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Part Four Using the Demographic Perspective Part Outline • 12 Population and the Environment • 13 Coping with Demographic Change Chapter 12 Population and the Environment Chapter Outline • Economic Development—the Use And Abuse Of Resources • How Is Population Related To Economic Development? • The Bottom Line For The Future: Can Billions More People Be Fed? Chapter Outline • By-products Of Development— Degradation Of The Environment • Sustainable Development—possibility Or Oxymoron? Economic Development and Resources • An increase in well-being typically requires that we use more of the earth’s resources. • The use of every resource leads to waste products. • Our efficiency in reducing waste influences the extent to which we can minimize damage to the environment and sustain a larger population. GNI: Gross National Income • Most widely used measure of economic well-being in the world does not: Take into account the depletion of natural resources. Make any deduction for depreciation of manufactured assets. Measure the value of unpaid domestic labor such. Account for regional or national differences in purchasing power. Big Mac Index: purchasing power parity (PPP) • McDonald’s sells its hamburgers in nearly 120 countries. • If the Big Mac costs $2.71 in the U.S. it should cost the same in real terms anywhere else in the world. • If a Big Mac is 1,400 pesos in Santiago, Chile, that tells you there are 1,400/2.71 = 516.6 Chilean pesos per U.S. dollar, in terms of the “real” cost of living. Top 10 Countries in Terms of GNI PPP ($US) 2001 Per Person GNI PP Ratio to Country ($US) 2001 U.S. United States 34280 1.00 Switzerland 30970 0.90 Norway 29340 0.86 Netherlands 27390 0.80 Ireland 27170 0.79 Top 10 Countries in Terms of GNI PPP ($US) 2001 Per Person GNI PP Ratio to Country ($US) 2001 U.S. Canada 26530 0.77 Austria 26380 0.77 Belgium 26150 0.76 Japan 25550 0.75 Germany 25240 0.74 Bottom 10 Countries in Terms of GNI PPP ($US) 2001 Per Person GNI PP Ratio to Country ($US) 2001 U.S. Ethiopia 800 0.02 Nigeria 790 0.02 Mali 770 0.02 Zambia 750 0.02 Yemen 730 0.02 Bottom 10 Countries in Terms of GNI PPP ($US) 2001 Per Person GNI PP Ratio to Country ($US) 2001 U.S. Burundi 680 0.02 Congo 680 0.02 Congo, DRC 630 0.02 Tanzania 520 0.02 Sierra Leone 460 0.01 Per-Capita Income and Population Growth Enough Food • The United Nations estimates that more than 800 million people in the world have inadequate access to food. • Every minute, 11 children under the age of five will die of diseases related to malnutrition. • Their places will be more than taken by the 264 babies who will be born during that same minute. Land • Water covers about 71% of the earth’s surface. • Only 11% of the world’s land surface is readily suitable for crop production. • 26% is devoted to permanent pasture. • Forests and woodlands cover 32%. • The remaining 31% is too hot or too cold for any of those things, or is used for other purposes (cities and highways). Farmland • In 1860, there were an estimated 572 million hectares of land in the world cleared for agricultural use. • There is a total of 1.5 billion hectares of farmland in the world today—nearly triple that of 1860. • This seems to be the real limit of decent-quality farmland. Living Things • All living organisms require : resources (food, water, and energy) space to live space to “dump waste” Carrying Capacity • The carrying capacity is the number of organisms that can be sustained indefinitely with: Resources space to live space to get rid waste products • If the population exceeds an ecosystem’s carrying capacity we have a situation of overpopulation. Damage to the Land Surface • Types of damage: Soil erosion Soil degradation from excess salts and water Desertification Deforestation Loss of biodiversity Strip mining or energy resources Dumping hazardous waste Millennium Development Goals for World Community 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. 2. Achieve universal primary education. 3. Promote gender equity and empower women. 4. Reduce childhood mortality. Millennium Development Goals for World Community 5. Improve maternal health. 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases. 7. Ensure environmental sustainability. 8. Develop global partnership of development. Impact of Each of the Transitions 1. Mortality transition Declining mortality is associated with healthier people who consume more food. 2. Fertility transition Declining fertility encourages women to delay marriage, improve their education, and become socially more empowered and economically more productive. The Impact of Each of the Transitions 3. Migration transition Migration tends to move people from economically less well-off places to better-off places. 4. Urban transition Can accelerate the process of development, which in general is a good thing for the people involved, but may not be so good in terms of its impact on the environment The Impact of Each of the Transitions 5. Age transition A young age structure leads to a high level of dependency, which strains the economy’s ability to generate savings for the investment needed to create more jobs. 6. Family and household transition Diversity of living arrangements may also lead to less efficient use of Resources.
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