.0       4.1        4.1       4.0      4.8     0.92     1.00        0.85
SWES 566        4        3.8        4.0       4.1        4.1       4.0      4.8     0.92     1.00        0.85
SWES 568        1        4.3        4.3       5.0   No UA equivalent available
SWES 568        1        3.8        4.0       4.5        4.1       4.0      4.8     0.93     1.00        0.94
SWES 572        2        4.2        4.3       4.9   No UA equivalent available
SWES 573        2        3.7        3.9       5.0        4.1       4.0      4.8     0.90     0.98        1.03
SWES 595a       1        4.3        4.2       5.0   No UA equivalent available
SWES 602        2        4.4        4.4       4.8        4.1       4.0      4.8     1.07     1.09        1.00
SWES 605        2        3.7        3.5       5.0        4.1       4.0      4.8     0.89     0.88        1.04
SWES 665        1        4.2        4.3       4.7        4.1       4.0      4.8     1.02     1.08        0.98
SWES 696a      11        4.0        3.7       4.9        4.1       4.0      4.8     0.98     0.92        1.01


                                                                                                    61
SWES 696B      1    3.8   4.0   4.6       4.1       4.0       4.8   0.93   1.00        0.96
UNVR
195aQUA         7   3.8   4.0   4.1      4.0       4.1        4.7   0.95   0.97        0.86
UNVR 195aESC   10   3.9   3.9   4.8      4.4       4.2        4.8   0.89   0.93        1.00
UNVR 195aWR    12   4.1   3.9   4.9   No UA equivalent available
V SC 328        2   3.2   3.1   4.1      4.2       4.2        4.7   0.76   0.74        0.87




                                                                                  62
H.     THRESHOLD FOR DEFINING PRODUCTIVE PROGRAMS

Even though the undergraduate Crop Production degree program does not meet the requirement
for 24 or more degrees in the last three years it is not defined as a low productivity program. The
program is exempt from this requirement since it has only been offered since 2005 and there has
not been sufficient time for the maturation required to reach the minimum graduation rate. As
discussed in Section E enrollment in the program has steadily increased and it is fully expected
that the rate of students graduating this degree will meet the required criteria in the next reporting
period.




                                                                                               63
I.     ACADEMIC OUTREACH

1.     Nature of Academic Outreach Activities

All SWES faculty have as a requirement of employment the responsibility to participate in public
service activities. Public service activities performed by SWES faculty include serving on local,
state and regional advisory boards; responding to inquiries from the print and electronic media;
organizing and/or participating in lectures, workshops and conferences; and developing
demonstration projects to acquaint the public with new technological advances – activities that
clearly fall under the category of academic outreach.

The Department also supports formal academic outreach and extension programs in accord with
its affiliation with Cooperative Extension and the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.
Faculty lines committed to extension have increased by 1.4 FTE in the past four years and now
total 3.73 FTE. Seven faculty members have formal Extension responsibilities. Four SWES
faculty members (Brown, Walworth, Crimmins, and Rock) carry majority appointments in
Extension and are classified as Extension Specialists; three faculty carry minority Extension
appointments (Artiola, Fitzsimmons, and Silvertooth) and retain faculty titles. All Extension
faculty are expected to conduct applied research in support of their Extension programs and thus
carry partial research appointments.

2.     Alignment of Outreach Activities with Departmental and University goals

The Department offers a wide array of effective extension programs that are aligned with the
University of Arizona’s Five Year Strategic Plan that targets climate, water and environmental
sustainability as programmatic areas of emphasis for research and outreach. The Department
offers formal extension programming in biometeorology, climate science, water and nutrient
management, water quality, water policy, aquaculture and crop management.

a.      Biometeorology. The Extension Biometeorology Program (EBP) under the direction of
Dr. Paul Brown is responsible for the operation of the Arizona Meteorological Network
(AZMET), a near real time weather network that provides meteorological data and weather-
related information to the state’s agricultural and horticultural producers via the internet. Among
the weather-related products produced by AZMET are Weekly Cotton Advisories, Southeast
Arizona Crop Water Use Reports, Heat Stress Reports, Lawn Watering Guides, Turf Water Use
Reports and Frost Advisories. AZMET, now in its 23rd year of operation, also provides access to
a unique meteorological database that is commonly used by public agencies, consultants and the
scientific community. The AZMET website was accessed ~683,000 times in 2007 with use rates
continuing to grow at 10-15% per year. The EBP also provides educational programming on a
variety of topics related to meteorology, including crop and turf water use; irrigation
management, frost management, global climate change and salinity management. Applied
research conducted by the EBP is presently targeted at: 1) developing new crop consumptive use
values for agricultural and horticultural crops; 2) using electromagnetic induction to assess soil
salinity and irrigation uniformity on golf courses; and 3) assisting the Bureau of Reclamation
refine crop water use estimates for their Lower Colorado River Accounting System which
quantifies water use along the river. This program is broadly recognized by colleagues as being
of very high quality. Dr. Brown has been nominated for the UA Outreach Award for his


                                                                                            64
development and maintenance of this program.

b.      Climate Science. The Extension Climate Science Applications Program (CSAP) under
the leadership of Dr. Michael Crimmins represents a new and exciting programmatic thrust for
SWES Extension. The objective of CSAP is to develop and disseminate climate information for
use by resource managers, government agencies and the general public. The program aims to
support resource managers by increasing climate science literacy as well as developing strategies
to adapt to climate change. Present programmatic efforts are targeted at improving the
management of rangelands, forests/wildfire and water resources. Current CSAP informational
products include the Southwest Climate Outlook (monthly), Southeast Arizona Climate
Summary (quarterly), Northwest Arizona Climate Summary (quarterly) and the Climate Science
Applications website which provides access to a wide variety of climate information. The
program has developed online tools like the Arizona Drought Impacts Reporting System
(Arizona Drought Watch) which allows local clientele to report drought related impacts via the
internet, and the Climate View program which allows users to examine climate data/trends in an
interactive manner. The Rainlog Community Precipitation Monitoring Network which has over
1600 volunteer observers across Arizona was also co-developed by CSAP. Dr. Crimmins also
serves on the Governor’s Drought Task Force Monitoring Technical committee and provides
technical support to county drought impact monitoring groups across the state in support of the
Arizona Drought Plan. Current CSAP applied research projects include: 1) developing drought
planning tools for small water systems, 2) evaluating the relationships between plant phenology
and climatic variables, 3) using repeat digital photography to monitor plant phenology and 4)
evaluating local to global climate controls on Western U.S. fire extent and severity.

c.       Water quality. Water quality is of growing importance in Arizona and serves as one of
the SWES Department’s primary focal areas. SWES has developed new and exciting Extension
Water Quality Programs (WQP) under the direction of Drs. Channah Rock and Janick Artiola.
Dr. Rock serves as Director of the Water Quality Group and is stationed at the University of
Arizona Maricopa Agricultural Center where she has established a new Water Quality Lab
capable of detecting microbial pathogens and indicators in the soils, potable water, wastewater
and biosolids. Her extension activities are presently targeted at promoting greater public
understanding of the issues that affect water quality in Arizona and the Southwest. Current
applied research under the direction of Dr. Rock includes examining the seasonal variability of
nutrient, chemical and biological constituents in reclaimed water and the evaluation of existing
programs that utilize treated wastewater in Arizona. Dr. Artiola serves as Director of the Water
Quality Center Laboratory, which is equipped to perform state-of-the-art chemical and biological
analyses. He has expanded his Extension activities in recent years and has participated in a
number of programs and workshops pertaining to water quality. Dr. Artiola recently published a
popular and timely publication entitled Arizona: Know Your Water that provides an excellent
review of water quality concerns and issues in Arizona. The WQP continues to expand under the
leadership of Drs. Rock and Artiola. The program recently received funding to coordinate a
Statewide Water Resources Needs Assessment and Outreach Forum that will focus on expanding
and improving water related Extension programming across the state. The first phase of this
initiative will employ survey techniques to assess the needs of stakeholders and Extension
facilitators involved in water education programs. This needs assessment survey will provide
opportunities for stakeholders to contribute directly to the development of programs that will
meet their educational needs in the most effective ways.


                                                                                           65
d.      Aquaculture. The Aquaculture Program (AP) under the direction of Dr. Kevin
Fitzsimmons represents another SWES water-related extension program. The AP addresses the
needs of the commercial fish industry in Arizona and the West through the use of workshops,
websites, field days and demonstration projects. Populations of tilapia, grass carp, catfish and
other aquatic species are maintained at the Environmental Research Lab to facilitate both
extension and applied research activities. The AP has an excellent national and international
reputation and hosted the National Aquaculture Extension Conference in 2003. The program has
also conducted numerous international workshops, short courses and training sessions. Websites
produced by the AP reach an international audience and contain links to important research and
extension publications pertaining to aquaculture. The AP is actively involved with ~20 high
school aquaculture programs and manages the Aquaculture in the Classroom, a popular AP
website that serves as a resource tool for students and teachers alike. The AP is also involved in
applied research and extension programming related to management of nuisance aquatic weeds
where the focus is on statewide and regional management plans for these weeds, and addressing
the impact of aquatic weeds on the taste and odor of water.

e.      Water Policy. The Department also is heavily involved in outreach activities related to
Water Policy via its affiliation with the Water Resources Research Center (WRRC) and the
Arizona Water Institute. Dr. Sharon Megdal serves as Director of WRRC and has a joint
appointment in SWES. WRRC, under the guidance of Dr. Megdal, generates a wide array of
extension and outreach activities related to water resources and water conservation, including a
water education program aimed at K-12 teachers (Project Wet) and the Non-Point Education for
Municipal Officials (NEMO). WRRC publishes the very popular bimonthly publication Arizona
Water Resource which covers a wide variety of water related issues, and also organizes annual as
well as specialty conferences which address water related issues of importance to the public.
Katherine Jacobs serves as the Extension Specialist in Water Policy and presently serves as the
Executive Director of the Arizona Water Institute, a consortium of the three state universities
focused improving water supply sustainability through research, education and technology
transfer.

f.       Water and Nutrient Management. Agriculture continues to use the majority of the water
resources in the state and SWES faculty continue to maintain active Extension and applied
research programs in water, nutrient, and salinity management of agricultural and horticultural
crops. Drs. Walworth and Brown are both working at Karsten Turfgrass Research Facility where
they are: 1) examining the water requirements of current and new turfgrass varieties and 2)
developing nitrogen and salinity management strategies for desert turfgrass systems. Dr.
Walworth also has ongoing projects related to nutrient (N and Zn), water and salinity
management in pecans. Dr. Silvertooth once served as the Extension Cotton Specialist and
continues his long-term research aimed at improving water and N management in one of the
state’s largest cropping systems. He has also developed a new program focused on developing
crop coefficients and heat unit based growth and development models for melons (spring
cantaloupes) and chile peppers. Drs. Brown and Sanchez (Resident Director, Yuma Agricultural
Center) have recently installed weighing lysimeters in Yuma to assess the water requirements of
various low desert cropping systems. Relevant results from these programs are transferred to
clientele via the internet using the Arizona Crop Information Site and the Soil Fertility and
Nutrient Management websites; and through field days, commodity specific conferences and
extension bulletins.


                                                                                            66
3.        Program Quality

The SWES Academic Outreach programs are extremely productive and of high quality.
Extension faculty deliver programming and information via a combination of modern and
traditional delivery systems. Modern delivery systems include a large number of websites (Table
I-1) and other distance learning technologies such as courses delivered via satellite and webinars.
Traditional delivery systems include public presentations at workshops, extension meetings and
conferences; and delivery of hardcopy publications via mail and fax. Extension faculty produce
a large number of excellent outreach publications in a variety of formats (Table I-2), and most
publications are now available in electronic format to facilitate delivery via websites or email.
Nearly all outreach programs, publications and activities are funded with external money, and
SWES Extension faculty have been very successful at securing grant funds to support their
programs (Table I-3). Funding sources come from federal, state, and county government as well
as commodity groups and private industry.

     Table I-1. Outreach oriented websites operated in full or part by SWES Extension
                                       Specialists.


           Website                             URL Address                               Responsibility
 Arizona Aquaculture           http://ag.arizona.edu/azaqua                             Fitzsimmons

 Arizona Climate and           http://ag.arizona.edu/extension/riparian/chapt6/p1.h     Zaimes (RNR) &
 Riparian Areas                tml                                                      Crimmins

 Arizona NEMO                  http://arizonanemo.org                                   RNR, WRRC & Rock

 Arizona Meteorological        http://ag.arizona.edu/azmet                              Brown
 Network (AZMET)

 AZdrip                        http:/cals.arizona.edu/crops/irrigation/azdrip/azdripi   Walworth
                               ndex.html

 AZ Drought Watch: Arizona     http://azdroughtwatch.org                                Crimmins
 Drought Reporting Sys.

 Climate Science               http:/cals.arizona.edu/climate                           Crimmins
 Applications Program

 ClimateView                   http://climateview.arizona.edu/                          Crimmins

 Community Water System        http://droughtplan.arid.edu/                             Crimmins
 Drought Planning Tool

 Northern Arizona Irrigation   http://ag.arizona.edu/azmet/phxturf.html                 Brown
 Management

 Phoenix Area Turf Water       http://ag.arizona.edu/azmet/naz-irr.htm                  Brown
 Management

 Rainlog                       http:/www.rainlog.org                                    Crimmins & Woodard
                                                                                        (SAHRA)




                                                                                                         67
Soil Fertility & Nutrient       http:/ag.arizona.edu/SWES/soil_fertility/               Walworth
Management

Southeast Arizona Climate       http://cals.arizona/climate/proj/seaz/index.htm         Crimmins
Information


 Table I-2. Outreach Publications produced by SWES Extension Specialists since 2002.

    Program            Time      Extension      Conference         Popular           Editor,       Commodity
                      Period     Bulletins      Proceedings         Press/         Proceedings      Reports
                                                                  Newsletters

Aquaculture           2002-08         0               17                29                3            0

Biometeorology        2002-08         10              12               295                0            0

Climate Science       2005-08         4               3                 70                0            1

Soil, Water &         2001-08         8               39                78                2           65
Plant Nutrition

Water Quality         2005-08         3               8                  6                0            0

Total                                 25              79               478                5           66

 Table I-3. Total value of grants and contracts awarded to SWES Extension Specialists
             since 2002 that support or have supported outreach activities.

                                Program             Time               Amount
                                                    Period
                            Aquaculture             2002-08                  $205,903
                            Biometeorology          2002-08             $1,659,090
                            Climate                 2005-08                  $386,820
                            Science
                            Soil, Water &           2002-08             $2,438,189
                            Plant Nutrition
                            Water Quality           2005-08             $1,148,635
                            Total                   2002-08             $5,838,637




                                                                                                      68
J.     COLLABORATION WITH OTHER UNITS

1.     Collaborations

Instruction

The SWES department offers the interdisciplinary Bachelors of Environmental Science degree.
We also have recently co-developed the 3 and 2 Master’s degree program with Chemical and
Environmental Engineering. A number of our courses are cross-listed as indicated in the course
listing and we are continually looking for ways to make instruction more efficient. We anticipate
that ongoing efforts to bring departments closer together via the UA Transformation process will
make it easier to offer collective courses and curriculum across departments.

Research

SWES faculty collaborate broadly across campus with faculty in the Colleges of Agriculture and
Life Sciences, College of Engineering, College of Science and the College of Pharmacy. The
complete list of interdepartmental collaborations is numerous but the breadth of these
collaborations spans departments such as Geosciences, Hydrology and Water Resources, School
of Natural Resources, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Agricultural and Biosystems
Engineering, Chemistry and Pharmacy. This has resulted in a number of large high-profile
interdisciplinary research projects which have elevated our overall departmental research effort.
The UA Transformation process that seeks to formalize interdepartmental collaborations will
further enhance these efforts.

Examples of our major cross-campus interdisciplinary efforts include:

The University of Arizona Superfund Basic Research Program (UA SBRP) (SWES, College
of Pharmacy, College of Engineering, College of Medicine, College of Science, College of
Public Health)

The UA SBRP was initiated in 1989 and presently involves five SWES faculty (Artiola,
Brusseau, Maier, Chorover, and Curry). Maier has served as Associate Director of this program
since 2002. The UA SBRP is entitled “Hazardous Waste Risk and Remediation in the
Southwest” and is funded by the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences, NIH.
The UA SBRP has united 5 Colleges and 10 Departments in a multidisciplinary effort merging
biomedical, environmental, and engineering sciences to address the management, remediation,
and health effects of environmental pollutants (arsenic, other metals, halogenated hydrocarbon
solvents) of concern in Arizona. Across the nation, the University-based Superfund Programs
are considered role models for interdisciplinary research and a strong foundation for resolving
regional environmental pollution problems. The UA SBRP emphasizes hazardous waste issues
and exposure routes in the Southwestern U.S. (and Mexican Border) due to the unique arid
nature of this environment. However, the results of our studies are not limited to the Southwest
since the main toxicants being examined, arsenic and halogenated hydrocarbons, are ubiquitous
throughout developed countries. In addition, the main exposure routes (air and water) are
common to arid and semi-arid environments throughout the world. The UA SBRP is a
combination of basic research and translation of that research to regulators, industry and the


                                                                                           69
community. Translation includes testing new remediation technologies at State and Federal
Superfund sites and development of bilingual information materials that target a range of
audiences (from community to regulators). Such efforts have been particularly successful in the
US-Mexico Border region resulting in an additional Federal earmark awarded in 2005 to support
cross-border training and research efforts.

The National Science Foundation Water Quality Center (SWES, College of Engineering,
College of Public Health, College of Science, Arizona State University)

The WQC is a “Multi-University” Industry/University Cooperative Research Center (Multi-
I/UCRC) and has been the only such NSF Center focusing on water quality nationally. It is
directed by Ian Pepper and is described in detail in Appendix 6.

The Water Village (SWES, Systems and Industrial Engineering, Agricultural and Biosystems
Engineering, Water Resources Research, Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics,
Geography and Regional Development)

The Water Village is under the direction of Ian Pepper. It is a designated community for the
study of the influence of distribution systems on household water quality at the tap. It consists of
unique houses to evaluate water quality and safety, state-of-the-art access for water quality
monitoring within the distribution system, modular system to allow for addition of specific
compounds or entities and real-time monitoring of water quality within the distribution system.
It is described in detail in Appendix 7.

Biosphere 2 Hillslope
Experiments (SWES,
GEOS, HWR, ECOL)

The recent acquisition of
Biosphere 2 by the
University of Arizona has
generated unique
opportunities for SWES
faculty (Chorover,
Rasmussen, Tuller, Schaap)
to collaborate with other
Earth and Environmental
Sciences faculty at UA on
interdisciplinary (hydrology-
soils-ecology-
geomorphology) critical zone
                                 Figure 1: Interactions and feedbacks between different scales and aspects
science efforts. A major         of the critical zone leading to structural evolution. The ‘hillslope’
effort is currently underway     experiments planned at Biosphere 2 will help improve our understanding of
to construct three replicated    the co-evolution of ecosystems and landscapes, the integrated mechanisms
zero-order catchments (30 x      of land-atmosphere-hydrosphere exchange, and the role of vegetation in
15 m in plan view) with          catchment hydrologic response.
weatherable soils (loamy


                                                                                                    70
sand comprised of granular basalt) 1 m in depth and subject them to incipient geochemical
weathering and biological colonization by microorganisms and/or vascular plants under well-
controlled experimental climatic conditions. One goal of this experiment is to measure the time-
and system-dependent evolution of subsurface structure (biotic and abiotic) and fluid flow paths
beginning with a complex flow system comprising homogeneous, isotropic porous media at time
zero.

2.     Changes contemplated in collaborative efforts.

Faculty continuously respond to opportunities to collaborate at all levels on-campus and off-
campus. The UA Transformation process is affording an opportunity to reexamine our role in
collaborative activities and to strengthen our instruction and research programs by forming closer
formal ties with other departments involved in environmental, climate and earth systems science.
We expect this will result in increased cross-campus interaction and productivity.




