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					Restructuring the Postwar World
           Chapter 17
           1945- Present




         Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                    the Cold War
The Cold War




 Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
            the Cold War
                Section 1
          Superpowers Face Off
•   United Nations                 iron curtain
•   Containment                Truman Doctrine
•   Marshall Plan                        Cold War
•   NATO                           Warsaw Pact
•   brinkmanship



               Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                          the Cold War
       Allies Become Enemies
• Yalta Conference
1. Feb. 1945 Allied
   leaders meet at Yalta
2. Divide Germany
3. Reparations
4. Soviets declare war
   on Japan
5. Stalin promises free
   elections in E. Eur.
                Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                           the Cold War
     Allies Become Enemies II
• United Nations
1. June 1945- 50
   nations
2. General Assembly
3. Security Council
4. 5 permanent
   members- G.B.,
   China, France, U.S.,
   Soviet Union

                Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                           the Cold War
         Differing Goals

• Why did the United States and
  the Soviet Union split after the
  war?



           Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                      the Cold War
        Soviets Build a Buffer

• Soviets fear invasion from the West
• Stalin ignores Yalta agreement
• Communist governments established in
  Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czech,
  Romania, Poland, Yugoslavia



             Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                        the Cold War
Post WWII Communist Nations




        Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                   the Cold War
       Soviets Build a Buffer II
• July 1945 meeting at
  Potsdam, Ger.
• Stalin refuses to allow
  elections in E. Eur.
• Stalin declares that
  communism and
  capitalism cannot exist
  in same world

                 Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                            the Cold War
 An Iron Curtain Divides East and
              West
1.   Germany split
2.   Soviets control East including E. Berlin
3.   U.S., Fr, G.B. control West
4.   Churchill coins the phrase “iron curtain”




                Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                           the Cold War
Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
           the Cold War
        United States Tries
        To Contain Soviets
• Containment- policy of blocking
  Soviet influence and stopping the
  expansion of communism.




            Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                       the Cold War
           U.S. Contains Soviets II
• Truman Doctrine
• Support for countries
  that reject communism
• 1947 Congress sends
  $400 million in aid to
  Turkey and Greece




                     Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                                the Cold War
      U.S. Contains Soviets III
• Marshall Plan
• Secretary of State
  George Marshall
  proposes that U.S.
  provides aid to
  European nations




                Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                           the Cold War
      U.S. Contains Soviets IV
• Berlin Airlift
• Soviet Union cuts off all supplies to West
  Berlin. Why? What did Stalin hope to
  accomplish?
• How did the United States respond?
• U.S. and British flew food and supplies into
  West Berlin for 11 months
• May 1949 Soviets lift the blockade
               Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                          the Cold War
Berlin Airlift




Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
           the Cold War
     Cold War Divides World
• Cold War- a struggle over political
  differences carried on by means short of
  war
• Examples- spying, propaganda, diplomacy




              Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                         the Cold War
   Superpowers Form
    Rival Alliances
• NATO v. Warsaw Pact




       Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                  the Cold War
        Threat of Nuclear War
• United States and Soviet Union develop
                  H- Bombs




              Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                         the Cold War
Threat of Nuclear War II
     President                                Secretary of State
     Eisenhower                               John F. Dulles




      Brinkmanship



       Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                  the Cold War
        Cold War in the Skies
• August 1957- Soviets
  develop ICBM’s
• Oct. 1957- Soviets
  launch Sputnik




               Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                          the Cold War
      Cold War in the Skies II
• May 1960 Soviets shot
  down U-2 spy plane
  and pilot Francis
  Powers was captured




               Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                          the Cold War
   Section 2 Communists
    Take Power in China
Mao Zedong                         Jiang Jieshi
Commune                            Red Guards
Cultural Revolution

          Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                     the Cold War
Communists vs. Nationalists
• World War II in China
• Mao and Communists control most of
  northern China and use guerrilla warfare
  against Japan
• Jiang and Nationalists dominate
  southwestern China. Receive aid from U.S.


              Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                         the Cold War
Communists vs. Nationalists




       Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                  the Cold War
           Civil War Resumes
•   Civil War lasted from 1946 to 1949
•   Nationalists have more soldiers and money
•   Soldiers desert to Communist Party
•   1949 Nationalists flee to Taiwan




                Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                           the Cold War
           Superpowers React
• U.S. helps Jiang set up
  Nationalist
  government in Taiwan
• Soviets give aid to
  Communist China




                 Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                            the Cold War
 China Expands Under Communists
• 1950 China attacks
  Tibet
• Dalai Lama flees to
  India




                Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                           the Cold War
           Mao’s Brand of
          Marxist Socialism
• 1950 Agrarian Reform Law – seized land
  from the rich and distributed to peasants
• Businesses are nationalized
• 1953- 5 year plan sets industrial goals




               Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                          the Cold War
    “The Great Leap Forward”
• Communes- large collective farms (1958)
• Peasants work land together, live in
  dormitories, profit goes to the state
• 1961 communes ended due to famine




              Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                         the Cold War
           New Policies and
           Mao’s Response
• China’s problems-      • Mao wants to revive
  failure of Great Leap    the revolution
  Forward, disputes with • Red Guards
  Soviet Union
• China moves away
  from strict socialism
• Farmers allowed to
  sell crops, people can
  own homes
               Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                          the Cold War
     Cultural Revolution 1966
• Red Guards lead a                    •
  Cultural Revolution
• The goal was to establish
  a society of peasants and
  workers in which all were
  equal.
• Intellectual and artistic
  activity considered
  dangerous
• 1968 Mao orders the
  revolution stopped

                   Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                              the Cold War
        Section 3
Wars in Korea and Vietnam
38th parallel          Douglas MacArthur
Ho Chi Minh            domino theory
Ngo Dinh Diem          Vietcong
Vietnamization         Khmer Rouge

          Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                     the Cold War
 Setting the Stage
• Korea divided at 38th
  parallel
• North- Japanese
  surrender to Soviets
  and becomes                                           38th parallel
  Communist
• South- Japanese
  surrender to
  Americans and
  becomes Democratic
                 Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                            the Cold War
             War in Korea
• Soviets provide N. Korea with military aid
• June 25, 1950 N. attacks S.
• United Nations sends troops to Korea under
  command of Douglas MacArthur
• Why didn’t the Soviets use their veto
  power?


              Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                         the Cold War
             War in Korea II
• Sept. 1950 North
  Korea controls most of
  the South
• Surprise attack at
  Inchon
• Pincers strategy




                Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                           the Cold War
              War In Korea III
                                                 Bomb the
• United Nations forces                          Chinese!
  pursue retreating North
  Korean soldiers
• Chinese send 300,000
  soldiers into N.Korea
• Jan. 1951 Chinese push
  back UN forces into S.                                     NO!
  Korea and capture Seoul                                   You’re
• Truman fires MacArthur                                    fired!!


                  Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                             the Cold War
 War in Korea
      IV
• 1952- UN regains
  control of S. Korea                                   DMZ
• July 1953- cease fired
  signed
• 4 million deaths




                 Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                            the Cold War
      Aftermath of Korean War
• North Korea                       • South Korea
• Kim Il Sung-                      • Democratic
  collective farms and              • Focus on technology
  military build up
• Kim Jung Il- nuclear
  weapons




                Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                           the Cold War
              Vietnam War I
• Ho Chi Minh starts
  Vietminh
  Independence League
• Japanese leave in 1945
  and Ho expects
  independence from
  France



                Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                           the Cold War
             Vietnam War II
• Vietminh fight French
  forces
• 1954 French suffer
  defeat at Dien Bien
  Phu and surrender to
  Ho




                Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                           the Cold War
          Vietnam War III
• President
  Eisenhower and the
• Domino theory




             Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                        the Cold War
               Vietnam War III
• International conference at
  Geneva
• Vietnam divided at 17th
  parallel
• North- communist under                                  17th
  Ho Chi Minh
• South- dictatorship under
  Ngo Dinh Diem supported
  by U.S. and France


