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					           US History
                           Units:
                    1. Before America
                     2. Early America
                       3. Revolution
      4. Learning to be America + Foreign Policy
            5. Slavery and economic growth
                        6. Civil War
    7. Reconstruction & The Industrial Revolution
                    8. Robber Barrons
                           9. WWI
                      10. Depression
                          11. WWII
               12. Modern America is born
  13. The inspiration for all those great spy movies
              14. The birth of rock and roll
15. The sixties and the rise and fall of countercultures
                        16. Vietnam
                 17. Excess and the 80’s
          18. Mr. Preston becomes a teenager
                   19. In the year 2000
                           1
• Water Freezes
• Glaciers form and use water, land bridge
  appears.
• Nomads wander over bridge
• Head south where it is warm
  – Nomads become
     • The Maya– Big temples,
     • The Olmecs- Big temples, make calendars, dug ditches,
       irrigation
     • The Incas- mined gold, silver
     • The Aztecs-knew math, written language
                Explorers
•   John Cabot- England 1497
•   Amerigo Vespucci- Portugal- 1502
•   Vasca Nunez de Balboa- Spain- 1513
•   Ferdinand Magellan- Spain 1519-1522
           Aztecs Destroyed
•   Killed by Henry Cortes
•   Led Army to Mexico
•   Stole gold and silver
•   Won battle because of technology
             Settlements
• Jamestown, Virginia- First colony
  established by English
• Land filled with swamps
• Poor Farming
• Hardly any fresh water
• Many settlers died from hunger and
  disease
                Plymouth
• Came on Mayflower to escape religious
  persecution, 1620
• Pilgrims
  – separated from the Church of England
• Mayflower Compact-Leaders of Pilgrims
  wrote and agreement saying that the laws
  of the new colony would be fair and equal.
  All the men on board agreed to it.
           Plymouth cont..
• Landed late in fall, too late to plant crops
• Weather was cold
• Not enough food
• Settlers became ill
• Native Americans helped through the first winter
• More than ½ still died by spring
• Native Americans showed them how to grow
  corn, hunt turkey and deer, ways to fish for food
• By 1621 Pilgrims had made it, celebrate one full
  year with a 3 day harvest festival, people today
  think of this as the first Thanksgiving
              Growing Colonies
• Colonies start to grow
   –   Massachusetts
   –   Rhode Island
   –   Connecticut
   –   New Hampshire
   –   New York
   –   New Jersey
   –   Pennsylvania
   –   Delaware
   –   Virginia
   –   Maryland
   –   Carolinas
   –   Georgia
           Massachusetts
• First New England Colony
• Included all of Massachusetts and part of
  Maine
• Other colonies grew out of Massachusetts
                  Rhode Island
• After Massachusetts was settled, many people who were
  unhappy with puritan life moved to other areas
• Some were forced to leave
• Roger Williams left and built settlement called
  Providence, which became Rhode Island
• 1635- Minister named Roger Williams was kicked out
   – He believed the church had to much power
   – State, government should be separate from the church, or
     religion
   – Free to practice own beliefs, religions
      • All 3 beliefs became core parts of the declaration of independence
        and bill of rights
             Connecticut
• Minister, Thomas Hooker, led people out
  of Massachusetts
• Felt Puritans had become too powerful
• Settled a new colony, Connecticut, Native
  American name meaning “long river place”
           New Hampshire
• 1623, King James (England) sent two fish
  merchants and others to explore the coast
  of present day New Hampshire
• Communities established
• People came to these fishing communities
  because they didn’t want to follow the
  rules of the Puritan church
• New Hampshire became a colony in 1741
                 New York
• Land between Virginia and New Hampshire
  settled by the Dutch
• 1609 Henry Hudson, English explorer, hired by
  Dutch to sail up river, later named for him
• Claimed land along river and named it New
  Netherlands
• Largest colony settled on an island, now called
  Manhattan, named after Manhattan tribe
              New Jersey
• 1664, English forces took control of New
  New Amsterdam (Netherlands)
• Split in two, one became New York and
  another became New Jersey
• Large town at the mouth of the Hudson
  was renamed New York
            Pennsylvania
• Quakers, led by William Penn, wanted to
  travel to America to follow beliefs
• He asked King of England for land and
  was given Pennsylvania.
• Quakers are pacifists
                Delaware
• 1704, land taken over by Dutch from
  Sweden, then England
• Settlers asked William Penn for land to set
  up their own colony and he agreed.
                 Virginia
• The first colony of Virginia began with the
  Jamestown settlement in 1607
• More settlers came from New England and
  other middle colonies
               Maryland
• 1632, Lord Baltimore, rich English
  Catholic, was given a charter. He settled
  the colony of Maryland
• Lord Baltimore had Toleration act passed
  in Maryland. Act guaranteed freedom of
  religion to all Christians.
                Carolinas
• 1663, King Charles of England gave 8 rich
  English Lords the right to settle land south
  of Virginia
• Good soil, beautiful land
• Allowed religious freedom
• So many people came because of the
  good soil that it broke into North and South
                Georgia
• Last of the 13 colonies
• Settled as home for debtors
• These people who had been jailed for not
  paying money owed to others
• James Oglethorpe thought jail was unfair
  for debtors and asked for a new start in
  America
• 1773, Georgia, named after king George II
  became a colony
Photos
                 Colonial America
http://videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/20804-the-early-colonists-daily-life-video.htm
Pilgrims
William Penn
Native Americans
Aztec Temple
      How They Made Money
• The economies of the new world were primarily
  farming, shipping, fishing, shipbuilding
• Flour was a big export and so was lumber
• Ships were built on the coast, especially around
  Boston
• Flour was grown inland
• Southern Colonies in the east used slave labor
  and grew tobacco, rise, cotton, indigo
  – Farmers started off hiring people to work but slaves
    became more profitable and as the farmers became
    more successful the amount of slaves being used
    increased until they were doing most of the work
            Frontier Farms
• Europeans who arrived in the Southern
  Colonies in the late 1600’s discovered that
  most of the good farmland on the coast
  was taken. They moved west to the
  Appalachian Mountains
• Farms were small and run by families and
  friends, no slaves were used.