                                                                                           71
K.     RESOURCES

1.     Faculty Compensation Comparisons

Faculty salaries are compared with those of eight peer public universities. Two of these
institutions were also discussed in section C with regard to program quality.

       University of Wisconsin
       Ohio State University
       Texas A&M
       Iowa State University
       University of Florida
       University of Illinois
       University of Minnesota
       University of Nebraska

     2008 Salary Comparison for Tenure/Continuing-Track Employees (excludes
                                 administrators):
  Rank          SWES              CALS                 UA            Peers
           Count / Average Count / Average Count / Average Average Salary
                Salary            Salary             Salary
Full         11 /$100,458      73/$109,288        780/$123,537     $89,853
Associate     6 /$76,769        51 /$78,392       520 /$88,692      $70,205
Assistant     4 /$67,039        32/$66,072        451 /$76,606      $61,739

The peer group salaries were determined by the Office of Institutional Research and Planning
Support for faculty at the peer institutions with CIP codes 0112 (Soil Sciences) and 0301
(Natural Resources Conservation and Research). Average SWES salaries are generally higher
than those of the selected peer group. However, this level of compensation is consistent with
CALS averages and is less than UA averages.

2.     Unit Support Services

Facility space is an important aspect of the administration and management of SWES resources.
SWES research faculty are distributed among six buildings on the UA campus and one facility
off-campus, the Environmental Research Laboratory (ERL) (see Table K-2 below). These
buildings include Shantz, Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS), Veterinary Sciences and
Microbiology (VSM), Biosciences East (BSE), Gould-Simpson and the Forbes building. The
SWES Department also benefits from space and resource allocations to faculty based on UA
agricultural centers in Yuma (Sanchez) and Maricopa (Rock). On one hand, this spatial
distribution of the department poses challenges in terms of communication and general
management of departmental resources. On the other hand, expansion of the department in terms
of overall space allocations (which has led to this physical dispersal) has been critical to the
success of the research and teaching mission of the department. The off-site facility
(Environmental Research Laboratory), described below, has been critical to the rapid and
successful development of the applied research component of SWES. Therefore, although it is


                                                                                           72
not ideal, the dispersal among these six buildings and the off-site facility is viewed as an
important element of the department operation and management. A department goal is to
consolidate the department into a single building. This was a major discussion point in the last
APR review and the Department Head continues to look for opportunities, ideally through
construction of a building, which will provide accommodations for a consolidated SWES
Department.

                 Building                                             Area (ft2)
                 Campus
                     Shantz                                           10,814
                     Forbes                                           1,452
                     Family and Consumer Sciences                     10,571
                     Veterinary Sciences and Microbiology             8,964
                                                   Total              31,801
                 Off Campus – Tucson
                     Environmental Research Laboratory                59,221
                     Sunnyside                                        889
                     Maricopa Agricultural Center                     2,083
                     Yuma Agricultural Center                         6,445
                                                   Total              68,638

                              Table K-2. SWES Space Allocations

Environmental Research Laboratory (ERL)

The Environmental Research Laboratory (ERL, http://ag.arizona.edu/azaqua/erlhome.html) was
established in the early 1960s and was merged into SWES in 1995. It fulfills a unique function
within the University of Arizona by conducting innovative, applied environmental research and
education programs relevant to desert ecosystems. The overall goal of ERL is to develop new
and sustainable technologies that improve human health, welfare and living standards of
communities in desert areas.

       • Located on 8.6 acres adjacent to Tucson International Airport
       • Established leader of environmental research in arid regions
       • Conducts research, instructional and outreach programs at the state, national and
       international level
       • Home of the National Science Foundation Water Quality Center and the Water Village

A new 10-year lease agreement was negotiated between ERL and Tucson International Airport
in September 2007. However, upon the expiration of this lease, the airport has indicated that it
will require the ERL property for extension of the airport. Therefore, ERL is secure at its present
location through July 31, 2017, but will require relocation prior to that date.

To this end the current director has vigorously promoted the design and construction of a state-
of-the-art facility identified as the Water Village. This research and engineering center has, in
turn, been utilized as the vehicle to obtain large extramural funding. Ultimately, the goal of the



                                                                                             73
Water Village is to secure sufficient external funding to guarantee the future relocation of ERL.
Concomitant with this the Water Village is already recognized nationally for its science,
engineering and technology development. A description of the Water Village activities is
provided in Appendix 7.

The operating budget for ERL consists of $31,696 annually. Further detail about ERL and the
WQC can be found in Appendices 7 and 8.

3.     Resource Needs

Similar to most units in CALS and across the UA campus, the SWES Department is in need of
additional space. This is not a universal problem across the department but it is an increasing
critical issue for certain programs in the department. As previously noted, the SWES
Department is scattered among six buildings on campus so more than additional space per se the
need for a building where the department could be consolidated is critical. Many of the issues
that have been, and will be, addressed in this review (interaction among programs, a sense of
department community, etc.) are affected by the physical dispersion of the department personnel
and programs.

A key resource that is needed is that of better technical staff support (allocated budget) for many
programs in the department. However, our technical support base has been eroding rapidly over
the past six years through the budget reductions. Realistically, SWES needs to develop a
mechanism to better buffer the department from further loss and reduction in technical staff
support.

4.     What changes in program quality might be projected if additional resources were
       available, and what would be the expected effects of those changes?

The SWES Department has actively reviewed the full spectrum of our programs, considered our
strengths, and identified our weaknesses. This on-going process has revealed the need and the
collective support for the development of the positions and programs that have been filled and
initiated in the past six years. We do this, in part, through a regular dialog that is facilitated by
discussions at regular faculty meetings, but we also devote a major portion of our annual faculty
retreat time (early May each year) to our strategic planning process.

Based on these discussions, we have three current positions/programs that we consider as priority
areas that would further enhance our strengths in critical zone science. The positions listed
below are ranked in serial order but we could pursue them in any order depending on the nature
of the situation and opportunities that could develop if resources became available. We will also
consider variations on the themes presented in these three positions in relation to changing
circumstances.

•      Assistant/Associate Professor in Soil-Plant Relations. This is a fundamental position to
our department and the continued development of our programs in Critical Zone Science, agro-
ecosystems, and it is an essential position in terms of curriculum delivery.




                                                                                               74
•       Assistant/Associate Professor in Soil Biogeochemistry. This is a key position to serve as
a linkage between biological and chemical mechanisms in terrestrial ecosystems and the critical
zone.

•       Assistant/Associate Professor in Soil Ecology (Soil Microbiology). It is amazing to
realize how little is known about the speciation of soil microflora not to mention the role various
species play in the function the soil biology in a terrestrial ecosystem. Our efforts to understand
and effectively deal with bioremediation, carbon cycling, and sustainable agro-ecosystems are all
very limited without a better understanding of soil ecosystems. This position is very important to
the development of a robust program in soil, water, and environmental science and will
compliment other programs in the SWES Department.

It would be desirable to gain access to the additional resources needed to pursue all of these
positions. However, the reality is that our budgets have been continually reduced over the past
six years (>$600K) and we have not been able to pursue program expansion listed as a result.
We have been steadily losing technical and clerical staff (due to the budget reductions) who are
critical in providing support for the faculty and programs we have today.

Additionally, the Arizona economy is experiencing difficulty. The State Legislature is dealing
with a current budget deficit of ~ $1.2B (December 2008), which will likely translate into further
budget reductions in the near future. As we look ahead to the next several years, forecasts
indicate a high probability of economic trouble, and a low probability of economic prosperity in
Arizona and the Southwest region.

Therefore, realistic planning leads to the question: “What changes in program quality might be
projected if fewer resources were available, and what would be the expected effects of those
changes?” This is the reality we face, and an essential part of what we should be discussing
through the course of this Academic Program Review. Furthermore, we should consider these
questions:

“What will we not be doing five years from now (or 10 years) that we are doing today?

“How should we best manage our research, teaching, and extension programs to deal with the
reduced base in allocated funding to the department?”

“What are the best directions for the SWES Department in the face of increasing educational
demands in Environmental Science, environmental problems pertaining to land and water
management in need research and management attention, and a decrease in funding at the State
and perhaps federal levels?”




                                                                                            75
L.     ADMINISTRATION

1.     How is the unit organized? Describe the unit’s governance structure and give an
       overview of the most important policies and procedures.

The Department Head has overall managerial and leadership responsibilities for the SWES
Department. The Department Head works in close cooperation with the SWES faculty regarding
advice and consent for departmental policies, procedures, strategic planning, and the
implementation of major decisions. The Department Head is administratively responsible to the
Dean of the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (CALS) and accordingly the CALS
Executive Council (Associate Deans).

Communication is a key element employed by the Department Head in the management and
leadership of the SWES Department. The Department Head conducts monthly faculty meetings
(third Tuesday of every month) where issues are presented and discussed in an open forum.
Special faculty meetings are called to deal with issues that require more lengthy or detailed
discussions. Department staff and graduate student representatives that are always welcome and
often attend the faculty meetings. Minutes of faculty meetings are distributed to the entire
department. The SWES Department has an annual faculty retreat that is held each May at the
end of classes. The Department Head also communicates to the department by means of internal
memos and the department newsletter (SWES Sounds).

The Department Head also conducts separate meetings for staff and graduate students, usually
twice each year for each group or as special circumstances dictate.

Committees play an important role in department governance. The Department Head discusses
departmental service with each faculty member during the annual review process in an effort to
define department and committee direction and the best service role for each faculty member.
The Department Head then appoints the department committee assignments and encourages
voluntary participation for faculty among the various committees.

Primary Areas of Responsibility for Major SWES Departmental Committees

Academic Procedures and Policy Committee (APP)
• Meet with tenure, continuing and promotion eligible personnel, including those having
   second and fourth year reviews, to evaluate the status of their candidacy and address
   questions about the preparation of their packets and criteria for review.
• Review and evaluate all tenure, continuing and promotion packets (including second and
   fourth year reviews). Meet with the candidate, vote, and forward a written recommendation
   on each candidate to the Department Head.
• Consider non-retention cases, vote, and forward written recommendation to the Department
   Head.
• Perform other responsibilities, if necessary, relating to departmental academic personnel and
   policy.




                                                                                         76
Peer Review Committee
• Evaluate each faculty Annual Performance Report (APR) for each member of the department
   and present a written summary of the review, including numerical rankings from the
   committee, to the Department Head.
• Develop and review written criteria for the evaluation of faculty performance in accordance
   with University Guidelines on the “Continuing Review Process.”

Curriculum Committee
• Continuously review instructional needs within the department.
• Develop a departmental plan for instruction that incorporates faculty and student suggestions.
   This plan should address practical considerations such as the sequencing of courses,
   distribution of courses offered in fall and spring semesters, and issues such as the possibility
   of combining courses within the department.
• Monitor teaching evaluations for all faculty and make recommendations to the Department
   Head for recommendation and/or improvement.
• Provide assistance to faculty in the preparation of teaching portfolios.
• Provide assistance to graduate students to develop their teaching skills.
• Provide assistance to the undergraduate coordinator and those faculty in the SWES
   Department that are most heavily involved in undergraduate education and advising, in an
   effort to promote the undergraduate program and recruit students into SWS and ES majors.
• Review existing programs at the undergraduate and graduate level with respect to
   recruitment, retention, and placement for students in all majors within the SWES
   Department.
• Develop recommendations to the department relative to the development of new classes such
   as an introductory course in environmental sciences, a senior capstone course, etc.

Long Range Planning Committee
• Solicit input from all facets of the SWES Department relative to long-range (strategic) goals
   and objectives.
• Develop a document outlining, and fully describing, the SWES departmental plan.
• Submit the Long Range Plan document to the SWES faculty for review and comment.
• Work with the Department Head in bringing this document up to date on an annual basis.
• Expand the scope of this document, as necessary, in preparation for any departmental
   reviews (UA Academic Review, CSREES Review, department retreats, etc.).

2.     Summarize the program-related aspects of the last unit review and efforts
       undertaken as a result of the review.

The last APR was conducted in February 2002. The review team provided an extensive list of
suggestions and recommendations. Each of these recommendations has been addressed over the
past six years




                                                                                            77
3.     Description of classified and professional staff to include turnover rate and changes
       contemplated to strengthen the staff support for the academic program’s activities.

A list of all SWES staff is provided in Appendix 9. The SWES main office has been restructured
substantially since the 2002 review. Kristie Gallardo joined the SWES Department in August
2007 to serve as the Administrative Associate. Kristie came from the College of Law and she is
doing an outstanding job. Alicia Velasquez is the only current main office staff member who
was present in 2002 at the time of the last review. At that time she served in a clerical position in
the main office. In 2004 she moved to the Administrative Associate position, and in 2007 she
assumed the responsibilities of the Graduate Program Coordinator following Veronica Hirsch’s
departure (for a position at Purdue as the Native American Programs Director) in 2006. Lisa
Spurlin joined the SWES main office staff in August 2007. Gaby Cordova took the position as
the Business Office Assistant following Suzy Brown’s departure in the spring of 2007 following
Suzy Brown’s departure for a job in another UA department at a higher level. At present, we
certainly have the best complement of main office staff (including the Business Office) since the
spring of 2000. This aspect of department management is critical in terms of providing a
foundation for departmental operations, it has undergone a lot of transition over the past eight
years (due to natural attrition, budget reductions, and personnel changes), and it deserves a lot of
continual attention.

Administrative/Office Support Staff: The 2008 Administrative/Office budgeted support staff
included six females and one male (4 Hispanic, 3 Caucasian).

Technical/Research Support Staff: This staff pool includes 16 people (9 female, 7 male)
whose ethnicity includes: 13 Caucasian, 1 Asian, 2 Hispanic.

Figure L-1 shows the number of (total) faculty (tenure and continuing track) and staff in the
SWES Department from 2002-2008. The overall decline in staff numbers is primarily a function
of budget reductions which has resulted in the loss of staff positions.


                                            Personnel


                    30

                    20                                                        Faculty
                                                                              Staff
                    10

                     0
                         2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08



              Figure L-1. Number of SWES faculty and staff from 2002 to 2008

Table L-1 lists the seven staff positions and six graduate assistantships that have been eliminated
in the SWES Department since 2002 due to budget reductions in state allocations.


                                                                                              78
                        Table L-1 Staff positions lost from 2002 to 2008

                   Name                       Position                SWES Program Area
     Carolyn Watson                     Research Specialist     Biometeorology (AZMET)
     Bill Laughlin                      Technical Support       Environmental Research Lab
     Kathy Bell                         Business Office Staff   Environmental Research Lab
     Robb Carlisle                      Clerical Staff          SWES Main Office
     Vice-Sheri Musil line              Research Specialist     Soil Physics (Warrick)
     Abraham Galadima                   Research Specialist     Soil-Plant Relations (Silvertooth)
     Karen Josephson                    Research Specialist     Env. Microbiology (Pepper)
     Six Graduate Assistantship Lines   Teaching Assistants     Educational Program Support

The loss of these positions is having a significant impact on our ability to conduct and maintain
programs in the SWES Department. The department faculty are now forced to either fund
positions on grant money or do without. These is also effectively reducing our ability to
maintain programs in very applied areas where the capacity to completely fund technician
positions (including ERE) and program operational costs is very limited. This has also placed
severe strain on our ability to maintain course laboratory components, which are critically
important for maintenance of a solid curriculum in Soil, Water and Environmental Science.
Thus, this loss compromises the quality of our curriculum.

It is important to point out the fact that staff positions have been particularly vulnerable to the
budget reductions because 91% of the total SWES State Allocated budget is salaries and wages.
As shown in Figure L-2 below faculty salaries (tenure and continuing track) represent 74% of the
total allocated budget, which are not eligible for budget reductions, leaving classified staff,
wages (temporary and student), and operations (5%) as the only components available for budget
reductions. As a result, these categories have been affected most significantly in the Department
in recent years.




                                                                                                79
                               SWES Permanent State Budget


                                  1%
                                       5%
                                 3%

                                                                   Faculty - Salaries
                         17%                                       Classified Staff - Salaries
                                                                   Temporary Wages
                                                                   Student Wages
                                                                   Operations




                                                         74%




           Figure L-2. SWES Permanent Budget – State Allocations (FY07-08)

NOTE: 1% of the State Allocated Budget = $25,207 (thus, a 5% reduction = $126,035)

A summary of the budget reductions that have been experienced in the SWES Department over
this reporting period are summarized in Table L-2.

   Table L-2. Summary of State-Allocated budget reductions experienced in the SWES
                               Department, 2002-2008.

                  Total                        Research
                Permanent       GRA/GTA       Technician       Personnel        Operations
 Fiscal Year    reduction       reduction     reduction        reduction        reduction
 2001/2002        30,117                                                          30,117
 2002/2003       139,515          18,087        23,093          35,804            62,531
 2003/2004        86,643                        16,362                            70,281
 2004/2005        55,370          1,468         10,654          43,248
 2005/2006        56,524          16,053        17,229          23,242
 2006/2007        39,661          16,224        12,062          11,375
 2007/2008        65,284                        65,284
 2008/2009       142,927          17,599                        125,328
   TOTAL          616,041         69,431       144,684          238,997           162,929



                                                                                                 80
M.     DIVERSITY/AFFIRMATIVE ACTION

1.     Faculty

The faculty is composed of 4 females and 21 males and of 3 Hispanics and 22 Caucasians. The
department is sensitive to the importance of faculty diversity for creating a positive environment
for a diverse student body. Faculty turnover is low. This is good for retention but also results in
relatively slow changes in faculty composition by gender and race/ethnicity. However, the
number of females has increased from 2 to 4 in this reporting period.

2.     Staff

The office support staff includes 6 females and 1 male, 4 Hispanic and 3 Caucasian. The
Technical/Research support staff includes 9 females and 7 males, of whom 13 are Caucasian, 1
Asian and 2 Hispanic.

3.     Students

The SWES student body is well balanced with respect to gender with about a 50:50 ratio of male
to female students at all levels. As discussed in Sections E and F underrepresented ethnic
minorities are well represented at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. The increase in
the number of ethnic minorities at the graduate level is largely due to the department’s active
involvement in the Sloan Foundation fellowship program that provides fellowship funds to
encourage underrepresented (African Americans, Hispanic Americans and Native Americans)
minority students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics
(STEM). Sloan Scholars may receive up to $30,000 during their graduate program. Funds may
be used to cover the costs of tuition, registration fees, stipends, books, summer support, travel to
professional meetings, field expenses, or other approved purposes.

The SWES faculty has been very successful in securing Sloan fellowships for minority students,
which contributes to a vibrant and culturally diverse work environment. Since 2001 a total of 18
graduate students (2 M.S. and 16 Ph.D.) have received fellowships from the Alfred P. Sloan
Foundation. This effort contributed to the SWES Department receiving the First Place Award
for Outstanding Diversity by a Graduate Program by the UA Graduate & Professional Student
Council in 2008.

4.     Inclusive Climate

As indicated above the SWES department has actively engaged in recruiting students from
underrepresented minorities through participation in the Sloan Fellowship program. The
Department Head served as the CALS Millennium Oversight Committee Chair for several years
and another faculty member (Curry) served as a member of the UA Diversity Action Coalition
for several years during this APR reporting period. All of these activities send the message to
department personnel that SWES is an inclusive workplace.




                                                                                              81
N.     DEPARTMENT DATA PROFILES

       Department of Soil, Water & Environmental Sciences (SWES), APR 2008-09
                         College of Agriculture & Life Sciences
                        Questions on Data for Self Study Report
                           Prepared by Celeste Pardee, 9/15/08

1. Enrolled Majors: While undergraduate majors increased with the addition of the Crop
   Production major, graduate majors appear to have dropped slightly—at least in Fall 07. How
   do you account for this?

Question 1 is addressed in Sections E and F.

2. Majors by Gender: While the proportion of female undergraduate students has decreased
   slightly, the proportion of female graduate students has increased significantly during the
   APR period. How do you account for this trend?

Question 2 is addressed in Sections E and F.

