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					Biogas in Belgium,
 a SWOT analysis
   Bruno Mattheeuws
AGENDA
• Federal state of Belgium
• Biogas-E vzw
• Biogas in Belgium
• Strengths
• Weaknesses
• Opportunities
• Threats
• Conclusions
AGENDA
• Federal state of Belgium
• Biogas-E vzw
• Biogas in Belgium
• Strengths
• Weaknesses
• Opportunities
• Threats
• Conclusions
Belgium
• Population: 10 396 421 (2003)
• Surface area: 30 528 km²
• Federal capital: Brussels
• Head of state: King Albert II
• Prime Minister: Guy Verhofstadt
• National day: 21st July
• National languages: Dutch, French, German
• Currency: Euro (€)
• National Product: € 283,7 Billion (2004)
• Annual growth rate: 2,7% (2004)
Belgium
• 3-level structure


  – Federal state
  – 3 communities
  – 3 regions
Belgium
• Energy & environment: regional
  matter
  – different vision and policy
  – different measures to stimulate
    renewable energy
• Nuclear power and excises: federal
  matter
AGENDA
• Federal state of Belgium
• Biogas-E vzw
• Biogas in Belgium
• Strengths
• Weaknesses
• Opportunities
• Threats
• Conclusions
Biogas-E vzw
• 2000: co-operation between a company
  and Technical University Kortrijk
• 2000-2002: project ‘Platform for
  implementation of anaerobic digestion in
  Flanders’
• 2004-now: structural support from
  Flemish government
   Biogas-E vzw (non profit organisation)
Biogas-E vzw
• Specialized in all aspects of anaerobic digestion
   – Legal
   – Technical
   – Subsidiary issues
• Intermediary organisation between
   – Government, policy makers
   – Industry, technology
   – (future) owners and operators of an
     anaerobic digestion unit
Biogas-E vzw
• Goals
  – Maximize the use of biogas potential present in Flanders
  – Increase public awareness and counteract not-in-my-
    backyard (NIMBY) syndrome
  – Function as a neutral partner in projects concerning
    anaerobic digestion
  – On demand low cost advice concerning input streams,
    scaling, legal aspects, subsidies, yield,…
Biogas-E vzw
• Tasks
  – Informing
  – Sensibilizing
  – Networking
  – Policy support
  – Advisory partner in projects
• Important
  – Neutral
  – Independent
  – Focus on agriculture
  – Focus on energy crops, organic waste and manure
AGENDA
• Federal state of Belgium
• Biogas-E vzw
• Biogas in Belgium
• Strengths
• Weaknesses
• Opportunities
• Threats
• Conclusions
Biogas in Belgium
• Flanders
  – 17 operational (16,2 MWe)
  – 6 being built (9,6 MWe)
• Walloon
  – 4 operational (1 MWe)
  – 1 being built (2 MWe)
AGENDA
• Federal state of Belgium
• Biogas-E vzw
• Biogas in Belgium
• Strengths
• Weaknesses
• Opportunities
• Threats
• Conclusions
Strengths
• Academic & practical knowledge
  – Universities
  – Companies
  – Good reputation
  – Knowledge is still expanding
  – New research aspects
Strengths
• Basic technology proven and known
  – Easy to implement
  – Basis for further research in pre-
    treatment of biomass and post-
    treatment of biogas and digestate
  – Synergies with other technologies
Strengths
• High efficiency for a wide range of
  non-lignin biomass
  – other bio fuels (specific input)
  – waste products of other industries
  – manure
  – energy crops
AGENDA
• Federal state of Belgium
• Biogas-E vzw
• Biogas in Belgium
• Strengths
• Weaknesses
• Opportunities
• Threats
• Conclusions
Weaknesses
• Energy savings are only benefits
  considered hitherto
 Other policy objectives are left out (Kyoto,
 Nitrate directive 91/676/EEC)
• Large knowledge has not been put in
  practice
 Few farm-scale digesters operational
Weaknesses
• Differences between basis for green
  certificates between regions
  – Flemish region
    • Green certificates for every net MWh produced out of
      renewables
    • CHP certificates for every MWh primary energy saved
      with qualitative CHP
  – Walloon region
    • Green certificates based on CO2-ratio (CO2-emissions
      in renewable chain divided by CO2-emissions in
      classic chain
    • Max. 2 certificates/MWh
Weaknesses
• Differences between basis for green
  certificates between regions
  – Brussels Capital region
     • Green certificates issued for each 217 kg CO2
       reduction compared to a traditional installation
     • No limit on the number on certificates/MWh
  – Certificates can not be exchanged between
    regions

