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By Lorraine Smith
What ESOL Students Need

 Frequent opportunities for interaction
  and discussion between teacher and
  student and among students
 These interactions should encourage
  elaborated responses about lesson

                 L. Smith
It’s A Fact…..

   Studies have indicated that, in most
    classrooms, teachers dominate the
    linguistic aspect of the lesson, leaving
    students severely limited in terms of
    opportunities to use language in a
    variety of ways

                   L. Smith
Teacher Talk

   Most classes were characterized by
    too much teacher talk…..

                  L. Smith
Not Much Opportunity

   Students chance to produce language
    and develop complex language and
    thinking skills was restricted….

                 L. Smith
The Way It Should Be…

   Instead of teachers talking and
    students listening, classes should be
    structured so that students are
    interacting in their collaborative
    investigation of a body of knowledge
    (Diaz, 1989)

                   L. Smith
       Great teachers….

 Shoot for a balance of teacher to
  student talk and encourage student
  participation in activities that foster
 They encourage elaborated
 They take students beyond the
  simple “yes” or “no” answers
                          L. Smith
How Do They Do It?

 “Tell me more about that.”
 “What do you mean by…?”

 “What else….”

 “How do you know?”

 “Why is that important?”

 “What does that remind you of?”

 “In other words…….is that right?”

                L. Smith
        Student to Student
 Make sure to provide frequent opportunities
  for meaningful exchanges among students
 Students need to have opportunities to
  speak to one another to accomplish
  academic tasks

                         L. Smith
      Meaningful Activities
 Through meaningful interaction, students can
  practice speaking and making themselves
 That implies asking and answering
  questions, negotiating meaning, clarifying
  ideas, giving and justifying an opinions, etc.

                        L. Smith
Fostering Interaction

 The following activities foster
 Literature circles
 Think pair share
 Jigsaw readings
 Science experiments
 Debates
 Many more………………

                  L. Smith
      Various Groupings

 Students may interact in pairs, small
  groups….whatever works…
 All students benefit from instruction that
  frequently includes a variety of grouping
 Partnering encourages success because it
  provides scaffolding
 Flexible groups bring out multiple
  perspectives and encourage collaboration
                       L. Smith
ESOL Students All Together

   Grouping ESOL students all together
    regularly is not a good idea especially when
    a tutor teaches them almost exclusively
   Recommended that 2 different grouping
    structures be used with each lesson
   Better chance to meet student’s preferred
    style of learning (ex. partner, group)

                     L. Smith
Discussion Questions

 Think of a concept you have taught.
  Describe 3 different grouping
  configurations that could be used
 What are some specific ways you can
  encourage ESOL students to
  elaborate on their responses and
  express their thoughts fully?
 How much L1 support should a
  student receive?
               L. Smith

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