3. Enrolled Minors: The ENVS and SWS minors have not attracted many undergraduates.
   However, many doctoral candidates have chosen the SWES minor. It would be helpful to
   explain this difference.

Question 3 is addressed in Sections E and F.

4. Majors Completed: The number of completed baccalaureate majors has declined by nearly
   50% since it peaked in FY 02-03. To what do you attribute this decrease? Graduate
   completed majors appear to be on the rise, unless the 29 in FY07-08 is an anomaly.
   Comments would be helpful. Note: Although the number of completers for the CROP major
   (BS) are below the productivity threshold for the past 3 years, this new major hasn’t existed
   long enough to require a Low Productivity Report.

Question 4 is addressed in Sections E and F.

5. Enrolled/Completed Majors Per Instructional Faculty: The number of enrolled majors per
   state funded instructional faculty is in a satisfactory range. However, the number of
   completed majors per instructional faculty is quite low, and this makes your degrees
   “expensive” (see #11 below).

The retention rate is high and the number of completed majors fluctuates substantially from year
to year. As noted in question 12 the number of degrees increased to 43 in FY07-08.

6. Student Credit Hours (SCH): Total SCH has declined slightly (from 4,351 in FY03-04 to
   3,880 in FY07-08). How do you account for this?

There have been few changes in the course offerings which substantially affect SCH during this
period. There was a sharp drop in SCH between FY03-04 and FY 04-05. Since that time SCH


                                                                                           82
has increased. The change in SCH is attributed to natural fluctuations in the student population
going through this program.

7. Majors in Honors: The percent of students in Honors has recently risen (from 15.7% to
   19.6%). This slight increase is meaningful, considering that the percent of Honors students
   in CALS has declined and in the UA has remained constant. To what do you attribute this
   increase?

Question 7 is addressed in Section E.

8. Freshman SAT/ACT Scores: The average ACT score for incoming freshmen rose about 5
   points during this period, whereas the average SAT score peaked in Fall 06 but returned to
   the Fall 01 level in Fall 07. The scores for CALS and the UA have remained relatively
   constant. In general, the entrance scores are higher for SWES than for the College and
   University; it would be helpful to comment on this difference.

Question 8 is addressed in Section E.

9. Graduation GPA: The quality of SWES undergraduates is also reflected in their graduation
   GPA, which is above that of CALS and the UA. Although it would be premature to
   comment on CROP grads, you may want to address the higher GPA of ENVS grads.

Question 9 is addressed in Section E.

10. Majors by Ethnicity: Underrepresented ethnic groups are well represented at the
    undergraduate level but less so at the graduate level, (e.g., there are no Native American
    graduate students). Instead, international students dominate at the graduate level. What
    factors contribute to this discrepancy? NOTE: due to the low numbers of students in
    specific underrepresented ethnic groups, it’s advisable not to report these separately but to
    combine the numbers in your self study (to protect the identity of individual students).

Question 10 is addressed in Sections E and F.

11. Enrolled Majors Per Completed Major: The number of enrolled majors per completed major
    is an indicator of retention; the lower the number, the better—such as the 1.97 at the graduate
    level in FY07-08. There is no apparent pattern here, but there are anomalies in the high
    number at the baccalaureate level in FY04-05 and FY 07-08, and at the graduate level in
    FY02-03. How do you account for these anomalies?

Question 11 is addressed in Section E and in question 13 below.

12. State Expenditure Per Degree: Because the number of degrees per faculty is relatively low,
    the state expenditure per degree is quite high. There was a significant decrease in cost in FY
    07-08 as your degrees increased to 43. An explanation of the costs would be helpful.

See answer to question 5 and the discussion in question 13.



                                                                                              83
13. UA Departments for Comparison: Select 2-3 departments in CALS or other UA colleges
    with which to compare your data on (1) SCH/Faculty, (2) Majors/Degree and (3) State
    expenditure/Degree. Academic Affairs staff will obtain equivalent data for you to present in
    your self study report.

The department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and the School of Natural Resources were
selected for comparison with SWES. The number of instructional faculty is similar for the three
units (SWES ~ 16, EEB ~ 20, SNR ~20). Each of the three categories: SCH/Faculty,
Majors/Degree, and State expenditure/Degree are discussed below.

Student Credit Hours/Faculty

The number of Student Credit Hours/Faculty is similar for SWES and SNR (~ 250). It is higher
for EEB (~ 450). EEB has a much larger number of undergraduate students (~660) and a
corresponding greater number of large classes (including General Biology) which accounts for
the higher number of Student Credit Hours per faculty.
SOIL, WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES, STUDENT CREDIT HOURS/INSTRUCTIONAL FACULTY, 2001 -
2007


  Student Credit Hours                            FISCAL YEAR (Fall + Spring)
  (SCH) - Fall + Spring
        Census            FY 01-02   FY 02-03   FY 03-04   FY 04-05   FY 05-06    FY 06-07    FY 07-08
Undergraduate SCH         2,052.43   2,700.00   2,875.97   2,354.73    2,373.99   2,438.52    2,778.00
Graduate SCH              1230.00    1,523.00   1,474.70   1,261.24    1,326.50   1,195.79    1,101.53

Total SCH                 3,282.43   4,223.00   4,350.67   3,615.97    3,700.49   3,634.31    3,879.53


Instructional Faculty +
Head (Fall FTE) - State    17.00      15.00      14.90       15.16      15.90      15.75       15.85
funds

SCH per Faculty FTE        193.08     281.53     291.99     238.52     232.74      230.75      244.77


ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, STUDENT CREDIT HOURS/INSTRUCTIONAL FACULTY, 2001 -
2007


  Student Credit Hours                            FISCAL YEAR (Fall + Spring)
  (SCH) - Fall + Spring
        Census            FY 01-02   FY 02-03   FY 03-04   FY 04-05   FY 05-06    FY 06-07    FY 07-08
Undergraduate SCH         6,230.42   6,246.55   6,833.13   8,020.07   8,769.45    9,380.78    9,021.97
Graduate SCH               771.75     666.98     616.80     623.80     736.53      790.16      712.64
Total SCH                 7,002.17   6,913.53   7,449.93   8,643.87   9,505.98    10,170.94   9,734.61


Instructional Faculty +
Head (Fall FTE) -State     17.92      17.32       17.5       16.5       20.5       21.07        21.24
Funds

SCH per Faculty            390.75     399.16     425.71     523.87     463.71      482.72      458.31




                                                                                                         84
 NATURAL RESOURCES, STUDENT CREDIT HOURS/INSTRUCTIONAL FACULTY, 2001 - 2007


   Student Credit Hours                                       FISCAL YEAR (Fall + Spring)
   (SCH) - Fall + Spring
         Census                   FY 01-02     FY 02-03     FY 03-04       FY 04-05         FY 05-06        FY 06-07      FY 07-08
 Undergraduate SCH                2,052.11     2,449.02      2,508.55      2,794.65         3,468.50        3,301.99      2,973.24
 Graduate SCH                     1664.03      1,763.60      1,829.46      1,884.16         1,756.90        1,826.71      1,739.83
 Total SCH                        3,716.14     4,212.62      4,338.01      4,678.81         5,225.40        5,128.70      4,713.07


 Instructional Faculty +
 Head (Fall FTE) -State            21.23        20.63         17.70         18.68            19.31            19.14            21.14
 Funds

 SCH per Faculty                   175.04       204.20       245.09         250.47           270.61           267.96         222.95


Majors/Degree

The Majors/Completed Major data for SWES, EEB and SNR are contained in the tables below.
EEB has the largest number of students overall (~800) followed by SNR (~200) and then SWES
(~150). At the graduate level the number of students is similar for the three departments. The
ratio of Enrolled Major/Completed Major is an indication of retention, the lower the number the
better. For all three departments this indicator fluctuates from year to year. It is interesting to
examine the average value of this indicator for the years 2001 – 2007 which is provided in the
last column of each table. The average values for SWES are either nearly the same or lower than
both EEB and SNR in both the undergraduate and graduate student categories.

SOIL, WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES, ENROLLED MAJORS/COMPLETED MAJORS*, 2001 - 2007
(Includes CROP, ENVS, and SWES Majors)


                                                          FISCAL YEAR (Aug/Dec/May)
                           FY
MAJORS BY                  01-
CAREER                     02       FY 02-03      FY 03-04       FY 04-05      FY 05-06          FY 06-07             FY 07-08         average
Undergraduate
Enrolled Majors -          72          78            76               63              70               78               97
Fall Census Date
Undergraduate
Completed Majors -         15          23            17               9               18               12               14
Fiscal Year
Enrolled UG Majors/
Completed Major            4.80       3.39          4.47           7.00              3.89              6.50             6.93            4.94


Graduate Enrolled
Majors - Fall              68          69            73               69              68               72               57
Census Date
Graduate
Completed Majors -         20          11            13               24              15               16               29
Fiscal Year
Enrolled Graduate
Majors/ Completed          3.40       6.27          5.62           2.88              4.53              4.50             1.97            3.72
Major




                                                                                                                                          85
ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, ENROLLED MAJORS/COMPLETED MAJORS*, 2001 - 2007
(Includes BIOL, ECOL, AND GBIO Majors)


                                                  FISCAL YEAR (Aug/Dec/May)
MAJORS BY                 FY 01-
CAREER                      02     FY 02-03   FY 03-04   FY 04-05   FY 05-06   FY 06-07   FY 07-08   average
Undergraduate
Enrolled Majors - Fall     700        667       628        650        684        668        663
Census Date
Undergraduate
Completed Majors -        97.66     105.33      91.00      88.00     80.33      93.33      91.00
Fiscal Year
Enrolled UG Majors/
Completed Major            7.17      6.33       6.90       7.39       8.51       7.16       7.29      7.21


Graduate Enrolled
Majors - Fall Census       55         60         56         60         67        68         61
Date
Graduate Completed
Majors - Fiscal Year       15         11         16         18         15        12         13

Enrolled Graduate
Majors/ Completed          3.67      5.45       3.50       3.33       4.47       5.67       4.69      4.27
Major


NATURAL RESOURCES, ENROLLED MAJORS/COMPLETED MAJORS*, 2001 - 2007
(Includes NTRS, RAM,RNR, WFSC, WSM, and WWRR Majors)


                                                  FISCAL YEAR (Aug/Dec/May)
MAJORS BY                FY 01-
CAREER                     02      FY 02-03   FY 03-04   FY 04-05   FY 05-06   FY 06-07   FY 07-08   average
Undergraduate
Enrolled Majors -         110        106        127        121         125       111         105
Fall Census Date
Undergraduate
Completed Majors -        28         22         21          27         30         27         26
Fiscal Year
Enrolled UG Majors/
Completed Major           3.93       4.82       6.05       4.48       4.17       4.11       4.04       4.45


Graduate Enrolled
Majors - Fall Census      123        121        127        128         127       124         119
Date
Graduate Completed
Majors - Fiscal Year      33         24         20          26         19         24         22

Enrolled Graduate
Majors/ Completed         3.73       5.04       6.35       4.92       6.68       5.17       5.41       5.17
Major


State expenditure/Degree

On average, the State expenditure/Degree is higher for SWES compared to EEB or SNR.
However, in FY 07-08 the SWES expenditure/Degree was about the same as that for SNR.
Interestingly, there doesn’t seem to be any trend in the number of degrees awarded per year for
any of the units. The total state expenditure for SWES has also remained relatively steady over
this reporting period while that for EEB and SNR has steadily increased. This has resulted in a
decrease in the gap between the cost of SWES degrees compared to EEB and SNR degrees.



                                                                                                       86
SOIL, WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES, STATE EXPENDITURE/ DEGREE*, 2001 - 2007
(Degree total in the IIW records a double major = 0.5 degree; IDST subject area = 0.33 degree)


                                                   FISCAL YEAR (Aug/Dec/May)

                    FY01-02       FY02-03       FY03-04       FY04-05       FY05-06       FY06-07     FY07-08

Degree Total*         37.00         34.33         31.33         36.33         35.33         31.67      43.00
State
Expenditure /       72,928.96     72,616.36     76,222.56     68,358.27     75,207.60     83,877.83   63,461.97
Degree


ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, STATE EXPENDITURE/ DEGREE*, 2001 - 2007
(Degree total in the IIW records a double major = 0.5 degree; IDST subject area = 0.33 degree)


                                                   FISCAL YEAR (Aug/Dec/May)

                    FY01-02       FY02-03       FY03-04       FY04-05        FY05-06       FY06-07    FY07-08
Degree Total*        109.67        114.83        105.00        105.00         94.83         101.33     102.50
State
Expenditure /       28,185.46     25,662.66    30,189.80      33,821.02     43,930.61     42,920.71   42,554.72
Degree


NATURAL RESOURCES, STATE EXPENDITURE/ DEGREE*, 2001 - 2007
(Degree total in the IIW records a double major = 0.5 degree; IDST subject area = 0.33 degree)


                                                   FISCAL YEAR (Aug/Dec/May)

                   FY01-02       FY02-03        FY03-04       FY04-05       FY05-06       FY06-07     FY07-08

Degree Total*        62.00         46.33         41.00         53.00          50.00         53.33      48.00

State
Expenditure /     38,694.23      55,741.73     60,621.14     50,283.36     56,661.88      57,124.71   65,307.77
Degree




                                                                                                                  87
88
                                          APPENDIX 1

            History of the Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science

The early predecessor of the current Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science
(SWES) was the Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soils which was first recognized as a
department in 1927. Prior to that Agricultural Chemistry was identified as a Division (1925-26)
or Section (1912-17) although chemistry was taught by Agricultural Experiment Station staff as
early as 1891-92. Agricultural Chemistry and Soils combined with Agricultural Engineering in
1972 to form the Department of Soils, Water and Engineering (SWE). The division of SWE into
the Departments of Soil and Water Science (SWS) and Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering
(ABE) then took place in 1985. The Environmental Research Lab was incorporated into the
Department in 1995 and the department name underwent a third change to Soil, Water and
Environmental Science (SWES) in 1996, reflecting a broader emphasis on environmental issues.

Although basic research in soil chemistry was carried out during the early days of the
Agricultural Chemistry and Soils Department, the emphasis was on soil fertility and plant
nutrition in response to outside interests in the agricultural community - commodity group and
the agricultural chemical industry. The emphasis broadened as the department expanded and
new positions were established in soil physics, pedology, and soil microbiology. During the time
of the SWE Department, the soils group expanded with the addition of new areas of activity in
the applied physical sciences, i.e. remote sensing and micrometeorology.

Environmental research has long been of interest in the department and its predecessors. In
connection with soil fertility work, research was carried out using municipal wastewater, sewage
sludge, and animal wastes as sources of nutrients and for land disposal of waste products. In the
1990s the SWES Department began to redirect much of the research and teaching effort toward
Environmental Science to reflect a growing emphasis upon environmental issues and problems at
the state and national levels. Department activities were expanded into the areas of
environmental microbiology and environmental chemistry. Research efforts were expanded in
the applications of chemistry, physics, and microbiology for ameliorating pollution, and
monitoring global change through remote sensing technology.

Throughout the history of the Agricultural Experiment Station, and the precursor years of the
Agricultural Chemistry and Soils Department, water and water quality for irrigation and
domestic use have been major areas of interest. In the 1990s water-related work expanded, with
more attention given to environmental issues, quantitative treatment of problems on systems
through modeling, and more precise data collection systems. The establishment of an NSF-
sponsored Water Quality Center helped place the department at the forefront of research
addressing a myriad of water quality issues facing the nation.

The first extension soils specialist position was established in 1951. This position was not part
of the department until it was integrated into the SWS Department in the late 1970s. The
extension soils specialist was primarily concerned with soil fertility and plant nutrition.
Extension specialist positions were created in water and water quality and in biometeorology in
the late 1980s. More recently, an extension specialist position has been created in climate
science.


                                                                                            89
90
                                        APPENDIX 2

SWES Faculty Examples of Awards, Editorships, and Service on State, National and
University of Arizona Committees since 2001

Awards
Fellow, American Association for the advancement of Science AAAS (2006, 2008)
California-Arizona Crop Protection Association, Science Education Award (2006)
CALS Administrator of the Year award (2008)
CALS Research Faculty of the Year award (2007)
CALS Teaching Faculty of the Year award (2008)
CALS Administrator of the Year award (2004)
CALS Outstanding Team award (2006)
GPSC award for Outstanding Diversity in a Graduate Program
Special Recognition Award for Service to National Aquaculture (2003)

Editorships (terms range from 1 year to indefinite service)
Applied Microbiology, Editorial Board
Aquaculture, Editorial Advisory Board Member
Biodegradation, Editorial Board
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, Associate Editor
CRC Critical Reviews I Environmental Control, Editorial Board
Environmental Science and Policy, Editorial Advisory Board Member
Fisheries Science, Editorial Board
Geoderma, Joint Editor in Chief
Global Aquaculture Advocate, contributing Editor
Journal of Applied Microbiology, Editorial Board
Journal of Arid Land Research and Management, Editorial Board
Journal of Bacteriology, Editorial Board
Journal of Crop Production, Associate Editor (2002-2006)
Journal of Cotton Science, Associate Editor
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, Editorial Board
Journal of Water and Health, Editor-in-Chief
Letters in Remote Sensing and the Environment, Editorial Board
Soil Management, Fertilization and Irrigation Section of HortScience-Associate Editor
Remote Sensing of the Environment, Editorial Board
Reviews in Fisheries Science, Editorial Board
Soil Science Society of America Journal, Associate Editor
Sultan Qaboos University Journal for Scientific Research -Editorial Advisory Board
Vadose Zone Journal, 2 Associate Editors

National/International Committees (terms range from 1 year to indefinite service)

American Water Works Research Foundation Review Committee (2003)
American Society of Horticultural Sciences – Chair, Nutrient Management Working Group
      (2003)
Advisory Board for National Drought Applications (2004)


                                                                                        91
Carbon Cycle Science program of NASA, DOE, and USDA CSREES, Panel Member (2004)
Asian Institute of Technology – Adjunct Professor (2005)
Colorado River Delta Science Study Group (2005)
Council for Soil Science Examiners (ASA) (ARCPACS and CSS) (2005)
American Association for the Advancement of Science, Council
Americas Prediction Program Review Global Energy & Water Experiment (GEWEX) (2005)
American Geophysical Union Unsaturated Zone Technical Committee (2003-2006)
American Tilapia Association – Secretary/Treasurer (2005-2006)
American Society for Microbiology, Committee on Environmental Microbiology(2006)
American Society for Microbiology, Public Affairs Committee (2004-2006)
Aquaculture without Frontiers - Board member (2006-2007)
ASCE Task Committee on Standardized Computation of ETo (2005-2006)
Clorox Scientific Advisory Board (2007)
CSREES/NOAA Sea Grant National Aquaculture Extension Steering Committee (2003)
Environmental Science text books - advisor to publisher (2007)
Gypsic Soils Committee (2006)
Housekeeping Channel – Advisory Board (2007)
NSF Critical Zone Working Group (2006)
NSF Panel Member for Geobiology and Low Temperature Geochemistry (2006)
NSF Ecosystem Science Cluster Review Panel (2006)
NRCS Digital Soil Mapping Organizing Committee (2006 and 2008)
National Audubon Society Appleton-Whittell Research Ranch Advisory Team (2007)
National Cooperative Soil Survey Gypsic Soils Committee (2006)
National Drought Applications, Advisory Board (2006)
National Phenology Network Working Group (2005-2007)
National Research Council, Expert Committee (2006)
National Research Council of Canada, Review Panel (2006)
National Research Council panel on Endangered Species on the Platte River (2004)
National Research Council panel on Reviewing the Climate Change Science Plan (2004)
National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship evaluation, Panel Member (2004)
National Academy of Science, United States National Soil Science Committee (2004)
National Academy of Science, Research Priorities for Earth Sciences and Public Health (2004)
National Aquaculture Extension Steering Committee (2005)
NSF/EPA/DOE Review Panel in Phytoremediation (2003)
Recent Advances in Quantitative Remote Sensing Symposium, Scientific Committee (2006)
Savannah River Site, Science Advisory Panel (2003)
Science Advisory Board of Parents of Kids with Infectious Diseases-Advisory Board (2005)
Scientific Advisory Committee for “Big Link” (2007)
Soil Science Society of America - SSSA S-11l Chair- (2005)
Soil Science Society of America – Kirkham Conference Committee (2008)
Soil Science Society of America – Don & Betty Kirkham Soil Science Award Committee (2008)
Soils and Environmental Quality, Chair Elect (2005)
SSSA Committee: Emerging Issues in Soil Science (2004)
US Aquaculture Society – President (2001)
U.S. National Committee for Soil Science, Soil Science Education (2003)
United States National Committee of the International Water Quality Association (2003)



