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					         Paper Presentation

        ADHOC NETWORKS

             I – SECURE



                  By



Javid Basha J & Joseph Pramod Dhinakar N
             III year CSIT
MADINA ENGINEERING COLLEGE
          KADAPA

 Email id: j_javid_basha@yahoo.com




                                           1
                                     ABSTRACT


In this paper we have identified the challenges faced by most of the people in sending
data secretly and securely through airborne network, which has now become a basic
requirement. We are here going to generate a password which is unbreakable for the
application through which the information is being transferred from ground station to the
one who is controlling the entire activities of aircraft and vice versa. Airborne Internet
has the potential to change the way aircraft receive and send data, or more appropriately,
information. Airborne Internet consortium will provide an interconnected digital data
network aircraft and from the ground. Airborne Internet has the potential to change how
aircraft are monitored and tracked by the air traffic control system, how they exchange
information with and about other aircraft. In this paper we going to discuss how to
generate a living password which need not be remembered by any one for which an iris
code is generated from a given iris image and be utilized by the system to improve the
security of the data and help in maintaining information being passed from ground station
or from other aircraft to reach properly at its destination. Here in this paper we have
discussed the strength of generating password through Iris and other passwords through
other techniques. Also we have identified the unique patterns of the iris and the method
of generating a 512 byte code is explained to improve the systems security. Here the
identification of errors has been drastically reduced and the probability value for
detection is 1/2 (512*8) .On seeing the probability value we could find that it’s very
difficult to hack the password being generated.




                                                                                        2
Introduction to Airborne n/w & Iris Recognition

       The Objective of airborne network is the use of heterogeneous set of physical
links (RF, Optical/Laser and SATCOM) to interconnect terrestrial, space and highly
mobile airborne platforms themselves, which will self form into a network with a
dynamic topology – i.e., a mobile ad hoc network. The iris is a protected internal organ
whose random texture is stable throughout like, it can serve as a kind of living passport or
a living password that one need not remember but can always present. The randomness of
iris patterns has very high dimensionality; recognition decisions are made with
confidence levels high enough to support rapid and reliable exhaustive searches through
national-sized databases. Here using this security measure we can make aircrafts to
receive correct information. Its purpose is real-time, high confidence recognition of a
person’s identity by mathematical of a random patterns that are visible with in the iris of
an eye from some distance.




       Iris texture is stable over decades and even the eyes of the same person or even
for monocular twins are greatly different. So this could provide a way for transmitting
the signals from the base station and the air crafts with more security.


                                                                                          3
What airborne network is?

       As a war-fighting asset, the objective of airborne network is to provide
commanders the capability to ascertain the network’s operational health and status – i.e.,
network situational awareness. Additionally, airborne network communications resources
should be configurable to meet the commanders’ operational objectives. These
operational requirements are typically satisfied in terrestrial, wire-line networks by
network management and policy based network management capabilities. However,
management of mobile ad hoc networks is an emerging research area facing many
challenges. This paper deals with the framework for critical research and technological
need for military communications very secretly for airborne networks. Here we have to
use dynamic wireless protocols with high security to pass the information through
airborne network. Protocols which could be used here are AODV on table driven protols.


Need for Security


       As Network has now become a part of our life. We send a huge amount of data
over the available networks. But we find Hackers all through these areas trying to hack
the informations that are to be sent very secretly or securely. For which in Olden days we
used various encryption algorithms to save our data from hackers. But those algorithms
were also easily be broken by these hackers. So we need to have a secured network which
provides a path for sending the data secretly.


       Strong encryption makes data private, but not necessarily secure. To be secure,
the recipient of the data must be positively identified as being the approved party. This is
usually accomplished online using digital signatures or certificates. So here we are going
to design a pure network with complete security.




                                                                                          4
                                Transmission through wirless Network
        Password                                                                          Password
       (Biometrics)                                                                      (Biometrics)


             Cipher Text                                                         Cipher Text




       Encryption                                                                        Decryption
       of message                                                                        of message




      Original Msg                                                                       Original Msg


                                          (Best Security System)

Note: Here we first encrypt the message using some standard encrypting algorithms and
then we use the generated living password. On the receiver end we have to perform an
exactly inverse function to receive the appropriate message.


Phase I
Iris Recognition
       Compared with biometric techniques such as fingerprints and face recognition,
iris recognition has great advantage in uniqueness in stableness. A classic iris recognition
algorithm includes the following stages,
    Image processing
    Feature extraction
    Pattern matching
    Classifier design
   (Iris Recognition System)


                            Image           Feature            Pattern
                           Processing       Extraction             Matching
          Image                                                               Password




                                                                                                        5
       The patterns of human iris differ from person to person, even between monocular
    twins. Because iris reacts with such a sensitive to light, causing the size and shape to
    change continuously, counterfeiting based on iris patterns is extremely difficult. Iris
    detection needs to follow some of the steps as follows,
                  Iris radius approximation
                  Iris translation
                  Iris information extraction
                  Gabor filtering
                  Generating an iris code
                  Comparing iris code
                  Error approximation


CORE PART OF IRIS RECOGNITION


Iris Detection
       This is the process for detecting center and radius of an iris given the pupil center
and radius. Not at all time pupil and iris are not concentric. So the pupil information does
not help directly to determine the parameters of the iris. Having the starting point of the
pupil, we guess the potential iris centers and radii. They then integrate over the
circumference in order to determine if it is on the border of the iris.




