Vision 2030 Implementation Strategy by ct834PiW

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									                        Viisiion 2030 IImpllementtattiion Sttrrattegy – Drrafftt Diiscussiion Paperr
                        V s on 2030 mp emen a on S a egy – D a D scuss on Pape
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                                                         Table of Content


1        LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ...................................................................................................... 4
2        INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................... 5
3        NAMIBIA’S EXISTING NATIONAL PLANNING FRAMEWORK ..................................... 6
     3.1         AIM OF VISION 2030 .............................................................................................................. 6
     3.2         SCOPE OF VISION 2030 ........................................................................................................... 6
        3.2.1       Overview ........................................................................................................................... 6
        3.2.2       Underlying Concepts and Principles of the Vision ........................................................... 9
        3.2.3       Overall Objectives of Vision 2030 .................................................................................. 10
        3.2.4       Broad Strategies for Vision 2030.................................................................................... 11
     3.3         NAMIBIA’S EXISTING PLANNING FRAMEWORK .................................................................... 11
        3.3.1       External Development Guidelines .................................................................................. 11
        3.3.2       Existing National Planning Methodology ....................................................................... 13
        3.3.3       The Institutional Planning Framework ........................................................................... 14
        3.3.4       Role of the National Planning Commission .................................................................... 14
        3.3.5       Current Focus Areas in terms of National Planning ...................................................... 16
     3.4         SIGNIFICANT MATTERS ARISING FROM THE VISION 2030 DOCUMENT ................................ 17
        3.4.1       Key Challenges facing Vision 2030 Implementation ...................................................... 17
4        GLOBAL SETTING FOR NATIONAL STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT .......................... 19
     4.1      WORLD BANK – COMPREHENSIVE DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK......................................... 19
     4.2      UNITED NATIONS – MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT PROJECT ................................................. 20
        4.2.1   Developing National Strategies to Achieve the MDGs ................................................... 20
     4.3      OTHER COUNTRIES’ IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES ............................................................ 21
        4.3.1   General Overview ........................................................................................................... 21
        4.3.2   Malaysia – Vision 2020 .................................................................................................. 22
        4.3.3   Tanzania – Vision 2025 .................................................................................................. 24
        4.3.4   Key Challenges of Vision Implementation in Low and Middle Income Countries ......... 26
        4.3.5   Key Recommendations .................................................................................................... 26
5        VISION 2030 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY OVERVIEW .......................................... 29
     5.1      GENERAL CONCEPTS ............................................................................................................ 29
        5.1.1   Key Principles for Strategy Implementation ................................................................... 29
     5.2      OBJECTIVES OF IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY ..................................................................... 30
        5.2.1   Purpose of the Vision 2030 Implementation Strategy ..................................................... 30
        5.2.2   Objectives of the Vision 2030 Implementation Strategy ................................................. 30
     5.3      VISION 2030 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY OVERVIEW ....................................................... 31
        5.3.1   Strategy Concept............................................................................................................. 31
        5.3.2   Strategy Components ...................................................................................................... 32
        5.3.3   Fundamentals of the Strategy ......................................................................................... 33
6        VISION 2030 REALIGNMENT ................................................................................................ 35
     6.1      RATIONALE FOR REALIGNMENT ........................................................................................... 35
     6.2      REVISIT FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF VISION 2030 .......................................................... 35
        6.2.1    Evolvement of Vision Objectives and Targets ................................................................ 35
        6.2.2    Harmonisation of International and National Development Frameworks ..................... 36
        6.2.3    Linking Theme-based Sub-Visions to Overall Vision 2030 Objectives ........................... 36
        6.2.4    Augmentation of Theme-based Sub-Visions and Objectives ........................................... 37
     6.3      SECTORAL ALLOCATION OF VISION 2030 SUB-VISIONS AND CORRESPONDING OBJECTIVES
              38
     6.4      PRIORITISATION OF VISION 2030 OBJECTIVES ..................................................................... 39
        6.4.1    Introduction .................................................................................................................... 39
        6.4.2    Guidelines in Establishing Long-term Objective Priorities ............................................ 39


