Document Sample
Workplace.pdf Powered By Docstoc
					38325_19_ame_pE1-E24.qxd           5/21/07   10:15 AM   Page E1

               A P P L I C AT I O N
               A P P L I C AT I O N                                          M O D U L E
                                                                             M O D U L E                                       E

            in g
               Bruce Ayres/Getty Images

               A P P LY I N G                    SOCIAL           PSYCHOLOGY                        TO       THE

          pr n

                                                    KATHY         A.   HANISCH,               I O WA S TAT E U N I V E R S I T Y

        Re ar
               You have applied for a job by submitting your resume, have        when they wanted, and help themselves to petty cash if
     or Le     been invited to take a series of tests, have been interviewed
               by your potential supervisor, have been given a tour of the
               company, and now find yourself sitting across from the co-
               owners of the company. They have just offered you a posi-
               tion in their company and are proceeding to tell you about
                                                                                 they were in need of spending money. New employees
                                                                                 would be allowed to set their own wages too. As you might
                                                                                 imagine, the employees weren’t sure how to take this news.
                                                                                 It was reported that no one said anything during the meet-
                                                                                 ing when Art first described his plan (Koughan, 1975).
               the organization. They indicate that their organization is a           When asked why he was changing his business prac-
               great place to work; they tell you that no one has quit his or    tices, Art replied, “I always said that if you give people what
               her job in the last five years and employees are rarely absent.   they want, you get what you want. You have to be willing to
               They also tell you that they have flexible policies: you can      lose, to stick your neck out. I finally decided that the time
               work whatever hours you like, take vacation whenever you          had come to practice what I preached” (Koughan, 1975).
               want, and if you decide to work for them, you’ll have access           It took about a month before any of the employees
               to spending cash as well as keys to the organization.             acted on what Art had said at the staff meeting. Then,
                    You try to suppress the quizzical look on your face and      many of the employees started asking for and receiving
               try to maintain your composure. You’d heard interesting           raises. Art didn’t approve them or even want to discuss
No a

               things about this organization from others but didn’t really      them, he just told the payroll clerk to pay them what they
               believe them. Finally, the co-owners ask you what you are         wanted. Although many employees asked for $50 or $60
               worth and indicate they will pay you whatever you wish.           more per week, one employee, a truck driver, wanted $100

               Now you’re really dumbfounded and wonder what the                 more per week. Interestingly, this was a mediocre employee
               catch is but sit quietly while they talk about other issues in    at best, but the raise made him a terrific employee. He had

               the organization. Does this sound too good to be true?            not felt as though he were being paid what he deserved;
               Wouldn’t this be ideal?                                           when his pay increased, so did his motivation and perfor-
                    Almost this exact scenario played out in an organiza-        mance. On the opposite side was a service man who was
               tion run by an Oakland appliance dealer in the 1970s. His         making less money than his coworkers and he said he did-

               name was Arthur Friedman, a manager and owner of a                n’t care because he didn’t want to work that hard. He was
               company, and he had some different ideas about how to             happy being paid his wages and working what he felt he
               run a business. Art, as reported in the Washington Post           owed the company. Both employees worked to make the
               (Koughan, 1975), decided to change how he ran his busi-           organization fit their working style.
               ness. At one of his staff meetings he announced that                   In the final analysis, Art’s experiment worked. The orga-
               employees would be able to work the hours they wanted, be         nization was profitable, Friedman signed union contracts
               paid what they thought they were worth, take vacation time        without reading them (the employees didn’t need a union

38325_19_ame_pE1-E24.qxd    5/21/07    10:15 AM    Page E2

         E2      Application Module E: Applying Social Psychology to the Workplace

         with Art in charge), employees didn’t quit, they didn’t steal    Industrial and Organizational Psychology
         from the company, and they were rarely absent. Net profit        The Role of Social Psychology
         increased under Art’s leadership, and his company was a suc-     In general terms, social psychology seeks a broad under-
         cess. The employees realized that to make the organization       standing of how normal adults think, act, and feel (see
         work and remain in business they had to be reasonable in

            in g
                                                                          Chapter 1). Industrial and organizational or I/O psychol-
         their requests and behavior (Koughan, 1975).                     ogy seeks the same understanding about normal adults
              Imagine what you would do in a similar situation—for        who work in organizations, with a focus on the scientific
         example, being asked to grade yourself on the work you

          pr n
                                                                          study of individuals at work. This includes individuals’
         will do in a class. Would you grade yourself fairly, inflate     work attitudes and behaviors as well as the interactions
         your grade, or be harsher than the instructor? Research on       among individuals in the work environment (such as man-
         self-evaluations of this type indicates that some students do

                                                                          agers and other employees). Some of the primary topics
         inflate their grades, but the likelihood of grade inflation      covered by I/O psychologists are employee selection, per-
         decreases if students help determine how they will be            formance appraisal, training, job design, communication,
         graded, the instructor is involved in the assessment, and the    work stress, motivation, leadership, groups or teams, orga-

         instructor has final control in determining the grade (Ross,     nizational culture, human factors or system design, job atti-

        Re ar
         2006). Student self-evaluations of performance and               tudes, well-being, and work behaviors.
         employees’ determination of their own pay reflect accurate            Industrial and organizational psychology is sometimes
         and honest assessments for most people. Employees who            referred to as a part of applied social psychology because
         opt for less pay or students whose grades are low may accu-      both areas use psychological principles to evaluate normal
         rately reflect the amount of time and effort they want to        individuals. The fields are also similar in that they both use
     or Le
         put toward work or their course, respectively.
              Art Friedman understood what employees want from
         their jobs, and it worked well for him. He had happy, moti-
         vated individuals who did a good job for the organization.
                                                                          rigorous research methods and quantitative analyses in
                                                                          their research programs. Both theory and application are
                                                                          important to I/O and social psychologists as they conduct
                                                                          research. I/O psychology has benefited from research con-
         The employees got paid according to what they thought they       ducted in social psychology on such topics as attitudes,
         deserved and were loyal to the organization and their super-     motivation, groups, and leadership.
         visor. Some psychologists are trained to help make improve-
         ments to the workplace through job design, selection tech-
                                                                          Work in Our Lives
         niques that assist in matching employers and employees, and      You have learned about work since you were a small child.
         changes in working conditions to influence positive attitudes    You may have asked where your mother was going when
         at work. Working for many years at a job for pay is some-        she took you to day care or why your father left the house
         thing you will most likely have to do in your life, so finding   before 8 A.M. and did not return until after 5 P.M. You likely
         out how to get, keep, and enjoy your job is very important.      “played” at different jobs by dressing up to make you feel
              This module begins with an introduction to industrial       more like an astronaut, firefighter, teacher, chef, or con-
No a

         and organizational psychology, discussing the importance         struction worker. As you got older, other sources of infor-
         of work in our lives and how psychologists seek to under-        mation about work may have come from your friends (who
         stand the interactions between employee and employer.            told you what their parents did), other family members,

         The remaining sections explore the life of employees,            school, and the media. In high school, more education and
         beginning with the job application and the detailed process

                                                                          a part-time job may have given you additional details about
         organizations use to select a good match between an              the meaning of work. As you pursue a college degree, you
         employee and employer. Next we’ll examine how employees          may receive information about the work and jobs available
         get used to an organization and learn how it operates            in your chosen field through classes, internships, or other
         (employee socialization), a process that centers around the      job experiences.

         culture of the organization that is often embodied in the            Work is an important part of life for many people. We
         employee’s work team and leaders. The module concludes           often ask people we meet what they “do,” which translates
         with an examination of how employees’ attitudes and stress       into “What is your job and whom do you work for?” Many
         affect their work behaviors as they impact the profit and        people identify with their work because they spend so
         loss numbers in organizations.                                   much of their waking lives at work, making it a central
38325_19_ame_pE1-E24.qxd     5/21/07   10:15 AM   Page E3

                                                                            Industrial and Organizational Psychology                                                    E3

                                                                                                          (Clark, 2003), many of the things we value or seek from
                                                                                                          work vary from person to person. For example, the prestige
                                                                                                          of a job may not be important to you, but might be impor-
                                                                                                          tant to your best friend. Perhaps having your work provide
                                                                                                          you with a sense of accomplishment or a source of social

            in g
                                                                                                          interactions is what you desire, while those are valued
                                                                                                          much less by your friend. It is important to understand
                                                                                                          what you want from your work and/or job as well as what a

          pr n
                                                                                                          job can provide. From an employer’s perspective it is useful
                                                                                                          to determine what employees want because satisfied
                                                                                                          employees will be more likely than dissatisfied employees to

                                                                                                          work to meet organizational goals. Part of a supervisor’s

                                                                                 Courtesy of K. Hanisch
                                                                                                          job may be to ascertain what employees value because
                                                                                                          those values may be used to motivate employees to perform

                                                                                                          well in their job.

        Re ar
                                                                                                          Types of Jobs
               Electrical workers!
                                                                                                          There are many types of work, in many types of jobs, in
                                                                                                          many different organizational settings. These settings
               focus. Work is important because it provides many of the                                   include multinational conglomerates, public and private
     or Le     things people need and value.
                    Work for pay provides us with the money to satisfy our
               basic needs for food, shelter, and security (e.g., health care,
               retirement income) while the “leftover” money provides us
                                                                                                          companies, nonprofits, and federal, state, and local govern-
                                                                                                          ment organizations, as well as home businesses. Individuals
                                                                                                          today have almost endless opportunities to pursue various
                                                                                                          avenues of employment.
               with discretionary funds to use as we see fit. These funds                                      Individuals in the United States work a variety of
               may be used to buy a round of golf, an iPod, or a fancy                                    schedules, from extended workweeks (between 45 and 99
               place to live, to support local or national charities, start or                            hours) to standard workweeks (between 35 and 44 hours)
               add to a book or music collection, attend fine art or athletic                             to part-time workweeks (less than 35 hours). Some individu-
               performances, or save money for college. Essentially,                                      als (e.g., police officers, nurses, factory workers), because of
               money, typically from work, provides us with a standard of                                 the nature of their jobs, work shifts other than the typical 8
               living that varies from person to person depending on our                                  A.M. to 5 P.M. shift. Others are offered flexible working sched-
               income and how we choose to spend it.                                                      ules that allow individuals to work the hours that best fit
                    In addition, work provides much more. It provides a                                   their lives as long as they work the required number of hours
               source of social interactions (e.g., friendships), indepen-                                and accomplish the work. Telecommuting is becoming more
No a

               dence, a sense of accomplishment, satisfaction, a reason to                                and more popular with an increase in appropriate technol-
               get up in the morning, happiness, a sense of identity, recog-                              ogy; some individuals work for virtual organizations that
               nition, and prestige. For example, jobs are viewed as having                               use communication technologies to outsource the majority

               different levels of prestige. In a 2006 Harris Poll, conducted                             of their functions.
               in the United States, the jobs of firefighter (63%), doctor                                     In the United States, a fairly recent development is the

               (58%), nurse (55%), and scientist (54%) were rated highest                                 Occupational Information Network (O*NET; see Peterson,
               in prestige while real estate broker/agent (6%), stockbroker                               Mumford, Borman, Jeanneret, & Fleishmann, 1999). The
               (11%), and business executive (11%) had the lowest pres-                                   O*NET is a comprehensive, detailed, and flexible set of job
               tige ratings ( According to the                                 descriptors based on an extensive research program (Peterson

               same poll, the prestige ratings for teachers rose from 29%                                 et al., 1999). It can be accessed through an Internet connec-
               in 1977 to 52% in 2006—the only job surveyed to show a                                     tion at O*NET is a flexible data-
               positive change in prestige over those 29 years.                                           base that one can use to find details about occupations (e.g.,
                    Although most researchers and practitioners agree that                                tasks, knowledge, skills, work activities, wages, employment
               money and recognition are nearly universal motivators                                      outlook; see ● Figure E-1 for an example) or select work

                                                                                                          Occupational Information Network (O*NET) an online database
                                                                                                          offering a comprehensive, detailed, and flexible set of job
38325_19_ame_pE1-E24.qxd      5/21/07    10:15 AM     Page E4

         E4       Application Module E: Applying Social Psychology to the Workplace

            Summary Report for:                                                • Formulate and implement training programs, applying
            19-3032.00-Industrial-Organizational Psychologists                   principles of learning and individual differences.
                                                                               • Develop interview techniques, rating scales, and
                                                                                 psychological tests used to assess skills, abilities, and
            Apply principles of psychology to personnel, administration,         interests for the purpose of employee selection,

            in g
            management, sales, and marketing problems. Activities may            placement, and promotion.
            include policy planning; employee screening, training and          • Assess employee performance.
            development; and organizational development and analysis.
            May work with management to reorganize the work setting

          pr n
            to improve worker productivity.                                    Critical Thinking—Using logic and reasoning to identify the
            Sample of reported job titles: Consultant, Industrial/             strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions,
            Organizational Psychologist (I/O Psychologist), Organizational     conclusions, or approaches to problems.