Iris Radius Approximation
       The first step in finding the actual iris radius is to find an approximation of the iris
radius. This approximation can then be fine tuned to find the actual iris parameters. In
order to find this approximation a single edge of the iris must be found. Knowing that
eyes are most likely to be distorted in the top and bottom parts due to eyelashes and
eyelids, the best choice for finding an unobstructed edge is along the horizontal line
through the pupil center.




                                                                                             6
        Having decided on where to attempt to detect the iris edge, the question of how to
do it arises. It seems obvious that some type of edge detection should be used. It happens
that for any edge detection it is good idea to blur the image to subtract any noise prior to
running the algorithm, but too much blurring can dilate the boundaries of an edge, or
make it very difficult to detect. Consequently, a special smoothing filter such as the
median filter should be used on the original image. This type of eliminates sparse noise
while preserving image boundaries. The image may need to have its contrast increased
after the median filter.


        The original image after running through a median filter works by assigning to a
pixel the median value of its neighbors. Then the image is prepped the edge detection can
be done. Since there is such a noticeable rising edge in luminescence at the edge of the
iris, filtering with a haar wavelet should act as a simple edge detector. The area of interest
is not just the single horizontal line through the iris, but the portion of that line to the left
of the pupil. This is so that the rising luminescence from the transition from iris to white
is the only major step.




                                                                                Iris Patterns




                                                                                                7
          The iris should represent the steepest luminance change in the area of interest.
Consequently, this area of the image should correspond to the highest valued component
of the output from the filter. By finding this maximal value the edge of the iris to the right
of the pupil should be found. It should be noted that since the iris may not be concentric
with the pupil the distance from the center to this edge may not correspond to the iris’
radius.


Iris Translation
     Having acquired an approximate radius, a small pad of this value should produce a
circle centered on the pupil which contains the entire iris. Furthermore, with the
perimeter of the pupil known, an annuals may be formed which should have the majority
of its area filled by the iris. This annual can then be unrolled into Cartesian coordinates
through a straight discretized transformation.
    If the iris is perfectly centered on the pupil, the unrolled image should have a
perfectly straight line along its top. However, if the iris is off centered even a little this
line is wavy. The line represents the overall distance the iris is at from the pupil center. It
is this line which will help to determine the iris’ center and radius. Consequently, an edge
detection algorithm must be run on the strip in order to lines’ exact location. Once again
canny edge detection is used. However, before the edge detection can run the image
should undergo some simple pre-processing to increase the contrast of the line. This will
allow for a higher thresholding on the edge detection to eliminate extraneous data.


Iris Information Extraction
    In order to extrapolate the iris’ center and the radius, two chords of the actual iris
through the pupil must be found. This can be easily accomplished with the information
gained in the previous step. Thus easily the information could be retrieved and used for
further proceedings.
Gabor filtering
          To understand the concept of Gabor filtering, we must first start with Gabor
wavelets. Gabor wavelets are formed from two components, a complex sinusoidal carrier
and Gaussian envelope.



                                                                                             8
G(x,y)=f(x,y) * w(x,y)
The complex carrier takes the form:
F(x,y)=ej(2*pi(uv+vy)+p)




(Gabor Wavelets)
Gaussian Envelope: The envelope has a Gaussian profile and is described by the
following equation,
            -pi(a^2(x-x1)^2+b^2(y-y1)^2)
G(x,y)=Ke




(Gaussian Envelope)
To put it all together, we multiply f(x,y) by w(x,y).
Generating an Iris code
        We only want to store a small number of bits for each iris code, so the real and
imaginary parts are each quantized. If a given value in the resultant vector is greater than
zero, a one stored; otherwise zero is stored.




                                                                                          9
Phase II
Password for application
         Now the obtained code is going to be used as password for the application from
which the signals are to be transmitted to the pilot under emergency cases. Thus these
applications could not be accede by unauthorized persons and thus high security in
transmitting the information could be obtained. We can also provide master and slave
codes and this could be used if the master is not available at the time of emergency. For
the security in transmitting channel we have got lot of dynamic on table wireless
protocols with high security. So thus in this paper we mainly concentrate on the password
for the application. Thus this paper would give a high security for applications used in
airborne networks for the transferring information…


Comparing Iris codes


         The Hamming distance between any two equal length binary vectors is simply the
number of bit positions in which they differ divided by the length of the vectors. This
way, two identical vectors have distance 0 while two completely different vectors have
distance 1.
D= (A xor B)/length (A)

Error Approximation


         In theory, two iris codes independently generated from the same iris will be
exactly the same. In reality though, this doesn’t happen vary often for reasons such as
imperfect cameras, lighting or small rotational errors. To account for these slight
inconsistencies, two iris codes are compared and if the distance between them is below a
certain threshold we’ll call them a match. This is based on the idea of the statistical
independence.
Survey
         The largest single current deployment of this algorithm is in the United Arab
Emirates, where every day about 2 billion iris comparisons is performed.



                                                                                      10
Iris Code




       This iris code generated from iris serves as the password for our system. This
password provides a very high security for the system and it seems to be highly
unbreakable…
Other Applications
    Aviation security, and controlling access to restricted areas at airports
    Substituting for passports(automated international border crossing)
    Information security
    Entitlements authorization
    Forensic and Military applications
    Network access


Conclusion
       Thus in this paper we have clearly stated the importance of the password being
generated from iris and their usage in transmitting signals secretly in airborne networks…




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