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Multicultural Education and the Digital Divide

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Multicultural Education and the Digital Divide Powered By Docstoc
					 Multicultural Teaching and
 Learning with the Internet


           by Paul Gorski
University of Maryland, College Park
       gorski@wam.umd.edu
            June 1, 2001
                        Goals

 Develop a deeper understanding of the Digital
  Divide its relation to multicultural education
 Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the
  Internet as an educational medium
 Develop strategies for locating, assessing, and using
  contributive Internet resources
 Locate intersections between the Internet and
  multicultural teaching philosophies
                     Part One:
                  Introduction(s)
 Who are you?
     Name
     Institution
     Primary interest in educational technology
 Who am I?
 Conceptualizing Multicultural Education
     Conceptualizing Multicultural
     Education: Working Definition
Multicultural education is a progressive approach for
 transforming education that holistically critiques and
 addresses its current shortcomings, failings, and
 discriminatory practices. It is grounded in ideals of social
 justice, education equity, and a dedication to facilitating
 educational experiences in which all students reach their full
 potential as learners and as socially aware and active beings,
 locally, nationally, and globally. Multicultural education
 acknowledges that schools are essential to laying the
 foundation for the transformation of society and the
 elimination of oppression and injustice.
      Multicultural Education:
   Three Levels of Transformation
 Transformation of self (What am I
  contributing to the inequities, consciously or
  unconsciously?)
 Transformation of schools and schooling
  (Pedagogy, curriculum, classroom climate,
  counseling practices, testing, etc.)
 Transformation of society
                Part Two:
            The Digital Divide
           What is the Digital Divide?
 Inequities in access to technology (physical
  and pedagogical)
 A divide across race, class, first language,
  disability, sex/gender, region, and other
  factors
 The newest divide between the have’s and
  have-not’s
             Digital Divide:
          Three Primary Strands
1. Access to the technology
     Home access to computers and Internet service
     School and classroom access to computers and
      Internet service
2. Access to progressive pedagogy
3. Access to cultural capital
               Digital Divide:
                  At Issue
3 Strands of the Divide       The Big Whoop

1. Access to technology   The same groups on the
2. Access to pedagogy     losing end of all three
3. Access to cultural     strands have been and
   capital                continue to be
                          disenfranchised by
                          education in every other
                          way.
          Digital Divide Data:
                  Class
While only 39 percent of classrooms in
 schools with high concentrations of
 poverty (based on 71 percent student
 eligibility for free or reduced-price
 lunches) had Internet access in 1999, 74
 percent of classrooms in schools with
 lower concentrations of poverty had
 Internet access by that time.
         Digital Divide Data:
               Region
By January 2000, of the 242 million
 Internet users worldwide, 120
 million are from the United States
 and Canada, while only 2.1 million
 are from Africa, 1.9 million from the
 Middle East, and 8 million from
 South America.
         Digital Divide Data:
              Education

By 2000, only 4 percent of adults with
 only an elementary school education
 used the Internet, compared with
 74.5 percent of those with at least a
 four-year college degree.
         Digital Divide Data:
                 Race
While about 70 percent of teachers in
 schools in which racial minorities
 comprise less than 20 percent of the
 student body report having Internet
 access in their classrooms, only 51
 percent of teachers whose schools
 have 50 percent or more minority
 enrollments have that luxury.
           Digital Divide Data:
               Sex/Gender
Though the disparity in Internet usage
  between men and women had largely
  disappeared by 2000, women are still
  more likely to use it recreationally to
  pursue hobbies and personal interests
  related to travel, health, and cooking,
  while men use it largely for professional or
  economic endeavors like on-line investing.
         Digital Divide Data:
              Disability

By 2000, people with physical
 disabilities were less than half as
 likely to have computer access at
 home as people without physical
 disabilities; 23.9 and 51.7 percent,
 respectively.
         Digital Divide Data:
           First Language