            Psychologist, Research Scientist, Consulting Psychologist,         Active Listening—Giving full attention to what other people
            Organizational Consultant, Customer Leader, Management             are saying, taking time to understand the points being made,
            Consultant, Industrial Psychologist, Management                    asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting as
            Psychologist.                                                      inappropriate times.

                                                                               Reading Comprehension—Understanding written

        Re ar
            Tasks                                                              sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
            • Develop and implement employee selection and placement           Writing—Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate
              programs.                                                        for the needs of the audience.
            • Analyze job requirements and content in order to establish       Time Management—Managing one’s own time and the time
              criteria for classification, selection, training, and other      of others.
              related personnel functions.                                     Judging and Decision Making—Considering the relative
     or Le  • Observe and interview workers in order to obtain
              information about physical, mental, and educational
              requirements of jobs as well as information about aspects
              such as job classification.
            • Write reports on research findings and implications in order
                                                                               costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most
                                                                               appropriate one.
                                                                               Complex Problem Solving—Identifying complex problems
                                                                               and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate
                                                                               options and implement solutions.
              to contribute to general knowledge and to suggest                Service Orientation—Actively looking for ways to help people.
              potential changes in organizational functioning.                 Speaking—Talking to others to convey information effectively.
            • Advise management concerning personnel, managerial,              Coordination—Adjusting actions in relation to others’ actions.
              and marketing policies and practices and their potential
              effects on organizational effectiveness and efficiency.          Wages & Employment Trends
            • Identify training and development needs.                         National
            • Conduct research studies of physical work environments,          Median Wages (2005)          $40.72 hourly/$84,690 annual
              organizational structures, communication systems, group          Employment (2004)                        2,000 employees
              interactions, morale, and motivation in order to assess          Projected Growth (2004–2014)           Average (10–20%)
              organizational functioning.                                      Projected Need (2004–2014)     1,000 additional employees
No a

         ● Figure E.1
         An O*NET entry for Industrial Organizational Psychologist

         activities or interests and locate corresponding occupations. It         Regardless of the type of job or your work schedule,
         is a helpful starting point for individuals seeking details about   you will spend most of your waking hours in some type of
         the types of occupations that may interest them as well as the      employment for many years; many individuals spend their

         salary and occupational outlook for different occupations. It       weekends working too. Because work is critical to who we
         is also useful for employers who need to develop thorough           are and what we do, studying the psychological principles
         job descriptions for their organizations. Although there have       and some of the topics examined by applied psychologists
         been some concerns about its coverage and information, it is        will provide you with information that may be useful to
         viewed as a major achievement in occupational information           you in your future careers.
         (Sackett & Laczo, 2003); information continues to be updated
         and added to the O*NET.
38325_19_ame_pE1-E24.qxd   5/21/07     10:15 AM    Page E5

                                                                                                             Selecting Employees                       E5

                  Quiz Yourself          Industrial and Organizational Psychology

                  1.   Both I/O and social psychologists _____.                   3.   Spencer, Jack, and Annie are debating the merits of cer-
                       (a) apply psychological      (b) primarily study                tain occupations. Spencer has always wanted to be a

            in g
                           principles to the study      abnormal individuals           firefighter, Jack a business executive, and Annie a scien-
                           of behavior                                                 tist. Based on 2006 information, the rank order of the
                       (c) study individuals’       (d) rely only on theory to         friends based on the level of prestige of their occupation

          pr n
                           behavior at work             solve their research           selections would be _____.
                                                        questions                      (a) Spencer, Annie, Jack       (b) Annie, Jack, Spencer
                                                                                       (c) Jack, Spencer, Annie       (d) Spencer, Jack, Annie
                  2.   Your could use the O*NET to _____.

                       (a) find out what type of   (b) determine the              4.   Nearly all individuals value _____ and _____ from their
                           personality you have        employment outlook for          work.
                                                       a high school teacher           (a) money; prestige             (b) prestige; social
                       (c) find employers with job (d) measure your                                                        interactions

                           openings                    networking skills               (c) money; recognition          (d) satisfaction; prestige

        Re ar
                                                                                                                     Answers: 1=a, 2=b, 3=a, 4=c

     or Le     Selecting Employees
                  We believed the best way to meet and exceed the expectations
                  of our customers was to hire and train great people; we
                                                                                 Job Analysis. Job analysis is the identification of the criti-
                                                                                 cal elements of a job. I/O psychologists have been instru-
                                                                                 mental in devising effective strategies for evaluating the job
                  invested in employees who were zealous about good coffee.      itself to determine (1) what tasks and behaviors are neces-
                  —Howard Schultz, Starbucks chairman & visionary                sary and how important each task or behavior is for the job,
                     (Allen & Scheinfeld, 2003, p. 156)                          (2) the requirements (e.g., knowledge, skills, abilities)
                                                                                 needed to perform the tasks of the job, and (3) the condi-
               The Hiring Process                                                tions (e.g., stress, safety, temperature) under which the job is
               In the early 1900s, when someone needed a job he or she           performed. There are many ways to conduct a job analysis,
               would hang around the outside of a company and wait to see        including interviewing current employees in the job, having
               if the company needed workers. Many times the people who          them complete questionnaires, observing someone in the
               worked for the company told their friends or relatives about      job, or asking subject matter experts (i.e., individuals
               possible job openings, prompting job seekers to show up for       knowledgeable about the job) to evaluate the job (see Gael,
No a

               work. This often meant that individuals hired for the available   1988, for a complete discussion of job analysis techniques).
               jobs were similar to those working there (i.e., white males).     I/O psychologists continue to research effective job analysis
                    Industrial and organizational psychologists first became     techniques. Current research suggests that worker-oriented

               involved in the process of selecting employees when the           methods are best for employee selection (Aamodt, 2007)
               United States government needed help selecting and placing        because of their focus on the worker as opposed to the

               officers and soldiers in World War I (Aamodt, 2007). They         tasks. One worker-oriented technique is the Critical Inci-
               used mental ability tests to determine who would become           dent Technique (CIT), which uses critical incidents or
               an officer (i.e., those with higher scores on the tests) and      behaviors that discriminate between excellent and poor
               those who would be in the infantry (i.e., those whose tests       behavior for someone performing the job (Flanagan, 1954).

               scores were lower). The process that many employers now           For example, excellent behavior for a university professor
               use to hire employees is very detailed, complicated, expen-       might involve lecturing about relevant material beyond
               sive, and time-consuming. We will cover this area briefly         what is covered in the textbook (Aamodt, 2007).
               and will divide the hiring process into four components: job           The content derived from a job analysis is used to pro-
               analysis, testing, legal issues, and recruitment. We will con-    vide useful information for many types of personnel func-
               clude this section with information about how employers           tions, including selection, performance appraisal, training,
               make the decision about whom to hire.                             and human resources planning. Specific to the hiring

                                                                                 job analysis identification of the critical elements of a job, including
                                                                                 tasks, skills required, and working conditions
38325_19_ame_pE1-E24.qxd       5/21/07     10:15 AM     Page E6

         E6       Application Module E: Applying Social Psychology to the Workplace

         process, job analysis is used to write relevant job descrip-          ilar scores from one time to the next or within the test?
         tions (including the job title), determine what tests may be          Validity is how accurate the test is with regard to what
         used to help select employees with the appropriate knowl-             you are intending to measure; it also has values ranging
         edge, skills, and abilities, and assist in meeting legal require-     from 0 to 1, with higher values representing greater valid-
         ments for organizations.                                              ity. For example, a test in your social psychology class that

            in g
                                                                               asked you about world religions or had you prove a theo-
         Testing. You are familiar with tests and taking tests. Tests          rem using calculus would not be a valid measure of what
         may be paper and pencil, computer based, or performance               you learned in that class.

          pr n
         based. Tests will be defined here as the measurement of                    Another form of testing is the employee interview.
         carefully chosen samples of behavior. Tests are vital to the          Practically 100% of all organizations use some type of
         success of organizations and are used to ascertain differ-            interview in their selection of employees (Salgado, Viswes-

         ences between individuals. They include the standard                  varan, & Ones, 2003), even though interviews are often
         paper-and-pencil tests you are used to taking to assess your          viewed as inherently subjective and worthless. Interviews
         skill or ability in a class or general area, such as the Iowa         can be worthless if not conducted appropriately; more than

         Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) or the Scholastic Aptitude Test           85 years of research on interviews has provided evidence

        Re ar
         (SAT). It also includes personality tests (e.g., conscientious-       regarding when they are useful and when they are not.
         ness), integrity or honesty tests, interviews, interest inven-             Selection interviews can be broadly classified as
         tories, work samples (in which the applicant does a replica           unstructured and structured. Unstructured interviews are
         of the work she will be asked to do on the job), and situa-           informal and unplanned, with random questions and no
         tional exercises (for upper-level jobs, where the test mirrors        scoring key, and are conducted by an untrained inter-
     or Le
         the job such as prioritizing tasks presented to you if you
         were the manager of an organization). The goal of these
         tests is to help employers choose those employees best
         suited to the organization by tapping into their individual
                                                                               viewer; structured interviews have standardized questions,
                                                                               a specific question order, and a predetermined scoring or
                                                                               answer key, and are conducted by a trained interviewer.
                                                                               Some typical and frequently asked questions during an
         differences (see Chapter 3 regarding individual differences           informal interview are shown in ● Figure E-2. Examples of
         in self-esteem, self-presentation, and motivation).                   behavior- or performance-based structured interview ques-
              Regardless of the type of test or how it is adminis-             tions are shown in ● Figure E-3.
         tered, the reliability and validity of a test are very impor-              I/O psychologists have compared and evaluated the
         tant. Reliability can be defined as consistency of measure-           two types of interviews. Structured interviews, based on a
         ment and can range from 0 to 1, with higher values                    job analysis and often including behavior- or performance-
         representing more consistent measurement. It addresses                based questions, have greater validity than unstructured
         the question: Does the test give you the same or very sim-            interviews. Three separate meta-analysis investigations
No a

            Typical Unstructured Interview Questions

             1. What are your weaknesses?                                         Structured Behavior-Based Interview Questions
             2. Why should we hire you?