    Women and the Colonies
• Women worked hard in the 13 colonies.
  – Worked with husbands as shipbuilders
  – Worked as Shopkeepers
  – Worked as printers– Poor Richard’s Almanac
    by Ben Franklin
  – Did household jobs
    •   Sewing
    •   Cooking
    •   Cleaning
    •   hunting
          Settlements - Town
• Towns were established from Settlements
     • Many people knew each other and wanted to live near each
       other
     • Kids apprentices
  – Bartered and traded between towns (traded products
    for other products or services)
  – Imported items from other towns
  – Most imported items
     • Lots of importing between Europe and southern colonies
  Set up shops based on skills
          Great Awakening
• People came to America for Religion then
  abandoned it
• Ministers tried to Awaken interest in God
• New religious groups formed
         The Enlightenment
• Colonists interested in new ideas
• Enlightenment was a new way of thinking
  that came from people in Europe
  – People believed that knowledge was power
    • Said that if people used reason, the government
      and society would improve
       – Encouraged people to question others and to believe that
         government should protect “lives and liberty and
         property.”
              Political Rights
• Political rights are rights given to people by the
  government
• England, voters elected people to represent
  them in making laws.
• Colonies, had the representatives but 8 of the 13
  colonies were ruled by governors chosen by the
  King
• Governors could throw out lawmakers who did
  not follow English laws. This was unfair
• England had a right to trial by Jury, Colonies did
  not
            Economic Rights
• Colonists wanted to sell products for the most
  money possible and wherever they wanted to
• England believed in mercantilism
  – The idea that a nation becomes stronger by building
    up it’s gold supply and increasing trade
  England established colonies to make money and didn’t
    like this
    - Passed laws to regulate or control the trade in the
    colonies
         Revolution Timeline
• March 5, 1770 Boston Massacre
  – Colonists yell insults at British soldiers
  – Someone throws snowballs and rocks
  – Soldiers shoot and 5 men died
        Revolution Timeline
December 1773, colonists dress as Native --
 -Americans, boarded ships in Boston
 Harbor
 -Threw tea overboard
 -angry because British passed a law
 saying only a British company could
 supply colonies with tea
 -Colonists are now unable to meet and
 more soldiers are sent to their city
          Revolution Timeline
• 1774, colonial leaders meet in Philadelphia
• The First Continental Congress
  – Members of every colony except Georgia met and
    wrote the Declaration of American Rights and sent it
    to Great Britain
  – It listed all of the unfair treatment
  – George Washington, Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry
    and others were leading the session
  – The Declaration did not change the Britain’s mind
        Revolution Timeline
• Colonists become angrier
• Patrick Henry demanded freedom from
  Great Britain and famously ended one of
  his speeches screaming “Give me liberty
  or give me death!”
• Many colonists agreed and this became a
  battle cry
        Revolution Timeline
• People were ready to die for freedom
• In Massachusetts, groups called
  minutemen formed
• Minutemen- colonists between ages of 16-
  60 who could be ready to fight at a
  minute’s notice
• Minutemen stored guns and bullets in
  Concord, 2o miles outside of Boston
             Revolution Timeline
• British General Thomas Gage finds out about the guns in Concord
• Orders troops to raid the storage area and destroy the guns
• April 18,1775, 700 British soldiers marched out of Boston, unaware
  that they were being spied on
• Colonists had a plan to warn the Minutemen
• They lit lanterns as a warning signal on lantern meant the attack was
  on land, two meant they were heading north by boat
• “One if by land, two if by sea”
• One lantern lit the tower, The Minutemen had to be warned. A
  colonist by the name of Paul Revere jumped on to his horse and
  rode into the darkness, 16 miles, yelling “The redcoats are coming”
• Revere was joined by William Dawes, they road together
• They were captured, Samuel Prescott continued to ride and warn
  the other towns
           Revolution Timeline
• The Battle of Lexington and Concord, April 19, 1775
• British arrive at Lexington Green, 70 men waiting for
  them, led by American Captain John Parker “Stand your
  Ground. Don’t fire unless fired upon. But if they want
  war, let it begin here.”
• 8 Minutemen killed, one British wounded, Minutemen
  scattered in defeat
• General Gage marched British troops to Concord
• http://videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/20724-
  lexington-and-concord-battles-for-
  independence-video.htm
           Revolution Timeline
• British continue to Concord, feeling confident
• When they reached a northern bridge near Concord,
  they were charged on by 450 minutemen +
  shopkeepers, farmers, and others with rifles
• They charged at the British and pushed them back
  where they were met by more Minutemen hiding behind
  trees and stone walls, They ran to Boston but by the time
  they got there 300 British were dead and 90 colonists
  were dead or wounded
• This was the first battle of the Revolutionary war but war
  had not been declared
           Revolution Timeline
• The Second Continental Congress
• A month after the battles of Lexington and Concord
  colonial leaders met again in Philadelphia, This was
  called the Second Continental Congress
• War had not yet been declared between Great Britain
  and the colonies
• Many leaders did not want war but they new it was
  probably going to happen because of the violence
• They decided to petition Britain to help find a peaceful
  resolution, They called this the Olive Branch Petition
• They still prepared for war and chose George
  Washington, a planter from Virginia, as a military leader.
  He had fought well during the French and Indian War.
