Part Four by dfhdhdhdhjr

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									   Part Four

Using the Demographic
      Perspective
Part Outline
• 12 Population and the Environment
• 13 Coping with Demographic
  Change
Chapter 12

Population and the
  Environment
Chapter Outline
• Economic Development—the Use
  And Abuse Of Resources
• How Is Population Related To
  Economic Development?
• The Bottom Line For The Future:
  Can Billions More People Be Fed?
Chapter Outline
• By-products Of Development—
  Degradation Of The Environment
• Sustainable Development—possibility Or
  Oxymoron?
Economic Development
and Resources
• An increase in well-being typically
  requires that we use more of the earth’s
  resources.
• The use of every resource leads to waste
  products.
• Our efficiency in reducing waste
  influences the extent to which we can
  minimize damage to the environment and
  sustain a larger population.
GNI: Gross National
Income
• Most widely used measure of economic
  well-being in the world does not:
   Take into account the depletion of
    natural resources.
   Make any deduction for depreciation of
    manufactured assets.
   Measure the value of unpaid domestic
    labor such.
   Account for regional or national
    differences in purchasing power.
Big Mac Index: purchasing
power parity (PPP)
• McDonald’s sells its hamburgers in nearly
  120 countries.
• If the Big Mac costs $2.71 in the U.S. it
  should cost the same in real terms
  anywhere else in the world.
• If a Big Mac is 1,400 pesos in Santiago,
  Chile, that tells you there are 1,400/2.71
  = 516.6 Chilean pesos per U.S. dollar, in
  terms of the “real” cost of living.
Top 10 Countries in Terms
of GNI PPP ($US) 2001
                   Per Person GNI PP   Ratio to
     Country
                       ($US) 2001       U.S.
   United States        34280           1.00

   Switzerland          30970           0.90

     Norway             29340           0.86

   Netherlands          27390           0.80

      Ireland           27170           0.79
Top 10 Countries in Terms
of GNI PPP ($US) 2001
              Per Person GNI PP   Ratio to
    Country
                  ($US) 2001       U.S.
    Canada         26530           0.77

    Austria        26380           0.77

   Belgium         26150           0.76

     Japan         25550           0.75

   Germany         25240           0.74
Bottom 10 Countries in Terms
of GNI PPP ($US) 2001
               Per Person GNI PP   Ratio to
    Country
                   ($US) 2001       U.S.
    Ethiopia         800            0.02

    Nigeria          790            0.02

     Mali            770            0.02

    Zambia            750           0.02

    Yemen            730            0.02
Bottom 10 Countries in Terms
of GNI PPP ($US) 2001
                  Per Person GNI PP   Ratio to
     Country
                      ($US) 2001       U.S.
     Burundi            680            0.02

     Congo              680            0.02

   Congo, DRC           630            0.02

    Tanzania             520           0.02

   Sierra Leone         460            0.01
Per-Capita Income and
Population Growth
Enough Food
• The United Nations estimates that more
  than 800 million people in the world have
  inadequate access to food.
• Every minute, 11 children under the age
  of five will die of diseases related to
  malnutrition.
• Their places will be more than taken by
  the 264 babies who will be born during
  that same minute.
Land
• Water covers about 71% of the earth’s
  surface.
• Only 11% of the world’s land surface is
  readily suitable for crop production.
• 26% is devoted to permanent pasture.
• Forests and woodlands cover 32%.
• The remaining 31% is too hot or too cold
  for any of those things, or is used for
  other purposes (cities and highways).
Farmland
• In 1860, there were an estimated
  572 million hectares of land in the
  world cleared for agricultural use.
• There is a total of 1.5 billion
  hectares of farmland in the world
  today—nearly triple that of 1860.
• This seems to be the real limit of
  decent-quality farmland.
Living Things
• All living organisms require :
   resources (food, water, and
    energy)
   space to live

   space to “dump waste”
Carrying Capacity
• The carrying capacity is the number of
  organisms that can be sustained
  indefinitely with:
    Resources
    space to live
    space to get rid waste products
• If the population exceeds an ecosystem’s
  carrying capacity we have a situation of
  overpopulation.
Damage to the Land
Surface
• Types of damage:
    Soil erosion
    Soil degradation from excess salts and
     water
    Desertification
    Deforestation
    Loss of biodiversity
    Strip mining or energy resources
    Dumping hazardous waste
Millennium Development Goals
for World Community
1. Eradicate extreme poverty and
   hunger.
2. Achieve universal primary
   education.
3. Promote gender equity and
   empower women.
4. Reduce childhood mortality.
Millennium Development Goals
for World Community
5. Improve maternal health.
6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other
   diseases.
7. Ensure environmental sustainability.
8. Develop global partnership of
   development.
Impact of Each of the
Transitions
1. Mortality transition
    Declining mortality is associated with
     healthier people who consume more
     food.
2. Fertility transition
    Declining fertility encourages women
     to delay marriage, improve their
     education, and become socially more
     empowered and economically more
     productive.
The Impact of Each of the
Transitions
3. Migration transition
    Migration tends to move people from
     economically less well-off places to
     better-off places.
4. Urban transition
    Can accelerate the process of
     development, which in general is a
     good thing for the people involved,
     but may not be so good in terms of its
     impact on the environment
The Impact of Each of the
Transitions
5. Age transition
    A young age structure leads to a high
     level of dependency, which strains the
     economy’s ability to generate savings
     for the investment needed to create
     more jobs.
6. Family and household transition
    Diversity of living arrangements may
     also lead to less efficient use of
     Resources.

								
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