             3. Why do you want to work here?                                      1. Tell me in specific detail about a time when you had to
             4. What are your goals?                                                  deal with a difficult customer.
             5. Why did you leave (or why are you leaving) your job?               2. Give me an example of a time when you had to make a
             6. When were you most satisfied in your job?                             decision without a supervisor present.
             7. What can you do for us that other candidates can’t?                3. Give me a specific example of when you demonstrated

             8. What are three positive things your last boss would say               your initiative in an employment setting.
                about you?                                                         4. Give me an example of a time when you had to work
             9. What salary are you seeking?                                          with a team.
            10. If you were an animal, which one would you want to be?             5. Describe a time when you had to be creative at solving a

         ● Figure E-2                                                          ● Figure E-3
         Questions often asked by an untrained interviewer                     Questions often asked by a trained interviewer

         tests the measurement of carefully chosen samples of behavior         unstructured interview informal, unplanned interview, using ran-
                                                                               dom questions and no scoring key, and conducted by an untrained
         reliability consistency of measurement
         validity the accuracy of a test in measuring what it is intended to
                                                                               structured interview an interview using standardized questions, a
                                                                               specific question order, and a predetermined scoring or answer key,
                                                                               conducted by a trained interviewer
38325_19_ame_pE1-E24.qxd     5/21/07     10:15 AM      Page E7

                                                                                                                    Selecting Employees                     E7

               found validity coefficients corrected for unreliability and                gation can be very high both monetarily and in terms of an
               range restriction of .62 (Arvey & Campion, 1982), .44                      organization’s reputation. Some organizations have stand-
               (McDaniel, Whetzel, Schmidt, & Maurer, 1994), and .57                      alone legal departments, others hire lawyers to assist them
               (Huffcutt & Arthur, 1994) for structured interviews pre-                   in making sure they abide by laws designed to protect
               dicting performance. The corrected validity coefficient for                employees and employers, and others rely on their human

            in g
               the relationship between unstructured interviews and per-                  resource managers to ensure that they are following the
               formance was .20 (Huffcutt & Arthur, 1994). I/O psycholo-                  law. Employment law in the United States is meant to pro-
               gists have helped to make interviews—the most popular                      tect and provide equal opportunities for individuals (see

          pr n
               type of test used by employers—more valid and reliable.                    The Social Side of Sex for an example of such a protection).
               When developed and conducted correctly, interviews can
               be useful selection tools.                                                 Recruitment. Recruitment is the process organizations use

                    Other commonly used tests, as measures of carefully                   to identify potential employees for a job. Depending on the
               chosen samples of behavior, and their corrected validity                   job, an organization may recruit from inside the company
               coefficients include measures of cognitive ability, .51                    (internal recruitment) or seek someone outside the organi-

               (Schmidt & Hunter, 1998), motor work sample, .43 (Hardi-                   zation (external recruitment). They may advertise on their

        Re ar
               son, Kim, & Sackett, 2005), integrity tests, .34 (Ones,                    company’s web page or on a site for specific types of jobs,
               Viswesvaran, & Schmidt, 1993), grades, .32 (Roth, BeVier,                  such as the official site for government jobs in the United
               Switzer, & Schippmann, 1996), experience, .27 (Quinones,                   States ( or careers in psychology
               Ford, & Teachout, 1995), overall personality, .17 (Tett, Jack-             ( In addition, Websites such as
               son, Rothstein, & Reddon, 1994), and education, .10               and link potential employ-
     or Le     (Hunter & Hunter, 1984).

               Legal Issues. One of the most important pieces of legisla-
               tion regarding employment and specifically the hiring of
                                                                                          ees and employers in a variety of jobs and locations. Other
                                                                                          recruitment sources include national and local newspapers,
                                                                                          radio and television advertisements, trade magazines, and
                                                                                          professional publications (e.g., The Industrial-Organizational
               employees is Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Title              Psychologist), as well as current employee referrals and
               VII “prohibits discrimination based on race, color, religion,              word of mouth.
               sex, and national origin” (                       Using a meta-analysis, Zottoli and Wanous (2000) eval-
               .html), known as the “Big 5.” Providing protection for people              uated the effectiveness of different recruitment sources.
               comprising the Big 5 helps to ensure that they have equal                  They found that employees recruited through inside
               employment opportunities. There are exceptions to this act,                sources (e.g., employee referrals, rehires) worked for the
               including national security, seniority systems, and bona fide              organization longer and had better job performance than
               occupational qualifications (BFOQ). BFOQs permit organi-                   those recruited through outside sources (e.g., advertise-
               zations to discriminate in hiring individuals in a protected               ments, employment agencies, recruiters). Several studies
               class (one of the Big 5) on the basis of a qualification that is           have supported the idea that those recruited using inside
No a

               deemed reasonably necessary to the operation of the busi-                  sources receive more accurate information about the job
               ness. For example, women can be discriminated against                      than those recruited through external sources (McManus &
               when hiring someone to model men’s swimwear, and vice                      Baratta, 1992; Conrad & Ashworth, 1986). Research also

               versa. It is reasonably necessary to the marketing and selling             shows that employees who stayed with the organization
               of swimwear that organizations are permitted in this situa-                longer were referred by successful employees rather than

               tion to require men to model male swimwear and women to                    unsuccessful employees (Aamodt & Rupert, 1990; Aamodt
               model female swimwear; sex would be a BFOQ. It is not rea-                 & Carr, 1988). Social psychology suggests that our friends
               sonably necessary, however, that a secretary in a church who               tend to be similar to us in characteristics such as values,
               does secretarial work and not church or religious work be                  personality, and interests, which may explain why successful

               of the same religion as the church that employs him; reli-                 employees make successful referrals and unsuccessful
               gion in this case could not be used as a BFOQ.                             employees do not.
                    Abiding by laws that protect individuals against dis-                      A survey of the 50 best small and medium organiza-
               crimination based on the Big 5 covered under the Civil                     tions to work for in America found that 92% use employee
               Rights Act as well as age (Age Discrimination in Employ-                   referrals and more than 30% of all hires were referred by a
               ment Act), disability (Americans with Disabilities Act), and               current employee (Pomeroy, 2005). Because of the effec-
               other factors is important for employers, as the costs of liti-            tiveness of employee referrals, some companies offer

               Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 law that prohibits discrimina-   recruitment the process organizations use to identify potential
               tion based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin               employees for a job
38325_19_ame_pE1-E24.qxd      5/21/07     10:15 AM    Page E8

         E8        Application Module E: Applying Social Psychology to the Workplace

              The Social Side of Sex
              Sexual Harassment

            in g
              The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was originally designed to elimi-
              nate race discrimination, but sex was added at the last minute

          pr n
              by a southern senator, Howard W. Smith. He said he added it
              to support women while his opponents said he was trying to
              kill the bill by adding sex (The National Archives,

     Whatever the reason, as a result of this act,
              women have achieved more equality in the workplace. This
              was the first protection afforded to working women.
                  In the early 1990s, Clarence Thomas was appointed to

              t                                                                                                                    Dennis Brack/Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images
        Re ar
              replace Thurgood Marshall as a lifetime member of the
              Supreme Court of the United States. His confirmation
              hearings were proceeding smoothly until Anita Hill, a law
              professor, reported to the FBI that she had been the subject
              of harassment by Clarence Thomas when she worked for
     or Le    him at the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
              (EEOC). Her allegations were made public, and for several
              days the nation watched televised hearings of Hill and
              Thomas answering questions. Hill alleged that because she
              had not accepted date invitations from Thomas, he sub-           The televised sexual harassment hearings for Anita Hill and
                                                                               Clarence Thomas awoke America to the realities of sexual
              jected her to inappropriate discussions of sexual acts and       harassment.
              pornographic material. Thomas vehemently denied her
              allegations and called the proceedings a “high-tech lynch-
              ing of uppity Blacks” (Center for History and New Media,         fied by an employee who displays pornographic photos in
              2006). Thomas was eventually confirmed as a member of            his locker that offend the women who work in the organi-
              the Supreme Court by a vote of 52 to 48 (Center for His-         zation or an employee who tells jokes that are sexist; it typ-
              tory and New Media, 2006).                                       ically alters the individual’s employment because it is so
                  The Thomas hearings and Hill’s testimony resulted in         offensive. Both types of harassment are inappropriate in
              an increased awareness of sexual harassment. Men and             the workplace and violate individuals’ civil rights.
No a

              women watched the hearings on television or saw reports             Sexual harassment has costs associated with it that can
              on the evening news. Regardless of one’s view on who was         be very expensive for organizations as well as for the
              telling the truth, sexual harassment had assumed a new           employees who are harassed. Claims of sexual harassment

              place in the consciousness of working Americans.                 cost organizations in terms of money, reputation, and pro-
                  Sexual harassment exists in two forms: quid pro quo          ductivity. The culture of the organization is affected as well

              and hostile work environment. An example of quid pro             as employee attitudes and behaviors; these issues are
              quo harassment is an offer by an employer of a promotion         addressed in later sections of this module (Jablin, 1982;
              in exchange for sex. Hostile work environment is exempli-        Hanisch, 1995).

         rewards to employees who recommend an applicant who is                for the referring employee to receive the award (average
         hired. These rewards have included cash awards, vacations,            time to receive reward was three months; Stewart et al.,
         raffles for prizes (e.g., televisions, candy, hammocks), and          1990).
         free maid service for a year (Stewart, Ellenburg, Hicks, Kre-              Employers are hoping to reach those individuals best
         men, & Daniel, 1990). Typically the new employee must                 suited for their jobs and organization through their recruit-
         work for the organization for a set period of time in order           ment efforts. After prospective employees have submitted

         quid pro quo a form of sexual harassment that links sexual favors
         to employment advantages
         hostile work environment a form of sexual harassment in which
         offensive pictures, jokes, or the like make the environment an
         offensive place to work
38325_19_ame_pE1-E24.qxd     5/21/07     10:15 AM      Page E9

                                                                                                                                         Selecting Employees                   E9

            in g
          pr n ni
                                                                                          © Louis Quail/Corbis

        Re ar
               Would you hire these perople? During the hiring process companies
               are increasingly turning to social networking sites, such as
               to learn about their candidates’ attitudes and behavior from images
               like these that are commonly posted to the sites.

                                                                                                                                                                                    © David Young-Wolff/PhotoEdit
     or Le     either a resume or an application with the company, some-
               one from the organization (e.g., human resource manager,
               company president, supervisor) will determine which of
               the applicants should be considered further. In that
               process, he or she may make telephone inquiries of previ-
               ous employers or other references, conduct background
               checks, or search for information about them on the Inter-                                             Researchers have posited two groups of factors that
               net using standard search engines.                                                                determine an employee’s performance in the employment
                    A fairly recent and growing phenomenon is the use of                                         setting. They are the “can-do” (the maximum perfor-
               social networking sites such as Facebook, MySpace, Xanga,                                         mance an employee can exhibit) and the “will-do” (the
               and Friendster by employers to learn about promising job                                          normal or typical performance by an employee) (Schmitt,
               candidates (Finder, 2006). Recruiters and company presi-                                          Cortina, Ingerick, & Wiechmann, 2003). The can-do fac-
               dents have found promising candidates reporting on their                                          tors are normally associated with one’s general cognitive
               own use of alcohol and drugs, flaunting their sexual exploits,                                    ability, one’s reasoning, math, and verbal abilities, as well
No a

               and posting suggestive photographs on these sites (Finder,                                        as the experience one brings to the job. These can-do fac-
               2006). These are considered “red flags” by employers;                                             tors suggest what an employee is capable of doing on the
               employers assume such applicants are lacking in good judg-                                        job if he is working to the best of his ability. Schmitt et al.

               ment and therefore take them out of the selection process                                         (2003) list personality factors such as conscientiousness
               (Finder, 2006). Information that students thought might                                           and need for achievement as well as integrity as important

               only be viewed by their peers is making its way into the pub-                                     will-do factors in performance. These factors affect one’s
               lic arena at all levels (e.g., future employers, relatives).                                      motivation or desire to perform well in the organization.
                                                                                                                 Will-do factors that may assist employees are the other
               Making the Decision                                                                               individuals in the organization, including the owner/pres-

               When selecting employees, employers are looking for a                                             ident of the company, immediate supervisor, coworkers,
               good match between the employee and the organization.                                             and subordinates. An individual’s can-do and will-do fac-
               They would like to match the requirements for excellent                                           tors may change as she moves from organization to orga-
               performance on the job with the person’s knowledge, skills,                                       nization. Once individuals are selected, the important
               abilities, personality, and motivation for the job. They                                          process of their being accepted and socialized into the
               attempt to accomplish this by using some of the different                                         organization at all levels, including their work group or
               types of tests discussed earlier.                                                                 team, begins.

                                                                                                                 can-do performance the maximum performance an employee can
                                                                                                                 will-do performance the normal or typical performance by an
38325_19_ame_pE1-E24.qxd      5/21/07     10:15 AM      Page E10

         E10      Application Module E: Applying Social Psychology to the Workplace

             Quiz Yourself           Selecting Employees

             1.   Asking employees to describe their job is one way of           3.   Zachary is usually a conscientious and hardworking
                  conducting a _____.                                                 employee, but the company hired a new boss who is

            in g
                  (a) job evaluation          (b) job analysis                        really lazy and doesn’t motivate his employees. It is
                  (c) performance appraisal   (d) job review                          likely that Zachary’s _____ will be compromised in this
             2.   Alexander, a television reporter, wants access to the

          pr n
                                                                                      (a) try-to factors              (b) will-do factors
                  women’s locker room right after the basketball game to
                                                                                      (c) can-do factors              (d) must-do factors
                  conduct interviews with the team members. The
                  women’s team lets female reporters in to interview             4.   Most organizations use interviews when hiring employ-

                  them, but wants Alexander to wait until after they have             ees. Which of the following questions would you most
                  showered and changed because they think he is too crit-             likely find in a structured, performance-based interview?
                  ical in his reporting style. Alexander argues he needs to           (a) Tell me about your           (b) What are your long-
                  be treated the same as the female reporters. What                       biggest weakness.                term goals?

                  would be the likely outcome if this issue goes before a             (c) Describe a situation in      (d) What types of

        Re ar
                  court?                                                                  your last job where you          extracurricular activities
                  (a) The team would win           (b) The team members                   had to confront a coworker did you participate
                      because gender is a              would win because                  because she was causing          in during college?
                      BFOQ in this case.               they can discriminate              you problems.
                                                       against Alexander
                                                       because they don’t like
     or Le        (c) Alexander would win
                      because the team
                      members can’t discri-
                      minate against him
                                                       his reporting style.
                                                   (d) Alexander would
                                                       win because gender
                                                       is not a BFOQ
                                                       in this case.
                      because they don’t like
                                                                                                                    Answers: 1=b, 2=d, 3=b, 4=c
                      his reporting style.