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7        CORRELATING OBJECTIVES WITH RESOURCES ......................................................... 41
     7.1      FORMULATION OF A 10 - YEAR SECTORAL NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK ........... 41
        7.1.1    Linking Vision and Strategy............................................................................................ 41
        7.1.2    Prioritising Objectives within the 10-year National Development Framework ............. 42
        7.1.3    Correlating Sectoral Objectives with Theme-based Objectives...................................... 44
        7.1.4    Assigning Responsibilities .............................................................................................. 45
        7.1.5    Namibia’s Existing Development Planning Guidelines .................................................. 45
     7.2      LINKING LONG-TERM OBJECTIVES WITH PROGRAMME BASED ANNUAL BUDGETS ................ 46
        7.2.1    Overview of the Detailed Planning Process ................................................................... 46
        7.2.2    Long- and Medium Term Planning Guide ...................................................................... 48
8        NEEDS ASSESSMENT AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT .............................................. 50
     8.1         NDP STRATEGY FORMULATION PROCESS............................................................................ 50
        8.1.1      Overview of Sector Programme Planning ...................................................................... 50
        8.1.2      Alignment of Objectives, Strategies and Targets ............................................................ 51
        8.1.3      Develop a Vision-based National Development Strategy ............................................... 52
     8.2         FORMULATION OF MEDIUM TERM EXPENDITURE FRAMEWORK AND ANNUAL BUDGETS .... 53
        8.2.1      General Guidelines ......................................................................................................... 53
     8.3         NEEDS ASSESSMENT ............................................................................................................ 54
        8.3.1      Process Overview ........................................................................................................... 54
        8.3.2      Needs Assessment Components ...................................................................................... 55
     8.4         RESOURCE AUDIT ................................................................................................................ 56
        8.4.1      Scope of a Resource Audit .............................................................................................. 56
        8.4.2      Information Strategy ....................................................................................................... 56
     8.5         ALLOCATION OF CROSS-SECTORAL OBJECTIVES ................................................................. 57
        8.5.1      Planning vs Reporting Perspective ................................................................................. 57
     8.6         ASSESSMENT OF RESOURCE GAP ......................................................................................... 58
        8.6.1      Onset for Strategy Realignment ...................................................................................... 58
     8.7         STRATEGY FORMULATION TO OVERCOME THE RESOURCE GAP ........................................... 58
        8.7.1      Strategic Options ............................................................................................................ 58
        8.7.2      Mobilisation of Additional Resources ............................................................................. 59
     8.8         PROGRAMME AND PROJECT ORIENTATION ........................................................................... 59
        8.8.1      Founding Principle for Vision 2030 Implementation ..................................................... 59
9        KEY RECOMMENDATIONS AND CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS ............................. 61
     9.1         CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS UNDERLYING THE LONG-TERM PLANNING PROCESS .............. 61
        9.1.1      Enhancing Country Ownership ...................................................................................... 61
        9.1.2      High Level Political Commitment................................................................................... 61
        9.1.3      Country-led Partnership ................................................................................................. 62
        9.1.4      Enlisting the Private Sector into National Development ................................................ 62
        9.1.5      NPCS Strategic Development Plan................................................................................. 63
     9.2         ENHANCE AWARENESS, UNDERSTANDING AND BUY-IN OF VISION 2030 ............................. 64
        9.2.1      Current Challenges......................................................................................................... 64
        9.2.2      Key Recommendations .................................................................................................... 65
     9.3         KEY CONCEPTS WITHIN THE INDUSTRIALISATION PROCESS TO GUIDE PRIORITISATION ....... 66
        9.3.1      Background..................................................................................................................... 66
        9.3.2      Structural Transformation .............................................................................................. 67
        9.3.3      Main Lessons from High Performing Economies’ Experience ....................................... 69
        9.3.4      Financing Industrial Growth .......................................................................................... 70
        9.3.5      Policy Needs for Industrial Development ....................................................................... 71
        9.3.6      The Contribution of Industry Clusters to Industrialisation ............................................ 74
        9.3.7      Building Industrial Capabilities ..................................................................................... 75
     9.4         CAPACITY BUILDING AS UNDERLYING PRIORITY FOR LONG-TERM PLANNING ...................... 76
        9.4.1      Impact on National Development ................................................................................... 76
        9.4.2      Science, Technology and Innovation .............................................................................. 78
        9.4.3      Public Management Systems .......................................................................................... 80
        9.4.4      Building Human Capital ................................................................................................. 80
     9.5         ALIGNING STRUCTURE TO STRATEGY .................................................................................. 81
        9.5.1      Integration with existing National Planning Processes .................................................. 81
        9.5.2      Ministerial Strategic Plans ............................................................................................. 83

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        9.5.3   Decentralisation ............................................................................................................. 83
     9.6      ALLOCATING RESPONSIBILITIES AND REWARDS .................................................................. 83
        9.6.1   Focus on Development Results ....................................................................................... 83
        9.6.2   Transparency .................................................................................................................. 84
        9.6.3   Fostering Accountability ................................................................................................ 84
     9.7      MONITORING PROGRESS TOWARDS VISION 2030 ................................................................. 85
        9.7.1   Progress Measurement and Objective Realignment ....................................................... 85
        9.7.2   Assign Vision 2030 Implementation Task Team ............................................................. 85
        9.7.3   Establishment of a Regional Development Agency (RDA) for Namibia ......................... 87
        9.7.4   Overview of Review Process ........................................................................................... 88
        9.7.5   Progress Reporting System ............................................................................................. 88
        9.7.6   Enhancing Planning and Implementation Capabilities .................................................. 89
10       REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................ 91
     10.1        LIST OF EXTERNAL MATERIAL REFERENCES........................................................................ 91
     10.2        LIST OF INTERVIEWED STAKEHOLDERS ................................................................................ 93
11       ANNEXURES.............................................................................................................................. 96
     11.1        ANNEXURE A – SUMMARY OF SUBVISIONS .......................................................................... 96
     11.2        ANNEXURE B - POPULATION, HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT .............................................. 106
     11.3        ANNEXURE C – VISION 2030 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY – ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE .... 110




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1 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS


APR               Annual Progress Report
ASEAN             South East Asian Nations
BoN               Bank of Namibia
CDCC              Constituency Development Co-ordinating Committee
CDF               Comprehensive Development Framework
EPZ               Export Processing Zone
FDI               Foreign Direct Investment
GDP               Gross Domestic Product
GNP               Gross National Product
HPE               High Performance Economies
IACMP             Agency Committee on Macro-Economic Planning
ICT               Information & Communication Technology
LDC               Least Developed Country
LDCC              Local Development Co-ordinating Committee
LED               Local Economic Development
MDG               Millennium Development Goal
MoF               Ministry of Finance
MPIMPR            Machinery for Plan Implementation, Monitoring and Progress
                  Reporting
MSTQ              Metrology, Standards, Testing and Quality
MTEF              Medium Term Expenditure Framework
MTP               Medium Term Plan
NAMEX             Namibia Macro-econometric Model
NDF               National Development Framework
NDP               National Development Plan
NEPAD             New Partnership for African Development
NPC               National Planning Commission
NPCS              National Planning Commission Secretariat
NRDA              Namibia Regional Development Agency
PEAC              Presidential Economic Advisory Council
PEMP              Performance and Effectiveness Management Framework
PES               Policy Evaluation Section
PETS              Public Expenditure Tracking Survey
PSIP              Public Sector Investment Programme
R&D               Research and Development
RDA               Regional Development Agency
RDCC              Regional Development Co-ordinating Committee
S&T               Science and Technology
SAM               Social Accounting Matrix
SME               Small and Medium Enterprise
SMME              Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises
SSA               Sub-Saharan Africa
UN                United Nations
UNIDO             United Nations Industrial Development Organisation
WBI               World Bank Institute




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2 INTRODUCTION


Vision 2030 was established with the aim of establishing a long-term planning
framework for Namibia that would foster a sense of direction, ambition and destiny
amongst the Namibian Nation. Whilst Vision 2030 was founded on anticipated theme-
based development objectives, which integrate economic, social and environmental
dimension and are based on key concerns identified amongst the Namibian Nation,
the country is now challenged with ensuring the effective implementation of these
identified development strategies.