• 4 Ministers of energy: 1 Federal + 3 regional
Weaknesses
• Amount of nutrients  by adding co-
  products
 Increase of nutrient problem already
 present in Flanders
AGENDA
• Federal state of Belgium
• Biogas-E vzw
• Biogas in Belgium
• Strengths
• Weaknesses
• Opportunities
• Threats
• Conclusions
Opportunities
• Manure surplus in Flanders as input
  material
  – Ideal for stability in reactor
  – Free (or even at a gate fee)
  – Drying of digestate with heat
     AD is more and more seen as first
    step in manure processing (50% of
    planned installations use AD)
Opportunities
• Circular on environmental planning
  – Possibility to construct an AD plant up
    to 60.000 tonnes in agricultural area
  – Some conditions have to be fulfilled
  – At least 60% of input material must be
    of agricultural origin
Opportunities
• New CHP-resolution
  – Easier to be qualitative CHP (relative
   primary energy saving (RPE) >0% for
   installations <1MWe and RPE > 10% for
   installations ≥1MWe
   whereas before new resolution small CHPs had
   to have a RPE > 5%)
Opportunities
• Ongoing research in pre- and post-
  treatment
  – Digestion of 100% energy crops
  – Synergies with other biofuel technologies (e.g.
    glycerol, waste products of bio-ethanol
    production,…)
  – Selling electricity to the day ahead market
  – Alternative use of biogas: transport fuel,
    injection in gas grid, fuel cells
AGENDA
• Federal state of Belgium
• Biogas-E vzw
• Biogas in Belgium
• Strengths
• Weaknesses
• Opportunities
• Threats
• Conclusions
Threats
• Public acceptance
  – 33% of planned ongoing initiatives deal with
    protest from neighbours
  – 40% of last year’s initiatives have been
    cancelled or delayed over the last year, mainly
    due to protest
  – In many cases this protest is inappropriate or
    exaggerated
  – One protest stimulates others to do likewise
  – Uncertain how this trend will evolve
Threats
• Investment support mechanism is
  uncertain
  – Resources are insufficient
  – Call system
  – Uncertainty on termination of nuclear
    power facilities
  – Instability of long term policy
Threats
• Uncertainty on cost of input and
  output
  – Maize silage is already more expensive
  – Price for disposal of nutrients depends
    on policy
   Threatening for return on investment
AGENDA
• Federal state of Belgium
• Biogas-E vzw
• Biogas in Belgium
• Strengths
• Weaknesses
• Opportunities
• Threats
• Conclusions
Conclusions
• Excellent knowledge is greatest strength
• Lack of operational (farm-scale) digesters
  and political structure of Belgium are
  biggest weaknesses
• Manure surplus can be seen both as an
  opportunity and as a threat
• The biggest threat as we speak is the lack
  of public acceptance
Thank you
Biogas-E vzw
Graaf Karel de Goedelaan 5
B-8500 Kortrijk
T - +32 56 24 12 63
F - +32 56 24 12 24
www.biogas-e.be
info@biogas-e.be

Filip Velghe                 Bruno Mattheeuws
Technological advisor        Policy and communication advisor
filip.velghe@biogas-e.be     bruno.mattheeuws@biogas-e.be

				
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posted:9/1/2012
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