            Revolution Timeline
• Battle of Bunker Hill
   – Fighting broke out in Boston
   – British troops had remained in the city
   – Britain ordered them to break out but they had to get past the
     Militia (emergency groups of colonists) that were camped out on
     Bunker Hill and Breed’s Hill
   – This was one of the bloodiest battles of the war and Britain took
     control of the hill on June 17, 1775
   – Britain “won” but they lost more men than the colonists and the
     King was shocked. The colonists were not disappointed because
     even though they lost they beat up the British
   – King George III hired German soldiers to control colonists and he
     had the navy block all shipping
   – The shipping blockade bothered the colonists and prevented
     supplies from getting into or out of certain areas.
        Revolution Timeline
• Watch video about Lexington and Concord
• Read page 72-75 from the book as a
  class.
• Read only the description of the 7 battles.
• We will discuss the Declaration of
  Independence and Treaty of Paris on
  Friday
  Declaration of Independence
• The Introduction
• The Introduction of the Declaration of
  Independence refers to the Laws of Nature and
  of Nature’s God entitling the people to assume
  any type of political independence. The
  introduction also acknowledges that the reason
  for independence must be of reasonable terms.
  The Declaration therefore must be concise and
  explained thoroughly.
   Declaration of Independence
• The Preamble
• The Preamble contains probably the most
  famous lines of the Declaration, “we hold these
  truths to be self evident, that all men are created
  equal. ? The Preamble states that there are
  certain unalienable rights that government
  should never violate. Those rights include the
  right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
  Should those rights be violated and the
  government fails to protect them, the people
  have the right to protect those rights themselves
  by overthrowing the government.
    Declaration of Independence
• The Indictment
• The Indictment begins by stating the suffering of the American
  colonies and the feeling of absolute constraint in forming a new
  system of government. The Indictment also refers to the numerous
  and repeated injuries that King George III placed upon the colonies
  and then go on to include factual information as to the many things
  that King George III had committed.
• The King is accused of twenty seven specific abuses; interfering
  with colonists' rights to self government and a fair judicial system;
  instituting legislation that affected colonies without their consent,
  increasing taxes on colonists; requirement to quarter British soldiers;
  right to trial by jury; preventing them from trading freely, for example.
  Also, the King had refused to protect the borders of the colonies
  thus resulting in the destruction of American life and property. These
  are among the twenty seven accusations the colonists made in
  direct relation with King George the III in the Indictment portion of
  the Declaration of Independence.
   Declaration of Independence
• The Denunciation
• The Denunciation portion of the Declaration of
  Independence basically covers and finishes their case
  for separating from England in the hopes for a peaceful
  resolution, but with the clear understanding that war is
  almost inevitable. This section of the Declaration also
  notes the attempts that had been made to peacefully
  work things out as many of the Americans still felt that
  England was their brother and had appealed to more
  prominent people among the British. Still to their utter
  disappointment and their requests the colonies remained
  ignored and unsuccessful.
   Declaration of Independence
• The Conclusion
  In conclusion, the representatives of the United States of America
  and the people of the colonies had seen existent conditions that
  required a change in government structure and policy. The
  conclusion states that “these united Colonies are, and of Right ought
  to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all
  Allegiance to the British Crown. ? The conclusion of the Declaration
  also contains the core of Lee’s Resolution that had been passed on
  July 2.
• A summary of the Declaration of Independence will always take
  something away from the true words written by Thomas Jefferson,
  but will give you an idea of what the declaration is about.
              Bill of Rights
• In the United States, the Bill of Rights is
  the name by which the first ten
  amendments to the United States
  Constitution are known. They were
  introduced by James Madison to the First
  US Congress in 1789 as a series of
  articles, and came into effect on
  December 15, 1791, when they had been
  ratified by three-fourths of the States.
              The Bill of Rights
• 1 Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and
  petition.
• 2 Right to keep and bear arms in order to maintain a well
  regulated militia.
• 3 No quartering of soldiers.
• 4 Freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures.
• 5 Right to due process of law, freedom from self-
  incrimination, double jeopardy.
• 6 Rights of accused persons, e.g., right to a speedy and
  public trial.
• 7 Right of trial by jury in civil cases.
• 8 Freedom from excessive bail, cruel and unusual
  punishments.
• 9 Other rights of the people.
• 10 Powers reserved to the states.
                              Amendments
•   11th1795 Citizens cannot sue states in federal courts. There are some exceptions.
•   12th1804 Changed the way the President and Vice President are elected.
•   13th1865 Ended slavery in the United States.
•   14th1868 Every person born in the United States is a citizen. States must follow due process of
    law before taking away any citizen's rights or property.
•   15th1870 A citizen's right to vote cannot be taken away because of race or the color of their skin.
•   16th1913 Congress can put a tax on income.
•   17th1913 The people will elect Senators. Before this, Senators were elected by state legislatures.
•   18th1919 Made a law against drinking alcohol, called Prohibition.
•   19th1920 Gave women the right to vote.
•   20th1933 Changed the days for meetings of Congress and for the start of the President's term of
    office.
•   21st1933 Ended the Prohibition law of the Eighteenth Amendment. States can make laws about
    how alcohol is used in each state.
•   22nd1951 A person may not be elected President more than two times
•   23rd1961 Gave the people in the District of Columbia the right to vote for President.
•   24th1964 Made it illegal to make anyone pay a tax to have the right to vote.
•   25th1967 Changes what happens if a President dies, resigns, or is not able to do the job. Says
    what happens if a Vice President dies or resigns.
•   26th1971 Makes 18 years old the minimum age for people to be allowed to vote
•   27th1992 Limits how Congress can increase how much its members are paid.
         Constitution- Preamble
• Preamble
• The Preamble says:
   – We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more
     perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility,
     provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare,
     and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our
     Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United
     States of America.
• The Preamble is not a law. It gives the reasons for
  writing the Constitution. The Preamble is one of the best
  known parts of the Constitution. The first three words,
  "We the people," are used very often. There are six
  intensions-they are the goals of the constitution.