By 2000, 49.6 percent of the
 worldwide Internet users were first-
 language speakers of English despite
 the fact that they make up only 5.3
 percent of the world's total
 population.
                     Digital Divide Data:
                         References
CommerceNet. (2000). Worldwide internet population [online].
    http://www.commerce.net/research/stats/wwwstats.html
Cyber Dialogue. (1999). The American Internet User Survey [online].
    http://www.cyberdialogue.com/free_data/index.html
Global Reach. (2000). Global internet statistics (by language) [online].
    http://www.glreach.com/globstats/index.php3
Kaye, H.S. (2000). Computer and internet use among people with disabilities. San
    Francisco, CA: National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research.
National Center for Educational Statistics (2000a). Internet access in U.S. public schools
    and classrooms, 1994-1999. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of
    Education.
National Center for Educational Statistics (2000b). Teacher use of computers and the
    Internet in schools. Washington, D. C.: United States Department of Education.
National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) (2000). Falling
    through the net: Defining the digital divide. Washington, D.C.: NTIA.
Smerdon, B., Cronen, S., Lanahan, L., Anderson, J., Iannottie, N., and Angeles, J.
    (2001). Teachers’ tools for the 21st century: A report on teachers’ use of technology.
    Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics.
                  Digital Divide:
      Access to Progressive Pedagogy
            Race                          Gender
During 1999, teachers in       Women are still more
schools with low racial        likely to use it
minority populations were      recreationally to pursue
more likely to use             hobbies and personal
computers for inquiry-         interests related to
focused or interactive tasks   travel, health, and
like creating instructional    cooking, while men use
materials, communicating       it largely to further
with colleagues, or            professional endeavors
instructing students.          like on-line investing.
            Digital Divide:
       Access to Cultural Capital
Socio-cultural and socio-historical barriers to
   building technology infrastructure in Native
   American communities:
1. Distrust of new technologies
2. Distrust of federal assistance
3. Federal policy that fails to take the needs of
   Native Americans seriously
           Digital Divide:
      Access to Cultural Capital

The Pew Internet Project found a related
distrust among Black Internet users.
Seventy-two percent of Black people are
very concerned about businesses and other
people obtaining their personal
information, compared with 57 percent of
White Internet users.
               Digital Divide:
                 Solutions?
Group One: Access to computers and the
 Internet at home and school.

Group Two: Access to progressive pedagogy.

Group Three: Access to cultural capital
 (pushing through the socio-cultural divide).
         Digital Divide Solutions:
                Some Ideas
 Rethink the implications of the heavy reliance on
  computer technology in education
 University/Public School partnerships
 Intensive teacher training
 Put money into training and up-keep instead of
  more and more equipment
 Team teachers with technology experts to bridge
  some lack of knowledge in both groups
              Part Three:
   Internet as Educational Medium
               Opportunities
 Global compendium
 Expansion of resource base
 Intercultural interaction
 Facilitation of dialogue and social
  action
              Part Three:
   Internet as Educational Medium
               Challenges
 Learning curve
 Instability
 Fading educational/commercial lines
 Diminishing face-to-face interaction
 Limited “inclusion”
              Part Four:
    Multiculturality of the Internet

  3 Principles of Multicultural Education

1. Inclusive teaching and learning
2. Interactive teaching and learning
3. Collaborative teaching and learning
      Multiculturality of the Internet
      Inclusive teaching and learning
 Levels of “inclusion” (rep. versus critical)
 “Other” voices
     Excerpts from Slave Narratives
     Native American Documents Project
 Student Voices
     Multicultural Graffiti
     Voices of Women
      Multiculturality of the Internet:
      Interactive teaching and learning

 Redefining “interactive”
 First person sources
     Eye Witness: A North Korean Remembers
     Sidney Finkel’s Page
 Interaction with peers
     DiversityWeb Discussion Forums
     Multicultural Pavilion Discussion Forums
      Multiculturality of the Internet:
       Collaborative teaching and learning

 Collaboration among educators
     DiversityWeb Leader’s Guide
     PedagoNet
 Collaborative Projects
     Multicultural Song Index
     Multicultural Passport
               Part Five:
         Digging through the Dirt
                   2 Strategies
1. Engines and indexes that have started digging
    About.com
    Looksmart
2. Organizations you know
    PBS
    National Geographic Society
       Assessment of My Use of
        Educational Web Sites
 Do all of my students have equitable access
  to the technology needed to complete the
  task?
 Does the resource encourage critical
  thinking?
 Will using the Internet contribute to the
  learning process in relation to the given
  topic?
                Part Seven:
                Discussion


 Unanswered questions.
 New questions.
 What I can do.
 Tools and resources.

				
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