                   Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                              the Cold War
           Vietnam War IV
• Vietcong- communist guerrillas in South
  Vietnam who oppose Diem
• 1963 Diem assassinated




              Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                         the Cold War
             Vietnam War V
• U.S. Troops Enter
  Fight
                                                  Gulf of
• Aug. 1964- Pres.
                                                  Tonkin
  Johnson says U.S.
  ships attacked in Gulf
  of Tonkin
• 1968- 500, 000
  Americans in Vietnam

                Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                           the Cold War
             Vietnam War VI
• U.S. Difficulties                  •
1. Guerrilla warfare in
   the jungle
2. Lack of support for
   S. Vietnamese
   government
3. Vietcong supported
   by Ho, Soviets,
   China

                 Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                            the Cold War
            Vietnam War VII
• U.S. turns to bombing
  forest and farms to
                                             •
  destroy enemy
  hideouts
• U.S. loses peasant
  support




                Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                           the Cold War
 Vietnam War VIII
• Protests rise against
  Vietnam War in U.S.
• Vietnamization-
  Nixon allows gradual
  withdrawal of troops
• S. Vietnamese
  increase their role


                Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                           the Cold War
           Vietnam War VIX
• Nixon orders bombing
  of N. Vietnam,
  Cambodia, and Laos
  to destroy Vietcong
  hideouts
• Last U.S. troops leave
  in 1973
• 1975 N. Vietnam
  captures S. Vietnam
                Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                           the Cold War
Cambodia
• 1975- Khmer Rouge
  set up communist
  govt. under Pol Pot
• 2 million die
• 1978 Vietnam invades
   and overthrows Pot
• Vietnamese leave in
  1989

               Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                          the Cold War
        Vietnam After the War
• “reeducation camps”                                   •
• Nationalization
• Saigon renamed Ho
  Chi Minh City
• 1.5 million people flee
  Vietnam



                 Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                            the Cold War
     Section 4 Cold War
     Divides the World
Third World         nonaligned nations
Fidel Castro        Anastasio Somoza
Daniel Ortega
Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini
          Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                     the Cold War
            Setting the Stage
•    Nations grouped into 1 of 3 “worlds”
1.   Industrialized capitalists- U.S.
2.   Communist- U.S.S.R.
3.   Third World – developing nations,
     “nonaligned” with U.S. or U.S.S.R.



                Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                           the Cold War
        Fighting for                 3rd       World
• Latin America, Africa, Asia
• Poor, politically unstable
• Former European colony
• Ethnic conflicts, lack of technology,
  education
• Which world would they choose?

               Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                          the Cold War
Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
           the Cold War
     Cold War Strategies (p.549)
1.   Foreign Aid
2.   Espionage (CIA, KGB)
3.   Multinational Alliances
4.   Propaganda
5.   Brinkmanship
6.   Surrogate Wars

                Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                           the Cold War
      Association of Nonaligned
               Nations
• Not all 3rd World nations wanted to be involved in the
  Cold War                     •
• 1955 Bandung, Conference of nonaligned nations led by
  India and Indonesia




                  Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                           Bandung
                             the Cold War
Confrontations in Latin America
• Issues- population growth, gap between rich
  and poor, unstable governments
• American businesses support leaders who
  protect their investments
• Communist revolutions supported by
  Soviets
• Consequently, U.S. supports anti-
  Communist dictators
              Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                         the Cold War
Aim: How did the cold war affect Cuba and the U.S.?
I. Background of Cuban History
 1. Cuba was a colony of Spain since colonial times.

 2. Cuba became independent from Spain after the
    Spanish-American War in 1898.




 3. After their independence, Cuba was ruled by
 dictators, who were supported by the U.S.
 because of the U.S. business interests in Cuba.
 4. Many Cubans hated the dictators and the poor
    Conditions that existed in Cuba.
                     Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                                the Cold War
   Aim: How did the cold war affect Cuba and the U.S.?