• [change] Legislative power
              Constitution- Article 1
•   Article One: says that the U.S. Congress (the legislative branch) will make
    the laws for the United States. Congress has two parts, called "Houses," the
    House of Representatives and the Senate. The Article says who can be
    elected to each part of Congress, and how they are elected.
•   The House of Representatives has members elected by the people in each
    state. The number of members from each state depends on how many
    people live there. Each member of the House of Representatives is elected
    for two years. The Senate has two members, called Senators, for each
    state, no matter how many people live there. Each Senator is elected for six
    years. The original Constitution says that Senators should be elected by the
    state legislatures, but this was changed later.
•   Article One also says how the Congress will do its business and what kinds
    of laws it can make. It lists some kinds of laws the Congress and the states
    cannot make. Article One also makes rules for Congress to impeach and
    remove from office the President, Vice President, judges, and other
    government officers.
•   [change] Executive power
          Constitution – Article 2
• Article Two says that the President (the executive branch) will carry
  out the laws made by Congress. This article says how the President
  and Vice President are elected, and who can be elected to these
  offices. The President and Vice President are elected by a special
  Electoral College chosen by the states, for four years. The Vice
  President takes over as President if the President dies, or resigns,
  or is unable to serve. Article Two also says that the President is in
  charge of the army and navy. He can make treaties with other
  countries, but these must be approved by two-thirds of the Senate.
  He appoints judges, ambassadors, and other officers, but the
  Senate also must approve these appointments. The President can
  also veto bills. However Congress can over ride the veto
• [change] Judicial power
        Constitution- Article 3
• Article Three says there will be a court system
  (the judicial branch), including the Supreme
  Court. The article says that Congress can decide
  which courts, besides the Supreme Court, are
  needed. It says what kinds of "cases and
  controversies" these courts can decide. Article
  Three also requires trial by jury in all criminal
  cases, and defines the crime of treason.
• [change] States' powers and limits
           Constitution – Article 4
• Article Four is about the states. It says that all states must give "full
  faith and credit" to the laws of the other states. It also says that state
  governments must treat citizens of other states as fairly as they treat
  their own citizens, and must send arrested people back to another
  state if they have been charged with a crime.
• Article Four also says that Congress can make new states. There
  were only 13 states in 1787. Now there are 50 states in the United
  States. It says Congress can make rules for Federal property and
  can govern territories that have not yet been made into states.
  Article Four says the United States must make sure that each state
  has a republican form of government, and protect the states from
  invasion and violence.
• [change] Process of amendment
          Constitution – Article 5
• Article Five says how to amend, or change, the Constitution.
  Congress can write a change, if two-thirds of the members in each
  House agree. The state governments can call a convention to write
  changes, although this has not happened since 1787. Any change
  that is written by Congress or by a convention must be sent to the
  state legislatures or to state conventions for their approval.
  Congress decides whether to send a change to the legislatures or to
  conventions. Three-fourths of the states must approve a change for
  it to become part of the Constitution.
• An amendment can change any part of the Constitution, except one
  — no amendment can change the rule that each state has the same
  number of seats in the Senate.
• [change] Federal power
       Constitution – Article 6
• Article Six says that the Constitution, and
  the laws and treaties of the United States,
  are higher than any other laws. It also
  says that all federal and state officers must
  swear to "support" the Constitution.
• change Ratification
       Constitution – Article 7
• Article Seven says that the new
  government under the Constitution would
  not start until conventions in at least nine
  states approved the Constitution
                 Civil War
• Expansion and Compromise
• 1819 there were 22 states
  – 11 free states
  – 11 slave states
                   Civil War
• Southern states start growing cotton because
  tobacco wasn’t selling. South was poor
• Eli Whitney invents cotton gin. Cotton becomes
  big cash crop. Cotton plantations grow and so
  does use of slave labor
• Factories grow in North. North pulls away from
  south economically.
  – Textile plants
  – Woven cloth
  – Goods they weren’t able to import
                 Civil War
• Missouri Compromise
  – Missouri would enter the union as a slave
    state
  – Maine would enter the union as a free state
  – The rest of the Louisiana Territory would be
    divided by a line. No slavery would be allowed
    in the states north of that line
                  Civil War
• Compromise of 1850
  – California would join the Union as a free state
  – In the rest of the territory from Mexico, people
    would decide whether or not to allow slavery
  – The slave trade would be banned in
    Washington D.C.
  – Congress would pass the Fugitive Slave Law
               Civil War
• Abolitionists- Northern people who
  wanted to abolish slavery
• Abolitionists wanted to help African
  Americans escape from slavery.
  Abolitionists worked together to set up a
  network of secret routes for enslaved
  African Americans to escape to freedom in
  the North or in Canada. This was called
  the Underground Railroad.
                Civil War
• Frederick Douglas was an abolitionist
  leader who had escaped from slavery.
• He became an important writer and
  change a lot of peoples minds about
  slavery. He wrote about his own life as a
  slave.
• He wrote the Narrative of the life of
  Frederick Douglass
               Civil War
• Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher
  Stowe was another famous anti-slavery
  book.
• The book about “Uncle Tom” detailed an
  account of the cruelty and harshness of
  slavery.
• Most Northeners had never heard the
  horrible details about what happened to
  slaves.
                    Civil War
• Kansas-Nebraska Act
  – Senator Stephen Douglas from Illinois wanted to
    organize Nebraska into a territory. Douglas wanted it
    organized so Illinois could have a railroad built from
    Illinois through Nebraska
  – Douglas suggested dividing the territory into
    Nebraska and Kansas territory. Douglas decided
    slavery in the territory could be decided by Popular
    Sovereignty (A system that allowed the people in a
    territory to make their own decisions)
                Civil War
• Nebraska was too far north to have
  plantations. The people of Nebraska
  wanted a territory without slavery.
• Kansas was further south. They could
  have plantations. After the act was passed
  there was a land rush to Kansas
• Some wanted slavery and some didn’t.