                                                                                      92
USDA-WERA, Multistate Research Coordinating Committee/Information Exchange Group
      (2005-2007)
USDA NRI Soils and Soil Biology Program Panel Members (2004, 2006 and 2007)
W-1188 Multistate Research Committee, Vice Chair (2008)
Water Environment Federation, Project Advisory Committee (2004-2006)
Water Network of Centers of Excellence of Canada, Expert Panel (2004)
Water Work Research Foundation, Review Committee (2004)
World Aquaculture Society-Board of Directors (2003), President (2005)
World Wildlife Fund Committee (2005-2007)
WorldFish Review Board (2005)
WCC-103 Coordinating Committee “Nutrient Management and Water Quality” (2003)
Western Regional Aquaculture Center - Board of Directors (2005-2007)
Water-Rock Interaction Organizing Committee (2003-2004)

State Committees (terms range from 1 year to indefinite service)

Arizona Forest Health Advisory Committee-Climate Change Subcommittee (2007)
Arizona Governor’s Drought Task Force-Drought Monitoring Subcommittee (2005-2007)
Arizona Governor’s Agricultural Best management Practices Committee (2001)
Arizona Invasive Species Control Task Force (2007)
Arizona Department of Agriculture Cotton Advisory Committee (2001-2007)
Broadway/Pantano WQARF Site Community Advisory Committee (2001)
Citizens Water Advisory Committee (2001)
Cochise County Local Area Impact Assessment Group – Drought Monitoring (2005-2007)
National Integrated Drought Information System – Arizona Working Group, Advisor (2007)
Wilcox-San Simon NRCD Advisory Committee (2007)
Tucson Zoological Society – President (2001)

University of Arizona Committees

UA Commission on the Status of Women (2001-2004)
UA Diversity Coalition (2004-2006)
UA President’s LGBT Advisory Council (2004-2007)
UA Campus Sustainability Committee
UA Campus Sustainability Steering Committee




                                                                                    93
94
                     Appendix 3

Bachelor of Science in
Environmental Science


Guidelines for Majors –
Department of Soil, Water and Environmental
                   Science
        The University of Arizona

                 2008-2009

        BACHELOR OF SCIENCE DEGREE
           in Environmental Science



             Shantz Building Room 429
                   520-621-1646
             www.ag.arizona.edu/swes




             REVISED November 2008



                                              95
SWES Scholarships
Scholarship funds include the following; check with your Advisor for more details.
Scholarship                                           Criteria

                Undergrad/grad in soils/water sci. or env. Sci. demonstrating academic excellence/leadership.
Buehrer, T-PR   Named by Dean with approval of OSFA.


                Outstanding undergrads and grads involved in soils and water sci. to svc agriculture in AZ;
Fuller, W.H.    Recipients must demonstrate academic excellence; good character; professional promise;
                Nominated by Dept Head of SWES; OSFA apprv.


Jones, Geo-PR   Upper division & grad students in crop production area of AG. 3.0 cum gpa.
                This award amount to be distributed in consultation with Plant Sciences. Approved by Dean & OSFA.


Smith, H
Schol-PR        Upper division; Soils, Water, Eng or Nutri. Schol. Sub-committee nominates, Dean/OSFA approves.




                                                                                                                96
INTRODUCTION

   Environmental science is the study of human impacts on natural systems from molecular to
global scales. These natural systems include soil, water, air, and ecosystems.

    The Bachelor of Science Degree program in Environmental Science is coordinated by the
Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science (SWES) and includes classes offered by
departments throughout the University. To allow for maximum flexibility, this program offers
several different focal areas, while providing a strong background in biological, chemical, and
physical sciences. All environmental science students take several classes in common, while
typically selecting a focal area during the second half of their academic program.

CAREER OPPORTUNITIES

    With this degree, students will be well-prepared to pursue careers in business and industry,
government agencies, educational institutions, and private consulting firms. In addition, a BS
degree in Environmental Science prepares students for an advanced degree in a variety of fields,
including environmental health, resource management, engineering, law, and public policy.

   Some titles associated with available jobs include: Environmental Scientist, Environmental
Engineer, Industrial Hygienist, Environmental Health Specialist, Earth Scientist, Ecologist, Forester,
Environmental Chemist, Environmental Microbiologist, Meteorologist, Soil Scientist,
Environmental Lawyer, and Natural Resources Manager.


COURSEWORK

Note: Since some of the classes listed below have prerequisite requirements, it is important
to check the U of A online Schedule of Classes (http://garnet.ccit.arizona.edu/cgi-
bin/schedule/schedule.cgi) to confirm course availability and class prerequisites.


A.        General Education. This coursework gives undergraduates a diverse academic
          background to complement each major.

     Foundation Courses                                   Tier 1
     English Composition                        6 Units   Traditions and Cultures     6 Units
     Mathematics (satisfied by MATH 124/125)              Individuals and Societies   6 Units

     Pre-Major                                            Tier 2
     Communications (satisfied by SWES 408)               Humanities                  3 Units
                                                          Arts                        3 Units
                                                          Individuals and Societies   3 Units

     Second Language
     Second semester proficiency               variable




                                                                                                97
B. Basic Science Core.
All students take these foundation science courses (38-40 units).



Chemistry                                                       Physics
CHEM 151 General Chemistry I (4), I, II                         *PHYS 102 Intro Physics (3), I, II, SUM
CHEM 152 General Chemistry II (4), I, II                        PHYS 181 Intro Physics Lab (1), I, II, SUM I
CHEM 241a Lectures in Organic Chemistry (3), I, II               *Or PHYS 131 and 181 for Chem or
CHEM 243a Organic Chemistry Lab (1), I, II                       Env Sci/Tech Focal Areas


Math                                                            Soil, Water Environmental Science
MATH124 or 125 Calculus I (3 or 5), I, II                       SWES 200 Soils (3), I, II
MATH 263 Statistical Methods (3) I, II or                       SWES 201 Soils Lab (1), I, II
MGMT 276 (3), I, II or                                          SWES 210 Fund Env Sci & Sustainability (3), I,II
PSYC 230 (3), I, II, SUM


Microbiology                                                    Careers
MCB 181R Intro Biology I (3), I, II                             SWES 195a Careers in Env Sci (1), I, II
MCB 181L Intro Biology Lab I (1), I
MIC205 A/L General Microbiology (3/1), I, II, SUM I




C. Environmental Science Core.
     All students take these courses during their junior and senior years (22-23 units).



  Required Courses                                           Select one of the following
  AREC 350 Economics, Ethics & Env Mgmt (3), II              ENGL 308 Technical Writing (3), I, II
  CHEM 322 Principles of Analysis I (2), I, II, SUM I        SWES 408/508 Sci Writ Env Ag/Life Sci (3), II
  CHEM 323 Principles of Analysis I Lab (1), I, II, SUM II
  SWES 305 Pollution Sci (3), II
  SWES 430 Env Mon/Remed (Capstone) R/L (3), II *


  Select one of the following                                Select one of the following
  SWES 393/493 Internship (3-4), I, II                       SWES 418 Intro Human Health Risk (3), II
  SWES 397a, Teaching Workshop (3-4), I, II                  SWES 444 Applied Env Law (3), I
  SWES 399/499 Independent Study (3-4), I, II                SWES 461 Soil/Water Cons (3), Presession/odd yrs


*Students must complete SWES 305, CHEM 241, MATH 124 or MATH 125, MIC 205a, and PHYS 102 prior
to enrolling in the Capstone course




                                                                                                                   98
D. Environmental Science Focal Area Coursework.
  Students may pursue one of the following.

  1.     Biology Focus (30-31 units):
         This focus centers on the influence of the environment on living organisms, populations, communities,
         landscapes, and vice versa. It emphasizes agricultural and aquacultural impacts on the environment, use of
         plants to clean up the environment (phytoremediation), and management of freshwater and marine systems.

         Employment opportunities: Resource agencies, environmental consultants, utilities, engineering firms, etc.

         Advisor: Dr. Kevin Fitzsimmons, 626-3324, kevfitz@ag.arizona.edu


       Required Courses (18 units)                              Options (9 units)
       CHEM 241b Organic Chemistry (3), I, II                   BIOC 460 Gen Protein/Metabolic Biochem (3), I, II, SUM
       ECOL 182 Intro Biology II R/L (4), I (without lab), II   ECOL 320 Genetics (4), I, II
       ECOL 206 Environmental Biology (4), II                   ECOL 406 R/L Conservation Biology (4), I
       ECOL 335 Evolutionary Biology (4), II                    ECOL 487R Animal Behavior (3), I
       SWES 461 Soil/Water Cons (3), Presession/odd yrs         ENTO 415R Insect Biology (3), I
                                                                GEOS 412A Ocean Sciences (4), II
                                                                RNR 328R Microbial Physiology (3), I
                                                                RNR 355 Introduction to Wildland Fire (3), I
   Select one (3-4 units)
                                                                RNR 384 Natural Resource Management (3), II
   ECOL 302 Ecology (4), I
                                                                RNR 403 Appl of Geog Info Sys (3), I, II
   RNR 316 Nat Resources Ecol; (3), I
                                                                SWES 280 Microbes in the Environment (3), I
   RNR 403 Appl Geog Info Sys (3), I
                                                                SWES 316 Soil Fertility/Plant Nutrition (3), II
                                                                SWES 417 GIS for Natural Resources (3), I
                                                                SWES 425 Environmental Microbiology (3), I
                                                                SWES 453 Remote Sensing of the Environment (3), I
                                                                SWES 474 Aquatic Plants & the Environ (4), I
                                                                SWES 475 Freshwater & Marine Algae (4), II
                                                                WFSC 441 Limnology (4), I

  2.     Remote Sensing and Geospatial Analysis (24 units):
           This focal area concentrates on the principles of remote sensing and geographic information systems
           analysis tools and their applications to the study of the environment, global change, and the impact of
           humans on the environment.

           Employment Opportunities: Environmental Consultant, Environmental Analyst, etc.

           Advisors: Dr Alfredo Huete, 621-3228, ahuete@ag.arizona.edu
                    Dr. Phil Guertin, 621-1723, phil@nexus.srnr.arizona.edu


   Required Courses (9 units)                                   Options (6 units)
   RNR 417 Geog Info Sys Nat Resources (3), I                   GEOG 303 Field Studies of Env Geography (3), I, II, SUM
   SWES 330 Intro Remote Sensing (3), I                         GEOG 357 Geog Research Methods (3),I, II
   SWES 453 Remote Sensing of the Environment (3), I            GEOG 416A Computer Cartography (3), I
                                                                GEOS 478 Global Change (3), I
                                                                OPTI 531 Image Processing Lab (3), I (not offered Fall 08)
   Select three (9 units)                                       OPTI 550 Fundamentals of Remote Sensing (3), II (requires    instructor
   RNR 419 Carto Modeling for Nat Resources (3) II              approval)
   RNR 420 Advanced Geog Info Sys (3) II                        RNR 271 Nat Resource Computer Appl (3), II
   SWES 461 Soil/Water Cons (3) PreSession (odd yrs)            RNR 321 Nat Resource Measurements (3), II
   SWES 483 Geog Appl Remote Sensing (3), II                    RNR 473 Spatial Analysis/Modeling (3), I
   SWES 490 Remote Sensing Study of Planet Earth (3), II        SWES 418 Intro Human Health Risk Assess (3), II
                                                                SWES 420 Environmental Physics (3), I
                                                                SWES 470 Soil Physics (3), II




                                                                                                                  99
3.   Microbiology Focus (23 units):
     This focus primarily addresses issues such as the remediation of contaminated sites and natural processes of
     decomposition, as well as water and food quality (pathogens).

     Employment Opportunities: Federal/state/local resource/planning agencies, environmental consultants,
     water utilities, pharmaceutical and biotechnology firms, and analytical labs.

     Advisors: Dr. Raina Maier, 621-7231, rmaier@ag.arizona.edu
               Dr. Ian Pepper, 626-3328, ipepper@ag.arizona.edu
               Dr. Christopher Rensing, 626-8482, rensingc@ag.arizona.edu


 Required Courses (8 units)                               Options (continued)
 CHEM 241b Organic Chemistry (3), I, II                   ECOL 320 Genetics (4), I, II
 SWES 425 Environ Microbiology (3), I                     MCB 410 Cell Biology (3-4), I, II
 SWES 426 Environ Microbiology Lab (2), I                 MCB 411 Molecular Biology (3-4), I, II
                                                          MCB 460 Gen Protein & Gen Metab Biochem (3), I, II, SUM
                                                          MCB 473 Recomb DNA Methods/Appl (4), I, II
                                                          MIC 421b Microbiological Techniques (3), I
 Options (select 15 units)
                                                          RNR 316 Natural Resources Ecology (3), I
 BIOC 462a Biochemistry (4-5), I
                                                          SWES 280 Microbes in the Environment (3), I
 ECOL 206 Environmental Biology (4), II
                                                          SWES 440 Biodegradiation of Pollutants (3), II (even years)
 ECOL 302 Ecology (4), I
                                                          SWES 475 Freshwater and Marine Algae (4), II
                                                          WFSC 441 Limnology (4), I


4.   Science and Technology Focus (42 units):
     This focus was developed with the Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department. It prepares
     students to deal with environmental pollution and to solve complex environmental problems requiring an
     interdisciplinary background.

     Employment opportunities: Environmental scientist or environmental compliance officer in industry,
     interdisciplinary scientist in environmental regulatory agencies, or technical specialist in an environmental
     consulting firm.

     Advisor: Dr. Mark L. Brusseau, 621-3244, brusseau@ag.arizona.edu
Required courses (30 units)

 CE 214 Statics (3), I, II, SUM                                Options (12 units)
 CE 218 Mechanics of Fluids (3), I, II*                        ATMO 469A Air Pollution I: Gases (3), I
 CHEE 370R Environmental & Water Engineering (3), I, II        ATMO 469B Air Pollution II, (3) II (odd years)
 CHEM 480a Physical Chemistry (3), I, II **                    CHEE 400R Water Chemistry (3), I
 MATH 129 Calculus II (3), I, II                               CHEE 400L Water Chemistry (1), I
 MATH 223 Vector Calculus (4), I, II                           CHEE 478 (CE 478) Intro Hazardous Waste (3), I, II
 MATH 254 Differential Equations (3), I, II                    HWR 417A Fundamentals of Water Quality (3) II
 PHYS 132 Intro Physics w/Calculus II (4), I, II               HWR 423 Hydrology (3), I
 PHYS 182 Intro Lab II (1), I, II                              HWR 431 Hydrogeology (4), I
                                                               SWES 420 Environmental Physics (3), I
                                                               SWES 425 Environmental Microbiology (3), I
 Select one (3 units)                                          SWES 440 Biodegradation (3), II (even years)
 SWES 418 Intro Human Health Risk Assess (3), II               SWES 453 Remote Sensing of the Environment (3), I
 SWES 444 Appl Env Law (3), I                                  SWES 462 Env Soil & Water Chem (3), II
                                                               SWES 464 Environmental Chemistry (3), I
                                                               SWES 470 Soil Physics (3), II


*can substitute CHEE203 Heat Transfer & Fluid Flow
**can substitute AME230 Thermodynamics




                                                                                                             100
5.   Chemistry Focus (35 units):
       This focus integrates physical and chemical sciences within a quantitative framework applied to the
       environment. It includes the study of sources, reactions, transport, effects and fates of chemical species
       in water, soil, air, and living environments.

      Employment opportunities: Students with degrees in environmental science can compete for jobs
      traditionally held by geologists, biologists and chemists. Potential jobs include: industrial analytical
      environmental chemist, industrial chemist in green product development, consultant in chemical &
      environment, industry water treatment facility specialist, safety & regulatory issue advisor, government
      environmental agency position, and environmental management position

      Advisors: Dr. Joan Curry, 626-5081, curry@ag.arizona.edu
                Dr. Jon Chorover, 626-5635, chorover@ag.arizona.edu
Required Courses (23 units)

 CHEM 480A Physical Chemistry (3), I, II                    Options (continued)
 HWR 450 Environmental Hydrology (3), II                    CHEE 400L Water Chem for Eng (Lab) (1), I, II
 MATH 129 Calculus II (3), I, II                            CHEE 476A Water Treatment System Design (3), I
 PHYS 132 Intro to Physics II w/Calculus (4), I, II         CHEE 478 Intro to Hazardous Waste Mgmt (3), II
 PHYS 182 Intro Physics Lab II (1), I, II                   CHEM 404 Inorganic Chemistry (3), I
 SWES 418 Intro Human Health Risk Assess (3), II            CHEM 481 Biophysical Chemistry (3), II
 SWES 462 Environ Soil & Water Chem (3), II                 GEOS 400 Intro to Geochemistry (3), I
 SWES 464 Environ Chemistry (3), I                          MSE 412 Physical Chemistry of Materials (3), I
                                                            PTYS 407 Chemistry of the Solar System (3), I
                                                            SWES 401 Mgt of Arid Lands & Salt Aff. Soils (even years) (3), II
                                                            SWES 405 Environ Soil, Water Chem. (Lab) (odd years) (3), II
 Options (12 units)
                                                            SWES 420 Environmental Physics (3), I
 ATMO 469A Air Pollution I: Gases (3), I
 ATMO 469B Air Pollution II (3), II, (odd years)
 CHEE 400R Water Chem for Engr (3), I

6.   Sustainable Land/Water Management (24 units):

     This focuses on landscape-level processes in environmental science. It investigates human-caused
     deforestation and desertification, ecological restoration; water, soil and air pollution, and global change.

     Employment opportunities: Environmental consultants, regulatory agencies, and academic programs

     Advisors: Dr. Edward P. Glenn, 626-2664, eglenn@ag.arizona.edu
               Dr. Allan D. Matthias, 621-7226, matthias@ag.arizona.edu
               Dr. James J. Riley, 591-4019, jjriley@ag.arizona.edu

Required Course (12 units)

 SWES 462 Environ Soil & Water Chem (3), II                 Options (12 units)
                                                            ECOL 406 R/L Conservation Biology (4), I
                                                            GEOS 450 Geomorphology (4), I
 Select one (3 units)                                       GEOS 478 Global Change (3), I
 HWR 250 Principles of Hydrology (3), I                     SWES 316 Soil Fertility/Plant Nutrition (3), II
 WSM 460 Watershed Hydrology (3), I                         SWES 401 Mgt of Arid Land/Salt-affected Soils (3), II (even yrs)
                                                            SWES 420 Env Physics (3), I
                                                            SWES 425 Env Microbiol (3), I
 Select one (3 units)                                       SWES 426 Env Microbiol Lab (2), I
 SWES 418 Intro Human Health Risk Assess (3), II            SWES 431 Soil Genesis, Morph & Taxon (3), I
 SWES 444 Applied Env Law      (3), I                       SWES 440 Biodegradation of Pollutants (3), II (even yrs)
                                                            SWES 453 Remote Sensing of Env (3), I




                                                                                                             101
                                                            SWES 454 Water Harvesting (3), II
 Select one (3 units)                                       SWES 461 Soil/Water Conserv (3), Pressession (odd yrs)
 RNR 403 Appl Geog Info Sys (3), I, II                      SWES 464 Environmental Chemistry (3), I
 SWES 453 Remote Sensing of the Environment (3), I          SWES 470 Soil Physics (3), II
                                                            SWES 474 Aquatic Plants & the Environment (4), I
                                                            SWES 475 Fresh Water & Marine Algae (4), II

7.    Science and Policy Focus (24 Units):
     This focus emphasizes environmental science policy issues. It includes courses in a variety of
     disciplines, from public policy to ecology. This focal area is ideally suited for Pre-Law students.

