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toyama-onpresentations-june25

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									                    Kentaro Toyama
Summer School on Computing for Socio-Economic Development
          MSR India / Indian Institute of Science
                      June 25, 2010
                Explain how to give a “good” oral presntation, which is exciting and fun……………….
                Good presentations are Difficult because there are many factors to consider, such as
                 Content, format, font Size,,Posture, ,volume, length ,,audience, storyline, etc.
               If you know how to put the factors together correctly ,,it can lead to a good
                presentation. Otherwise, the presenttion will not be half as good as it can be.
                The Goal: In this talk, the focus is on All of the Above except for the content……
                    PowerPoint is a “Great” tool for giving presentations: 6 million PPTs everyday are given

                The “advantages” of using Powerpoint will be reviewed. Here is a summary:
                      Easy to use
                      Animations
                      Bullets can be used by anyone, even people who don’t understand “parallel structure”
                You may have realized that this slide is a parody. If so, please raise your left hand!
                The attention span equation (McClay, Renie, Sales Training Solutions, Kaplan
                 Publishing, 2006) will also be discussed, for anyone who still hasn’t caught on:




March 23, 1998 – Jim Gray Workshop Series 2 of 98
Just kidding!
                Explain how to give a “good” oral presntation, which is exciting and fun……………….
                Good presentations are Difficult because there are many factors to consider, such as
                 Content, format, font Size,,Posture, ,volume, length ,,audience, storyline, etc.
               If you know how to put the factors together correctly ,,it can lead to a good
                presentation. Otherwise, the presenttion will not be half as good as it can be.
                The Goal: In this talk, the focus is on All of the Above except for the content……
                    PowerPoint is a “Great” tool for giving presentations: 6 million PPTs everyday are given

                The “advantages” of using Powerpoint will be reviewed. Here is a summary:
                      Easy to use
                      Animations
                      Bullets can be used by anyone, even people who don’t understand “parallel structure”
                You may have realized that this slide is a parody. If so, please raise your left hand!
                The attention span equation (McClay, Renie, Sales Training Solutions, Kaplan
                 Publishing, 2006) will also be discussed, for anyone who still hasn’t caught on:




March 23, 1998 – Jim Gray Workshop Series 2 of 98
Boring is the enemy.
     Make It Memorable!
         A Presentation on Presentations




                   Kentaro Toyama
Summer School on Computing for Socio-Economic Development
          MSR India / Indian Institute of Science
                     June 25, 2010
The Goal?

 The audience should…

     understand,

     remember, and

     be impressed

                        with your message.
Outline
Audience

Brevity

Structure

Story

Emotion

Miscellaneous Tips

Preparation
Outline
Audience

Brevity

Structure

Story

Emotion

Miscellaneous Tips

Preparation
One Problem                            I just don’t
                                        get these
                 Slide 22 and so        Japanese
                far, it’s all review    jokes. Or,
  I have no        of stuff we all        maybe
                                       they’re not     I wonder if
  idea what      know! Where’s                        they’ll have
 he’s talking     the new stuff?           even
                                          jokes?      pakoras for
    about!
                                                          lunch.
     Boring is the enemy –
tailor content for the audience.
Another Problem




                         15 min          30 min         45 min


          Reported degree of attention during a talk.

    Source: Niemansverdriet, J. W. http://www.catalysis.nl/links/presentations/presentation.php
             Caveat: original source of the graph could not be traced; might be an urban myth.
Boring is their enemy.
Outline
Audience

Brevity

Structure

Story

Emotion

Miscellaneous Tips

Preparation
Boring, monotonous, too long, and overly-detailed-in-
a-way- that-nobody-could-possibly-grasp-or-remember
is the enemy. Oh, and just because you have 60
minutes to speak doesn’t mean that you have to fill all
60 minutes. Of course, too short while missing content
is no good, either. As Einstein said, “Make things as
simple as possible, but no simpler.” In addition,
Shakespeare also wrote, “Brevity is the soul of wit.”
And, in a quotation attributed to Mark Twain, but more
likely to have been written by Blaise Pascal, there’s
this comment, which is telling: “I would have written
you a shorter letter, but I didn’t have the time.”
Conciseness takes time, effort, and intelligence!
Outline
Audience

Brevity

Structure

Story

Emotion

Miscellaneous Tips

Preparation
Chunking

      “…the span of immediate memory
      impose[s] severe limitations on the
      amount of information that we are able
      to receive, process, and remember.”