  There was a vote to decide whether or not
  they would be pro slavery
               Civil War
• 9000 people were now in Kansas
• Population was now large enough to vote
  for a government
• Before election extremists rode to Kansas
• Became violent, robbed people,
          The First 16 Presidents
•   1. George Washington
•   John Adams
•   Thomas Jefferson
•   James Madison
•   James Monroe
•   John Quincy Adams
•   Andrew Jackson
•   Martin Van Buren
•   William Harrison
•   John Tyler
•   James Polk
•   Zachary Taylor
•   Millard Fillmore
•   Franklin Pierce
•   James Buchanan
•   Abraham Lincoln
          George Washington
•   First American President
•   Revolutionary War Hero
•   Elected because of popularity
•   Formed policy of non-involvement in
    foreign affairs and wars
         John Adams



2nd President
-George Washington’s Vice-President
-First President to live in the White House
-One of the most influential founding fathers
-Died on the 4th of July 50 years after the
constitution was signed
           Thomas Jefferson
•   3rd President
•   John Adams vice president
•   Only president to be elected unanimously
•   Wrote Declaration of Independence
           James Madison
• 4th President
• Had 2 vice-presidents die in office
• Was nicknamed “Father of the Constitution
           James Monroe
• 5th President
• Encouraged the growth of America
• Set aside land for Native Americans on the
  great plains
• He and John Adams both died on July 4th,
  55 years to the day the constitution was
  signed
          John Quincy Adams
•   6th president
•   Son of John Adams
•   First son of a president to be elected
•   Did not enjoy entertaining or crowds
•   Elected by house of representatives
          Andrew Jackson
• 7th president
• Gave parties at the White House and
  invited the public
• Nicknamed “Old Hickory” because he was
  tough
• Fought duels to defend his wife’s honor
  and killed at least one man
          Martin Van Buren
• 8th President
• Headed a political group that later became
  the Democratic Party
• Had followers known as Bucktails because
  they wore deer tails on their hats when
  they attended meetings
        William Henry Harrison
• 9th President
• The oldest president until Ronald Reagan
• Only president for 32 days, shortest tenure for president
• Death started issues about presidential succession that
  weren’t in constitution, 25 amendment later answered
  these questions
• Refused to wear a coat or hat to his inauguration, stood
  in the cold and rain and gave the longest inaugural
  address ever which took over 2 hours, caught a cold
  which turned into pneumonia and he died. Doctors said
  that because he was so stressed and the medicine was
  not advanced, the cold accelerated and he died
               John Tyler
• 10th President
• First president to face impeachment
• Had himself sworn in as president after
  Harrison died, instead of asking for a new
  election
             James Polk
• 11th President
• Couldn’t read or write until he was 18
• “Dark Horse candidate” no body knew him
           Zachary Taylor
• 12th president
• Nicknamed “Old Rough and Ready”
  because of military background
• 2nd president to die in office of stomach
  and digestive problems, conspiracy
  theorists say he was poisoned
• Let his horse run around white house lawn
• Never lost a battle when in the military
           Millard Fillmore
• 13th President
• Second President to finish term of a
  President
           Franklin Pierce
• 14th President
• Friends with Nathaniel Hawthorne who he
  convinced to write a book about him
• Youngest president, age 49, considered to
  be one of the worst presidents
            James Buchanan
•   15th president
•   Nicknamed “Old Buck”
•   Did little to prevent civil war
•   Considered to be a lame duck president
             Abraham Lincoln
•   16th President
•   Assassinated by John Wilkes Boothe
•   Led Country through Civil War
•   Freed slaves, and fought for their rights
•   Great public speaker
               Reconstruction
• RECONSTRUCTION: The time period after
  the civil war
  – Lincoln wanted to make it easy for the southern
    states to rejoin the union
  – 4 step plan
     • Southerners had to promise to end slavery
     • Southerners had to take a loyalty oath before they could
       be forgiven
     • Southern states could set up a new governments after 10
       percent took the loyalty oath
     • Property but not slaves would be returned to former
       Confederates who took the loyalty oath
            Reconstruction
• Physically reconstructing or rebuilding
  towns
• Reconstructing or restructuring the
  constitution
• Reconstructing national unity
• Reconstructing government
     Physically reconstructing or
          rebuilding towns
• Several towns in the south were destroyed
• Farm land was torn up
• The south in many ways never recovered.
• The land healed but the labor (slaves)
  were gone and they were now losing
  money
• It cost money to rebuild
Reconstructing or restructuring the
          constitution
• Lincoln wanted to give freed slaves the right to
  vote
• Johnson freed slaves and followed Lincoln’s
  plan but did not make southern states give
  African-Americans the right to vote
• The states were allowed to decide that for
  themselves
• Plan also required states to ratify the Thirteenth
  amendment, which ended slavery.
 Reconstructing the constitution
• Radical Republicans wanted stronger action to
  punish south
• Wanted to give the right to vote
• Johnson put plan into effect when congress
  wasn’t in session
• South formed new governments and created
  “Black Codes” banning African-Americans from
  voting and jury duty, made it difficult to go to
  school. Johnson was blamed for letting it
  happen
  – Similar to old slave laws
             Reconstruction
• Civil Rights
  – Rights that all citizens should have
  – Civil Rights Act said that African- Americans
    should have the same rights as White
    Americans
  – Johnson refused to sign it and vetoed it
  – Congress was able to pass the Act over his
    veto
            Reconstruction
• 13th1865 Ended slavery in the United
  States.
• 14th1868 Every person born in the United
  States is a citizen. States must follow due
  process of law before taking away any
  citizen's rights or property.
• 15th1870 A citizen's right to vote cannot
  be taken away because of race or the
  color of their skin.