      Employment opportunities: Environmental Consultants, Regulatory Agencies, etc.

      Advisors: Dr. Robert G. Varady, 884-4393, rvarady@u.arizona.edu
                Dr. Edella Schlager, 621-5840, eschlager@bpa.arizona.edu
                Dr. Dennis Cory, 621-4670, dcory@ag.arizona.edu

      Required courses (18 units)

 POL 201 American Nat Gov (3), I, II (Tier II INDV)            Options (6 units)
 AREC 476 Env Law/Econ (3), II                                 ANTH 307 Ecol Anthro (3), II
                                                               ANTH 424A Political Ecology (3), I
                                                               AREC 375 Land/Water in the American West (3), II
 Select One (3 units)                                          AREC 377 Econ of Env Resource Conserv (3), II
 SWES 444 Appl Env Law (3), I                                  AREC 464 Econ of Policy Analysis (3), I
 SWES 418 Intro Human Health Risk Assess (3), II               AREC 479 Econ of Water Management/Policy (3), II
                                                               ATMO 336 Weather, Climate, and Society (3), I, II
                                                               COMM 411 Comm/Conflict Management (3), I, II
 Select One (3 units)                                          ECOL 406 R/L Conserv Biol (4), I
 PHIL 323 Env Ethics (3), I, II, Summer (Tier II INDV)         ENGL 306 Advanced Composition (3), I, II
 PHIL 322 Business Ethics (3), II                              GEOG 461 Env & Resource Geography (3), II
                                                               HIST 355 U.S. Env Hist (3), II
                                                               HIST 356 Global Env Hist (3), I, II
 Select One (3 units)                                          PA 406 Bureaucracy, Politics, & Policy (3), I
 PA481 Env Pol (3), I                                          PA 461 Global Climate Change Policy (3), I, II
 RNR 480 Natl Resource Policy/Law (3), II                      PA 480 Formation of Public Policy (3), II
                                                               PA 481 Env Policy (3), I
                                                               PSYC 374 Env Psych (3), I
 Select one (3 units)                                          RNR 480 Nat Resource Policy/Law (3), II
 HIST 355 U.S. Env History (3), II                             RNR 485 Nat Resource /Econ & Planning (4), I
 HIST 356 Global Env History (3), I, II                        SOC 313 Collective Behavior/Social Movements (3), I, II
 GEOS 220 Env Hist of Southwest (3), I                         MN E 422 Engineering Sustainable Development (3), I




                                                                                                            102
 8.    Soil Science Focus (28 units):
    This focus emphasizes the properties and uses of soils, their classification, and their management and
 conservation as critically important natural resources. This focal area qualifies graduating students to be hired as
 soil scientists or soil conservationists by U.S. Government agencies (i.e. Natural Resources Conservation
 Service or Forest Service).

   Employment opportunities: agronomist, crop consultant, soil surveyor, soil conservationist, environmental
 consultant, or land use planner with government or private sector.

      Advisors: Dr. Craig Rasmussen, 621-7223, crasmuss@ag.arizona.edu
                    Dr. Thomas Wilson, 621-9308, twilson@ag.arizona.edu

 Required Courses (22 units)

   GEOS251 Physical Geol (4), I, II                            Options (6 units)
   SWES316 Soil Fertility/Plant Nutrition (3), II              GEOS478 Global Change (3), I
   SWES401 Mgt Arid Land/Salt Soils (3), II (even yrs)         RNR403 Appl Geog Info Sys (3), I
   SWES431 Soil Genesis, Morph & Taxon (3), I                  RNR417 GIS for Natural & Social Sci (3), I
   SWES462 Env Soil & Water Chem (3), II                       SWES330 Intro to Remote Sensing (3), I
   SWES470 Soil Physics (3), II                                SWES444 Applied Env Law (3), I
                                                               SWES453 Remote Sensing of the Env (3), I
                                                               SWES461 Soil/Water Conserv (3) Presession (odd years)

   Select one (3 units)
   HWR250 Principles of Hydrology (3), I
   WSM460 Watershed Management (3), I



NOTE: Students can take an exam during their final semesters to become certified as a Certified
Professional Soil Scientist with the Soil Science Society of America. The Council of Soil Science
Examiners (CSSE) offers exams in October and March each year. This is a first step toward becoming
a Professional Licensed Soil Scientist. The SWES Department will pay the fee for students taking the
exam. The following classes help prepare for the exam: SWES200/201, SWES316, SWES462, and
SWES470.




                                                                                                           103
E. Related Minors.
      Prerequisites of MATH 110 or 112 and CHEM 151

      Environmental Science Minor (20 units)
                Note: 20 units are required for the Environmental Science minor, even if the major
                department guidelines differ. Nine units must be unique to this minor.



   GENERAL SCIENCE COURSES (14 units)                     UPPER DIVISION COURSES (6 units)
   MCB 181R Intro Biol (3), I                             Select from AREC, ATMOS, HIST, HWR, POL, RNR,
   SWES 195A Careers in Env Sci (1), I, II                SWES or other relevant courses.
   SWES 200 Soils (3), I, II
   SWES 201, Soils Lab (1), I, II
   SWES 210 Fund. Env. Sci & Sustain (3), I, II
   WSM 460 Watershed Hydrology (3), I




     Soil and Water Science Minor (19 units)



   GENERAL SCIENCE COURSES (10 units)                        UPPER DIVISION COURSES (9 units)
   SWES 200 Soils (3), I, II                                 SWES 305 Pollution Science (3), II
   SWES 201 Soils lab (1), I, II                             SWES 316 Soil Fertility/Plant Nutrition (3), II
   Plus 6 units of relevant coursework selected with an      SWES 401 Mgt Arid Land/Salt Soils (3), II (even years)
   advisor.                                                  SWES 431 Soil Genesis, Morph/Taxon (3), I
                                                             SWES 461 Soil/Water Cons (3) Presession/odd yrs
                                                             SWES 462 Env Soil/Water Chem (3), II
                                                             SWES 470, Soil Physics (3), II




                                                                                                        104
                  Environmental Science Major Schedule Planning Worksheet

  FIRST SEMESTER (Fall)                     SECOND SEMESTER (Spring)
Recommended               Your Schedule     Recommended            Your Schedule
Tier I course        3                      Tier I course     3
ENGLISH              3                      ENGLISH           3
MATH                 3                      CHEM 152          4
CHEM 151             4                      SWES 200          3
1st Yr. Colloq.      1                      SWES 201          1
                                            1st Yr. Colloq.   1


TOTAL                14   TOTAL             TOTAL             15   TOTAL



THIRD SEMESTER (Fall)                        FOURTH SEMESTER (Spring)
Recommended               Your Schedule      Recommended           Your Schedule
Tier I course        3                       Tier I course    3
ECOL 181 R/L         4                       PHYS 102         3
CHEM 241a            3                       PHYS 181         1
CHEM 243a            1                       AREC 350         3
MATH 124             5                       MATH 263         3
SWES 195A            1                       SWES 210         3


TOTAL                17   TOTAL              TOTAL            16   TOTAL




                                                                                   105
FIFTH SEMESTER (Fall)                   SIXTH SEMESTER (Spring)
Recommended             Your Schedule   Recommended           Your Schedule
Tier II course     3                    Tier II Course   3
MIC 205            4                    SWES 305         3
CHEM 322           2                    SWES 393 or      3
                                        SWES 397a
CHEM 323           1                    PCOL 302 or      3
                                        SWES 418
SWES 444 or        3                    ENGL 308 or      3
equivalent                              SWES 408
Focal Area Class   3



TOTAL              16   TOTAL           TOTAL            15   TOTAL



SEVENTH SEMESTER (Fall)                 EIGHTH SEMESTER (Spring)
Recommended             Your Schedule   Recommended           Your Schedule
Tier II course     3                    SWES 430         3
Focal Area Class                        Focal Area
                                        Class
Focal Area Class                        Focal Area
                                        Class
Focal Area Class                        Focal Area
                                        Class
Focal Area Class                        Focal Area
                                        Class


TOTAL                   TOTAL           TOTAL                 TOTAL




                                                                              106
                          Outstanding Senior Award
USE THE HEADINGS (AS INDICATED BELOW) IN YOUR APPLICATION
The following material must be prepared by the student. Complete all requested fields.
          Name                                          Permanent address
          Major                                         Phone number
          Student Id #                                  Email address
          Social Security #                             Hometown
          Local address

   I.        Mission Statement with Goals (15 pts)
             Career, academic and personal goals (300 words maximum)

   II.       Academic Program (25 pts)
             a. Cumulative GPA, U of A units (attach current SAPR)
             b. Write an analysis of academic program placing emphasis on specific educational endeavors,
                goals, etc., which also includes any internship and/or independent study experiences. (200
                word maximum)

   III.      University, College, Departmental Activities (25 pts)
             Include dates and approximate number of hours per semester spent engaged in the activity
             a. Volunteer activities
             b. Club memberships, committees, officer positions, honoraries, etc.

   IV.       Community Activities (10 pts)
             Include dates and approximate number of hours per semester spent engaged in the activity
             a. Volunteer activities
             b. Involvement with any community-orientated group, club or organization

   V.        Work Experience (10 pts)
             a. Career related
             b. Non-career related

   VI.       Recognition, Scholarships, Awards, Honors (15 pts)
             a. College of Agriculture and Life Sciences related
             b. University of Arizona related
             c. Other

   VII.      One letter of nomination/recommendation from the department or school
             (include contact information: telephone number and email address) – must be
             prepared by the nominating department or school.

   VIII.     Recent SAPR.

Submission of Materials
   1. The original nomination and 5 double-sided copies (6 total) of the nomination materials
      should be stapled or held together with a sturdy clip. Use standard 8 ½ x 11 white paper.
      Copies will not be returned; please keep a copy for your records.
   2. Do not use plastic report covers, presentation folders, cardstock, loose leaf notebooks,
      disks, etc.
   3. All required material should be submitted in the following order:
      a. One letter of nomination/recommendation from the department or school (include contact
      information: telephone number and email address).
      b. Completed outline.
      c. Recent SAPR.



                                                                                                107
108
                       Appendix 4


Bachelor of Science in
  Crop Production

-- Guidelines for Majors --
             A University of Arizona Major
   within the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences
                   coordinated by the

        Department of Plant Sciences and the
 Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science


                   2005 - 2006
                  Revised January 2006
          Website: www.ag.Arizona.edu/swes




                                                         109
                                        SCHOLARSHIPS
                              (Amounts may vary from year to year)
Fuller, W.H.
-- Grad or undergrad in SWES with service to agriculture in Arizona
-- Demonstrating academic excellence, good character, and professional promise
-- Nominated by Soil, Water and Environmental Science, Department Head, with
   approval by OSFA

Buehrer, T.
-- Grad or undergrad in soil and water science or environmental science
-- Demonstrating academic excellence AND leadership
-- Named by Dean with approval by OSFA

Smith, H. Schol
-- Upper division undergrad in environmental, engineering or nutritional science
-- Sub-committee nominates, Named by Dean with approval by OSFA

Ben Avery Award, Soil and Water Conservation Service (SWCS)
-- Undergrad in soil or water science-related field
-- Must be an Arizona resident
-- Junior or Senior the year Scholarship is awarded
-- Minimum GPA of 2.5

Jones, Geo
-- Grad or undergrad (upper division) in Crop Production
-- Financial need and at least 3.0 cumulative GPA
-- Named by Dean with approval by OSFA

Alcorn, Stanley
--Junior/Senior in CALS majoring in plant sciences, plant pathology, agronomy,
  entomology, soil, water/environmental sciences
--Financial need may be considered
--Candidates must demonstrate academic merit
--Selected by Schol. Committee of College of Ag or faculty of various academic
  depts. Campaign AZ

Stith, Lee S.
--Junior/Senior in CALS majoring in plant sciences, plant pathology, entomology,
  soil, water/environmental sciences
--Financial need may be considered
--Candidates must demonstrate academic merit

Arizona Vegetable Growers Association
--Students studying agronomy
--Must be an Arizona resident

Boswell, JG
--Based on academic merit
--Crop Production/Agronomy majors only




                                                                                   110
                               B.S. Degree in Crop Production
                                    University of Arizona

Agronomic science (agronomy) is defined as the combination of crop and soil sciences principles
and practices. At the University of Arizona in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences
(CALS), the Plant Sciences (PL S) and Soil, Water and Environmental Science (SWES)
departments provide the base courses required for an undergraduate degree in crop production.
Because of this, the UA Crop Production program is directed and managed by both the SWES
and PLS departments.

This undergraduate program provides a solid foundation for students entering a career in modern
agriculture and crop production. This degree program provides a good base for students
interested in work associated with field crops, permanent tree crop production, turf science,
and/or a broad array of horticultural crops that are grown throughout the western United States
and other regions in the world. Due to the flexible nature of this program, students can elect to
focus on either Agronomy or Turf Science. The fundamentals derived from this type of
educational program can be applied to crop production systems and land management programs
(soil and water management in general) locally, regionally, or globally. In addition, graduates
from this program will be well prepared academically to enter graduate degree programs.

Descriptions of the Departments___________________________________________

Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology/Microbiology:
The PL S Department includes the Division of Plant Pathology and Microbiology. Both units
foster research, instruction and outreach programs that study the way plants grow and how they
interact with their environment. Plant Sciences has faculty performing basic research on plant
anatomy, development, physiology, genetics and environmental responses. Cooperative
Extension faculty work statewide to assist the agronomic and horticulture industries. Course
work includes a wide variety of subjects important to understanding and improving plants for
human use and enjoyment. Further information can be found at: http://ag.arizona.edu/pls

The Division of Plant Pathology & Microbiology maintains instruction programs and conducts
research on the molecular, cellular, organismal and ecological aspects of plant diseases. This
includes work in the areas of crop production, turf science, natural resources and food safety.
Further information can be found at: http://ag.arizona.edu/PLP/plphome.html

Soil, Water and Environmental Science:
The SWES Departments has 31 faculty members, including Cooperative Extension specialists
working statewide to promote agricultural science, and researchers working at various
Agricultural Research Centers. The department places an educational and research emphasis on
soil/nutrient/water/plant dynamics, soil salinity, and crop production, as well as environmental
and soil biology, chemistry, microbiology, physics, pollution, and technology. Further
information can be found at:
http://ag.arizona.edu/swes


                                                                                          111
Overview of Major______________________________________________________

A. General Education.
This coursework gives undergraduates a diverse academic background to complement each
major. It is divided as follows:

1. Foundation Courses:
        English Composition                                 6 units
        Mathematics (satisfied by MATH 124/125)
2. Pre-Major:
        Communications (satisfied by SWES 408)
3. Second Language
        Second semester proficiency                         variable
4. Tier 1
        Traditions and Cultures                             6 units
        Individuals and Societies                           6 units
5. Tier 2
        Humanities                                          3 units
        Arts                                                3 units
        Individuals and Societies                           3 units

B. Core Basic Science.
This coursework gives a solid foundation in science and math. The general principles and
specific analytical techniques in these classes are directly applicable to crop production.

C. Core Soil and Water Science.
These classes provide in-depth coverage of soil physical and chemical characteristics, and
soil/water interactions. Students will learn how to maintain soil for optimum plant growth, and to
diagnose and treat suboptimal soil conditions.

D. Core Plant Science.
These classes present biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of plants and their
interaction with the environment. Students will be able to identify plant requirements under
different conditions.

E. Focal Area.
This coursework enables students to specialize in Agronomy or Turf Science.

F. Additional Courses.
Classes in this section provide miscellaneous supporting skills necessary for crop production,
including irrigation design/maintenance, economics, and technical writing.



                                                                                              112
COURSEWORK                                                               SEMESTER          UNITS
A) GENERAL EDUCATION                                                     I, II             33

B) CORE BASIC SCIENCE
ABE 120 Microcomputing                                                   I, II             3
CHEM 103a/103b, 104a/104b General Chemistry                              I, II             8
CHEM 241a Organic Chemistry                                              I, II             3
MATH 124 or 125 Calculus I                                               I, II             3-5
MATH 263/197a Statistics                                                 I, II             4
MCB 181R Introductory Biology                                            I, II             3
PHYS 102 Introductory Physics                                            I, II             3
TOTAL                                                                                      27-29

C) CORE SOIL AND WATER SCIENCE
SWES 200/201 Introduction to Soil Science                                I, II             4
SWES 316 Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition                              II                3
SWES 401 Management of Arid Lands and Salt-Affected Soils                II (alt. years)   3
SWES 431 Soil Morphology                                                 I                 3
SWES 470 Soil Physics                                                    II                3
TOTAL                                                                                      16

D) CORE PLANT SCIENCE
PLS 130 Plant Biology                                                    I                 4
PLS 312 Plant Genetics                                                   II                4
PLS 360 Principles of Plant Physiology                                   I                 3
PLS 405 Weed Science                                                     I                 3
TOTAL                                                                                      14

E) FOCAL AREA (choose either Agronomy or Turf Science)
PLS 306 Crop Science & Production (Agronomy Focus)                       I                 3
Electives (Agronomy Focus; to include at least 5 upper division units)                     9-10
PLS 270 Golf & Sport Turf Management (Turf Science Focus)                II                3
PLS 355 Turfgrass Management (Turf Science Focus)                        I                 3
PLS 455 Turfgrass Science: Env. Stress (Turf Science Focus)              I                 3
AGTM 330 Turf and Landscape Technology (Turf Science Focus)              I                 3
TOTAL                                                                                      12-13

F) ADDITIONAL COURSES
ASM 404 Irrigation Principles and Management                             I, II             3
ECON 201a Principles of Economics                                        I, II             3
AREC 217 Agribusiness Economics and Management (or AGTM 213)             I                 3
SWES 408 Scientific Writing for Env., Ag. & Life Sciences                II                3
ENTO 468 Insect Pest Management                                          I                 3
PLP 305 Introductory Plant Pathology                                     I                 3
TOTAL                                                                                      18

TOTAL                                                                                      120

                                                                                                   113
Resources for the Crop Production Major___________________________________

Advising.
Advisors provide guidance for selecting and scheduling coursework for students throughout their
academic program, and help students procure internships and jobs at graduation. Students are
highly recommended to maintain contact with their advisors at least once a semester. They are
there to help!

Plant Sciences Advisor:
       Elizabeth Davison
       Lecturer & Undergraduate Coordinator, Plant Sciences
       Director, UA Campus Arboretum
       Forbes Building, Rm 317
       (520) 621-1582
       edavison@ag.arizona.edu

Soil, Water and Environmental Science Advisors:
       Thomas B. Wilson, Ph.D.
       Lecturer
       Family and Consumer Sciences Building, Rm 308
       520-621-9308
       twilson@ag.arizona.edu

Class Locations.
Most coursework for the Crop Production Major takes place on the campus of the University of
Arizona. However, several classes incorporate extensive fieldwork at the Campus Agricultural
Center (http://cals.arizona.edu/general/departments/cac.html) located 5 miles north of campus,
and at other locations throughout Arizona.