The second President of Namibia, His Excellency Hifepunye Pohamba, has expressed
concern regarding Namibia’s current approach to further economic and socio-
economic development within the country. Namibia is not on track in terms of the
required pace to enhance economic growth and social development. The country
requires a sincere commitment from all role-players within this process, both in terms
of joint collaboration within the planning and evaluation of national development
plans, but also in terms of ensuring that country resources are re-deployed within
Namibia with the aim to warrant increased investment in value-added production as a
primary means to foster wealth creation and poverty reduction.

The purpose of the subsequent Vision 2030 Implementation Strategy is thus to assist
the Namibian Nation in applying a formalised planning and implementation approach
that will guide the Nation’s strive towards a “prosperous and industrialised Namibia”.
The guiding principles and critical success factors that underlie the formal
methodology of the Vision 2030 Implementation Strategy include a flexible approach
in terms of the anticipated national planning process and a continuous focus on
fostering country ownership, joint participation among public and private sector, civil
society and development partners, as well as accountability and transparency
throughout the national planning, implementation and evaluation process.

Whilst the majority of the required planning mechanisms for implementing Vision
2030 are already in place, the relevant processes and procedures have been
streamlined, realigned and linked to the newly established long-term national
planning framework represented by Vision 2030. The challenge remains to utilise and
apply these mechanisms for their intended purpose with commitment, support and
buy-in from the entire Nation.




“Vision without action is merely a dream. Action without vision just
passes the time. Vision with action can change the world.”
                                                           Joel A. Barker



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3 NAMIBIA’S EXISTING NATIONAL PLANNING
  FRAMEWORK
3.1 AIM OF VISION 2030

Vision 2030 was formulated in an attempt to establish a long-term planning system
for Namibia and with the aim to foster a sense of direction, discovery and destiny
among the Namibian Nation. Its focus is on providing a systematic process for
developing and implementing consistent long-term development strategies, based on
active participation of the people at each stage of the process.

The Vision is seen to provide valuable policy synergies, which should link long-term
perspectives to existing medium and short-term planning tools. Whilst the Second
National Development Plan was used as a valuable guideline in establishing detailed
inputs into Vision 2030, the National Development Plans (“NDPs”) are seen as the
primary implementation tool of Vision 2030. This implies that the Vision 2030
initiative needs to be effectively linked and integrated into the NDP process, both
institutionally and procedurally, in order to bring the two into a highly productive
synergy.


3.2 SCOPE OF VISION 2030
3.2.1 Overview

Vision 2030 was formulated around the concept of sustainable development in line
with the people’s national ideal of achieving prosperity, interpersonal harmony, peace
and political stability.

The vision of becoming “a prosperous and industrialised Namibia, developed by
her human resources, enjoying peace, harmony and political stability” is built
around eight overall objectives, which in correlation, should ensure accomplishment
of Vision 2030. These are:

      Inequality and Social Welfare;
      Peace and Political Stability;
      Human Resource Development and Institutional Capacity Building;
      Macro-economic Issues;
      Population, Health and Development;
      Natural Resources and Environment;
      Knowledge, Information and Technology; and
      External Environment.




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Three main themes underpin the compilation of the Vision document. These themes
are:

    Quality of Life (People & Economics)
    Sustaining the Resource Base( Ecosystems)
    Enabling Environment

In turn, these three main themes were structured around 11 sub-themes consisting of
the following:

    Quality of Life (People & Economics)
      Health & Population;
      Wealth;
      Knowledge & Culture;
      Community;
      Equity; and
      Capacity.

    Sustaining the Resource Base (Ecosystems)
      Fresh Water;
      Production Systems;
      Biodiversity; and
      Urban Environment.

    Enabling Environment
      Good Governance.

These 11 sub-themes indicated above were then broken down into 43 sub-visions, and
each sub-vision was used to construct the overall Vision 2030 document. These sub-
visions include:


QUALITY OF LIFE                                               PEOPLE & ECONOMIC
                                                                 SUB-VISIONS

Population & Health                                        Population Size & Growth;
                                                           Migration,     Urbanisation      &
                                                            Population Distribution;
                                                           Population     Age       &     Sex
                                                            Distribution;
                                                           Healthy Living for Longevity; and
                                                           Promoting      Healthy     Human
                                                            Environment.

                                                           Macro-economical Environment;
Wealth, Livelihood & the Economy                           Transport Infrastructure;
                                                           Employment & Unemployment;
                                                            and
                                                           Data & Research.


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Developing a Knowledge-based Society                       Information & Communication
                                                            Technology (ICT);
                                                           Production Technology;
                                                           Education and Training;
                                                           Early Childhood Development; and
                                                           Aspects of the Legislative /
                                                            Regulatory Framework.

Equity: Individuals, Community & the                       Poverty Reduction & Social Safety
State                                                       Nets;
                                                           Gender & Development;
                                                           Youth & Development;
                                                           Senior Citizens;
                                                           People Living with Disabilities;
                                                           Fostering & Orphanage;
                                                           Culture & Tradition;
                                                           Civic Affairs;
                                                           Public Safety;
                                                           Civil Society & its Organisation;
                                                            and
                                                           The Family.



  SUSTAINING THE RESOURCE                                            ECOSYSTEMS
            BASE                                                     SUB-VISIONS


Freshwater & Associated Resources                          Freshwater             &        Associated
                                                            Resources


Production Systems & Natural                               Land & Agricultural Production;
Resources;                                                 Forestry;
                                                           Wildlife & Tourism;
                                                           Fisheries & Marine Resources;
                                                           Non-renewable Resources; and
                                                           Biodiversity.