         Socializing Employees Through Culture,                                  subjects). Many of these channels are also used by job
         Groups, and Leadership                                                  applicants to learn about the organization before submit-
                                                                                 ting their applications. These channels are also important
         When you report for your first day of work in an organiza-              given the changing nature of organizations so that employ-
         tion, there will be many things you won’t know and many
No a

                                                                                 ees placed in different locations or in virtual organizations
         things you’ll need to learn to be successful in your job. The           can learn information about their jobs and organizations.
         process of learning these things is called organizational                    Supervisors and coworkers are important sources of
         socialization, defined as “the process by which organiza-

                                                                                 socialization information too. Mentoring is a form of train-
         tional members become a part of, or are absorbed into, the              ing often used for a new employee. A current and often long-
         culture of the organization” (Jablin, 1982; more details

                                                                                 term employee (the mentor) is paired with a new employee.
         about culture are discussed later in this module). In general           The mentor’s role is to help the employee adapt to the job by
         terms, organizational socialization consists of individuals             assisting with advice or resources to do the job. The veteran
         learning the ropes (i.e., how the organization operates) by             employee may provide information about how the organiza-
         relying on information provided by management, cowork-                  tion works and career advancement opportunities. Mentor-

         ers, observation, and company handbooks or memos.                       ing helps employees become successful on the job and learn
              In recent years, electronic technology has changed and             the formal and informal rules of the organization as long
         will continue to change the way you and your coworkers                  as the mentor is a good trainer. Sometimes those who are
         are socialized (Flanagin & Waldeck, 2004). The communi-                 excellent performers may not be able to teach someone else
         cation channels open to new employees include e-mail,                   effectively; personality conflicts may also arise between the
         company websites, chat groups, and blogs (web logs in                   mentor and the new employee (Aamodt, 2007).
         which users can provide commentary or news on particular

         organizational socialization the process by which members of an         mentoring the pairing of a current and often long-term employee
         organization become a part of, or are absorbed into, the culture of     (the mentor) with a new employee
         the organization
38325_19_ame_pE1-E24.qxd    5/21/07    10:15 AM     Page E11

                                           Socializing Employees Through Culture, Groups, and Leadership                                                                                                                                           E11

                    Research indicates that both mentors and those they                                                                                                             There have been several case studies of organizations
               mentor often benefit from the relationship. For example, one                                                                                                     that have successfully changed their culture. Remember
               study of a sample of employees in a health care organization                                                                                                     Arthur Friedman from the beginning of this module?
               found that those who were mentored reported higher salaries,                                                                                                     Arthur Friedman, the owner or leader of the Friedman-
               greater promotion rates, and more positive career success                                                                                                        Jacob’s Co., allowed employees to set their own wages and

            in g
               than those who did not receive mentoring (Allen, Lentz, &                                                                                                        decide the hours they worked, and required employees to
               Day, 2006). Employees who have been mentored have better                                                                                                         belong to the union. After Friedman made these changes,
               compensation, advancement, career satisfaction, job satisfac-                                                                                                    the grumbling stopped. The culture in Friedman’s company

          pr n
               tion, job involvement, effective socialization, and organiza-                                                                                                    changed, resulting in better morale, increased productivity,
               tional commitment than those with no mentoring (Green-                                                                                                           and employee longevity. No one wanted to quit working in
               haus, 2003). In addition, informal or spontaneous mentoring                                                                                                      an organization with a culture where the employees got to

               relationships are more successful than formal, role-required                                                                                                     make their own decisions, and this had an impact on the
               mentoring (Ragins & Cotton, 1999).                                                                                                                               organization’s bottom line. Finding an organizational culture

               Organizational Culture and Climate

        Re ar
               Organizational culture can generally be defined as the cog-
               nitive component that includes the shared assumptions and
               beliefs of the organization. Organizational climate has
               been defined as the behavioral component of organiza-
               tional culture that transforms the cognitive component
     or Le     into actions for the individuals in the group or organiza-
               tion (Schein, 1985). These behaviors are considered the
               norm for the organization, the “normal behaviors”
               expected by the organization and its members. Because
               both culture and climate generally operate in concert, our
               discussion will encompass both cognitive and behavioral
               aspects and be collectively referred to as culture. For
               expanded discussions on culture and climate, see Ostroff,
               Kinicki, and Tamkins (2003).
                    Organizational culture is important because it lets
               employees know what is expected of them and affects how
               they behave. Culture is often determined by the founders of
               the organization and may be modified over time by the
                                                                                     © The New Yorker Collection 1994 Mick Stevens from All rights reserved.

               successes and failures of an organization.
No a

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Jeff Haynes/AFP/Getty Images

                                                                                                                                                                                CEO Dieter Zetsche of Daimler-Chrysler is considering selling off
                                                                                                                                                                                the Chrysler division after it lost $1.5 billion in 2006. Culture can
                                                                                                                                                                                change with company success and company management.

               organizational culture the shared cognitive assumptions and beliefs
               of an organization
               organizational climate the behavioral norms of an organization
38325_19_ame_pE1-E24.qxd    5/21/07    10:15 AM    Page E12

         E12     Application Module E: Applying Social Psychology to the Workplace

         that fits your working style and expectations will have con-          Work teams and groups can be defined as two or more
         sequences for your morale, performance, and tenure in an         employees who “(a) exist to perform organizationally rele-
         organization.                                                    vant tasks, (b) share one or more common goals, (c) inter-
              As another example, Chrysler, back in the 1990s,            act socially, (d) exhibit task interdependencies (i.e., work
         adopted Customer One as a program to change their cul-           flow, goals, outcomes), (e) maintain and manage bound-

            in g
         ture. The culture at Chrysler had been known for terrible        aries, and (f) are embedded in an organizational context
         customer service, low profit, and high losses. Chrysler,         that sets boundaries, constrains the team, and influences
         throughout its program of change, solicited ideas from the       exchanges with other units in the broader entity”

          pr n
         workers about ways to cut costs and improve the organiza-        (Kozlowski & Bell, 2003, p. 334). Just as there can be a cul-
         tion. They were extremely successful at turning the organiza-    ture in an organization, groups or teams also exhibit cul-
         tion around by doing such things as cutting overhead by $4.2     tures that may encourage or discourage certain types of

         billion in four years. Unfortunately, new management hired       work-related behaviors and these cultures form the basis
         in the acquisition of Chrysler by Daimler-Benz (i.e., Daimler-   for the socialization of new members of the group or team.
         Chrysler) appears to have resulted in poor employee morale            Although most organizations provide formal means of

         and financial performance (Zatz, 1994). Today the company        socializing new employees, the work group dynamics or

        Re ar
         has serious financial troubles. The culture of an organization   team dynamics have immediate and direct effects on
         is generally stable, but may change with the passage of time.    employees socialization (Anderson & Thomas, 1996); the
         Work teams and the leadership of an organization have a          outcomes of the two types of socialization may be different.
         large influence on the culture of an organization.               Teams may have leaders or may be self-managing. The lat-
                                                                          ter are typically given whole work tasks and have autonomy
     or Le
         Groups and Teams
         Groups have been studied by social psychologists for more
         than 75 years (e.g., Hare, 1962; McGrath, 1966; see Chapter
         14). Research has focused on group dynamic topics such as
                                                                          and control over their work (Manz, 1992); sometimes they
                                                                          have leaders but the role of the leader is to allow self-man-
                                                                          agement. Outcomes of self-managing teams versus leader-
                                                                          led teams include better productivity, an increase in work
         individual versus group problem solving (Hill, 1982; Paulus,     quality, improved quality of life for employees, decreased
         2000) and the effects of participation in decision making on     absenteeism, and decreased turnover (Cohen & Ledford,
         group member satisfaction and performance (Likert, 1967;         1994). Sometimes these teams fail, and often the failure is
         Sagie, 1997). Industrial and organizational psychologists        linked to the team leader who may be too autocratic, wield-
         have focused on studying groups or teams in organizations.       ing too much power or influence; as a result, the team does
         The use of teams or groups in organizations has been             not realize the autonomy and control levels it needs to be
         increasing in the last several years because work is now being   successful (Stewart & Manz, 1995).
         increasingly organized around team-based structures instead           The functioning leaders of teams need to be involved
         of individual jobs (Lawler, Mohrman, & Ledford, 1995).           in both “the development and shaping of the team
              Many college courses have assignments that require          processes, and the monitoring and management of ongoing
No a

         students to work in groups to complete the assignment and        team performance” (Kozlowski & Bell, 2003). Developing a
         students are graded as a group instead of as individuals. Do     team may mean successfully integrating new employees
         you like to work on projects in a group? Do you put in as        into the team as well as helping with the transition of indi-

         much effort as you would if you were completing the              viduals into and out of the team depending on the team’s
         assignment alone? Among other benefits, students working         function. Team leaders are critical to the success of group

         in groups gain insights into group dynamics, develop their       or team newcomers. Establishing and maintaining condi-
         interpersonal skills, and are exposed to other viewpoints        tions wherein the team can perform well is also an impor-
         (Mello, 1993). Students with less experience with group          tant role for the team leader. Leaders are successful in this
         assignments and grading tend to support group grading;           role by monitoring and taking action (Kozlowski, Gully,

         older students are less satisfied with a group experience        McHugh, Salas, & Cannon-Bowers, 1996).
         than younger students; and students who work part-time
         view the group grading experience as more positive than do       Leadership
         those who work full-time (Barfield, 2003). The odds are            Leadership is the art of getting someone else to
         good that you will find yourself in groups in college class-       do something you want done because he wants to do it.
         rooms that will prepare you for the almost inevitable work
                                                                            —Dwight D. Eisenhower
         teams in your future.

                                                                          work team/group two or more employees who together perform
                                                                          organizationally relevant tasks, share one or more common goals,
                                                                          interact socially, exhibit task interdependencies, and maintain and
                                                                          manage boundaries within an organizational context
38325_19_ame_pE1-E24.qxd   5/21/07    10:15 AM     Page E13

                                                                                          Attitudes and Behaviors at Work                           E13

                    Leadership has received a lot of attention in the organi-      (Northouse, 2004). Each of these has useful components,
               zational area. Various definitions exist, but in the context of     and some recommend merging several of these theories/
               understanding organizational socialization and culture,             approaches to obtain the best understanding and identifi-
               Katz and Kahn (1978) defined leadership as “the influential         cation of leadership (Aamodt, 2007).
               increment over and above mechanical compliance with the                  Art Friedman’s integrity likely made him a successful

            in g
               routine directives of the organization” (p. 528), while Bry-        leader of the Friedman-Jacob’s Co. He decided to give
               man (1996), summarizing the various leadership defini-              employees what he would want, providing them with the
               tions in the literature, described leadership as a social influ-    capabilities to make major decisions that could either make

          pr n
               ence process wherein a leader facilitates and encourages            or break the organization. In his case, he created a self-
               group members to reach their goals.                                 managing group that had no need for external assistance
                    Although leadership has been studied for many years, it        from unions or other entities. As a result, Friedman

               is still difficult to describe how to make or select the ideal      demonstrated the transformational leadership approach
               leader. Many theories exist, and most have been useful in           (Bass, 1998). Transformational leadership is characterized
               helping us understand what makes a good leader and how              by high ethical standards, inspirational motivation, intellec-

               to improve leadership style. Personality has been discussed         tual stimulation, and individual consideration—all clearly

        Re ar
               as a defining characteristic of successful or unsuccessful          evident in Arthur Friedman’s leadership style.
               leaders. Kirkpatrick and Locke’s (1991) review suggests that             Leaders today and in the future must contend with
               drive, honesty and integrity, self-confidence, cognitive abili-     information-based team environments requiring the
               ties, and knowledge are associated with successful leaders.         capacities for sifting large amounts of information com-
               Leaders with poor cognitive abilities and social skills, and        ing from computer networks (Avolio, Kahai, & Dodge,
     or Le     who are indecisive, low on self-confidence and self-esteem,
               dishonest, and lacking in ambition tend to be unsuccessful
               (Kaplan, Drath &, Kofodimos, 1991).
                    Several theories of leadership have been proposed.
                                                                                   2000). Environmental turbulence (e.g., widely varying
                                                                                   working environments as a result of economic issues) and
                                                                                   global competition will require leaders to be adaptable
                                                                                   (Mann, 1959), capable of handling stress (Goleman,
               Some of the approaches and theories include the trait               1998), knowledgeable about competitors and products
               approach, skills approach, style approach, situational              (Kirpatrick & Locke, 1991), and able to quickly solve
               approach, contingency theory, path-goal theory, leader-             complex problems (Zaccaro, Mumford, Connelly, Marks,
               member exchange theory, and transformational leadership             & Gilbert, 2000).