          Reconstruction Acts
• Congress didn’t like Johnson
• Passed Acts
  – All states that did not accept the 14th were under
    military control
  – South divided in to 5 military zones
  – All adult African-American males could vote
  – Confederate officers could not votes
  – Confederate supporters could not vote
  – 1870 all former confederate states had accepted
    terms and the Union was reunited
               Reconstruction
• Congress impeaches Johnson
• Said he gave government more power than they should
  have
• Johnson did not want to punish former Confederate
  officers
• Tried to get them land back
• Very angry at Johnson
• Tried to Impeach him
• Impeach: to accuse a high profile official of a crime
• Saved from being removed by one vote. His reputation
  was ruined.
   Resistance to Reconstruction
• Ku Klux Klan
• The first Klan was founded in 1865 by Tennessee veterans of the
  Confederate Army. Groups spread throughout the South. Its
  purpose was to restore white supremacy in the aftermath of the
  American Civil War. The Klan resisted Reconstruction by assaulting,
  murdering and intimidating freedmen and white Republicans.
• In 1874 and later, however, newly organized and openly active
  paramilitary organizations such as the White League and the Red
  Shirts started a fresh round of violence aimed at suppressing
  Republican voting and running Republicans out of office. These
  contributed to white Democrats regaining political power in the
  southern states.
• Had military structure because most members were former
  Confederate soldiers.
• Led by George Gordon and Nathan Bedford Forest. Forest was first
  Grand Wizard
            Reconstruction
• Segregation: The separation of people by
  race
• Carpetbaggers: A name for a Northerner
  who went to the south after the civil war.
• Scalawag: A name for a white Southerner
  who supported Reconstruction
  government
            Reconstruction
• Carpetbaggers and Scalawags blamed for
  African-Americans holding office
• Large African-American voter turn out
  – Mississippi sent two men to congress
    • Hiram R. Revels
    • Blanche K. Bruce
                 Reconstruction
• Freedman: A person freed from slavery
  – Some slaves had skills they could use to make a
    living
  – Most had no education or jobs
  – Congress tried to help but powerful white Southerners
    tried to limit the freedom of African- Americans
  – Freedman’s Bureau:
     •   Gave food,
     •   clothing
     •   found jobs
     •   Started schools for slaves, mostly elementary schools
     •   gave medicine to freed slaves and poor whites
              Reconstruction
• Former slaves left plantations and went looking
  for family members, because they were
  separated when they were sold.
• Many married legally
• Their children went to school and sometimes
  parents and grandparents too
• Some found jobs in cities
• Many had to take hard dangerous or dirty work
  such as digging wells and making sewers

If they could afford it, they bought their own land
             Reconstruction
• Many were too poor to buy land
• A system called Sharecropping developed.
• Sharecropping: A person farmed the owner’s
  land and paid them rent with part of their crops
• The sharecropper had to buy seed, tools,
  clothing and other stuff from the landowner
• Lived on credit because they didn’t make a profit
  and usually only had enough crop to pay rent
• Basically it was legal slavery
         Reconstruction Ends
• Rutherford B Hayes elected president and pulls
  troops out of south
• South stops social programs
• Create Jim Crowe Laws
  – Laws to keep white and African-American people
    separated
  – Separated in schools, restaurants, hospitals, hotels,
    trains, drinking fountains
• Southern state law makers create Poll Tax
• Poll Tax: a tax is a tax paid before someone can
  vote.
  – African Americans cannot afford to vote
          American Business
• The north has an industrial boom
• The south discovers oil
• Corporations: A large company formed by a
  group of investors
• The Oil Business
• The Steel Business
  – Andrew Carnegie: Wealthy man who made a lot of
    money controlling steel. He had a monopoly
  – Monopoly: The complete control of an industry by one
    company or person
         American Business
• John D. Rockefeller: Business man who
  controlled almost the entire oil industry
• Rockefeller, Carnegie, and other rich
  powerful businessmen were called
  “Robber Barons”
• They had a huge influence over America,
  including politically, architecturally and
  domestically.
         American Business
• Modern business is born
• People work 12 hour days
• People start complaining about benefits
• The wealthy pushed the workers as hard
  as they could.
• Poor working conditions lead to workers
  rights. This is a continuation of the idea of
  civil rights
            American Workers
• Labor Unions: a group of workers that tries to
  help its members
• Poor working conditions:
  –   Factories were unsafe
  –   Bad lighting
  –   Little to no fresh air
  –   Unsafe machines
  –   Air pollution
  –   Long hours with no breaks
  –   Fire Hazards
          American Workers
• Labor Unions encourage people to strike.
• Strike: to refuse to work until certain demands,
  such as higher wages or better working
  conditions, are met
• Entire towns were affected by strikes. Company
  towns relied on big factories.
• Company Town: a community set up and run by
  a company for its workers. Most of the town
  worked for the factories or shops to feed and
  cloth the workers.
• Companies even owned their houses.
               American Workers
• Workers protested violently for rights.
• Attacked “Scabs”
• Big businesses employ lots of people, usually unskilled labor.
  Immigrants came to America and were put work but paid nothing
• Because immigrants were poor and wanted to live around people
  like them, they formed ethnic communities or ghettos filled with
  tenement housing
• Ghetto: a neighborhood where people of the same race, religion or
  country live
• Tenement: an apartment house with poor safety, sanitation, and
  comfort conditions
   – These were built quickly to accommodate all of the new people
   – Immigrants came through Ellis Island in New York.
   – Historians call America the great “Melting Pot” but the cultures did not
     co-exist easily and gangs and organized crime started, violent streets
     were held in the New York and Chicago area.
        American Architecture
• Modern city planning develops with the rich
  living on the outskirts of towns and coming in to
  work in skyscrapers
• Ghettos start to fill the cities
• Migration continues and people move out of the
  poor and racially tense south, come to the cities.
• Along with labor rights, civil rights becomes
  more organized. NAACP begins and fights for
  African American rights on the job, in education
  and in housing issues.