The Urban Environment                                      The Urban Environment




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ENABLING ENVIRONMENT                                           GOOD GOVERNANCE
                                                                  SUB-VISIONS

Good Governance                                            Sustainable Development
                                                           International Relations
                                                           Development Co-ordination
                                                           Peace & Security
                                                           Regional Integration;
                                                           Globalisation;
                                                           Democratic Governance;
                                                           Decentralisation;
                                                           Responsible Decision-making; and
                                                           Institutional     Capacity    for
                                                            Development.


The theme-based structure of the Vision was primarily motivated through the high-
lighted importance of identifying and carefully analysing the problems of the
Namibian Nation and to ensure that these are addressed by formulating the relevant
sub-vision statements, objectives and targets around these themes.

The Vision 2030 document was formulated by multi-disciplinary research groups,
who undertook a study of Namibia’s past and current experience in development and
the prospects for the future, bearing in mind its natural, material and financial
resources, as well as its cultural, regional and international context.

In essence, the Vision provides the framework to design broad strategies for long-
term National Development, to be implemented through NDP II and subsequent
Medium Term National Development Plans and their respective investment
programmes. Therefore, NDP II constitutes the first of the six consecutive programme
elements of Vision 2030.


3.2.2 Underlying Concepts and Principles of the Vision

The Vision 2030 formulation processes consisted of a national opinion survey, futures
research, regional consultations and national dialogue. The development issues
identified were carefully analysed and, based on research findings and an analysis of
the aspirations expressed by the people, an overall National Vision was formulated.
An appropriate scenario was selected and derived from the broad objectives of the
Vision and was utilised to guide the implementation of strategic ideas, which form the
basis for development planning. As such, the Vision 2030 document highlights
overall objectives and strategies that should guide the achievement of the stated
Vision, as well as 43 identified sub-visions that underlie the three sustainable
development objectives.




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3.2.3 Overall Objectives of Vision 2030

The identified eleven themes are consolidated and expressed in terms of the eight
underlying guiding objectives of Vision 2030, which consist of the following:

   1. Inequality and Social Welfare
      Ensure that Namibia is a fair, gender responsive, caring and committed nation,
      in which all citizens are able to realise their full potential, in a safe and decent
      living environment.

   2. Peace and Political Stability
      Create and consolidate a legitimate, effective and democratic political system
      (under the Constitution), and an equitable, tolerable and free society, that is
      characterised by sustainable and equitable development and effective
      institutions, which guarantee peace and political stability.

   3. Human Resources, Institutional and Capacity Building
      Develop diversified, competent and highly productive human resources and
      institutions, fully utilising human potential and achieving efficient and
      effective delivery of customer-focussed services, which are competitive not
      only nationally, but also regionally and internationally.

   4. Macro-economic Issues
      Transform Namibia into an industrialised country of equal opportunities,
      which is globally competitive, realising its maximum growth potential on a
      sustainable basis, with improved quality of life for all Namibians.

   5. Population, Health and Development
      Ensure a healthy, food-secured and breastfeeding nation, in which all
      preventable, infectious and parasitic diseases are under secure control, and in
      which people enjoy a high standard of living, with access to quality education,
      health and other vital services, in an atmosphere of sustainable population
      growth and development.

   6. Natural Resources and Environment
      Ensure the development of Namibia’s natural capital and its sustainable
      utilisation for the benefit of the country’s social, economic and ecological
      well-being.

   7. Knowledge, Information and Technology
      Accomplish the transformation of Namibia into a knowledge-based, highly
      competitive, industrialised and eco-friendly nation, with sustainable economic
      growth and high quality of life.

   8. External Environment
      Achieve stability, full regional integration and democratised international
      relations, the transformation from an aid – recipient country to that of a
      provider of development assistance.



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3.2.4 Broad Strategies for Vision 2030

In order to realise the eight objectives of Vision 2030, the following strategic
elements were identified for guiding the achievement of the stated long-term
visionary and theme-based objectives:

   1. Maintaining an economy that is sustainable, efficient, flexible and
       competitive;
   2. Operating a dynamic and accessible financial sector;
   3. Achieving full and gainful employment;
   4. Providing excellent, affordable healthcare for all;
   5. Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS into development policies, plans and programmes;
   6. Creating access to abundant, hygienic and healthy food, based on a policy of
       food security;
   7. Providing full and appropriate education at all levels;
   8. Leveraging knowledge and technology for the benefit of the people;
   9. Promoting interpersonal harmony among all people;
   10. Operating a morally upright and tolerant society that is proud of its diversity;
   11. Ensuring an atmosphere of peace, security and hope for a better life for all;
   12. Maintaining stable, productive and diverse ecosystems managed for long-term
       sustainability;
   13. Establishing and sustaining business standards of competence, productivity,
       ethical behaviour and high trust;
   14. Upholding human rights and ensuring justice, equity and equality in the fullest
       sense for all, regardless of gender, age, religion, ethnicity, ability and political
       affiliation;
   15. Maintaining a low-level, responsive bureaucracy;
   16. Implementing a land-and natural resource policy that ensures fair access by all
       to the means of production;
   17. Establishing and operating fiscal policy that distributes wealth fairly, and
       encourages production, employment and development of wealth in a stable
       and sustainable economic climate;
   18. Operating a responsive and democratic government that is truly representative
       of the people and able to adhere to transparent, accountable systems of
       governance, proactively;
   19. Achieving collaboration between public, private and Civil Society
       organisation, in policy formulation, programming and implementation; and
   20. Maintaining sound international policies that ensure effective co-operation,
       favourable trade relations, peace and security.



3.3 NAMIBIA’S EXISTING PLANNING FRAMEWORK
3.3.1 External Development Guidelines

Namibia’s existing planning framework is primarily guided by medium term goals
and objectives documented within the NDPs. In the absence of a longer-term planning
document (prior to the formulation of Vision 2030), sectoral and cross-sectoral
development goals were developed in isolation from any formal long-term
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development agenda and were based on internationally recognised priority areas,
policies and economic principles.