                  Quiz Yourself          Socializing Employees Through Culture, Groups, and Leadership

                  1.   Mentoring of new employees, in general, has been            4.   Carol is part of a successful self-managing team in an
No a

                       found to have positive outcomes or consequences for              organization that produces handcrafted furniture. Com-
                       _____.                                                           pared to her coworkers who are in traditional leader-led
                       (a) both the mentor and the (b) the mentor                       teams, Carol and her work team should have _____.

                           employee                                                     (a) better productivity, lower (b) an increase in work
                       (c) the employee             (d) organizations with                  work quality, and a            quality, decrease in

                                                        autocratic leaders                  decrease in absenteeism        work quantity, and
                                                                                                                           better quality of life
                  2.   Organizational climate focuses on _____ components while
                                                                                        (c) an increase in absen-      (d) better productivity,
                       organizational culture focuses on _____ components.
                                                                                            teeism, lower work             better work quality,
                       (a) cognitive; behavioral       (b) emotional; behavioral
                                                                                            quality, and higher            and a better quality
                       (c) behavioral; cognitive       (d) cognitive; emotional

                                                                                            work quantity                  of life
                  3.   In the future, leaders will have to be concerned with
                       which of the following?
                       (a) environmental turbulence (b) global competition
                       (c) information-based team (d) All of the above
                           environments                                                                             Answers: 1=a, 2=c, 3=d, 4=d
38325_19_ame_pE1-E24.qxd       5/21/07     10:15 AM     Page E14

         E14       Application Module E: Applying Social Psychology to the Workplace

         Attitudes and Behaviors at Work
         Given that your skills and abilities match the job for which
         you were hired (i.e., the selection process worked), one of
         the most important factors influencing whether you will be

            in g
         motivated to do a good job hinges on your attitudes at
         work (see Chapter 7). Work attitudes have been extensively
         researched and have been shown to be related to a number

          pr n
         of work behaviors that influence how well employees do
         their job. Some of the outcomes of attitudes include volun-
         teering for a project, helping out a coworker, quitting,

         absenteeism, tardiness, early retirement, and job perfor-
         mance. A discussion of work attitudes and behaviors is pre-
         sented first; the relationship between attitudes and behav-
         iors is subsequently evaluated.

        Re ar
                                                                                                                                             AP Photo/George Nikitin
         Attitudes and Stress
         Attitudes at work include satisfaction with the work itself,
         pay and benefits, supervision, coworkers, promotion oppor-
         tunities, working conditions, and job security. In general, you
     or Le
         can be satisfied or dissatisfied with the tasks and conditions
         at work, the people in your work environment, and the
         rewards you get from work. Employee satisfaction is impor-
         tant because it has been shown to be related to employee
         behaviors at work. Two of the most commonly studied work
                                                                                  Some organizations are using creative techniques such as having a dog-
                                                                                  friendly office to reduce stress and improve employee satisfaction.

         attitudes are presented below: job satisfaction and organiza-            worker satisfied. Just as in selection, organizations have to
         tional commitment. Information is then presented on stress               find the right match between what the employee wants and
         as an important issue facing employees and employers.                    what the organization can offer with regard to satisfaction.
                                                                                       As you recall, Art Friedman allowed his employees to
         Job Satisfaction. What makes you satisfied with a job, or                determine their own work schedule, pay, and work oppor-
         what types of things will you look for when you seek a job?              tunities. Do you remember the employee who asked for a
         For some individuals, interesting work is paramount; oth-                $100 raise? Once he got to set his pay at what he thought
         ers place higher emphasis on having coworkers they like;                 he deserved, he became an excellent employee who put
         still others feel that the pay and benefits they receive are             forth more effort and time in his job. In order for him to
No a

         most important. Just as in selection, a match between what               perform better, he needed to be compensated better. This
         you want and what the organization can provide will result               illustrates equity theory (Adams, 1965) wherein an
         in a successful outcome for both parties.                                employee compares his inputs to his outcomes. If that com-

               I/O psychologists have conducted many studies on job               parison is equal, the employee will be satisfied. If there is a
         satisfaction resulting in several suggestions for ways to                discrepancy or inequity in the input to outcome comparison,

         improve the satisfaction of employees. Some of the ways                  he will feel dissatisfied and likely reduce his inputs in one
         organizations can create satisfied employees include design-             form or another (see later discussion on withdrawal behav-
         ing a work environment that has some of the following                    iors). Alternatively, recall the service man who didn’t ask for
         attributes: flexible working hours, professional growth                  a raise and didn’t want one? His response to being paid less

         opportunities (e.g., training), interesting work (allowing               than his coworkers was that he didn’t want to work any
         employees to use a variety of skills and own their work;                 harder than his current level—another example of matching
         Hackman & Oldham, 1976), autonomy in the job, job secu-                  one’s inputs to outcomes. Both men were satisfied with their
         rity, a good supervisor, good benefits, competitive pay,                 situations and performed according to their pay. As men-
         opportunities for promotion, and technological savvy                     tioned before, employees differ in their wants and needs; Art
         (Cranny, Smith, & Stone, 1992). It is important to note that             Friedman provides a classic example of letting employees
         what makes one worker satisfied may not make another                     decide what they want. In turn, his employees realized that

         attitudes at work satisfaction with the work itself, pay and benefits,
         supervision, coworkers, promotion opportunities, working condi-
         tions, and job security
38325_19_ame_pE1-E24.qxd    5/21/07    10:15 AM     Page E15

                                                                                          Attitudes and Behaviors at Work                      E15

               for the organization to be successful, they needed to behave         commitment. You likely have some level of each type of
               and perform in reasonable and appropriate ways.                      commitment, and these could be represented as a commit-
                    A recent survey found that listening to music at work           ment profile for you as a student.
               leads to higher levels of reported employee satisfaction.                 One of the antecedents of organizational commitment
               About one-third of those participating in a Spherion                 is job satisfaction. People who are satisfied with their job

            in g
               (2006) survey conducted by Harris Interactive reported               are more committed to their organization than those less
               they listened to an iPod, MP3 player, or other personal              satisfied (Mueller, Boyer, Price, & Iverson, 1994). Other
               music device while working. Seventy-nine percent of the              causes of organizational commitment include trust in one’s

          pr n
               participants reported that listening to music improved their         supervisor and human resources practices that are support-
               job satisfaction and/or productivity at work. Allowing               ive of employees (Arthur, 1994). The organizational com-
               workers to listen to music, particularly in a way that does          mitment of Friedman’s employees was high, as evidenced

               not infringe on other workers, may become more and more              by no turnover in five years.
               popular in jobs where music does not interfere with safety                Other forms of commitment have also been studied;
               or job performance. Having happy workers contributes to              they include commitment to an occupation (Meyer, Allen,

               an organization’s success.                                           & Smith, 1993), a work team (Ellemers, de Gilder, and van

        Re ar
                                                                                    den Heuvel, 1998), a union, and a program (e.g., to a train-
               Organizational Commitment. One’s commitment or psy-                  ing program; Cooper-Hakim & Viswesvaran, 2005). Many
               chological attachment to an organization has been shown              definitions and theories of commitment exist, with ongoing
               to be consistently related to employee retention. There are          research focusing on determining those that are most use-
               three types of organizational commitment: affective, nor-            ful in the employment setting. In the next section on work
     or Le     mative, and continuance (Meyer & Allen, 1991). Meyer and
               Allen define affective commitment as an employee’s emo-
               tional attachment to the organization that makes the
               employee want to stay in the organization. Normative
                                                                                    behaviors, research relevant to the consequences of organi-
                                                                                    zational commitment is examined.

                                                                                    Stress. Just as organizations must manage and deal with
               commitment is a commitment based on feelings of obliga-              employee satisfaction and commitment, they also need to
               tion, and continuance commitment results when an                     be aware of the work-related stress employees may be expe-
               employee remains with a company because of the high cost             riencing on the job. Stress experienced at work can be
               of losing organizational membership, including monetary              caused by major stressors such as sexual harassment or
               (e.g., pension benefits) and social (e.g., friendships) costs.       potentially more minor stressors such as not having
               Meyer and Herscovitch (2001) argue that employees have               enough time to get your work done (Sonnentag & Frese,
               an organizational commitment profile at any given time in            2003). Stress has been shown to cause a decrease in produc-
               their job with high or low values on each of the three types         tivity as well as health problems such as heart disease and
               of commitment. For example, an employee may have high                diabetes (Chandola, Brunner, & Marmot, 2006).
               scores on normative and continuance commitment but be                     As college students, you are familiar with stress. College
No a

               lower on affective commitment. Depending on the profile,             students experience stress caused by academic challenges,
               the employee may engage in different behaviors such as               financial problems, employment issues, relationships, social-
               quitting or helping the organization.                                ization concerns, and extracurricular activities. Research indi-

                    Students may experience these different types of com-           cates that poor eating and sleeping habits and the use of caf-
               mitment to their university. Affective commitment means              feine and tobacco all result in negative outcomes such as

               that you, as a student, feel an emotional attachment or              weight gain (or loss), depression, susceptibility to illness,
               bond to your school because you really like the school,              increased blood pressure and cholesterol levels, sleeplessness,
               from classes to the football team to the town in which the           and body aches (Moraleda, 2006). Lack of sleep has harmful
               university is located. You want to stay in that particular           effects on brain performance, and one’s body does not func-

               school because you are attached to it. Normative commit-             tion well without proper nutrition (see Food for Thought).
               ment might exist if you feel you can’t leave the university          Later in life these stressors may cause diabetes, hypertension,
               because your parents attended this university and you feel           artery disease, and stroke (Moraleda, 2006). Learning how to
               obligated to do the same thing regardless of whether it is           deal with stress in college can make the inevitable work-
               the best school for you. Staying at a university because your        related stress from employment easier to manage.
               friends are there and you have already paid for two years of              Employee stress can be caused by role conflicts, role
               college would typify someone acting under continuance                ambiguity, work overload, different types of change such as

               affective commitment an employee’s emotional attachment to the
               normative commitment a commitment to the organization based
               on feelings of obligation
               continuance commitment remaining with an organization because
               of the high cost, monetary and/or social, of losing organizational
38325_19_ame_pE1-E24.qxd     5/21/07    10:15 AM     Page E16

         E16      Application Module E: Applying Social Psychology to the Workplace

            Food for Thought
            Work Stress and Eating

            in g
            Do your eating behaviors change during finals week, before        ments differently with regard to their between-meal snack-
            an important exam, or before taking a college entrance            ing. Specifically, women who worked longer hours ate

          pr n
            exam? Not surprisingly, stress may be a contributing factor       more high-fat and high-sugar snacks as well as exercised
            to those changes. Researchers have studied work stress and        less, drank more caffeine, and smoked more (if they were
            its consequences for a number of years. One interesting           smokers). For men, working longer hours showed no nega-

            area is the study of how the work environment affects             tive effect on caffeine consumption, exercise, or smoking.
            snacking behavior, particularly between-meal snacking.            Working longer hours was found to have one positive out-
            O’Connor, Jones, Conner, and McMillan (under review)              come for both men and women—their consumption of
            evaluated diaries completed by employees over a four-week         alcohol decreased.