Clubs.
Undergraduate clubs provide support and activities for students outside of the classroom. Club
activities allow students to gain supplemental experience relevant to their major in an informal,
friendly environment. For more information, visit the SWES Club website at:
http://www.ag.arizona.edu/clubs/swesclub/




                                                                                           114
        Crop Production Major=s Schedule Planning Worksheet

FIRST SEMESTER (Fall)                  SECOND SEMESTER (Spring)
Recommended            Your Schedule   Recommended          Your Schedule
Tier I course     3                    Tier I course   3
ENGLISH           3                    ENGLISH         3
MATH              3                    CHEM 103b       3
CHEM 103a         3                    CHEM 104b       1
CHEM 104a         1                    SWES 200        3
ABE 120           3                    SWES 201        1
                                       ECON 201a       3
TOTAL             16   TOTAL           TOTAL           17   TOTAL




THIRD SEMESTER (Fall)                  FOURTH SEMESTER (Spring)
Recommended            Your Schedule   Recommended          Your Schedule
Tier I course     3                    Tier I course   3
                                       Focal Area or
MCB 181 R         3                                    3
                                       Elective
PLS 130           4                    PHYS 102        3
MATH 124          5                    CHEM 241a       3
1st Yr. Colloq.   1                    MATH 263        3
                                       MATH 197a       1


TOTAL             16   TOTAL           TOTAL           16   TOTAL




                                                                            115
FIFTH SEMESTER (Fall)                              SIXTH SEMESTER (Spring)
Recommended                Your Schedule           Recommended           Your Schedule
    Tier II course   3                             Tier II Course   3
C                                                  C
Focal Area or        3                             PLS 312          4
Elective
C                                                  C
    PLS 405          3                                 PLP 305      3
C
    SWES 431         3                             AGTM 213*        3
C                                                  C
 Focal Area or       3                             ENGL 308 or      3
Elective                                           SWES 408




TOTAL                15    TOTAL                   TOTAL            16   TOTAL

        *Alternatively AREC 217 during the fall.



SEVENTH SEMESTER (Fall)                            EIGHTH SEMESTER (Spring)
Recommended                Your Schedule           Recommended           Your Schedule
                                                   C
Tier II course       3                                 SWES 316     3
C                                                  C
    PLS 360          3                                 SWES 401     3
C                                                  C
    ASM 404          3                                 SWES 470     3
C                                                  C
 Focal Area or       3                                 ENTO 468     3
Elective




TOTAL                12    TOTAL                   TOTAL            12   TOTAL

        CDenotes Upper-division Units

                                                                                         116
                             APPENDIX 5




  GRADUATE STUDENT HANDBOOK




Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science
             The University of Arizona
                  Tucson, Arizona


M. L. Brusseau                     Jeffrey C. Silvertooth
Graduate Program Director          Department Head



Alicia M. Velasquez
Graduate Program Coordinator
PHONE: (520) 621-1606
FAX:     (520) 621-1647
E-mail: avelasqu@ag.arizona.edu


World Wide Website:           http://ag.arizona.edu/SWES/
Last revised: July 2008




                                                            117
INTRODUCTION

The Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science (SWES) brings together a faculty
of outstanding scientists, distinguished by their understanding of soil, water, and the
environment, and their ability to carry out research and planning towards the solution of
environmental and resource use problems. The department offers graduate work leading to
the Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in Soil, Water and Environmental
Science, with focal areas in either Environmental Science or Soil and Water Science.
Approximately 80 graduate students and 100 undergraduate students are enrolled in the
department.

  Graduate study in the Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science is open to
students with undergraduate preparation in biological, chemical, physical, earth, or
engineering sciences. Students with other backgrounds can be accepted into the program,
with course deficiencies noted.

  Graduate research assistantships are available to students with outstanding potential. A
limited number of teaching assistantships are also available.

  The total enrollment at the University of Arizona is over 36,000; thus, the University is of a
size that offers a wide range of academic and extra-curricular programs. Tucson is a
metropolitan area of about 900,000 people situated in a desert valley ringed by mountains
which rise to 3,000 meters.

  The University of Arizona is an equal opportunity employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function
without regard to race, color, sex or national origin.

                            MAJOR PROGRAM AREAS
                          (Instruction, Research, and Extension)

The Department research activities are focused around three areas:

 1)    environmental science, with emphasis on contaminant transport and fate, water
       quality, waste management/reuse, soil/groundwater remediation, and ecosystem
       restoration;

 2)    subsurface science, with emphasis on physical, chemical, and microbiological
       processes; and

 3)    soil, plant, atmosphere systems, with emphasis on remote sensing, climate science,
       soil-water-plant relations, soil genesis, morphology and pedology, and aquaculture.



                                                                                            118
The specific program areas in the department include:

Aquaculture                  Freshwater and marine systems; aquaponics; integrated farming
                             systems

Contaminant hydrology:       Transport and fate of contaminants (organic/inorganic chemicals,
                             pathogenic organisms) in soil and groundwater; transport
                             modeling

Climate science              Applied climatology; global change; physical and environmental
                             geography; environmental monitoring.

Ecosystem restoration:       Phytoremediation; salt-tolerant plants; re-vegetation

Environmental chemistry:     Analytical methods; sorption of chemicals; phase partitioning

Environmental                Biodegradation of organic compounds; molecular/genetic
Microbiology:                techniques; microbial ecology of stressed environments

Environmental pedology       Pedogenesis; soil forming processes; response of soil systems to
                             climate change

Soil and groundwater         Innovative    site    characterization   methods;    innovative
                             technologies
remediation:                 for remediation of groundwater, source zones, and vadose zones

Remote sensing:              Canopy modeling; terrestrial biophysics; global change

Soil-water-atmosphere        Evapotranspiration; irrigation; leaching; plant water stress; crop
Relations:                   production research; spatial variability; water use efficiency

Soil and water quality:      Hazardous-waste     chemistry;    salinity;         soil/groundwater
                             contamination, water-borne pathogens

Soil biology and             Molecular approaches to microbial ecology; pathogen detection;
biochemistry:                rhizosphere biology; N2- fixation

Soil fertility and           Plant responses to N and P; nitrogen movement; denitrification
plant nutrition:             losses; N-tracer chemistry; nutrient availability; fertilizer use
                             efficiency

Soil morphology, genesis,    Micromorphology; soil mineralogy; soil mapping; soil erosion;
classification and survey:   GIS; remote sensing in soil surveys

Vadose zone hydrology:       Infiltration and     redistribution   of   water;     characterizing
                             permeability

Waste disposal and           Land treatment; land reclamation; waste-water reuse; waste
management:                  management; air-pollution abatement
                                                                                             119
                SOIL, WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FACULTY

FACULTY                           RESEARCH INTERESTS

Silvertooth, Jeffrey C.           Soil fertility, plant nutrition
  Professor and Department Head
Artiola, Janick F.                Soil, water, and waste chemistry; analytical and
 Associate Research Scientist     environmental chemistry, land treatment of hazardous and
 Associate Professor              non-hazardous wastes, waste management
Brown, Paul W.                    Agricultural meteorology, biometeorology,
 Extension Specialist             evapotranspiration, crop water use, heat units, agweather
 Research Scientist               information
Brusseau, Mark L.                 Contaminant hydrology and environmental chemistry:
 Professor                        contaminant transport, sorption, mass-transfer,
                                  transformation processes, modeling, soil/groundwater
                                  remediation
Chorover, Jon                     Sorption and transformation reactions in soil and water
 Professor
Crimmins, Michael                 Applied climatology, global change, physical and
 Assistant Extension Specialist   environmental geography, environmental monitoring
 Assistant Professor
Curry, Joan                       Soil physical chemistry, surface chemistry, molecular
 Associate Professor              modeling
Fitzsimmons, Kevin                Aquaculture, marine ecology, billfish biology,
   Research Scientist             bioremediation
   Professor
Gerba, Charles P.                 Environmental microbiology: gene probes, water reuse,
 Professor                        biocolloid transport in the subsurface, virology, parasitology,
                                  risk assessment
Glenn, Edward P.                  New crops, utilization of saline water, plants for
 Professor                        bioremediation, environmental management
Huete, Alfredo R.                 Remote sensing, canopy modeling, terrestrial physics, global
 Professor                        change

Maier, Raina M.                   Bioremediation, microbial ecology, restoration of mining
 Professor                        sites, modeling of microbial degradation of xenobiotics
Matthias, Allan D.                Micrometerology, energy budget, trace gases
 Associate Professor
Megdal, Sharon
 Director, Water Resources
                                  State and regional water resources management, artificial
 Research Center, Extension
                                  recharge, municipal water use
 Specialist, Professor
                                                                                        120
Pepper, Ian                      Molecular ecology of soil organisms, reuse of wastes,
 Professor, Director ERL         molecular detection of pathogens

Rasmussen, Craig                 Pedogenesis, soil forming processes, response of soil
 Assistant Professor             systems to climate change
Rensing, Christopher             Structure and function of metal transport proteins
 Associate Professor

Riley, James J.
                                 International agriculture, arid-land management, halophytes
 Associate Professor

Rock, Channah                    Environmental microbiology, molecular pathogen detection,
 Assistant Specialist in Water   water quality
 Quality, Assistant Professor

Sanchez, Charles                 Soil fertility, vegetable/fruit crops, environmental impact of
 Professor, Research Scientist   fertilizer use
 Res.Director, Yuma Ag. Center

Schaap, Marcel                   Pedotransfer functions, fluid behavior using Lattice
 Assistant Professor             Boltzmann modeling

Tuller, Markus                   Hydraulic behavior of swelling porous media, leaching
 Associate Professor             processes and groundwater contamination

Walworth, James
                                 Waste management, plant nutrition, bioremediation
 Extension Soils Specialist
 Professor




                                                                                         121
JOINT/ADJUNCT FACULTY              RESEARCH INTERESTS


Ferre, Paul ATy@                   Vadose zone hydrology and geophysics
 Joint Adjunct Associate
 Professor

Moran, Susan                       Remote sensing
 Associate Professor
Nelson, Stephen                    Marine ecology
 Joint Senior Research Scientist
Proctor, Michael                   Applied Environmental Law
  Asst. Dean, CALS

Reynolds, Kelly                    Environmental science, specializing in water quality,
Associate Professor                food safety and disease transmission

Yeh, Jim                           Water flow and solute transport
 Joint Adjunct Professor
Yoklic, Martin                     Community planning, urban systems, environmental
 Associate Research Scientist      psychology




                                                                                           122
                                     ADMISSION POLICIES

Application for Admission
    Applications must be on forms furnished by the Graduate College. Application and
transcripts should be on file at least 4-6 months prior to registration. An application processing
fee of $50.00 is required with the application. A check or money order should be made
payable to: Graduate College, University of Arizona. Students also have the option of
applying online at https://apply.grad.arizona.edu and can submit electronic payments using a
Visa, Mastercard, or American Express credit card. Domestic applications are due by June 1,
for the Fall Semester, and October 1, for the Spring Semester; International applications are
due December 1, for the Fall Semester of the following year, and June 1, for the Spring
Semester of the following year. Earlier submission is encouraged, especially if the applicant
wishes to be considered for financial support.
    To receive full consideration for financial support (i.e., RA, TA), it is recommended that
the application be filed by February 15 and July 15, for the coming Fall and Spring Semesters,
respectively. No decision on financial support will be made until a complete application has
been submitted to both the department and the Graduate College.

Admission
   Admission is open to all qualified applicants who hold a bachelors degree from the
University of Arizona or from a college or university that grants degrees recognized by the
University of Arizona.

a) Regular Graduate Status B Students who meet all admission requirements may be
   admitted to Regular Graduate Status to undertake work leading to an advanced degree.

b) Admission with Deficiencies B An additional number of undergraduate courses may be
   required when previous work has not approximated the general requirements to pursue an
   advanced degree in the Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science.

c) Provisional Admission B Provisional admission indicates some reservation on the part of
   the Graduate College or Department with regard to the applicant's qualifications to
   undertake graduate work leading to an advanced degree. Regular status can be achieved
   after completion of nine credits of graduate work with superior grades.

d) Conditional Admission B International students, who meet all other requirements EXCEPT the
   TOEFL, may be recommended for Conditional Admission. The actual semester of admission will
   be determined by submission of a TOEFL score of 213 (computer based) or 550 (paper based) to
   the Graduate Admissions Office, or successful completion of CESL (Center for English as a
   Second Language). The University of Arizona’s code for the TOEFL test is 4832.

e) Graduate Non-degree Status B Individuals holding a bachelor's degree, or its equivalent, may
   attend graduate-level courses without being admitted to a graduate degree program. Note that a
   maximum of 12 units of course work taken while in this status may be applied, with approval of the
   department, to the graduate degree. International applicants requiring a student visa are not eligible
   for graduate Non-Degree admission.




                                                                                                    123
Evaluation for Admission
     The Graduate Program Director, a faculty member appointed by the Department Head, will process
all applications. The academic record of each applicant will be reviewed by an ad hoc committee of at
least three faculty appointed by the Director. A Major Advisor must be identified in order for a
student to be accepted to the graduate program in SWES. Admission is competitive and normally no
candidate with a grade point average below 3.00 over the last 60 units of course work will be
considered. The GRE is recommended for all applicants. A TOEFL score of 80 (Internet based) or 550
(paper based) is required of all international students. The Director will ultimately give a
recommendation to the Department Head on the applicant's suitability for graduate work. Any course
deficiencies will be noted. Admission is also subject to the availability of space and facilities.

                              *PREREQUISITES and DEFICIENCIES
    The minimum undergraduate preparation for admission into the SWES graduate program includes
the following courses (or equivalent):

Course Descriptions                                UA Course Numbers

Fundamentals of Chemistry I - (Lec & Lab)          Chemistry 103a, 104a
Fundamentals of Chemistry II - (Lec & Lab)         Chemistry 103b, 104b

Introductory Physics (Lec & Lab)                   Physics 102, 181
General Microbiology (Lec), or                     MIC 205 A or
Intro. Biology                                     MIC 181R
Calculus I                                         Math 125

Statistics                                         Math 263

Physical Geology (Lec), or                         Geoscience 251 or
Soil Science (Lec)                                 SWES 200

     *Note:    Students majoring in Soil and Water Science (SWS), must take both Geology and Soil
               Science. Students majoring in Environmental Science (ES) may choose either
               Geology or Soil Science. Please note that additional requirements may apply for
               specific program areas, and these courses may also be listed as deficiencies if
               applicable.

     Students who lack some prerequisites, but who are otherwise qualified, may be admitted with the
missing courses listed as deficiencies that must be completed early in their program. It is advantageous
to take immediate steps toward removing any deficiencies noted, within the first two semesters. Note
that a higher-level course may be used to satisfy a prerequisite with prior approval of the Graduate
Program Director. Normally, a grade of "C" or better must be obtained to satisfy deficiency
requirements.

                GENERAL DEPARTMENT POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

Major Advisor - Advisory Research Committee
    The advisory committee is responsible for guiding each student=s academic program, including all
examinations. The major advisor is someone within the student=s general study area. With the help of
the major advisor, additional members from appropriate areas will be identified to complete the
student=s Advisory Committee.


                                                                                                   124
    The minimum number of members is three for a Masters committee and three for a Ph.D.
committee, but more may be added as necessary. Generally, a majority of the committee must be
faculty members in the Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science, with expertise in the
immediate field of research. The student may also have a co-director or committee member outside the
department, provided that he or she has acceptable credentials.

Course Loads
    The usual minimum load for full-time graduate students is ten units of graduate credit. For
graduate students on an assistantship, the required minimum is ten units, six of which must be graduate
level.

Grades
     The Graduate College has specific regulations on grades necessary for continuing in a degree
program and other forms of scholarship requirements. Please read the current Graduate Catalog
carefully. The Department follows these regulations. Should the grade point average fall below a 3.00,
the student will be placed on probation. If at the end of the following semester the cumulative average
is still less than 3.00, the Graduate College will convert the student to non-degree seeking status, and
the Department will request the termination of graduate studies. According to departmental policy, a
student on academic probation cannot hold a scholarship, fellowship, assistantship, or an associateship
during the period of probation.

Length of Support and Time to Degree
     The general policy of the department on financial aid is that a student pursuing a M.S. degree will
receive two years of support at most, and those pursuing a Ph.D. degree will receive no more than three
to four years of support. In specific situations, the length of support may be less or greater than those
stated. The department encourages full-time students to complete their study programs in two years for
M.S. degrees and three to four years for Ph.D. degrees. Ph.D. students are required by the Graduate
College to complete their degree within five years of passing the Comprehensive Examination, with
permission of the program.

Continuous Enrollment
    Students must register for a minimum of 3 graduate units each consecutive Fall and Spring
semester. If a student schedules his/her final examination during the summer, the student must register
for 1 graduate unit for either Summer I or Summer II.


        SWES PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR A MASTER OF SCIENCE DEGREE

General Requirements
    The department program leading to the Master of Science degree requires a minimum of 30 units of
graduate credit, including thesis units. Not less than 15 units must be in the major field, and at least 15
units must be from courses in which letter grades have been earned. All graduate students are required
to attend weekly department seminars (SWES 696A); however, graduate credit is given for only one
semester.

     All Master's degree programs require that a minimum of 12 units of work be conducted at the
University campus in Tucson. A total of 12 units of graduate coursework earned as an undergraduate
senior, in graduate non-degree status, and/or transferred from an accredited institution, can be applied
for credit toward a master=s degree. Up to 8 additional graduate credits earned in graduate non-degree
status can be applied for credit toward a master=s degree if they were taken at the University of Arizona
as part of a post-baccalaureate graduate certificate program that is on file with the Curriculum Office
and approved for application toward the master=s degree by the department offering the master degree.
Course work must have grades of A or B. Graduate students may, with the approval of their advisors

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and the department head, use up to six units of 400-level course work in program areas outside of Soil,
Water and Environmental Science. These courses can be applied toward fulfilling specific course
requirements, but do not receive graduate credit.

Core Course Requirements

The core course requirements for the M.S. degree with a major in Environmental Science (ES) are met
by completing one course from each of the following three categories:

1. Environmental Biology and Microbiology:
    - SWES 525 Env Microbiology
    - SWES 574 Aquatic Plants & the Env
    - WSM 552 Dryland Ecohydrology and Vegetation Dynamics

2. Environmental and Soil Chemistry:
    - SWES 564 Env Chemistry
    - SWES 562 Env Soil & Water Chemistry

3. Environmental Physics and Water Science:
    SWES 520 Env Physics
    SWES 570 Soil Physics
 Core course requirements for the M.S. degree with a major in Soil and Water Science (SWS) are met
by completing any four of the five following courses:

    SWES 562 Environmental Soil and Water Chemistry
    SWES 525 Environmental Microbiology
    SWES 531 Soil Morphology
    SWES 570 Soil Physics
    SWES 602 Soil-Plant Relationships

Note that there are no exceptions from the courses listed above. It is the student’s responsibility to
ensure that they complete the required core courses.

Additional Course Work Requirements
For each major area, additional courses to meet the minimum total credit requirement will be selected
with the guidance and approval of the student=s committee.

Plan of Study
     In conjunction with their major advisor, each student is responsible for developing a written Plan of
Study. This Plan is to be filed with the Graduate College by the end of the second semester in
residence. The Plan of Study should identify (1) courses the student intends to transfer from other
institutions, (2) courses already completed at the University of Arizona that the student intends to apply
toward the graduate degree, and (3) additional courses the student plans to complete to fulfill degree
requirements. The Plan of Study must have the signature approval of the student=s major professor and
department head (or chair of the graduate committee) before it is submitted to the Graduate College. If
necessary, the plan can be changed later on the Master=s Completion of Degree Requirements form.
Students using transfer coursework to meet requirements should submit the Transfer Credit Form to the
Graduate College, prior to submitting the Plan of Study.

Thesis
    Evidence of academic and research abilities are verified by presenting research results in a formal
Master's thesis or Master’s report to the Department. By the end of the second semester in residence, a
research topic should be chosen by the student in consultation with their committee. From two to eight

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units of SWES 910 (Thesis) can be earned for the preparation of either document, which are counted as
part of the 30 minimum units required for the Master's degree.

Summary of M.S. degree requirements:
- Core courses: 9 units (ES) or 12 units (SWS)
- Additional Major course work completed at UA: 3 units (ES)
- Elective course work: 9-15 units
- Seminar: 1 unit
- Thesis research: 2 - 8 units
       Total: 30 units

Non-Thesis option for M.S. students
    Students may meet requirements for the M.S. degree by submitting a report in lieu of a thesis. The
report will comprise a professional report in the field of environmental or soil science authored by the
student. This must be approved by the student=s graduate committee, the major advisor, and the
department head. The student may register for 1-2 credits of SWES 909 (Master=s Report) in the
semester in which they complete the report. Students must also present a seminar or other oral
presentation to the committee, in lieu of the thesis defense. Additional requirements include a total of
30 units of course work, including 18 units in the Major, one semester of seminar, and any additional
requirements specified by the committee.