Namibia’s national development planning methodology is guided by a handful of
local and international development frameworks, which are mostly designed and
executed in isolation of each other. Specific objectives and targets may complement,
but also contradict each other, making it difficult to identify a common, all-
encompassing national development plan, which harmonises and aligns international
development guidelines with national and local economic and socio-economic
development requirements.

Vision 2030, the SWAPO Manifesto, the Millennium Development Goals, Regional
and International Trade agreements, National Development Policies (i.e. Poverty
Reduction Policy, Decentralisation Policy, National Population Policy) and
development partners’ financial and technical assistance all need to be aligned and
harmonised towards one strategic and common direction.

The Millennium Declaration for example, which was adopted by all United Nations
(“UN”) member states, sets out the key challenges facing humanity. It outlines a
response to these challenges and establishes concrete measures for assessing
performance through a set of interrelated goals on development, governance, peace,
security and human rights.

The eight Millennium Development Goals (“MDG”) are:

   1.   Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger;
   2.   Achieve universal primary education;
   3.   Promote gender equality and empower women;
   4.   Reduce child mortality;
   5.   Improve maternal health;
   6.   Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases;
   7.   Ensure Environmental sustainability; and
   8.   Develop a global partnership for development.

Each of these goals is associated with a series of time-bound targets and a number of
indicators to assist the systematic monitoring of global and national progress made in
line with the Millennium Declaration. The Namibian Government implements the
Millennium Declaration by aligning the national planning process towards
strengthening policies that foster the implementation of Vision 2030. National targets
and indicators have been developed to ensure that the MDGs are firmly rooted in the
national development milestones of Vision 2030 and the objectives of the National
Development Plans.

The Vision 2030 document should provide a common direction through the
harmonisation of relevant development policies and frameworks, thereby ensuring
that all external development guidelines are accommodated within its objectives and
strategies, and, vice versa, that future policy guidelines and development frameworks
are in line with Vision 2030. As such, Vision 2030 is not a fixed prerogative, but a
dynamic development process, which must evolve over time and be flexible enough


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to accommodate a continuously changing environment, new strategic directives and
realigned milestones.


3.3.2 Existing National Planning Methodology

Currently the NDPs are used as the key planning and implementation tool towards
national development. The NDP planning process is guided by the National Planning
Commission, who correlates and coordinates sectoral development plans from the
various line ministries, as well as cross-sectoral plans, into a single 5 year
development plan that is intended to guide public funding and investment strategies.
The NDP represents a medium-term national development strategy with coherently
outlined national, sectoral and regional development policies, goals, objectives,
strategies and targets.

In line with the Decentralisation and the Regional Planning and Development
Policies, national planning in Namibia is aimed at taking a decentralised dimension.
The aim is to base and found the planning system on fundamental democratic
principles, making it much more people-centred and participatory, supported and
sustained by a decentralised institutional framework. Actual results achieved are
compared with the NDP’s objectives and targets every 21/2 years in order to ensure
timely evaluation and review.

The National Planning Commission (“NPC”), Ministry of Finance (“MoF”) and the
Bank of Namibia (“BoN”) remain overall responsible for policy advice, economic and
development management. The annual budget is prepared within a setting of a
Medium Term Expenditure Framework (“MTEF”) with inter-ministerial participation.
MTEF presents budget ceilings for three years, linking these to ministerial objectives
and performance indicators. The MTEF has considerably improved the transparency
in the budget process, encouraged fiscal discipline and allowed a better understanding
of Government priorities. It also includes a set of indicators developed as part of the
Performance and Effectiveness Management Program (“PEMP”), which contains
outcomes and outputs, which the various ministries are expected to meet with
allocated resources.

Co-ordinating committees have been established at regional, local and settlement
levels with the aim to co-ordinate, plan, implement and monitor development projects.
These committees include the Regional Development Co-ordinating Committees
(“RDCCs”), the Local Development Co-ordinating Committees (“LDCCs”) and
Constituency Development Co-ordinating Committees (“CDCCs”).

Government has continued to use the Annual Budget as its key instrument in
translating the objectives, programmes and projects of NDP II into reality.
Government also continued to use the budget primarily as a means of controlling
expenditure, paying serious attention to efficient resource allocation and management.
However, the budgetary process was often flawed by a lack of a proper macro-
economic framework, showing the relationship between fiscal and economic
projections and linking plan policies and objectives to the budget.



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Government has also undertaken a Public Expenditure Tracking Survey (“PETS”)
with the aim of providing an in-depth analysis of whether public expenditure meets its
objectives by correlating public expenditure with the results from the various public
sectors.

A considerable achievement within the financial planning progress within the public
sector is the implementation of a programme-based budgeting framework with an
activity-based costing component as underlying principle. This process enables a clear
identification of sectoral and cross-sectoral programmes, both developmental and
recurring, as well as the evaluation of the detailed financial implications thereof. This
is a considerable step towards enhanced control over public services and expenditures.


3.3.3 The Institutional Planning Framework

The key elements of Namibia’s Institutional structures for planning at various levels
include the following:




3.3.4 Role of the National Planning Commission

Article 129 of the Constitution of the Republic of Namibia establishes the National
Planning Commission (“NPC”) in the Office of the President, charged with the
responsibility for the planning of national priorities and directing the course of
national development. Provision is also made in the same Article for the enactment of

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legislation to regulate membership, powers and functions of the National Planning
Commission. While the Secretariat of the National Planning Commission (“NPCS”)
was established soon after independence, the Act of Parliament creating the
Commission itself was enacted during September 1994.

The Commission consists of:

          the Director-General, who shall be the chairperson of the Commission;
          the Minister of Agriculture, Water and Rural Development;
          the Minister of Finance;
          the Minister of Trade and Industry;
          the Minister of Works, Transport and Communication;
          the Minister of Regional and Local Government and Housing; and
          eight persons appointed by the President after consultation with the
           Director-General of the National Planning Commission, from amongst
           persons with knowledge and experience of developmental nature in
           economic, social, ecological or other related fields.