                  World War I
• Vocab
  – Imperialism: Imperialism is considered the control by
    one state of other territories through economic or
    military influence
  – Nationalism: A belief, feeling or social action that
    focuses on a nation (National flags, anthems,
    divisions)
  – Patriotism: is love of and/or devotion to one's country
  – Ethnocentrism is the tendency to believe that your
    ethnic or cultural group is the most important, and that
    all other groups are measured next to yours
              World War I
• Imperialism, Nationalism, Patriotism and
  Ethnocentrism all created tension, and bad
  feelings around the world
• Some countries were trying to tell other
  countries what to do
• Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand was shot and
  this was the final thing that started the war
  because people were already upset
  because of the other stuff.
             World War I
• Cause of war in Europe – many countries
  didn’t trust each other and they each
  thought their own country was better then
  the others = Extreme nationalism.
• Each of these countries started making as
  many weapons as fast as possible.
• Germany built the largest army.
• Great Britain built largest navy.
                World War I
• On April 6, 1917, the U.S. joined its allies--
  Britain, France, and Russia--to fight in World
  War I. Under the command of Major General
  John J. Pershing, more than 2 million U.S.
  soldiers fought on battlefields in France. Many
  Americans were not in favor of the U.S. entering
  the war and wanted to remain neutral. However,
  the U.S. eventually did enter the war.
• http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-
  bin/page.cgi/jb/jazz/wwi_1
                      World War I
• Disagreements in Europe over territory and boundaries, among
  other issues, came to a head with the assassination of the Archduke
  Ferdinand of Austria by a Serbian zealot on June 28, 1914. Exactly
  one month later, war broke out. In 1915, the British passenger liner
  the Lusitania was sunk by a German submarine, killing 128
  Americans and futher heightening tensions. By the end of 1915,
  Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire were
  battling the Allied Powers of Britain, France, Russia, Italy, Belgium,
  Serbia, Montenegro and Japan. In 1917, the U.S. entered the war.
  Germany formally surrendered on November 11, 1918, and all
  nations agreed to stop fighting while the terms of peace were
  negotiated.
• Enter the war after the sinking of the Lusitania
• http://www.firstworldwar.com/posters/usa.htm
                World War I
• Vocab
- Arms race: a contest to build weapons and
  military power as fast as possible.
- Terrorist: a person who uses violence for a
  political cause.
- Stalemate: a situation in which neither side wins
  or loses.
- Propaganda: the spreading of ideas, information
  and beliefs to help or hurt a cause.
- Ambassador: a person sent to another country
  to speak for the government of his or her country
              World War I
- Victory Garden: a garden in which citizens
  raise their own food during the war.
- Bond: a paper that shows dept, or money
  owned.
- Communism: Economic system in which
  the government owns all property and
  business.
- Armistice: an agreement to stop fighting.
              World War I
• Central Powers vs. Allied Nations.
• Germany, Austria-Hungry, Ottoman
  Empire were the major Central Powers.
• Great Britain, France, Russia were leaders
  of the Allies.
• War was to fight on land, air and the seas.
• Airplanes were invented about ten years
  before the war started.
              World War I
• Weapons of the war.
- Machine gun: could fire up to 600 bullets
  per minute.
- Tanks; Submarines; Airplanes.
- Poison gases: some were very deadly and
  effective. Many people that didn’t die off
  quickly, experienced the painful after
  effects. – Mustard, Chlorine, Tearing gas
                World War I
• The fighting in World War I ended when the
  ________ took effect at 11:00 am GMT on
  November 11, 1918. In the aftermath of the war
  the political, cultural, and social order of the
  world was drastically changed in many places,
  even outside the areas directly involved in the
  war. New countries were formed, old ones were
  abolished, international organizations were
  established, and many new and old ideas took a
  firm hold in people's minds.
• Armistice= ____________________________
_______________________________________
                   World War I
• After the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the signing of
  the Treaty of Versailles on June 28, 1919, officially
  ended the war. Included in the 450 articles of the treaty
  were the demands that Germany officially accept
  responsibility for starting the war and pay heavy
  economic reparations. Germany itself was not included
  in the negotiations of the treaty and was forced to sign it
  (the alternative was continuing the war which would have
  probably led to a total occupation of Germany), which
  caused humiliation in the German people as the blame
  was shifted on them.
• http://history.howstuffworks.com/search.php?terms=Worl
  d+War+I&gallery=1&media=video
              World War I
• The war brought about change in America.
  For example, women, many of whom had
  been active supporters of the war to
  preserve democracy (like the dedicated
  Moms in this photo), finally got the right to
  vote with the ratification of the 19th
  Amendment in 1920.
             World War I Aftermath
•   Historians have described the First World War as the nation’s first
    experience of ‘total war’. By this, they mean a war in which society is
    organised in such a way that all available resources are channelled into the
    war effort. As a result, total war has an impact on the lives of everybody in
    society, not simply those directly involved in the fighting. Some of the
    experiences of the First World War that can be said to have made a social,
    cultural and psychological impact are as follows.
•   The emotional trauma suffered by many men who were forced (because of
    conscription) to serve in the Armed Forces.
•   There was widespread bereavement because of the death of family and
    friends.
•   There were changes in diet and habits resulting from food rationing.
•   People lived in a society in which government propaganda and government
    controls were more extensive than in pre-war society.
•   The new experience that many upper and middle class women gained from
    taking up paid employment for the first time.
•   Society’s morals changed
 Roaring Twenties Key Points
• Model T Ford- The first affordable car
  made in 1908, became very popular in the
  1920’s and was discontinued in 1927. It
  was followed by the Model A
          Roaring Twenties
• Movies were very popular, especially the
  comedies of Charlie Chaplin and Buster
  Keaton
• Serious films such as the Battleship
  Potemkin were also popular
• People wanted to have fun and be
  entertained.