Master=s Completion of Degree Requirements and Final Examination

Note: Students must be registered during the semester they defend (including Summer I or II)
     The Master's final exam in the Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science involves a
defense of the thesis, and submission of the Master=s Completion of Degree Requirements form to the
Graduate College. Master's examination committees consist of at least three members. At least two
members must be tenure-track faculty at the rank of Assistant Professor or higher, and at least two must
hold faculty appointments in the Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science. If the
candidate fails the final exam, a second exam may be granted no sooner than four months from the date
of the first exam.
     Time Limitation - Graduate course credit to be applied with full value toward a Master's degree
shall have been earned not more than six years prior to the completion of all requirements for the
degree.


                   SWES PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR A PH.D. DEGREE
General
     The equivalent of at least six semesters of full-time study are required. At least two full-time
semesters (i.e., at least 10 units each semester), and at least 30 credits of graduate work must be
completed at the University of Arizona. For students holding graduate assistantships, the residence
requirement can be met by four semesters, during each of which they register for six or more units of
graduate credit. Graduate credit for which grades of A or B were obtained during a prior program at the
UA may be used to meet the credit requirements upon approval of the advisor and committee. In
addition, graduate credit for which grades of A or B were obtained may be transferable from other
institutions with the approval of the advisor and the Graduate College. Ph.D. students are required by
the Graduate College to complete their degree within five years of passing the Comprehensive
Examination, with permission of the program.

    At least 36 units of course work, exclusive of dissertation units, must be in the major subject area.
A minor course of study is also required; this constitutes at least nine units. A minimum of 18 units of
dissertation research (SWES 920) must be completed during the conduct of the dissertation. Thus, a
minimum of 63 total units is required for the Ph.D. At least one half of these units must be from

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courses in which letter grades have been earned. Students are allowed to use up to six units of 400-
level course work in the minor area. The 400-level courses in the minor program are accepted toward
fulfilling the requirements for total number of units in the student's program of study. However, 400-
level courses do NOT receive graduate credit, and are not calculated in the cumulative GPA. Students
using transfer coursework to meet requirements should submit the Transfer Credit Form to the Graduate
College, prior to submitting the Plan of Study.

Minimum Course Requirements
   The minimum course requirements for the Ph.D. with majors in Environmental Science or Soil and
Water Science are as follows:

   S    Complete the core-course requirements listed for the Master’s Degree program (see above)
        [9-12 credits]
   S    Additional course work in Major [24-27 credits]
   S    Total Major coursework = 36 credits minimum.
            Of the 36 units of coursework, a minimum of 18 units are required in graded (A,B) lecture-
        based courses; the remaining units may comprise credits from non-dissertation research courses
        (e.g., independent study, laboratory rotation), special-topics discussion courses, seminars, and
        similar.
   S    Two credits of Seminar
            Seminar requirement may be met by selecting one of the following options:
        a. Two semesters of SWES seminars - SWES 696a
        b. One semester of SWES 696a, plus one semester as a teaching assistant (TA) or proctor
        c. One semester of SWES 696a plus one semester of seminar from another department
        d. One semester of SWES 696a plus one semester of GRAD 697C AWorkshop for Teaching at
        the College Level@
    S   Minor: The SWES department requires 12 units for the minor. Since requirements vary by
        department, students should check with their minor department. The Graduate College requires
        a minimum of 9 units for the minor for all programs.
    S   18 units of dissertation (SWES 920)
    S   Total Credits required = 63-66

Minors
SWES students have two options for completing their minor, as enumerated below:

    Intradepartment: In recognition of the diversity of the SWES Department, students whose major
department is SWES can also obtain their minor within the SWES Department if they so desire. In this
case, the faculty acting as the major committee must be distinguished from those acting as the minor
committee. Twelve credits are required for the minor. The set of courses used to satisfy the minor
should comprise a topic area that is clearly distinguishable from the major. For example, a student
majoring in Environmental Microbiology could complete an intradepartmental minor in Environmental
and Soil Chemistry. The specific courses used to complete the minor will be selected in consultation
with the minor committee member(s), who have final approval. The SWES department requires 12
units for the minor.

    Interdepartment: Students may also obtain a minor from another department. In this case, the
requirements of that department must be followed.

Foreign Language Requirement
The Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science recommends, but does not require
proficiency in a foreign language.

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Academic Advisor and Advisory Committees
    Upon admittance, each student will have been assigned a major advisor. There are two separate
advisory committees with which the student will interact: the Comprehensive Examination Committee
and the Dissertation Advisory Committee. The Comprehensive Examination Committee consists of at
least four members (three for the major, one for the minor), and should be formed by the end of the first
year in consultation with the advisor. The purpose of this committee is to conduct the Comprehensive
Examination (see below). The Dissertation Advisory Committee should be formed by the time the
Advancement to Candidacy form is submitted to the Graduate College; formation earlier in the
student’s program is encouraged. The purpose of the Dissertation Advisory Committee is to help
supervise the student’s research, and to conduct the Final Oral Defense examination (see below). This
committee consists of three members from the Major, and may include members from the
Comprehensive Examination committee.

Plan of Study
    By the end of the first semester, students should develop a list of courses for their Ph.D. graduate
program, in conjunction with, and final approval by, the student=s major professor and graduate
committee. Suitable courses from other departments can be included in the major program.
Requirements for the minor are determined by the appropriate department, but usually consist of a
minimum of 9 to 15 units.

    The student is then responsible for completing the official Plan of Study. After approval by the
Major Department Head/Major Advisor and Minor Department Head/Minor Advisor, the Plan of Study
form is to be filed with the Graduate College by the end of the third semester in residence. The Plan of
Study should identify (1) courses the student intends to transfer from other institutions, (2) courses
already completed at the University of Arizona which the student intends to apply toward a graduate
degree, and (3) additional courses the student plans to complete to fulfill degree requirements. The Plan
of Study must have the signature approval of the student=s major professor and department head (or
chair of the graduate committee) before it is submitted to the Graduate College.

Comprehensive Examination
Note: Students must be registered during the semester in which the Comprehensive Exam is
taken (including Summer I or II)
     Before admission to candidacy for the degree, the student must pass a general examination in the
chosen fields of study. The Comprehensive Examination is intended to test the student's general
fundamental knowledge in the fields of the major and minor subjects of study. It is conducted by the
student’s advisory committee, as approved by the Graduate College. It includes two parts, a written
portion and an oral portion, both covering the major and minor fields. The oral portion is taken not
later than six months after successful completion of the written portion. The only visitors permitted at
the comprehensive examination are regular University faculty members.

    The Graduate Council has indicated that the student should be examined for competence in two
ways: (a) in breadth across the general field of study, and (b) in depth within the area of specialization.
As a standard of successful performance, the examining committee should question whether the student
has demonstrated the professional level of knowledge expected of a junior academic colleague. The
Comprehensive Examination is not intended as the vehicle for defense of the dissertation prospectus.
Although discussion of the dissertation project may be appropriate, the Council instructs specifically
that the examination should foremost be comprehensive and integrative in relation to the knowledge of
the field and specialization and should exclude other than brief consideration of the dissertation project.
Defense of the dissertation prospectus should be conducted in other formal meetings of the advisory
committee.


                                                                                                      129
    The written portion of the Comprehensive Exam must comprise at least three individual written
exams received from three members of the student=s committee. Failing more than one of the
individual written exams constitutes failure for the written portion of the Comprehensive Exam. As
stipulated by the Graduate College, the oral portion of the Comprehensive Exam can not proceed until
the student has successfully completed the written portion of the Exam. In the event the student fails
the written portion of the Exam, it may be re-taken upon the recommendation of their committee. Prior
to re-taking the Exam, the student will be directed to complete a remedial program recommended by
their committee. This remedial program may include additional course work to improve their depth or
breadth of knowledge in the targeted area(s), completion of an independent study, or other activities as
deemed appropriate by the committee. Upon successful completion of the remedial program, the
student will be granted the opportunity to re-take the written portion of the Comprehensive Exam.
Upon approval of the committee, the student will be required to re-take only those individual written
exams for which they received a fail in the original Exam.

    The examining committee for the Oral Comprehensive Examination must consist of a minimum of
four members, three from the Major and one from the Minor. The Major Advisor and two additional
members must be tenured, or tenure track. The fourth member may be tenured or tenure-track, or a
special approved member. Special members must be pre-approved by the Dean of the Graduate
College. Any members beyond the fourth can also be tenured or tenure-track, or special approved
members. A committee member other than the Major Advisor will act as the reporter for the
examination. More than one “fail” vote constitutes failure of the exam.

     Should a student fail the oral portion of the Comprehensive Examination, they will be permitted to
re-take the oral Exam upon the recommendation of their committee. Receiving more than one “fail”
vote constitutes failure of the exam. Prior to re-taking the Exam, they will be directed to complete a
remedial program recommended by their committee. This remedial program may include additional
course work to improve their depth or breadth of knowledge in the targeted area(s), completion of an
independent study, or other activities as deemed appropriate by the committee. Upon successful
completion of the remedial program, the student will be granted the opportunity to re-take the oral
portion of the Comprehensive Exam. The second examination, if approved, may not take place sooner
than four months from the date of the first examination.

    The Comprehensive Examination should be taken late enough in the student=s program of study that
essentially all course work, excepting dissertation credit, is completed. The phrase Aessentially all@ is
intended to mean that the student should have completed as much course work as possible to enable a
reasonable examination of breadth in field and depth in specialization to be conducted. It is highly
recommended that the exam be taken by the end of the second year in residence. At least seven
working days prior to the proposed date of the comprehensive examination, the Application for
Comprehensive Examination must be filed with the Graduate College.

Advancement to Candidacy
     The Advancement to Candidacy must be filed with the Graduate College no later than six months
before the student schedules the Final Oral Defense Examination. Information on this form will notify
the Graduate College of the student=s intended semester of graduation, title of dissertation, and diploma
mailing address. An approved Advancement to Candidacy must be on file with the Graduate College
before scheduling the Final Oral Defense Examination. Prior to, or at this time, the student should select
the members of the dissertation advisory committee, who will also serve as the Final Oral Defense
Examination Committee. This committee is composed of three tenure, tenure-track faculty members
from the Major, although the student may have additional members if so desired. It is recommended
that this committee be constituted as soon as possible.


                                                                                                     130
Final Oral Defense Examination

Note: Students must be registered during the semester they defend (including Summer I or II)

    When the required standards of scholarship have been met and research ability has been
demonstrated, the candidate shall submit to the Final Oral Defense Examination in defense of the
dissertation, as well as any general questioning which may develop, related to the field of study. At
least seven working days prior to the proposed date of the examination, the Announcement of Final
Oral Defense Examination must be filed with the Graduate College, and announced publicly at least one
week in advance. The examination shall be open to the public. The committee shall be appointed by
the Dean of the Graduate College in consultation with the major and minor departments. All three
tenure, tenure-track committee members of the major field must be present for the examination. The
Graduate Council requires that committee signatures on the Announcement indicate that the dissertation
is in near-final form, except for minor modifications.        The committee must specify a date for
completion of any dissertation revisions, not to exceed one year from the date of the examination.

    A minimum of three members from the Major (including the Major Advisor) and one member
from the Minor are required for the Final Oral Examination, all of whom must be University of Arizona
tenured, tenure-track, or approved as equivalent. A successful defense requires receiving a “pass” vote
from all three committee members. For committees comprising four or five members, more than one
“fail” vote constitutes failure of the exam.

    Time Limitations - AComp + 5" rule applies. Students entering the Ph.D. program must complete
their degree within five years after taking the Oral Comprehensive Examination. Students may petition
for an extension of time to complete their Ph.D. degree, if they are only slightly past the five-year rule.


Pre-Graduation Checkout
    The M.S. ACompletion of Degree Requirements@ and the ANotice of Completion of Final Oral
Examination@ forms will not be processed and submitted to the Graduate College until the student has
completed the department checkout. The checkout list requires the student to return all University keys,
submit a bound copy of the thesis or dissertation for the department library, clean any lab areas for
which the student is responsible, provide the research director with any lab books, data files, etc. if
requested, remove personal belongings from the Grad Study Room if applicable, and provide a
forwarding address. The ASWES Department Checkout List for Graduate Students@ form is available in
the SWES office.


                                                 REGULAR COURSES

SWES 501. Management of Arid Lands and Salt-Affected Soils (3) Principles and practices of soil, water and crop
management under arid and semiarid conditions, the use of diagnostic procedures for evaluating soils and waters, reclamation,
and economics of irrigation project development. Field trips. Silvertooth.

SWES 505. Environmental Soil and Water Chemistry Lab (3) Principles and methods of chemical analysis of soils, water
and biological materials emphasizing properties of agricultural and environmental significance. P, CHEM 322, 323; PHYS
103b, 180b. Artiola.

SWES 508. Scientific Writing for Environmental, Agricultural and Life Sciences (3) This course will aid students in
developing the writing and organizational skills needed to produce effective technical reports, theses, dissertations and journal
articles. Graduate-level requirements include work on theses, dissertations or journal articles. Glenn.

SWES 518. Introduction to Human Health Risk Assessment (3) The purpose of this course is to enhance students
knowledge and skills related to environmental risk assessment, including hazard assessment, exposure assessment, toxicity

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assessment, and risk assessment, including hazard assessment, exposure assessment, toxicity assessment, and risk
characterization. Graduate-level requirements include conducting a case study that will require them to collect secondary data
in the field. Reynolds

SWES 520. Environmental Physics (3) Physical principals used in assessment, prevention or reduction of environmental
problems. Main themes include energy sources; energy and mass transport; and pollution within soil, water and air. P, MATH
125, PHYS 102. Schaap

SWES 525. Environmental Microbiology (3) (Identical with MBIM 525) Current concepts in water quality, aerobiology
and microbial biogeochemistry. P, SW 325, CR, CHEM 241b. Maier.

SWES 526. Environmental Microbiology Laboratory (2) (Identical with MBIM 526) Basic techniques for isolation and
characterization of environmental soil and water microflora including methods for enumeration and measurement of
physiological activity. P, SWES 425. Pepper/Gerba.

SWES 531. Soil Morphology, Classification and Interpretations (3) Theory and practice of describing characteristics of
soils; principles of soil classification and the classification systems; making soil interpretations for selected land uses. Field
trips. P, SWES 200, 201. Rasmussen.

SWES 540. Biodegradation of Pollutants in Soil and Groundwater (3) (Identical with MBIM 540) Description of
modern pollution problems and potential biological remediation techniques focusing on the chemistry, biochemistry and
molecular biology of biodegradation of hazardous and toxic compounds. P, SWES 425. Maier.

SWES 541. Soil Genesis (3) (Identical with GEOS 541) Physical and chemical processes and mineralogy of weathering and
soil formation; quantitative pedology; the soil as part of the ecosystem. Field trips. P, GEOS 251 and CHEM 103b.
Rasmussen.

SWES 544. Applied Environmental Law. (3) A guided journey through real world environmental law; U.S. legal system,
major environmental laws--criminal and civil; common marketplace problems and solutions; high profile cases; essential
professional skills. Proctor.

SWES 546. Environmental Biotechnology. (2) (Identical with MBIM 546) Molecular methods for detection of
microorganisms in the environment. Fate and survival of introduced organisms in the environment. Molecular mechanisms of
microbial inactivation in waste treatment systems and microbial risk assessment. P, SWES 525. Rensing.

SWES 553. Remote Sensing of the Environment. (3) Remote sensing techniques and applications for improved natural
resource utilization of soils, water, grasslands, and forest. Fundamental energy-matter interactions that influence the spectral
characteristics of vegetation, soil, and water. Field trips. P, SW 330 or PHYS 102b. Huete.

SWES 554. Water Harvesting. (3) Focuses on water harvesting principles and techniques. Riley

SWES 561. Soil and Water Conservation. (3) Consideration of major world soil and water conservation problems and
solutions; principles of soil erosion by wind and water and their effects on world food production and environmental problems
related to land degradation by erosion. Field trips. P, SWES 200. Riley.

SWES 562. Environmental Soil and Water Chemistry. (3) An introduction to the principal chemical constituents and
processes occurring in soils and sediments. P, Chem 103b, Chem 104b, SWES 200. Chorover.

SWES 563. Advanced Soil and Water Chemistry. (3) Fundamentals of aqueous surface and colloid chemistry through
lecture and assigned readings. Chorover.

SWES 564. Environmental Chemistry. (3) Physical and chemical processes influencing the behavior of contaminants in
the subsurface environment. Includes equilibrium and kinetic theory of solubilization-dissolution, volatilization, sorption,
hydrolysis, photolysis, surface catalysis, and radioactive decay. P, CHEM 480a, PHYS 110. Curry.

SWES 565. Contaminant Transport in Porous Media. (3) The transport of contaminants in the subsurface environment.
Effects of dispersion, interphase mass transfer, transformation reactions, and porous-media heterogeneity on transport; covers
aqueous (dissolved) and multiphase (immiscible liquid, gas) systems. P, SWES 570 or HWR 518 or 531. Brusseau.

SWES 566. Soil and Groundwater Remediation. (3) Methods for remediating contaminated soil and groundwater; factors
influencing efficacy of remediation systems. Brusseau.

SWES 568. Molecular Biogeochemistry. (2) Reading and discussion of papers in the emerging field of environmental
molecular biogeochemistry. Through reading and discussion, experiments and models designed to understand coupled biotic-
abiotic (e.g., biomineralization, oxidation-reduction) processes in environmental systems will be explored. Chorover/Rensing


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SWES 570. Soil Physics. (3) Soil structure and physical constitution of soils; the physical properties of soil-water systems,
and transport of gases, energy and solutes in soil, and physical laws governing the movement and availability of soil water. P,
SWES 200, PHYS 103, CR, MATH 125a. Rasmussen.

SWES 572. Interfacial Chemistry of Biomolecules in Environmental Systems. (3) Introduction to the chemical and
adhesive properties of macromolecules at interfaces and inter-particle adhesion will be discussed. P,Chem 103b. Curry.

SWES 573. Monitoring Biosphere Processes. (2) Global-scale interactions of soils with their plant cover and climate. The
spatial distributions and dynamics of soil-plant-water processes with emphasis on measurements from space. P, SWES 200;
330 or 453. Huete.

SWES 574. Aquatic Plants and the Environment. (4) The role of riparian areas, estuaries, and constructed wetlands in the
environment. Emphasis on plants as wildlife habitat, for nutrient cycling and bioremediation. Fitzsimmons / Glenn.

SWES 575. Freshwater and Marine Algae. (4) Systematics, ecology, and evolution of planktonic and benthic species; field
techniques and lab culture. Graduate-level requirements include a special topic report on an aspect of freshwater algae.
Fitzsimmons/Glenn.

SWES 596B. Arizona Water Policy. (1-3 units) This seminar focuses on current Arizona water policy from a multi-
disciplinary perspective. Through readings, research, discussion and presentations, the student is exposed to current water
resource issues facing Arizona and other parts of the West and policies to address them. The faculty draw upon their and
guest-lecturers= experiences to demonstrate the development, analysis and implementation of real-world water policy. Consent
of instructor. Megdal

SWES 602. Nutrient Dynamics in Soils. (3) Principles of soil solution and colloid chemistry, soil-water relationships, soil
microbiology, and plant physiology and metabolism will be discussed. These principles will be applied to processes of soil
nutrient cycling, nutrient availability and plant growth. P, SWES 200.

SWES 605. Soil-Water Dynamics. (3) (Identical with HWR 605 and ABE 605) Water flow in soils; closely related problems
of solute, pollutant, and heat transfer; emphasis on current concepts and research, and on mathematical descriptions. P, MATH
254. Schaap.