In accordance with Article 129 of the Constitution and the National Planning
Commission Act, 1994 (Act 15 of 1994), the National Planning Commission
Secretariat (“NPCS”) is to provide professional and technical services to the National
Planning Commission, in formulating policies, plans, programmes and monitoring
their execution so as to bring about a prosperous and better Namibia for all its
inhabitants. Despite the fact that the NPC Act was only enacted in 1994, the
Secretariat of the National Planning Commission was established and operational
soon after independence.




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The National Planning Commission Secretariat is composed of five functional areas,
namely:

           Directorate of Development Planning;
           Directorate of Development Co-operation;
           Central Bureau of Statistics;
           General Services Division; and
           Information Systems Center.

Following the proposed guidelines of the Vision 2030 Implementation Strategy, the
above-indicated NPCS structure may need to be extended and realigned. This will
depend on the ministerial strategic development plan of the NPC, which should
indicate its service requirements and delivery mechanisms within its allocated
mandate in correspondence to the proposed implementation strategy.


3.3.5 Current Focus Areas in terms of National Planning

3.3.5.1 NDP II Mid-term Review

The Mid-term Review of NDP II was conducted with the aim to assess to what extent
the NDP II policies, objectives, strategies, programmes and projects are still relevant
to the prevailing socio-economic circumstances of the country.

The nine National Development Objectives of the NDP II were established prior to
the formulation of Vision 2030 and included the following:

   1.   To reduce poverty;
   2.   To create employment;
   3.   To promote economic empowerment;
   4.   To stimulate and sustain economic growth;
   5.   To reduce inequalities in income distribution;
   6.   To reduce regional development inequalities;
   7.   To promote gender equality and equity;
   8.   To enhance environmental and ecological sustainability; and
   9.   To combat the further spread of HIV/AIDS.

The progress of National Development objectives is the result of the combination of
identified strategies, which are implemented across Government, private sector, donor
community and other non-governmental organisations. National, sectoral and cross-
sectoral objectives, strategies and targets have been reviewed and recommendations
were made regarding the outcome of the review in terms of constraints, which hamper
the successful achievement of the objectives and targets, as well the reasonability of
the targets.

Whilst the existing national development objectives are presumed to be in line with
the overall long-term objectives of Vision 2030, national development objectives for
the next NDP period need to fully complement those of Vision 2030, based on
specified priorities in terms of the aspired industrialisation process.


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3.3.5.2 2005 Cabinet Retreat

The recent Cabinet Retreat held during November 2005, in consideration of the
formulation of NDP III, focused on economic growth and sustainable development.
The objectives of the retreat were to explore fast track modalities for the eradication
of poverty, provide guidance on priority programmes for NDP III in the context of the
SWAPO Manifesto and deliberate on efforts aimed at increasing public-private
investment so as to accelerate national development. The retreat focused on critical
issues for investment, growth and poverty reduction, with special attention to the role
of Fiscal Policy, expenditure priorities and options for Government, the role of
productive sectors and cross-cutting issues.

Emphasis was placed on budgetary reforms implemented by Government such as the
Medium Term Expenditure Framework (“MTEF”), Medium Term Plan (“MTP”) and
the Performance and Effectiveness Management Programme (“PEMP”) with the aim
to strengthen prudent macroeconomic management and improve effectiveness and
efficiency of expenditures. Government will also continue to monitor borrowing more
critically by employing the Sovereign Debt Management Strategy.

Namibia should also ensure that the necessary internal conditions for mobilizing
domestic savings, both public and private, sustaining adequate levels of productive
investment, increasing human capacity, reducing capital flight, curbing the illicit
transfer of funds and enhancing international cooperation for creating an enabling
domestic environment are addressed.

Among the several elements that contribute to a good investment climate, the most
crucial are probably credible national development strategies and policies that reduce
uncertainty by giving a clear sense of direction to private and public sector agents and
provide a strategy for improving a country’s infrastructure. The promotion of Public
Private Partnerships was mentioned as a valuable tool to achieve this.



3.4 Significant Matters arising from the Vision 2030
    Document
3.4.1 Key Challenges facing Vision 2030 Implementation

Bearing the existing planning framework in mind, the Vision 2030 document bears
comprehensive challenges in terms of its implementation:

   1. As overall guiding strategic document for national development, all
      internationally enforced development frameworks need to be harmonized and
      accommodated within its overall and theme-based objectives and strategies;

   2. Alternatively, Vision 2030 objectives need to be realigned to support shorter-
      termed internationally required development guidelines;




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   3. Breaking down the theme-based visionary elements into detailed sectoral
      development and implementation plans as reflected within the NDPs, which
      act as key implementation tools of the long-term planning framework.

   4. Aligning the development plans with the relevant funding and investment
      programs, the three-year rolling budget, the annual recurring budget and the
      development budget.

   5. Vision 2030 has to evolve over time to ensure a continuous development
      framework that accommodates an ever-changing external environment.

   6. Key priority areas need to be identified throughout the Vision 2030 timeframe
      of 25 years and allocated as such between the various NDPs.

   7. Throughout the 25-year timeframe the actual performance needs to be
      monitored to ensure progress and achievement of identified targets, as well as
      to realign the objectives, strategies and targets if required.
   8. Theme-based and sectoral objectives, strategies and targets need to be
      complementary and collaborative in order to ensure achievement of the
      Vision.

   9. The Vision needs to be owned by the Nation in order to achieve effective
      implementation thereof.

   The following diagram indicates the alignment of Vision 2030 within the current
   National Planning Process:




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4 GLOBAL SETTING FOR NATIONAL STRATEGIC
  DEVELOPMENT
4.1 WORLD BANK – COMPREHENSIVE DEVELOPMENT
    FRAMEWORK

Over the past five years, the World Bank Institute (“WBI”) has been involved in a
program that seeks to assist countries with their overall development through an
integrated approach that combines a vision for the future with country
competitiveness. By assessing country/regional competitiveness together with
developing a vision for the future, the WBI approach provides a framework for
linking the macro-economic and financial aspects of development with structural,
social and human development.