II. Fidel Castro and events leading up to the                 “Revolution”?
 1.Castro organized a revolution
 against the Cuban dictators.


 2. For almost 10 years, Castro and his revolutionary
    forces lived and fought against the dictator
    Batista from the jungles of Cuba.




                       Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                                  the Cold War
            Fidel Castro and
           Cuban Revolution
• 1950’s Cuba ruled by              • 1959 Fidel Castro
  dictator Fulgencio                  leads revolution
  Batista                           • Suspends elections,
                                      controls press, jails
                                      opponents
                                    • Nationalized industries
                                    • U.S. loses businesses
                                    • Castro turns to Soviets
                                      for aid

                Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                           the Cold War
          Bay of Pigs Invasion
• 1960- CIA trains anti-
  Castro exiles
• April 1961- they
  invade Cuba
• Cuba defends
  themselves




                 Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                            the Cold War
       Cuban Missile Crisis
• July 1962 – Soviet leader Nikita
  Khrushchev builds missiles in Cuba
• Oct. 1962- President Kennedy demands
  their removal and begins naval blockade




              Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                         the Cold War
Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
           the Cold War
       Cuban Missile Crisis II
• Khrushchev agrees to remove
  missiles in exchange for U.S.
  promise not to invade Cuba
• Cuba dependent on Soviet aid




              Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                         the Cold War
 Civil War in Nicaragua
• U.S. supports dictator
  Anastasio Somoza
• 1979 Communist
  Sandinista rebels take
  control
• Daniel Ortega
  receives aid from both
  U.S. and Soviet Union

                Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                           the Cold War
     Civil War in Nicaragua II
• Sandinistas provide
  aid to Communist
  rebels in El Salvador
• U.S. then supports
  Contras
• 1990 Nicaragua holds
  free elections

              Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                         the Cold War
           Ruholla Khomeini
1.   What is an ayatollah?
2.   How did The Republic affect him?
3.   Why did he dislike the Shah?
4.   What did Khomeini ban during his rule of
     Iran?



               Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                          the Cold War
  Confrontations in Middle East
• Religious and Secular Values Clash in Iran
• After WWII Shah Mohammed Pahlavi
  welcomes Western oil companies
• Iranian nationalists unite under Prime
  Minister Muhammed Mossadeq
• 1953 Shah Pahlavi flees
• U.S. helps Shah to return
              Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                         the Cold War
    U.S. Supports Secular Rule
• Shah continues to westernize Iran
• Conservative Muslim leaders led by
  Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini overthrows
  Shah in 1979




             Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                        the Cold War
  Khomeini’s Anti-U.S. Policies
• 1979 U.S. embassy in
  Tehran seized
• Americans taken
  hostage for 444 days
• Khomeini encourages
  Muslim radicals to
  overthrow secular
  governments

               Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                          the Cold War
              Iran and Iraq
• 1980- 1989 Iran and Iraq go to war




              Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                         the Cold War
             Afghanistan II
•    Why did the U.S. arm the mujahideen?
1.   Stop Communism
2.   Protect oil of the Middle East
•    Soviet President Gorbachev gradually
     withdraws troops until 1989



               Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                          the Cold War
                Afghanistan
• 1979 Soviets invade
  Afghanistan to protect
  against Muslim revolt
• U.S. sends weapons to
  mujahideen to fight
  Soviets




                Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                           the Cold War
Section 5 Cold War Thaws




      Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                 the Cold War
              Setting the Stage
• Soviet Union controls
  its’ satellite countries
• Poland, Czech.,
  Hungary, Romania,
  Bulgaria, Albania, E.
  Germany




                  Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                             the Cold War
 Soviet Policy in Eastern Europe
            and China
• 1950s and 60’s
  protests in Eastern
  Europe threatened
  Soviet power
• Tension with
  China


               Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                          the Cold War
             Destalinization
• 1956 – Nikita
  Khrushchev initiates
  destalinization
• Eliminate Stalin’s
  memory
• “peaceful
  competition”

                Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                           the Cold War
              Rumblings of Protest
• October 1956- Hungarian army
  and protesters overthrow
  government
• Imre Nagy promises free elections
  and demands that Soviet soldiers
  leave
• November 1956- Soviets invade
  take control of government and
  execute Nagy




                       Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                                  the Cold War
                           Revolt in
                         Czechoslovakia

• 1964- Leonid Brezhnev replaces
  Khrushchev
• 1968- Alexander Dubcek desire socialism
  with “a human face”
• Prague Spring
• Aug. 20, 1968- Warsaw Pact nations invade
• Brezhnev Doctrine
              Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                         the Cold War
          Soviet-Chinese Split

• 1959- Khrushchev refuses to share nuclear
  secrets and ends aid to China




              Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                         the Cold War
Yellow- China
Red- Soviet Union
Black- non-aligned




        Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                   the Cold War
  Brinkmanship Breaks down
• NUCLEAR WAR!!!!




          Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                     the Cold War
       U.S. Turns to Detente
• President Nixon replaces brinkmanship with
  détente
• 1972- 1st president to visit China
• SALT I treaty signed by Nixon and
  Brezhnev limiting # of ICBM’s



              Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                         the Cold War
          Collapse of Detente
• 1979 President Carter
  and Brezhnev sign
  SALT II
• Congress does not
  ratify agreement due
  to Soviet invasion of
  Afghanistan



                Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                           the Cold War
        Reagan Takes Anti-Communist
•   President Reagan-
                      Stance
  increases defense
  spending
• 1983 – Strategic Defense
  Initiative (SDI)




                     Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                                the Cold War
       Chapter 19


        Section 3
The Collapse of the Soviet
         Union
      Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                 the Cold War
           A Younger Leader
•    Mikhail Gorbachev
•    Glasnost – “openness”
1.   Churches reopen
2.   Political prisoners released
3.   Freedom of speech



                Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                           the Cold War
    Gorbachev Moves Toward
          Democracy
• Politburo- ruling committee of Communist
  party
• Censorship, restrict freedom of speech




             Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                        the Cold War
Reforming Economy and Politics
• Issues                            • Perestroika –
1. Inefficient system of              economic
   central planning                   restructuring
2. No motivation                    • Small businesses
                                      allowed




                Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                           the Cold War
Democratization Opens Political
           System
• Democratization – gradual opening of the
  political system
• Election of a new legislative body




              Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                         the Cold War
           Foreign Policy
• Dec. 1987 – Gorbachev and
  Reagan sign INF treaty.




             Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                        the Cold War
   Soviet Union Faces Turmoil
• Glasnost, Perestroika, and
  Democratization reform leads to Soviet
  Union Break up
• Minority groups demand self-rule




              Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                         the Cold War
   Lithuania Defies Gorbachev
• March 1990 Lithuania declares
  independence
• Jan. 1991 Soviets attack




              Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                         the Cold War
     Yeltsin Denounces Gorbachev
• June 1991                                              • August Coup
  Boris Yeltsin                                          • Aug. 18, 1991-
  elected                                                  hardliners
  president of                                             demand
  Russia                                                   Gorbachev
• “Hardliners”                                             resign
  upset



                  Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                             the Cold War
         End of Soviet Union
• Gorbachev                         •
  resigns on Dec.
  25, 1991
• The Soviet
  Union collapses
• Republics
  declare
  independence

                Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                           the Cold War
Chapter 19 Section 4

Changes in Central Europe




     Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                the Cold War
      Germany
      Reunifies
• Fall of the Berlin Wall
• 1989 East Germany
  completely closes
  borders
• Protestors demand free
  travel and elections




                 Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                            the Cold War
               Mr. Gorbachev,
               tear down this
                    wall!




Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
           the Cold War
          Berlin Wall Opens
• November 9, 1989 Egon Krenz opens Berlin Wall




               Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                          the Cold War
            Reunification
• fear of a united
  Germany
• Helmut Kohl assures
  world leaders of a
  democratic nation
• October 3, 1990


             Standard 10. 9 Analyze the causes of
                        the Cold War

				
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