        Re ar
            period. The employees kept track of daily hassles, perceived         Given the link between nutrition and health problems,
            daily variations in diet, and between-meal snacking.              the researchers concluded that hassles leading to stress have
                The researchers found, in general, that daily hassles         harmful effects on employees and that workplace programs
            (e.g., lack of time to finish a project) were associated with a   designed to reduce stress would help alleviate these con-
            preference for high-fat and high-sugar between-meal               cerns (O’Connor et al., under review). Guides on how to
     or Le  snacks as well as a reduction in the consumption of vegeta-
            bles and main meals (O’Connor et al., under review). Men
            and women were found to deal with their work environ-
                                                                              operate successful stress reduction programs are available
                                                                              to aid organizations in assisting employees in dealing with
                                                                              stress in the workplace (Edelman, 2006).

         reorganization, downsizing, or layoffs, others in the work           tive behaviors generally help an organization meet its goals
         environment such as one’s coworkers or supervisor, and how           while negative behaviors detract from goal attainment.
         well the person and the organization fit together (Aamodt,
         2007). These types of stressors have negative health out-            Organizational Citizenship Behaviors. Organizational
         comes similar to those experienced by students under stress.         citizenship behaviors (OCBs) or prosocial behaviors have
              To deal with stressful situations, people need to develop       often been described as extra-role behaviors because they
         stress management techniques that do not impinge on their            are not specifically required by the job and also not usually
         health. Some college students find participating in some             evaluated by employers during performance appraisals.
No a

         type of physical activity, such as tae kwon do or racquet-           These behaviors go beyond what is expected by the organi-
         ball, helpful in alleviating stress; others find that taking a       zation (Smith, Organ, & Near, 1983). Examples include
         short break from their work rejuvenates them; still others           staying late to finish a project, mentoring a new employee,

         find alternative relaxation techniques helpful. All of these         volunteering for work, and helping a coworker. Some of
         venues for dealing with stress can be useful to employees as         the causes of OCBs are job satisfaction, jobs high in auton-

         well. Learning how to manage one’s time and prioritizing             omy, a positive organizational culture, employees high in
         activities are useful skills in college and in the workplace.        agreeableness (as a personality dimension; Witt, Kacmar,
                                                                              Carlson, & Zivnuska, 2002), and those high in conscien-
         Behaviors at Work                                                    tiousness (Borman, Penner, Allen, & Motowidlo, 2001).

         Employers want their employees to engage in behaviors                Men who engage in OCBs are viewed positively while
         that will make them successful in the job because their suc-         women are viewed as just doing their jobs (Heilman &
         cess helps the organization meet its goals (e.g., profits, mis-      Chen, 2005; Kidder & Parks, 2001), a difference that may
         sion). Employees have control over two aspects of their              result in gender disparity in performance ratings. OCBs
         work—their time and their effort (Naylor, Pritchard, &               have positive consequences for the organization and for
         Ilgen, 1980). Having employees at work instead of late or            employees in their day-to-day interactions with others in
         absent is important to performance and productivity. Posi-           the organization.

                                                                              organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) employee behaviors
                                                                              that go beyond what is expected by the organization
38325_19_ame_pE1-E24.qxd    5/21/07    10:15 AM     Page E17

                                                                                         Attitudes and Behaviors at Work                       E17

                   You may engage in prosocial behaviors at your uni-             Relationship Between Attitudes and Behaviors
               versity by helping a student in a class by tutoring him or         Organizational citizenship behaviors are positively related to
               allowing him to study with you. You may also exhibit               job satisfaction and organizational commitment; employees
               these types of behaviors in your personal life by donating         with good attitudes and who feel more committed to their
               blood or being a Big Brother or Sister to a boy or girl who        organization are more likely to help out a coworker or do

            in g
               needs a positive role model. Altruism and prosocial                other positive things to assist the organization (LePine, Erez,
               behaviors are closely linked; they can carry over into the         & Johnson, 2002). As would be expected, a meta-analysis
               work environment.                                                  showed that those employees who demonstrated organiza-

          pr n
                                                                                  tional citizenship behaviors were less likely to engage in coun-
               Organizational Withdrawal and Counterproductive                    terproductive behaviors (Dalal, 2006).
               Behaviors. Unhappy employees cause problems for organi-                 Strong links have been found between job satisfaction

               zations because they sometimes choose to engage in behav-          and specific withdrawal or counterproductive behaviors
               iors that researchers refer to as organizational withdrawal        such as absenteeism (Hackett, 1989) and even stronger
               (Hanisch, Hulin, & Roznowski, 1998) and counterproduc-             links with the aggregate behavior known as job withdrawal

               tive behaviors (Sackett & DeVore, 2001). Organizational            (Hanisch & Hulin, 1990). Counterproductive behaviors

        Re ar
               withdrawal has been defined as behaviors employees use to          have also been linked as an outcome of stress, with the
               avoid their work (work withdrawal) or their job (job with-         counterproductive behaviors being described as a dysfunc-
               drawal) (Hanisch & Hulin, 1990; Hanisch, 1995). Examples           tional coping mechanism (Lennings, 1997). For example,
               of work withdrawal include being absent from work, leav-           an employee experiencing stress from having too much
               ing work early, arriving to work late, missing meetings, and       work to do responds by being absent from work to avoid it
     or Le     using work equipment for personal use without permis-
               sion. Examples of job withdrawal behaviors include quit-
               ting one’s job, transferring to another department within
               an organization, and retiring.
                                                                                  or sabotages her equipment so she cannot do her work.
                                                                                       Many years of research indicate a link between employ-
                                                                                  ees’ attitudes and their behaviors at work. Sometimes the
                                                                                  most revealing information about employees occurs when
                    College students are familiar with withdrawal behav-          unforeseen circumstances arise and they then have to
               iors when it comes to certain college courses. Some classes        choose how to behave without concern for what a supervi-
               may fail to hold your attention, and you may find yourself         sor, coworkers, or their work team might think. An interest-
               taking a nap in class or reading the newspaper. You may            ing study along these lines was conducted by Smith (1977)
               even look for legitimate reasons to miss class such as offer-      when he took advantage of inclement weather to study the
               ing to fill in for another employee at your workplace or           relationship between job attitudes and job behaviors.
               deciding to attend an optional session for another class.               Smith (1977) compared functional work groups in
               Other students may just decide it’s not worth attending            Chicago where a terrible snowstorm had occurred to work
               class and stay home and sleep or study for another class.          groups in New York where the weather was fine. All
               These behaviors will likely be counterproductive to your           employees worked for the same organization, and they had
No a

               performance (i.e., grade) in the course.                           completed an organization-wide survey assessing work atti-
                    Counterproductive behaviors, although similar in              tudes a few months earlier. Examining both organizational
               some ways to withdrawal behaviors, are defined as “any             sites provided a comparison not typically available and

               intentional behavior on the part of an organizational mem-         allowed the researcher to examine the relationship between
               ber viewed by the organization as contrary to its legitimate       work attitudes and attendance under difficult circum-

               interests” (Sackett & DeVore, 2001, p.145). An example of a        stances. The comparison was done to determine which
               counterproductive behavior would be an intentional viola-          employees would opt to attend work the day after the
               tion of safety procedures; this behavior would put the             storm in Chicago. Correlational results indicated a positive
               employee and the organization at risk. Categories of coun-         relationship between work attitudes and attendance for the

               terproductive behavior include theft, destruction of prop-         employees headquartered in Chicago; those reporting higher
               erty, misuse of information, misuse of time and resources,         satisfaction were more likely than those with lower satisfac-
               unsafe behavior, poor attendance, poor quality work, alco-         tion to attend work (see ● Figure E-4). Interestingly, the
               hol use, drug use, and inappropriate physical actions (e.g.,       relationship between the work attitudes and attendance was
               attacking a coworker). The next section integrates the atti-       not significant for the groups based in New York. It was up
               tudes and behaviors discussed previously and examines the          to the discretion of the individuals in the Chicago sample
               relationship between them.                                         whether or not they attended work the day after the storm;

               organizational withdrawal work withdrawal or job withdrawal        counterproductive behaviors intentional behaviors on the part of
                                                                                  an organizational member viewed by the organization as contrary
               work withdrawal behaviors employees use to avoid their work        to its legitimate interests
               (e.g., lateness, absenteeism)
               job withdrawal behaviors employees use to avoid their job (e.g.,
               quitting, retiring)
38325_19_ame_pE1-E24.qxd     5/21/07     10:15 AM    Page E18

         E18       Application Module E: Applying Social Psychology to the Workplace

           Scale                               Chicago (n= 27)a                    New York (n=13)b
           Supervision                                    .54**                                   .12
                                                                                                                    *p>.05, one-tailed test
           Amount of work                                 .36*                                    .01
           Kind of work                                   .37*                                    .06               **p<.01, one-tailed test

            in g
                                                                                                                    aGroup   following storm
           Financial rewards                              .46**                                   .11
           Career future                                  .60**                                   .14               bGroup under normal
           Company identification                         .42*                                    .02               working conditions

          pr n
         ● Figure E-4
         Correlations Between Job Satisfaction Levels and Attendance Levels on Individual Days for the Chicago and New York
         Groups (Smith, 1977)

         the correlational results suggest that those work groups             low stress for his 15 employees. Conversely, employees need

        Re ar
         with more positive attitudes made a greater effort to attend         to learn how to seek out work that is satisfying and organi-
         work that day than did those with less positive attitudes.           zations that they can commit to, and learn to either manage
             Employers need to evaluate the work environment and              the stress they are under or seek less stressful work. These
         make modifications where necessary to ensure that employ-            approaches in combination will help facilitate OCBs and
         ees are satisfied, committed, and experience low stress. Art         decrease withdrawal and counterproductive behaviors.
     or Le
         Friedman made modifications in the work environment of
         his organization that led to satisfaction, commitment, and
                                                                              Together, the right employee attitudes and behaviors will
                                                                              lead to successful organizational functioning.

            Quiz Yourself           Attitudes and Behaviors at Work

            1.   Organizational withdrawal is comprised of _____.                  (c) Find a relaxation        (d) Drink more coffee
                 (a) work withdrawal and       (b) job withdrawal                      technique that will          to give you a boost
                     quitting                      and work withdrawal                 help you deal with           to complete your job.
                 (c) quitting and job          (d) leaving and staying                 the stress better.
                                                                              4.   _____ would be an example of an organizational citizen-
            2.   Gordon’s organizational commitment has been decreas-              ship behavior while _____ would be an example of a
                 ing in the last year. Which of the following is Gordon            counterproductive behavior.
No a

                 most likely to do if his organizational commitment                (a) Mentoring a new          (b) Being late; staying
                 doesn’t improve soon?                                                 employee; engaging           late to help a coworker
                 (a) Be absent                   (b) Quit                              in safe work practices
                 (c) Ask for a raise             (d) Steal from the                (c) Missing a meeting; being (d) Volunteering to serve

                                                     organization                      late for work                on a committee; physi-
                                                                                                                    cally attacking your

            3.   Jonathan’s boss keeps adding more duties to his job
                 each day, and Jonathan is beginning to feel like he has
                 way more to do than he can manage. He mentions to
                 his friend Doug that he is under a great deal of stress
                 and wants to know how he can manage it. Based on

                 research, if you were Doug, what advice would you give
                 (a) Quit your job, it’s not   (b) Find a counterproductive
                     going to get better.          behavior that will allow
                                                   you to reduce your
                                                   workload.                                                  Answers: 1=b, 2=b, 3=c, 4=d
38325_19_ame_pE1-E24.qxd   5/21/07    10:15 AM    Page E19

                                                                                                             Module Summary             E19

               What Makes Us Human? Putting the Cultural                         only necessary and even useful because of the informa-
                                                                                 tional complexity of human culture. There’s not much
               Animal in Perspective                                             mentoring in an anthill or a flock of birds, because it is
                                                                                 not needed.
                                                                                      The unique features of human groups do not end

            in g
               In one sense, almost all animals do some work, if we define       there. Humans encounter stresses at work (e.g., financial
               work as the activity that is done not for the pleasure of doing   pressures, deadlines, and legal problems) that are unlike
               it but rather to obtain the means of survival. Hunting food,      what any noncultural animal encounters. They also exhibit

          pr n
               building nests or digging caves, and other similar “work” is      positive, prosocial behaviors (such as the OCBs) that exem-
               found throughout the animal kingdom. But human work is            plify some of the best features of human nature.
               different in important ways.                                           The complexity and organization of human work

                    The process of selecting employees is uniquely human.        groups are remarkable. Human organizations are con-
               A pack of wolves does not use a structured interview to eval-     stantly changing in ways that no other, noncultural animal
               uate another wolf who wants to join the pack, nor does it         groups change. They add new roles (e.g., lawyers who

               give the new wolf standardized tests. The pack of wolves          ensure that hiring practices are consistent with new laws).