SWES 625, Physical Characterization and Monitoring of the Critical Zone. (3) Introduce students to the challenge and
complexity of monitoring spatial and temporal highly variable parameters in the natural environment and provide students with
theory and hands-on training with state of-of-the-art technology for CZ characterization, the design and setup of complex
monitoring systems, and the required skills for analyzing and interpreting resulting data streams. P. Math 250 A&B,
Recommended Phys205. Tuller/Ferre/Schaap

SWES 665. Advanced Contaminant Transport. (3) The transport and fate of contaminants in subsurface systems. The
course is based on critical, detailed analyses of case studies of actual contaminant transport problems. This provides a real-
world basis, and allows an opportunity to develop skills necessary to evaluate real systems. P, SWES 565 or equivalent.
Brusseau.

SWES 696A. Seminar. (1) Topics in Soil, Water and Environmental Science. Matthias.

SWES 696B. Seminar. (1) Molecular Biogeochemistry. P, CHEM 103B. Chorover.

                                              INDIVIDUAL STUDIES
SWES 599, 699, 799. Independent Study. (Credit varies) Qualified students working on an individual basis with professors
who have agreed to supervise such work. Grades available: S/P,C,D,E,I,W. (Graduate students doing independent work
which cannot be classified as actual research will register for credit under course number 599, 699, or 799).

SWES 900. Research. (Credit varies) Individual research, not related to thesis or dissertation preparation, by graduate
students. Grades available: S/P,C,D,E,K,W.

SWES 910. Thesis. (Credit varies) Research for the master's thesis (whether library research, laboratory or field observation
or research, artistic creation, or thesis writing). Maximum total credit permitted varies with the major department. Grades
available: S/P,E,K,W.

SWES 920. Dissertation. (1 to 9) Research for the doctoral dissertation (whether library research, laboratory or field
observation or research, artistic creation, or dissertation writing). Grades available: S/P,E,K,W.

SWES 930. Supplementary Registration. (1 to 9) For students who have completed all course requirements for their
advanced degree programs. May be used concurrently with other enrollments to bring to total number of units to the required
minimum. Grade available: K.



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                   APPENDIX I. Guidelines for Theses and Dissertations

    Theses and dissertations may be completed using one of two formats: (1) traditional or (2)
journal publication. The guidelines for preparing a traditional thesis or dissertation may be
found      in    the     Graduate     College    Manual      for    Thesis    and Dissertations
http://grad.admin.arizona.edu/degreecert/). The SWES department guidelines for preparing a
thesis or dissertation following the journal-publication format are given below.

Alternative Thesis and Dissertation Format: Inclusion of Journal Manuscripts

    It is the policy of the Department to allow a thesis or dissertation to contain one or more
papers prepared for submission, submitted, or accepted for publication. The thesis or dissertation
must adopt the format described in Appendix A of the Graduate College manual. In addition, to
ensure that a student has made a significant contribution to papers in the thesis or dissertation,
the following rules must be met in order to use the journal-publication format.

   1. The student must be the primary author on at least one paper for a M.S. thesis, and at
      least two papers for a dissertation subject to the criteria outlined below.

   2. If a paper that has already been published is used in the thesis or dissertation it must have
      been published in a referred journal.

   3. Papers that have been submitted (but not yet accepted) to a refereed journal can be used
      as a part of the dissertation.

   4. Papers that have been prepared for submission, but have not yet been submitted, are also
      acceptable so long as the paper has been prepared for eventual submission to a refereed
      journal.

   5. All co-authors will be listed on the cover page of each paper. In cases where multiple
      authors appear on one or more papers, it must be clear what the responsibilities of the
      various authors were in completing that work, and that the student completed a
      significant portion of that work. The student will indicate responsibilities for his or her
      work in the thesis/dissertation body, and acceptance of this explanation by the committee
      constitutes their acceptance of the author=s explanation. A specific, separate section in
      the body of the thesis/dissertation will be included, wherein the contributions of the
      student, and of all other co-authors will be clearly delineated.

   6. In cases where members of the committee are co-authors, the remaining members can
      vote to exclude papers that do not, in their professional opinion, meet the requirement
      that the student has contributed a significant amount of the research to be listed as senior
      author.

   7. A summary of the methods, results, and conclusions for each paper will be included in
      the body of the thesis/dissertation.

   8. The student will be expected to defend all of the thesis/dissertation, even in cases where
      multiple co-authors are included.


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                                         Appendix 6
                            THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA
                           NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION
                           WATER QUALITY CENTER (WQC)

This National Science Foundation Center was founded in 1999 with a 5 year grant. A 5 year
renewal grant was awarded in August 2004. This grant expires in July 2009, but an
unprecedented third 5- year grant application is currently under review. However, the WQC is
already an established “Center” that can continue with or without additional NSF funding. The
Director of the Center is Ian Pepper.

The WQC is a “Multi-University” Industry/University Cooperative Research Center (Multi-
I/UCRC) and has been the only such NSF Center focusing on water quality nationally. During
the first 10 years of its existence, the Multi-I/UCRC was composed of two universities: the
University of Arizona (UA) and Arizona State University (ASU) with the UA being the lead
institute. In the pending grant application, three universities are proposed: the UA, ASU and the
addition of Temple University as the lead institute (To circumvent the 10-year NSF funding
limit, UA could not be the lead).

Funding for the WQC comes not only from the NSF, but also from the State of Arizona, the
private sector and the public sector. Cumulative funding for the WQC (UA only) is shown in
Figure 6-A.




Figure 6-A. Cumulate funding.

The concept of the Center is to leverage private sector funding from companies with similar
applied problems, and then utilize these funds to conduct research that resolves the research
problem at minimum expense to any individual company. The role of the Director is not only to
procure private sector funding, but also to identify faculty with appropriate expertise for the
particular problem at hand. Distribution of WQC funds to specific faculty results in research
                                                                                             135
being conducted within that faculty members’ laboratories. Thus the WQC is a “virtual” Center
with potentially access to all UA faculty and facilities. The Center conducts research on all
aspects of water quality.

MISSION STATEMENT
The objective of the WQC is to investigate physical, chemical and microbial processes that affect
the quality of surface and subsurface waters including potable supplies. Good quality drinking
water is defined as water with acceptable purity, taste, and odor characteristics, which is safe
with respect to human health and welfare.

RESEARCH FOCAL AREAS
• Water security
• Fate and remediation of commercial and industrial contamination
• Agrochemical products and practices that influence water quality
• Municipal waste treatment and reuse
• Mining
• Potable water quality

CURRENT MEMBERS—Full Members ($30K/year); Enhanced-Associate Members
($15K/year); and Associate Members ($3K/year)

Full Members
Arizona Game and Fish Department
City of Tucson Water
County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles
Pima County Regional Wastewater Reclamation Department
U.S. Bureau of Reclamation

Enhanced-Associate Members
Alticor/ Access Business Group
JMAR Technologies, Inc.
Northwest Biosolids Management Association / King County
Orange County Sanitation District
Resolution Copper Company

Associate Members
Avra Gro Systems, Inc.
Global Water Resources, LLC
Synagro Technologies
Town of Marana

WQC AND THE WATER SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAM
In 2000 a State Referendum (Proposition 301) was passed that increased the state sales tax, with
the increased funding being spent on state “Education” including K1-K12, and the three state
universities. Part of the UA funds were focused on “water” and resulted in the establishment of
the Water Sustainability Program (WSP). The WSP consists of 5 Centers, each of which
receives specific state funding. Currently the WSP is in year 8 of a 10-year period of funding (2
x 5 year periods), and is positioning itself for a third 5-year period of funding. It is through the
WSP that the WQC receives state funding. The current total WSP budget is $3.2m annually.
The WQC receives $264K annually.
                                                                                                 136
                                         Appendix 7

                                     THE WATER VILLAGE
The Water Village is under the direction of Ian Pepper. It is a designated community for the
study of the influence of distribution systems on household water quality at the tap.
• Unique houses evaluate water quality and safety
• State-of-the-art access for water quality monitoring within the distribution system
• Modular system to allow for addition of specific compounds or entities
• Real-time monitoring of water quality within the distribution system.




Figure 7-A. The Real-Time Monitoring and Sensor Lab.




                                                                                               137
Figure 7-B. Components of the Water Village.




                                               138
CONCEPT OF THE WATER VILLAGE
This intermediate field scale testing facility amalgamates the University Academic Community
(REWARDS GROUP) with the Real-World Community (Tucson Water and Pima County
Wastewater) with respect to regional planning for the integration of water and wastewater
treatment and distribution. Pivotal to this concept is the holistic thinking provided by scientists
and engineers dedicated to “RE-ENGINEERED WATER AND RETROFITTED
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM” (The REWARDS GROUP). This group (Table 7-A) epitomizes
the spirit of collaboration and has successfully applied for extramural grants, with several other
initiatives still under review (Table 7-B). The success of the group relies heavily on a team
approach from multiple colleges.

Table 7-A. Members of the REWARDS GROUP.

    FACULTY                          DEPARTMENT                                COLLEGE
Bob Arnold            Chemical & Environmental Engineering                Engineering
Guzin Bayraksan       Systems & Industrial Engineering                    Engineering
Chris Choi            Agricultural & Biosystems Engineering               CALS
Jim Field             Chemical & Environmental Engineering                CALS
Chuck Gerba           Soil, Water and Environmental Science               CALS
Kevin Lansey          Civil Engineering & Engineering Mechanics           Engineering
Sharon Megdal         Water Resources Research Center                     CALS
Kim Ogden             Chemical & Environmental Engineering                Engineering
Ian Pepper            Environmental Research Laboratory                   CALS
Mark Riley            Agricultural & Biosystems Engineering               CALS
Chris Scott           Geography & Regional Development                    Science

Table 7-B. Extramural Initiatives of the REWARDS GROUP.

   1. TITLE: Center for Advancing Microbial Risk Assessment (CAMRA)
      ACRONYM: CAMRA
      P.I. = C.P. Gerba
      AGENCY: EPA/HOMELAND SECURITY
      $ AMOUNT: $10m (UA portion = $1.2m)
      STATUS: Funded
      PERIOD: 2006-2010
   2. TITLE: Optimization of Conjunctive Water Supply and Reuse Systems with Distributed
      Treatment for High-Growth Water-Scarce Regions
      ACRONYM: EFRI RESIN
      P.I. = K. Lansey
      AGENCY: National Science Foundation (NSF)
      $ AMOUNT: $4m
      STATUS: Funded
      PERIOD: 2008-2011


   3. TITLE: Applying Advances in Pathogen Risk Assessment to Land Application of
      Biosolids and Communicating the Results
      ACRONYM: BRAT (Biosolid Risk Assessment Team)
      P.I. = C.P. Gerba
                                                                                                139
   AGENCY: Water Environmental Research Foundation (WERF)
   $ AMOUNT: $600 K (UA portion = $120K)
   STATUS: Funded
   PERIOD: 2008-2010
4. WATERS NETWORK PROGRAM (Phase II)
   ACRONYM: WNP
   P.I. = I.L. Pepper
   AGENCY: National Science Foundation (NSF)
   $ AMOUNT: Phase II = $240K; Phase III = $35m
   STATUS: Pending but dedicated test bed site (1 of 9 national sites)
   PERIOD: Phase II 2009-2010; Phase III 2011-2015
5. TITLE: Improved Integrated Water Infrastructures: Assessment and Control of
   Microbial Ecosystems
   ACRONYM: EPA STAR
   P.I. = C.Y. Choi
   AGENCY: EPA
   $ AMOUNT: $600K
   STATUS: Pending
   PERIOD: 2009-2010
6. TITLE: Center for Future Water
   ACRONOM: CFW
   P.I.: C.P. Gerba
   AGENCY: National Science Foundation (NSF)
   $ AMOUNT: $23m
   STATUS: Preliminary Proposal Submitted
   PERIOD: 2010-2014




                                                                                 140
                                              Appendix 8
                                           Description of ERL

                     ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (ERL)

History of ERL

         ERL was established in 1968 with the goal of developing technologies sustainable and
appropriate for living in desert ecosystems. In a sense then, ERL was 40 years ahead of its time with
respect to the concept of “sustainability,” which is currently rampant nationwide. Early work focused on
desalinization projects that allowed agricultural food production, while preserving limited water
resources. Aquaculture was also featured prominently in early work, along with hydroponic vegetable
production. These early studies were conducted nationally in Arizona and Mexico, but also in the Middle
East in countries such as the United Arab Emirates.

         In addition to sustainable arid land food production, other projects were designed to enhance
community lifestyle within the desert Southwest. These efforts were pioneered by ERL faculty who were
also members of the University of Arizona Department of Architecture. These included evaluation of
solar technologies, and new building materials such as adobes and straw bales to reduce heating and
cooling costs.

         Ultimately ERL’s worldwide reputation for innovation resulted in an invitation to design the
Epcot Center within Disneyland Florida. An even larger project resulted when ERL became heavily
involved in the creation of Biosphere II, a multi-million dollar project located 30 miles north of Tucson.
However, during this time period ERL became over extended, and by the early 1990's it had acquired a
six digit debt.

        The initial Director of ERL, Dr. Carl Hodges resigned, and was replaced by Dr. Donald
Baumgartner in 1990. For the remainder of the decade ERL struggled to pay off the deficit using a
negotiated agreement with the University that allowed for an indirect cost (IC) return to ERL, that was
double the normal IC return. Also during this time period, ERL developed a relationship with SWES
culminating in ERL becoming a formal component of SWES in 1995.

         By March 2001, the ERL debt was paid off, and coincidently, Dr. Baumgartner retired. Dr.
Baumgartner is to be congratulated for paying off the debt and maintaining ERL during this difficult time
period. Following almost a decade of no usable costs, the facilities at ERL had physically declined, and
the number of personnel had decreased dramatically. In addition, the ERL facilities had always been
located on Tucson International Airport land, with the existing lease being one year at a time. This year-
to-year lease obviously left ERL in a precarious position and prevented serious planning for the future.
Clearly, ERL had to be revitalized or shut down, and following discussions between SWES, CALS, and
the Central University Administration, the decision was made to rebuild ERL.

         On June 21, 2001 Dr. Ian Pepper became the third Director of ERL, charged with the
revitalization of ERL. A large factor in the decision to keep ERL was the knowledge that through 2006,
the same enhanced rate of indirect cost return to ERL would be in effect, the difference being that now
ERL would receive the IC, rather than having to use it to repay the debt. This allowed income to be
generated that allowed for enhanced and upgraded facilities at ERL.




                                                                                                        141
Current Status of ERL

        A new 10-year lease agreement was negotiated between ERL and Tucson International Airport in
September 2007. However, upon the expiration of this lease, the airport has indicated that it will require
the ERL property for extension of the airport. Therefore, ERL is secure at its present location through
July 31, 2017, but will require relocation prior to that date.

         To this end the current director has vigorously promoted the design and construction of a state-of-
the-art facility identified as the Water Village. This research and engineering center has in turn been
utilized as the vehicle to obtain large extramural funding. Ultimately the goal of the Water Village is to
secure sufficient external funding to guarantee the future relocation of ERL. Concomitant with this the
Water Village is already recognized nationally for its science, engineering and technology development.
A description of the Water Village activities is provided in Section x, page 4.

         The operating budget for ERL consists of $31,696 annually.

Overview of ERL

        The overall goal of ERL is to develop new and sustainable technologies that improve human
health, welfare and living standards of communities in desert areas.

         • Located on 8.6 acres adjacent to Tucson International Airport
         • Established leader of environmental research in arid regions
         • Conducts research, instructional and outreach programs at the state, national and international
           level
         • Home of the National Science Foundation Water Quality Center and the Water Village

Research Focal Areas

    1. Water Quality and Human Health Protection

         • Emerging pathogens
         • Endocrine disruptors
         • Pharmaceuticals
         • Arsenic
         • Nitrate

    2. Arid Land Food Production and Aquatic Ecosystem Research

         • Aquatic food production in arid and semi-arid regions including shrimp and edible seaweeds
         • Use of aquatic species as biological indicators of waterborne emerging contaminants
         • Breeding of salt tolerant crops
         • International aquaculture development in Mexico, Indonesia, and Egypt

    3.   Urban Sustainability Research

         •Development of sustainable technologies for communities in desert environments
         • Development of new and innovative building materials
         • Waste and water reuse
         • Conservation of water and energy in urban communities

    4.   Desert Ecosystem Maintenance and Restoration

         • Restoration of critical desert ecosystems such as wetlands and riparian corridors

                                                                                                        142
      • Restoration of abandoned farmland
      • Revegetation of disturbed ecosystems including mine tailings
      • Use of aerial satellite technologies for landscape mapping and environmental assessment

The Water Quality Center Laboratory

      • Located in the Fleischmann Lab at ERL
      • State-of-the-art chemical and microbial analyses




                                                                                                  143
144
                                           APPENDIX 9
                                 SWES Staff Roster           (October 2008)

             Name                  Phone & Email                              Location
Amistadi, Mary Kay
Research Specialist Principal      626-8190                                   Shantz 518
                                   amistadi@ag.arizona.edu

Bennett, Gaylen                    626-2461; Fax: 573-0852                    ERL 2601 E. Airport Dr.
Gen Maintenance Asst Supr                                                     Tucson, AZ 85706

Bliznick, Jeffrey                  626-2461                                   ERL 2601 E. Airport Dr.
Maintenance Technician             jbliznic@email.arizona.edu                 Tucson, AZ 85706

Camacho, Eddie                     626-5881                                   Shantz 428
Business Manager                   camachoe@ag.arizona.edu
Cordova, Gaby                      621-1138                                   Shantz 424
Accounting Specialist              cordovag@cals.arizona.edu
Gallardo, Kristie                  621-7228                                   Shantz 429
Administrative Associate           gallardo@cals.arizona.edu
Gundy, Pat                         621-6163                                   VSCM 406
Research Specialist                pgundy@ag.arizona.edu
Josephson, Karen                   kjoseph@ag.arizona.edu                     Shantz 429
Webmaster

Loya, Elenor                       626-3328; Fax: 573-0852                    ERL 2601 E. Airport Dr.
Program Coordinator, Senior        eloya@ag.arizona.edu                       Tucson, AZ 85706

Maxwell, Sheri                     621-6910
Research Specialist                sherim@email.arizona.edu                   VSCM 409A
Meding, S. Mercer                  626-9752                                   Shantz 321
Research Specialist, Senior        smmeding@cals.arizona.edu
Musil, Sheri                       ERL: 626-2471; Cell: 909-7514              ERL, 2601 E. Airport Dr.
Systems Analyst Senior             smusil@ag.arizona.edu                      Tucson, AZ 85706

Naranjo, Jaime                     626-2656; Cell: 991-9647                   ERL 2601 E. Airport Dr.
Research Specialist, Principal     naranjo@ag.arizona.edu                     Tucson, AZ 85706
Neilson, Julie                     621-9759                                   FCS 318
Research Specialist, Principal     jneilson@ag.arizona.edu

Pond, Andrew                        Cell: 990-3923                            Shantz 511
Research Specialist                apond1@ag.arizona.edu

Ray-Maitra, Atasi                  626-2034                                   ERL 2601 E. Airport Dr.
Research Specialist, Sr.           atasi@ag.arizona.edu                       Tucson, AZ 85706
Riley, Kelley                      520-381-2279; Fax: 520-568-2556            Maricopa Ag Ctr (MAC)
Research Specialist, Sr.           kriley@ag.arizona.edu                      37860 W. Smith-Enke Rd.
                                                                              Maricopa,AZ 85364-9623
Russell, Bruce                     621-9742                                   FCS 320
Program Coordinator                brussell@ag.arizona.edu
Spurlin, Lisa                      621-1646                                   Shantz 429
Office Assistant                   lspurlin@cals.arizona.edu



                                                                                                  145
Velasquez, Alicia              621-1606                  Shantz 429
Graduate Program Coordinator   avelasqu@ag.arizona.edu
Watson, Carolyn                621-9796                  FCS 316
Research Specialist            mcwatson@ag.arizona.edu
White, Scott                   Cell: (520) 237-6563      Shantz 416
Research Specialist, Senior    swhite@ag.arizona.edu
Wood, Jennifer                 626-3322                  ERL 2601 E. Airport Dr.
Office Specialist Senior       wjennife@ag.arizona.edu   Tucson, AZ 85706




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