This Comprehensive Development Framework (“CDF”) seeks to provide a more
holistic approach towards devising strategies for sustainable development,
recognising that macro-economic and financial reform cannot be pursued
independently from social, structural and human concerns. This approach encourages
the development of partnerships between government, private sector and civil society
with the aim of fostering ownership over future development. It also requires that
development strategies reflect the aspiration of the nation as a whole and that these
are contingent on the active participation of a well-informed private sector.

The CDF framework is based on a few principles that should foster the development
of both a long-term vision and a medium-term strategy in a well-concerted manner.
The long-term vision should focus on country-determined development goals and
their sequencing and prioritisation. The principles of the CDF focus on aligning long-
term vision to medium and short-term strategies, enhancing country ownership,
fostering partnership among stakeholders and focussing on development results.




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4.2 UNITED NATIONS – MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT
    PROJECT
4.2.1 Developing National Strategies to Achieve the MDGs

Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (“MDG”s) within their preconditioned
timeline requires a shift in development practice from planning for modest
incremental expansion of social services and infrastructure to bold long-term
strategies aimed at achieving the quantitative targets and goals.

The United Nations (“UN”) guide the implementation of the MDGs by means of a
five-step approach:

   1.   Launch an effective and inclusive approach;
   2.   Take inventory – review existing strategies and establish a baseline;
   3.   Conduct a needs assessment;
   4.   Develop a 10 year framework for action;
   5.   Write a three- to five year MDG based national development strategy.

The above approach works backwards from the MDG targets to define policies and
investments needed up until 2015. This differs from the prevailing practice, which is
to formulate investment strategies independent of needs after the macro-economic
framework, official development assistance and overall budgetary ceilings have been
set. MDG implementation should start with an assessment of actual MDG investment
needs, followed by the design of a supportive macroeconomic framework, including a
viable financing strategy that includes more development assistance if necessary.

The six core features of an MDG-based national development strategy include the
following:

   1. Oriented to outcomes. To effectively chart the course to meeting the MDGs,
      development strategies need to be oriented to achieving specific MDG
      outcomes.

   2. Based on bottom-up needs assessments. Strategies should be anchored in
      rigorous estimates of country needs – in human resources, financial resources
      and infrastructure. They should set targets, based on local needs, conditions
      and investment priorities. Needs assessments allow countries to link estimates
      with specific concrete investments that can form the basis of national budgets.
      This needs assessment is very different from other MDG costing approaches
      that attempt to estimate inputs required for the MDGs, using macroeconomic
      growth models and other statistical techniques.

   3. Implemented at scale. An MDG strategy identifies a full set of interventions
      for implementation at a scale required to achieve the MDGs. In most cases this
      means that it aims for most or all of the population to have access to the basic
      goods and services needed to reach the MDGs.



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   4. Broad-based and integrated. Many interventions have an effect on multiple
      MDGs. Countries therefore need integrated, multi-sectoral strategies to meet
      each of the MDGs.

   5. Long-term. An MDG strategy needs to plan for significant long-term
      investments, such as training professionals and building infrastructure. A 10-
      year based strategy allows countries to address important capacity constraints
      that are often taken as a given in shorter-term strategies.

   6. Linked to national budgets. An MDG based national development strategy
      should form the basis of national budgets and expenditure frameworks,
      allowing countries to set budgets through a careful assessment of the level of
      inputs needed to achieve the MDGs.

MDG-based strategies need to be tailored to local conditions, priorities and
investment needs. Regional, cross-border cooperation is frequently needed to reach
the MDGs – building cross-country infrastructure, managing trans-boundary
ecosystem, or strengthening economic and political cooperation.



4.3 OTHER COUNTRIES’ IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES
4.3.1 General Overview

There is no fixed nor easy recipe for global economies to grow from a Least
Developed Country to a fully developed and industrialised nation. Development
interventions and priorities depend on the economic and socio-economic situation
within each country. However, certain key and common economic principles come to
light when evaluating successful economic growth strategies of other countries around
the world.

The government of Botswana for example succeeded in transforming generated
income streams into savings and in getting a reasonable return on these savings. The
key strategy was to insist upon rigorous project appraisal, so that public savings were
only used to finance public investment if the rate of return exceeded a critical
threshold.

Indonesia and Malaysia succeeded in using natural-resource returns for export-
oriented industrialisation. These returns were used in such a way as to drive down the
costs of doing business, for example by provision of effective infrastructure and
investment education.

Mauritius has succeeded in transforming itself from a very poor and badly located
sugar economy into a well-diversified economy with manufactured exports and
tourism sustaining a per capita income of about $10,000.

South Africa, in the post-sanctions period, has achieved considerable success in
switching from an inward-focused industrialisation strategy to one that prioritises
exports. South Africa in one example of an economy with a well-diversified industrial

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structure and competitive exports of manufactures in a number of industries. A
different path was taken by the small and land-locked countries (Lesotho and
Swaziland) and small islands (Mauritius and Seychelles), which promoted export-led
industrialisation.

Ghana’s Vision 2020 balances economic growth with the modernisation of the
agriculture sector, broadening of manufacturing and services sectors, investing in
human resources, closer integration with the international economy and strengthening
economic infrastructure.

In generalised terms, post 1980 reforms within high growth economies, amongst
others, included the following concepts:

          Deregulation
          Privatisation
          Lower tax rates
          Export promotion
          Lower import duties
          Separation of judicial & executive powers
          Public/private partnerships
          Reduction in corruption
          Performance monitoring in the public sector
          Transparency in public finances



4.3.2 Malaysia – Vision 2020

Malaysia is the second fastest growing economy in the South East Asia region with an
average Gross National Product (“GNP”) growth of more than 8% in the last seven
years. Since independence in 1957, Malaysia has moved from an agricultural based
economy to a more diversified and export oriented one. The Malaysian market is
fairly open orientated with tariffs only averaging approximately fifteen percent and
almost non-existent non-tariff barriers and foreign exchange controls. Together with a
stable political environment, increasing per capita income, and the potential for
regional integration throughout the Association of South East Asian Nations
(“ASEAN”), Malaysia is an attractive prospect for Foreign Direct Investment
(“FDI”).