        Re ar
               doesn’t worry about complying with federal hiring laws, nor       They change the rules and procedures (as in the opening
               does it protect its members from sexual harassment. Human         account about Arthur Friedman’s changes). A group of
               organizations often perform complex assessments of both           leaders may make decisions to increase or decrease the
               the person and the job in order to find the right match.          organization’s size, sometimes resulting in mass layoffs.
                    Socializing processes show the cultural aspect of            These decisions give human work groups the flexibility to
     or Le     human work organizations. Culture is all about informa-
               tion, and new employees must often master a great deal of
               specialized information about what their job will be and
               how it fits into the big picture of what the organization
                                                                                 adapt to new opportunities or problems in ways that ani-
                                                                                 mal work groups do not.
                                                                                      Work is a central part of human life. As culture
                                                                                 changes, work continues to change and evolve in new ways.
               does. (In contrast, a new wolf in the hunting pack can just       For example, the technologies that enable people to do
               follow the others and do what they do!) Mentoring is a            their work from home or at a distance from the work
               special kind of relationship that occurs in human work            group’s location are changing the experience of work for
               groups because it helps new employees gain from the wis-          people in new and sometimes unpredictable ways. Such
               dom and experience of older ones—and, again, that is              changes reflect the unique power of human culture.
No a

                   Module Summary

               Industrial and Organizational Psychology                              satisfaction, a reason to get up in the morning, happi-
               ●   I/O psychology is the study of individuals’ behavior at           ness, a sense of identity, recognition, and prestige.

                   work using psychological principles.                          ●   The O*NET is a comprehensive, detailed, and flexible
               ●   I/O psychologists study employee selection, perfor-               set of job descriptors based on an extensive research
                   mance appraisal, training, job design, communication,             program.
                   work stress, motivation, leadership, groups or teams,         ●   There are many types of jobs available with different

                   organizational culture, human factors or system design,           work schedules, including flexible hours, telecommut-
                   job attitudes, well-being, and work behaviors.                    ing, and shift work.
               ●   Work is a central focus in many lives; it provides us
                   with things we need and value.                                Selecting Employees
               ●   In addition to satisfying our basic needs of food, shelter,   ●   Industrial and organizational psychologists first became
                   and security, work also provides opportunities for social         involved in selecting employees when the United States
                   interaction, independence, a sense of accomplishment,
38325_19_ame_pE1-E24.qxd     5/21/07    10:15 AM    Page E20

         E20      Application Module E: Applying Social Psychology to the Workplace

             government needed help selecting and placing officers          ●   Organizational commitment profiles include employees’
             and soldiers in World War I.                                       affective, normative, and continuance commitment;
         ●   Job analysis is the identification of the critical elements        these in turn influence the behaviors employees engage
             of a job.                                                          in at work.
             Job analysis techniques include interviewing job incum-            Causes of employee stress include role conflicts, role

            in g
         ●                                                                  ●

             bents, having them complete questionnaires, observing              ambiguity, work overload, different types of change
             someone in the job, and having experts evaluate the job.           such as reorganization, downsizing, or layoffs, others in
         ●   Tests involve the measurement of carefully chosen sam-             the work environment such as one’s coworkers or

          pr n
             ples of behavior; the reliability and validity of tests are        supervisor, and how well the person and the organiza-
             important in assessing their quality.                              tion fit together.
         ●   Interviews are used routinely in organizations; inter-         ●   Stress management activities may include physical exer-

             views may be structured or unstructured.                           cise or relaxation techniques.
         ●   Structured interviews are much better in terms of their        ●   Prosocial or organizational citizenship behaviors
             validity, or accuracy of assessment, than unstructured             (OCBs) have often been described as extra-role behav-

             interviews.                                                        iors because they are behaviors not specifically required

        Re ar
         ●   Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 protects                 by the job and also not usually evaluated by employers
             employees from discrimination in employment on the                 during performance appraisals.
             basis of race, sex, religion, national origin, and color.      ●   Antecedents of OCBs include job satisfaction, jobs high
         ●   Sexual harassment has two forms: quid pro quo and                  in autonomy, a positive organizational culture, and
             hostile work environment.                                          employees high in agreeableness and conscientiousness.
     or Le

             Employee recruitment can be either internal or exter-
             nal; internal recruitment is often more effective.
             Employers seek to match the requirements of a job with
             the person’s attributes in a way that will result in suc-

                                                                                Organizational withdrawal is comprised of work with-
                                                                                drawal and job withdrawal.
                                                                                Categories of counterproductive behavior include theft,
                                                                                destruction of property, misuse of information, misuse
             cessful performance on the job.                                    of time and resources, unsafe behavior, poor atten-
                                                                                dance, poor quality work, alcohol use, drug use, and
         Socializing Employees Through Culture,                                 inappropriate physical actions (e.g., attacking a
         Groups, and Leadership                                             ●   OCBs are positively related to job satisfaction and orga-
         ●   Learning how an organization operates is one of the                nizational commitment; they are negatively related to
             first things a new employee must do. Many avenues                  counterproductive behaviors.
             exist to accomplish this, including mentors, memos,            ●   Job satisfaction is strongly linked to work withdrawal
             supervisors, and coworkers.                                        (e.g., absenteeism) and job withdrawal (e.g., quitting).
         ●   Employees learn what is expected of them through the           ●   Stress is one antecedent of counterproductive behaviors.
No a

             culture and climate of an organization.
         ●   Work groups or teams help socialize employees; some-           What Makes Us Human? Putting the
             times the work group culture may be at odds with the

                                                                            Cultural Animal in Perspective
             organization’s culture.
             Leaders of groups influence how well they function; dif-       ●   Human and animal work varies on many dimensions,


             ferent theories address what makes a good leader.                  including the complexity of work groups and decision
         Attitudes and Behaviors at Work                                    ●   The assimilation and understanding of culture makes
                                                                                humans unique and separates them from all other, non-

         ●   Attitudes at work include satisfaction with the work itself,       cultural animals.
             pay and benefits, supervision, coworkers, promotion
             opportunities, working conditions, and job security.
38325_19_ame_pE1-E24.qxd       5/21/07      10:15 AM        Page E21

                                                                                                                                         Module Summary                        E21

               Aamodt, M. G. (2007). Industrial/organizational psychology: An applied              Edelman (2006). Finding wealth through wellness: How engaging employees
                   approach. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.                                                   in preventive care can reduce healthcare costs, Fall. Available: www
               Aamodt, M. G., & Carr, K. (1988). Relationship between recruitment source     ;

            in g
                   and employee behavior. Proceedings of the 12th Annual Meeting of the                Paper.pdf
                   International Personnel Management Association Assessment Council,              Ellemers, N., de Gilder, D., & van den Heuvel, H. (1998). Career-oriented vs.
                   143–146, San Diego, CA.                                                             team-oriented commitment and behavior at work. Journal of Applied Psy-
               Aamodt, M.G., & Rupert, G.T. (1990). Employee referral programs: Do suc-                chology, 83, 717–730.

          pr n
                   cessful employees refer better applicants than unsuccessful employees?          Finder, A. (2006, June 11). For some, online persona undermines a resume.
                   Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the International Personnel Manage-            New York Times.
                   ment Association Assessment Council, 24-27, San Diego, CA.                      Flanagan, J. C. (1954). The critical incident technique. Psychological Bulletin,
               Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social change. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances         51, 327–358.

                   in experimental social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 267–299). New York: Acade-       Flanagin, A. J. & Waldeck, J. H. (2004). Technology use and organizational new-
                   mic Press.                                                                          comer socialization. Journal of Business Communication, 41(2), 137–165.
               Allen, R. B., & Scheinfeld, R. (2003). The 11th element: The key to unlocking       Gael, S. A. (1988). The job analysis handbook for business, industry, and govern-
                   your master blueprint for wealth and success. New York: Wiley.                      ment (Vols. 1–2). New York: Wiley.
               Allen, T. D., Lentz, E., & Day, R. (2006). Career success outcomes associated       Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam

                   with mentoring others: A comparison of mentors and nonmentors. Jour-                Books.

        Re ar
                   nal of Career Development, 32(3), 272–285.                                      Greenhaus, J. H. (2003). Career dynamics. In W. C. Borman, D. R. Ilgen, & R.
               Anderson, N., & Thomas, H. D. C. (1996). Work group socialization. In M. A.             J. Klimoski (Eds.), Handbook of psychology: Industrial and organizational
                   West (Ed.), Handbook of work group psychology (pp. 423–450). John Wiley             psychology (Vol. 12, pp. 519–540). New York: Wiley.
                   & Sons, Chichester.                                                             Hackett, R. D. (1989). Work attitudes and employee absenteeism: A synthesis
               Arthur, J. B. (1994). Effects of human resource systems on manufacturing per-           of the literature. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 62(3), 235–248.
                   formance and turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 670–687.              Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1976). Motivation through the design of

     or Le     Arvey, R. D., & Campion, J. E. (1982). The employment interview: A summary
                   and review of recent research. Personnel Psychology, 35, 281–322.
               Avolio, B. J., Kahai, S. S., & Dodge, G. (2000). E-leading in organizations and
                   its implications for theory, research and practice. Leadership Quarterly, 11,
               Barfield, R. L. (2003). Students’ perceptions of and satisfaction with group
                   grades and the group experience in the college classroom. Assessment and
                                                                                                       work: A test of a theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance,
                                                                                                       16(2), 250–279.
                                                                                                   Hanisch, K. A. (1995). Behavioral families and multiple causes: Matching the
                                                                                                       complexity of responses to the complexity of antecedents. Current Direc-
                                                                                                       tions in Psychological Science, 4(5), 156–162.
                                                                                                   Hanisch, K. A., & Hulin, C. L. (1990). Job attitudes and organizational with-
                                                                                                       drawal: An examination of retirement and other voluntary withdrawal
                   Evaluation in Higher Education, 28(4), 355–369.                                     behaviors. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 37(1), 60–78.
               Bass, B.M. (1998). Transformational leadership: Industry, military, and educa-      Hanisch, K. A., & Hulin, C. L. (1991). General attitudes and organizational
                   tional impact. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.                                                 withdrawal: An evaluation of a causal model. Journal of Vocational Behav-
               Borman, W. C., Penner, L. A., Allen, T. D., & Motowidlo, S. J. (2001). Personal-        ior, 39, 110–128.
                   ity predictors of citizenship performance. International Journal of Selection   Hanisch, K. A., Hulin, C. L., & Roznowski, M. A. (1998). The importance of
                   and Assessment, 9, 52–69.                                                           individuals’ repertoires of behaviors: The scientific appropriateness of
               Bryman, A. S. (1996). The importance of context: Qualitative research and the           studying multiple behaviors and general attitudes. Journal of Organiza-
                   study of leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 7, 353–370.                              tional Behavior, 19, 463–480.
               Center for History and New Media (2006, December). An outline of the Anita          Hardison, C. M., Kim, D., & Sackett, P. R. (2005, April). Meta-analysis of work
                   Hill and Clarence Thomas controversy [Online]. Available: http://chnm.gmu           sample criterion related validity: Revisiting anomalous findings. Paper pre-
                   .edu/courses/122/hill/hillframe.htm                                                 sented at the 20th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial-
               Chandola, T., Brunner, E., & Marmot, M. (2006). Chronic stress at work and              Organizational Psychology, Los Angeles.
No a

                   the metabolic syndrome: Prospective study. British Medical Journal [Online].    Hare, A. P. (1962). Handbook of small group research. New York: Free Press.
                   Available:                Harris Poll. (2006, July 26). Firefighters, doctors and nurses top list as “most
               Clark, R. E. (2003). Fostering the work motivation of individuals and teams.            prestigious occupations,” according to latest Harris Poll. The Harris
                   Performance Improvement, 42(3), 21–29.                                              Poll, 58 [Online]. Available:

               Cohen, S. G., & Ledford, G. E., Jr. (1994). The effectiveness of self-managing          /index.asp?PID=685
                   teams: A quasi-experiment. Human Relations, 47, 13–43.                          Heilman, M. E., & Chen, J. J. (2005). Same behavior, different consequences:

               Conrad, M. A., & Ashworth, S. D. (1986). Recruiting source effectiveness: A             Reaction’s to men’s and women’s altruistic citizenship behaviors. Journal of
                   meta-analysis and re-examination of two rival hypotheses. Paper presented           Applied Psychology, 90, 431–441.
                   at the First Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organiza-         Hill, G. W. (1982). Group versus individual performance: Are N+1 heads bet-
                   tional Psychology, Chicago.                                                         ter than one? Psychological Bulletin, 91(3), 517–539.
               Cooper-Hakim, A., & Viswesvaran, C. (2005). The construct of work commit-           Huffcutt, A. I., & Arthur, W., Jr. (1994). Hunter and Hunter (1984) revisited:
                   ment: Testing an integrative framework. Journal of Applied Psychology, 131,         Interview validity for entry-level jobs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79,

                   241–259.                                                                            184–190.
               Cranny, C. J., Smith, P. C., & Stone, E. F. (1992). Job satisfaction: How people    Hunter, J. E., & Hunter, R. E. (1984). Validity and utility of alternative predic-
                   feel about their jobs and how it affects their performance. New York: Lexing-       tors of job performance. Psychological Bulletin, 96(1), 72–98.
                   ton Books.                                                                      Jablin, F. M. (1982). Organizational communication: An assimilation
               Dalal, R. S. (2006). A meta-analysis of the relationship between organizational         approach. In M. E. Rolff & C. R. Berger (Eds.), Social cognition and com-
                   citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. Journal of                munication (pp. 255–286). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
                   Applied Psychology, 90(6), 1241–1255.
38325_19_ame_pE1-E24.qxd                   5/21/07            10:15 AM             Page E22

         E22            Application Module E: Applying Social Psychology to the Workplace

         Kaplan, R. E., Drath, W. H., & Kofodimos, J. R. (1991). Beyond ambition:                                         Northouse, P. G. (2004). Leadership: Theory and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA:
             How driven managers can lead better and live better. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.                                 Sage.
         Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1978). The social psychology of organizations (2nd ed.).                                O’Connor, D. B., Jones, F., Conner, M., & McMillan, B. (under review). Effects
             New York: Wiley.                                                                                                 of daily hassles and eating style on eating behavior.
         Kidder, D. L., & Parks, J. M. (2001). The good soldier: Who is s(he)? Journal of                                 Ones, D. S., Viswesvaran, C., & Schmidt, F. L. (1993). Comprehensive meta-
             Organizational Behavior, 22, 939–959.                                                                            analysis of integrity test validities: Findings for personnel selection and

            in g
         Kirkpatrick, S. A., & Locke, E. A. (1991). Leadership: Do traits matter? Acad-                                       theories of job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(4), 679–703.
             emy of Management Executive, 5, 48–60.                                                                       Ostroff, C., Kinicki, A. J., & Tamkins, M. M. (2003). Organizational culture
         Koughan, M. (1975, February 23). Arthur Friedman’s outrage: Employees                                                and climate. In W. C. Borman, D. R. Ilgen, & R. J. Klimoski (Eds.), Hand-
             decide their pay. Washington Post. Available:                                       book of psychology: Industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 12, pp.

          pr n
             washingtonpost_historical/access/120083126.html?dids=120083126:12008312                                          565–593). New York: Wiley.
             6&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:AI&fmac=&date=Feb+23%2C+1975&author=                                                      Paulus, P. B. (2000). Groups, teams, and creativity: The creative potential of
             By+Martin+KoughanSpecial+to+The+Washington+Post&desc=Arthur+Frie                                                 idea-generating groups. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 49(2),
             dman+%27s+Outrage%3A+Employees+Dec+ide+Their+Pay                                                                 237–262.

         Kozlowski, S. W., & Bell, B. S. (2003). Work groups and teams in organiza-                                       Peterson, N. G., Mumford, M. D., Borman, W. C., Jeanneret, P. R., & Fleish-
             tions. In W. C. Borman, D. R. Ilgen, & R. J. Klimoski (Eds.), Handbook of                                        mann, E. A. (1999). An occupational information system for the 21st cen-
             psychology: Industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 12, pp. 333–375).                                     tury: The development of O*NET. Washington, DC: American Psychologi-
             New York: Wiley.                                                                                                 cal Association.
         Kozlowski, S. W., Gully, S. M., McHugh, P. P., Salas, E., & Cannon-Bowers, J. A.                                 Pomeroy, A. (2005). 50 best small and medium places to work: Money talks.

             (1996). A dynamic theory of leadership and team effectiveness: Develop-                                          HR Magazine, 50(7), 44–65.

        Re ar
             mental and task contingent leader roles. In G. R. Ferris (Ed.), Research in                                  Quinones, M. A., Ford, J. K., & Teachout, M. S. (1995). The relationship
             personnel and human resource management (Vol. 14, pp. 253–305). Green-                                           between work experience and job performance: A conceptual and meta-
             wich, CT: JAI Press.                                                                                             analytic review. Personnel Psychology, 48(4), 887–910.
         Lawler, E. E., Mohrman, S. A., & Ledford, G. E. (1995). Creating high performance                                Ragins, B. R., & Cotton, J. L. (1999). Mentor functions and outcomes: A com-
             organizations: Practices and results of employee involvement and total quality                                   parison of men and women in formal and informal mentoring relation-
             management in Fortune 1000 companies. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.                                                ships. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(4), 529–550.

     or Le
         Lennings, C. J. (1997). Police and occupationally related violence: A review.
             Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management,
             20(3), 555–566.
         LePine, J. A., Erez, A., & Johnson, D. E. (2002). The nature and dimensionality
             of organizational citizenship behavior: A critical review and a meta-
             analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), 52–65.
                                                                                                                          Ross, J. A. (2006, November). The reliability, validity, and utility of self-
                                                                                                                              assessment. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 11(10) [Online].
                                                                                                                          Roth, P. L, BeVier, C. A., Switzer, F. S., & Schippmann, J. S. (1996). Meta-
                                                                                                                              analyzing the relationship between grades and job performance. Journal of
                                                                                                                              Applied Psychology, 81(5), 548–556.
         Likert, R. (1967). The human organization: Its management and value. New                                         Sackett, P. R., & DeVore, C. J. (2001). Counterproductive behaviors at work. In
             York: McGraw-Hill.                                                                                               N. Anderson, D. S. Ones, H. K. Sinangil, & C. Viswesvaran (Eds.), Hand-
         Mann, R. D. (1959). A review of the relationships between personality and                                            book of industrial, work and organizational psychology (Vol. 1, pp.
             performance in small groups. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 241–270.                                                145–165). Thousand Oaks, CA; Sage.
         Manz, C. C. (1992). Self-leading work teams: Moving beyond self-management                                       Sackett, P. R., & Laczo, R. M. (2003). Job and work analysis. In W. C. Borman,
             myths. Human Relations, 45, 1119–1140.                                                                           D. R. Ilgen, & R. J. Klimoski (Eds.), Handbook of psychology: Industrial and
         McDaniel, M. A., Whetzel, D. L., Schmidt, F. L., & Maurer, S. D. (1994). The valid-                                  organizational psychology (Vol. 12, pp. 21–37). New York: Wiley.
             ity of employment interviews: A comprehensive review and meta-analysis.                                      Sagie, A. (1997). Leader direction and employee participation in decision
             Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 599–616.                                                                      making: Contradictory or compatible practices? Applied Psychology: An
         McGrath, J. E. (1966). Small group research. New York: Holt, Rinehart, &                                             International Review, 46(4), 387–452.
             Winston.                                                                                                     Salgado, J. F., Viswesvaran, C., & Ones, D. (2003). Predictors used for person-
         McManus, M. A., & Baratta, J. E. (1992). The relationship of recruiting source to                                    nel selection: An overview of constructs, methods and techniques. In N.
             performance and survival. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the                                           Anderson, D. S. Ones, H. K. Sinangil, & C. Viswesvaran (Eds.), Handbook
No a

             Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Montreal.                                                  of industrial, work and organizational psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 166–199).
         Mello, J. A. (1993). Improving individual member accountability in small                                             Thousand Oaks, CA; Sage.
             group settings. Journal of Management Education, 17(2), 253–259.                                             Schein, E. H. (1985). Organizational leadership and culture: A dynamic view.
         Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of                                          San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

             organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 1,                                              Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1998). The validity and utility of selection
             61–89.                                                                                                           methods in personnel psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of

         Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J., & Smith, C. A. (1993). Commitments to organizations                                      85 years of research findings. Psychological Bulletin, 124(2), 262–274.
             and occupations: Extension and test of a three component conceptualiza-                                      Schmitt, N., Cortina, J. M., Ingerick, M. J., & Wiechmann, D. (2003). Person-
             tion. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 538–551.                                                                nel selection and employee performance. In W. C. Borman, D. R. Ilgen, &
         Meyer, J. P., & Herscovitch, L. (2001). Commitment in the workplace: Toward                                          R. J. Klimoski (Eds.), Handbook of psychology: Industrial and organizational
             a general model. Human Resource Management Review, 11, 299–326.                                                  psychology (Vol. 12, pp. 77–105). New York: Wiley.
         Moraleda, F. (2006, November 27). Consequences of college stress, Chicago                                        Smith, C. A., Organ, D. W., & Near, J. P. (1983). Organizational citizenship

             Flame [Online]. Available:                                            behavior: Its nature and antecedents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68,
             p a p e r 5 1 9 / n e w s / 2 0 0 6 / 1 1 / 2 7 / Ne w s / C o n s e q u e n c e s . O f . C o l l e g e .       653–663.
             Stress2508252.shtml?norewrite200612172322&sourcedomain=www                                                   Smith, F. J. (1977). Work attitudes as a predictor of attendance on a specific
                                                                                                   day. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62(1), 16–19.
         Mueller, C. W., Boyer, E. M., Price, J. L., & Iverson, R. D. (1994). Employee                                    Sonnentag, S., & Frese, M. (2003). Stress in organizations. In W. C. Borman,
             attachment and noncoercive conditions of work: The case of dental                                                D. R. Ilgen, & R. J. Klimoski (Eds.), Handbook of psychology: Industrial and
             hygienists. Work and Occupations, 21, 179–212.                                                                   organizational psychology (Vol. 12, pp. 453-491). New York: Wiley.
         Naylor, J. C., Pritchard, R. D., & Ilgen, D. R. (1980). A theory of behavior in                                  Spherion (2006, September 18). Spherion survey: Workers say listening to music
             organizations. New York: Academic Press.                                                                         while working improves job satisfaction, productivity [Online]. Available:
38325_19_ame_pE1-E24.qxd       5/21/07      10:15 AM        Page E23

                                                                                                                                       Module Summary                     E23

               Stewart, G. L., & Manz, C. C. (1995). Leadership for self-managing work             Zaccaro, S. J., Mumford, M. D., Connelly, M., Marks, M., & Gilbert, J. A.
                   teams: A typology and integrative model. Human Relations, 48, 347–370.             (2000). Assessment of leader abilities. Leadership Quarterly, 11, 37–64.
               Stewart, R., Ellenburg, G., Hicks, L., Kremen, M., & Daniel, M. (1990). Employee    Zatz, D. (1994). Organizational culture [Online]. Available: http://www.tool-
                   references as a recruitment source. Applied H.R.M. Research, 1(1), 1–3.  
               Tett, R. P., Jackson, D. N., Rothstein, M., & Reddon, J. R. (1994). Meta-analysis   Zottoli, M. A., & Wanous, J. P. (2000). Recruitment source research: Current
                   of personality–job performance relations: A reply to Ones, Mount, Bar-             status and future directions. Human Resource Management Review, 10,

            in g
                   rick, & Hunter (1994). Personnel Psychology, 47(1), 157–172.                       435–451.
               Witt, L. A., Kacmar, M., Carlson, D. S., & Zivnuska, S. (2002). Interactive
                   effects of personality and organizational politics on contextual perfor-
                   mance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 911–926.

          pr n ni
        Re ar
     or Le
No a
38325_19_ame_pE1-E24.qxd   5/21/07   10:15 AM   Page E24

            in g
          pr n ni
        Re ar
     or Le
No a

Shared By:
yan198555 yan198555