         Roaring Twenties
• Benny Goodman, Louis Armstrong and
  others helped popularize Jazz
• Show Tunes and musicals became
  popular
• Radio shows were main source of
  entertainment in the home
• War of the Worlds radio broadcast hoax
  scared people and caused riots and 6
  deaths
           Roaring Twenties
• Harlem Renaissance
  – Poets, writers, painters and scholars emerge
    from Harlem and New York and bring up
    modern urban issues and establish African-
    Americans as a valid artistic and cultural voice
     • Langston Hughes
     • Duke Ellington
  – Precursor to socially conscious hip-hop of the
    80’s and early 90’s
           Roaring Twenties
• In United States history, the term Red Scare
  denotes two distinct periods of strong anti-
  communism: the First Red Scare, from 1917 to
  1920, and the Second Red Scare, from 1947 to
  1957. The Scares were characterized by the fear
  that communism would upset the capitalist social
  order in the United States; the First Red Scare
  was about worker revolution and political
  radicalism. The Second Red Scare was focused
  on (national and foreign) communists infiltrating
  the federal government.
         Roaring Twenties
• Prohibition: 18th Amendment- 1919 Made
  a law against drinking alcohol, called
  Prohibition.
• 21st Amendment- 1933 Ended the
  Prohibition law of the Eighteenth
  Amendment. States can make laws about
  how alcohol is used in each state.
           Roaring Twenties
• Prohibition led to lots of illegal behavior
  – People went to Speakeasies (an
    underground bar or party that had alcohol,
    usually in closed businesses)
  – People made and sold alcohol illegally
  – People smuggled alcohol from other countries
  – Gave power to organized crime
     • Al Capone
     • New York Mafia families
                      1920’s Review
•   First affordable car___________________________ hint: made by Ford
•   Famous silent movie actors ________________ & ____________________
•   This was the name of the famous radio broadcast prank (hoax) that fooled a
    bunch of people, caused riots, and death
    _________________________________________
•   Rock and roll or Hip Hop didn’t exist in the 20’s. The popular music was
    __________ , _________________, __________________
•   The Harlem Renaissance was _________________________________________
•   ____________________________________________________________________
    .
•   6. People wear worried about Communism in the 20’s. They were scared of the
    red flags the USSR had. This was called the _________ ____________.
•   7. In the 20’s alcohol was illegal. What number was the amendment that
    banned alcohol illegal? _________ What was the number of the amendment
    that made it okay to drink again? _________
•   8. Why did people want to ban alcohol? What problems did this cause?
    ___________________________? What did people do to get alcohol when it
    was illegal? __________________________________________
                                         1930’s
•   1931
•   Al Capone Imprisoned for Income Tax Evasion
•   Auguste Piccard Reaches Stratosphere
•   Christ Monument Built on Rio de Janeiro Hilltop
•   Empire State Building Completed
•   U.S. Officially Gets National Anthem
•   1932
•   Air Conditioning Invented
•   Amelia Earhart First Woman to Fly Solo Across the Atlantic
•   Lindbergh's Baby Kidnapped
•   Scientists Split the Atom
•   Zippo Lighters Introduced
•   1933
•   Adolf Hitler Becomes Chancellor of Germany
•   Assassination Attempt on FDR
•   FDR Launches New Deal
     –   The New Deal was the name that United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to his complex
         package of economic programs he initiated between 1933 and 1936 with the goals of what historians
         call the 3 Rs, of giving Relief to the unemployed and badly hurt farmers, Reform of business and
         financial practices, and promoting Recovery of the economy during the Great Depression.
                                         1930’s
•   First Nazi Concentration Camp Established
•   Loch Ness Monster First Spotted
•   Prohibition Ends in the U.S.
•   Wiley Post Flies Around the World in 8 1/2 Days
•   1934
•   Bonnie and Clyde Killed by Police
•   Cheeseburger Created
•   The Dust Bowl
•   Mao Zedong Begins the Long March
•   Parker Brothers Sells the Game "Monopoly"
•   1935
•   Alcoholics Anonymous Founded
•   Germany Issues the Anti-Jewish Nuremberg Laws
     –   The Nuremberg Laws (German: Nürnberger Gesetze) of 1935 were antisemitic laws in Nazi Germany
         which were introduced at the annual Nazi Party rally in Nuremberg. The laws classified people as
         German if all four of their grandparents were of "German or kindred blood", while people were
         classified as Jews if they descended from three or four Jewish grandparents. A person with one or
         two Jewish grandparents was a Mischling, a crossbreed, of "mixed blood".[1] The Nuremberg Laws
         deprived Jews of citizenship and prohibited marriage between Jews and other Germans.
•   John Maynard Keynes Suggests New Economic Theory
•   Social Security Enacted in U.S.
                             World War II
•   World War II Quick Facts
    –   Germany, Italy and Japan were being awful to the people who lived in their countries.
    –   Germany tried to take over most of Europe except Italy.
    –   Adolf Hitler was a popular German military leader and leader of the Nazi political party.
        He was well liked and convinced a lot of people to take his point of view. He was also
        crazy.
    –   Hitler wanted control over Europe. He also had secret plans.
    –   Hitler wanted to create a perfect race of people. He wanted pretty people everywhere.
        He was an average sized, black haired ugly guy.
    –   Hitler had his soldiers attack people who didn’t fit this image. He really hated Jewish
        people, anyone with disabilities and lots of minorities.
    –   Hitler had people he didn’t like brought to concentration camps where they were
        killed.
    –   The war was started when countries were being attacked. The attack on Jewish people
        didn’t start the war. It was when Germany invaded Poland and headed toward France.
    –   Great Britain and France were the main countries who were fighting against Germany
        and Italy.
    –    Benito Mussolini was a Fascist dictator of Italy, Joseph Stalin was the Communist
        leader of the USSR, Neville Chamberlain was the Prime Minister of England, Franklin
        Delano Roosevelt was the President of the United States.

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