      “By organizing the stimulus input
      simultaneously into several
      dimensions and successively into a
      sequence or chunks, we manage to
      break (or at least stretch) this
      informational bottleneck.”



                   Source: Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two:
           Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63, 81-97.
    I                       D
            F
        N           O               R
    T       H               M
                O                   A
I       R
                        C
            A                   I
    C               E
                                    S
        S   R
                            E
•   I   •   A
•   N   •   I
•   F   •   C
•   O   •   A
•   D   •   C
•   R   •   I
•   T   •   E
•   R   •   S
•   H   •   R
•   O   •   E
•   M   •   S
Alphabetical   AA CC D EE F H III M N OO RRR SS T

Aggregate      22 letters, 13 unique letters, 41% vowels, nothing after “U”


               1 instance:          DFHMNT
Occurrence     2 instances:         AA CC EE OO SS
               3 instances:         III RRR


                     None        Vertical       Horizontal Rotational             All
Symmetry
                F, RRR           AA, M, T       CC, D, EE          N, SS       H, III, OO


                                                 Labial   Coronal     Dorsal    Radical
               III
                                    Nasal          M         N
Phonetic             EE     OO      Plosive                 T, D       CC
                                    Fricative      F        SS                     H
                       AA
                                    Liquid                  RRR
A A CC D EE F H I I I M N O O RRR SS T


  A CACHE SORT INFORMED IRIS

   MICRO SO F T RESE ARCH INDIA

   I SACRIFICED RAT HORMONES

              Thanks to the Internet Anagram Server: http://wordsmith.org/anagram/
Boring and unstructured is the enemy.
Outline
Audience

Brevity

Structure

Story

Emotion

Miscellaneous Tips

Preparation
 Typical Movie Plot

Boy meets girl.             Set up

Girl ignores boy.          Conflict                   Outline

Boy’s friends console. False climax         Introduction
                                            Problem Statement
                         Rising action      Related Work
Boy plots to get girl.
                                            Proposed Solution
                                            Results / Proof / Analysis
The plot works!             Climax          Future Work

Happiness ever after.    Denouement


   The typical talk outline actually makes a pretty good story!
Alternate storylines
can work, too!
   Boring is the enemy, and
good stories aren’t boring.
Outline
Audience

Brevity

Structure

Story

Emotion

Miscellaneous Tips

Preparation
Memory and Emotion
From psychology research…
  – Emotions help memory
      • Eysenk (1976)
      • Cahill & McGaugh (1995)
      • Nielson et al. (2002)


  – Humor helps memory
      • Kaplan & Pascoe (1977)
      • Schmidt (1994)


  – Caveat: Cartoons can
    distract from main content, if
    used without care
      • Sagaria & Derks (1985)
Funny can be your friend.
Outline
Audience

Brevity

Structure

Story

Emotion

Miscellaneous Tips

Preparation
Miscellaneous Tips
Make text legible                                 Apply variation to minimize boredom
     –   Use sans-serif fonts (not serif fonts)        –   Use multimedia – photos, video,
     –   Keep background simple                            animation
     –   Contrast text color with background           –   Speak louder or softer, to make a point
     –   Use large font sizes (this is probably        –   Switch between walking and standing
         too small!)                                       Use a “teaser” slide at the beginning
     –   Minimize amount of text on each slide         –   Be interactive – ask the audience
         – use keywords, not long sentences                questions
Don’t present everything                               –   Create a reason for people to pay
                                                           attention until the end
Project confidence and respect
                                                  Look up design suggestions
     –   Stand, don’t sit
     –   Avoid leaning
                                                  Practice, practice, practice
     –   Avoid slouching                               –   Practice with a live audience; get
                                                           feedback
     –   Don’t put hands in pockets
                                                       –   At home, practice out loud
     –   Speak loudly enough
                                                       –   Memorize your slides, so you don’t
Stick to your rhetorical goal                              have to look at them for cues
     –   Everything you say and show should       Break rules, as necessary – these are just
         contribute to the case you want to
                                                     guidelines!
         make
Miscellaneous Tips (Take 2)
Books
•   Atkinson, C. (2006) Beyond Bullet Points
    http://www.beyondbullets.com


General advice for computer-science talks
•   Hill, M. D. (1992) “Oral presentation advice”
    http://www.cs.wisc.edu/~markhill/conference-talk.html
•   Patterson, D. (1983) “How to give a bad talk”
    http://www.cs.wisc.edu/~markhill/conference-talk.html (scroll to bottom)
•   Hanselman, S. (2008) “11 top tips for a successful technical presentation”
    http://www.hanselman.com/blog/11TopTipsForASuccessfulTechnicalPresentation.aspx


On design
•   Tufte, E. (1983) The Visual Display of Quantitative Information.
•   Tufte, E. (2006) Beautiful Evidence.
        Boring is the enemy.
(Some things, the audience can go read in the paper.)
Outline
Audience

Brevity

Structure

Story

Emotion

Miscellaneous Tips

Preparation
TED Presentations
Lawrence Lessig on law and creativity
http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/larry_lessig_says_the_law_is_strangling_creativity.html




Robert Lang on mathematics of origami
http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/robert_lang_folds_way_new_origami.html




Ron Eglash on fractals in Africa
http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/ron_eglash_on_african_fractals.html




Hans Rosling on world poverty
http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/hans_rosling_shows_the_best_stats_you_ve_ever_seen.html
Boring is the enemy.
  Learn from excellent presentations.
Summary
Keep the audience in mind.

Less is more.

Think and re-think structure.

Tell a good story.

Engage emotions.

Omit some content.

Nothing beats good preparation.
                                Research results for mostly researcher audience.
Summary                    Bollywood references for
                                                                Used typical CS
                                                                talk outline.
                           mostly Indian audience.
                                 Microsoft iPod video and Zune
Keep the audience in mind. for Microsoft audience.
                                                          Didn’t discuss
              Math and CS talks      Tried to keep        font-size, etc.
Less is more. for CS audience.       slides simple. Didn’t talk about
                                                           specific CS talks
Think and re-think structure.            Structure of seven points took some time.
                                                       Story co-evolved
Tell a good story.
                           Tried to insert intentional with structure.
                           boredom (first slide) and humor.
Engage emotions.                 Used links for       Each section linked
                                 miscellaneous tips. to next by some logic.
Omit some content.                            Gave talk aloud
                                                                Slides took roughly
                                              at least twice.
Nothing   beats good preparation.                               two hours a
                                                                day for a week.
               Not sure I really needed to do the
                                                  Could have practiced some more!
               animated text, but it was fun
Boring is the enemy!
      Thank you very much.
Back-Up Slides
       What I tried to do in this presentation…
       Illustrated the ideas in the presentation                          Illustrated some other ideas that I didn’t
       with the presentation itself:                                      mention explicitly:
              –    Tailored the content for an audience of                        –   Stuck to a legible, coherent “look and
                   mostly Indian computer-science                                     feel” that I’ve developed over time
                   researchers at Microsoft:                                      –   Asked a lot of questions to make the
                      •   Microsoft references                                        presentation interactive
                      •   Bollywood references
                      •   Computer-science references                             –   Guided the audience to construct main
                      •   References to scientific research                           points using questions (but, illustrated
                      •   Logical, deductive arguments                                with novel examples)
              –    Tried to keep slides and sections short                        –   Applied some PowerPoint animation,
                   and to the point; whole talk in <30 min                            but not too much
              –    Spent a couple of hours each day over                          –   Used different kinds of multimedia: text,
                   a week to settle on structure and                                  cartoons, photographs, video, puzzles
                   content                                                        –   Repeated the key message (with
              –    Told a story:                                                      variations), for emphasis
                      •   Unusual opening directly raises the problem
                                                                                  –   Anticipated “what about technical
                      •   Conceptual links tie each section to the next
                                                                                      presentations?” question
              –    Incorporated some fun and humor
              –    Avoided covering everything; pointed
                                                                          Needs improvement:
                   people to other references for more                            –   Allocated insufficient time for practice:
                                                                                      only practiced out loud 2-3 times

Note: This slide is not particularly exciting, but as a back-up slide, I didn’t spend as much time on it. I also know that anyone who sees it is
necessarily curious. Since this is a case where the audience brings with them their own strong motivation and reason to remember, I don’t have
to work as hard to motivate or entertain.

								
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