Malaysia represents one of the most successful developing nations that has been able
to effectively incorporate economic policy objectives with foreign funds, knowledge
and networking throughout FDI. FDI in Malaysia is an important catalytic factor,
increasing exports and knowledge, as well as providing an economic vehicle towards
the Malaysian 2020 Vision. FDI is encouraged in most industrial areas especially
when opportunities for the local workforce and skills development are enhanced.
Export enhancing FDI has been denoted as the “engine of growth” in the private
sector.

Malaysia’s National Development Plan provides the framework for the new Vision
2020 plan symbolizing “the way forward” policy towards a “developed” nation in

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2020. This will require the nation to maintain a 7% growth rate for the next 15 years.
Malaysia believes that raising workforce quality and developing expertise in
sophisticated industries are decisive elements in the country’s road map to economic
success and development.

The 5th and 6th Malaysian plans (1986-1997) placed great emphasis upon the
privatisation process of certain government owned industries and utilities. The
“Malaysia Incorporated” concept requires the private and public sectors to see
themselves as sharing the same fate and destiny as partners, shareholders and workers
within the same “Corporation”, which in this case is the nation. The overall objective
of this policy is rationalisation of the government sector and to foster more initiatives
from the private sector. The private sector is the driving force to economic prosperity
and the government will provide the needed support.

Malaysia also formulated the Industrial Master Plan in collaboration with the United
Nations Industrial Development Organisation (“UNIDO”) with the aim to focus
private and government agencies on core competencies and to develop industries with
great export potential over the next 15 years.

Economic development in Malaysia was first built on the basis of Import Substitution,
indicated by a large shift of GNP distribution from agricultural sectors to
manufacturing sectors. Import substitution has increased in mainly three areas,
transport equipment, industrial chemicals and fertilisers and Industrial machinery.
However, exports constituted the main source of growth in the manufacturing sector
from 1970 – 1990. This trend can be explained by economic policy that places great
emphasis on improving industrial competitiveness as a vehicle towards Vision 2020.

In line with micro-economic change, trade restrictions have been aligned with
development strategies which are often based upon the notion of comparative
advantage. Selective protection promotes the development of industrial sub-sectors,
that have the potential to produce high value-added products.

The Malaysian Budget outlines four major strategic goals:

   1.   Sustaining strong growth;
   2.   Reducing inflation;
   3.   Developing skills manpower; and
   4.   Building a progressive and balanced society.

The FDI boom in Malaysia has been supported by Malaysia’s high standard of
industrial infrastructure, political stability and human capital resources. Also,
Malaysia has built and maintained a comparative advantage in its traditional raw-
material and commodity exports, further boosting export enhancement strategies.
Export enhancement has provided the nation with valuable foreign exchange capital
used for further developing higher value added products throughout forward
integrated manufacturing processes. Export oriented FDI has indeed opened up new
opportunities for Malaysia and facilitates economic growth. Low-interest loans,
increased access to foreign exchange, and other incentives have contributed to the
massive influx of FDI’s in Malaysia.


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4.3.3 Tanzania – Vision 2025

Tanzania, classified as a low-income economy, concluded that effective realisation of
the development Vision 2025 and its implementation hinges on two key prerequisites.
These are good governance and competitiveness of the economy. It is obvious that
these forces cannot happen by themselves but have to be deliberately grown and
natured. In this regard, if it so happens (for instance) that none of these prerequisites
are created, there is obvious possibility that by the year 2025 there would be no
positive impact on the quality of life of the people and instead it would increasingly
worsen year after year. If there would be good governance and a weak economy or a
competitive economy and weak governance there would be some possibilities of
realising some positive results although by all means, these achievements cannot be
sustainable and thus would not be effective in improving the quality of life of the
people.

The economy cannot be sustained if there is weak leadership and the positive impact
of good governance would not be realized with a declining economy. Sustainable
realisation of the Development Vision 2025 would therefore hinge on the combination
of good governance and a strong, competitive economy.

It is essential that the leadership has a developmental mindset and be able to interpret
these views in executing their daily duties. It is also essential for the leadership to
have the capacity to build and support existence of an effective administrative system
that would effectively follow-up and manage the implementation process. This also
requires availability of a leadership which continuously learns, listens and which is
tolerant to opposing views and opinions of various groups of the society. It is
therefore Tanzania’s view that, in this regard, appropriate measures to prepare the
leadership to adapt to this new framework have to be put in place and in those areas
where these measures are already effective, be strengthened. In addition to building
capacities, it will also be essential for the implementers to be of the same mind-set
and vision as their leaders.

Tanzania believes that, what is required, is to build a strong and resilient economy
that is capable of responding and capitalizing on the benefits resulting from an
increasingly competitive environment. The leadership and implementers are expected
to identify the appropriate policies and strategies that would enable the nation to attain
such an economic structure.

The implementation of the Development Vision 2025 should fundamentally embody
the following attributes:

   1. Developmental mindset and competitiveness:

        Ensure existence of sound economic management;
        Increasingly promote investment in infrastructure by involving
         government, private sector and various communities of the society;
        Reactivate   the commitment to self-reliance, and re-cultivate
         resourcefulness and savings culture in order to curb and overcome the
         donor dependency syndrome, which has led many Tanzanians into
         unprecedented apathy; and

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         Transform the education system so that it can develop the human capital in
          tandem with the socio-economic changes envisaged in the Vision 2025.
          The curriculum at various levels of education should be overhauled along-
          side the needs of implementing the Vision 2025.

   2. Democratization and popular Participation

         Create an open and democratic society that provides equal opportunity to
          every person. This entails creation of an active and participatory civil
          society in the articulation of its needs and in taking pride to fulfill its
          societal responsibilities;
         Sensitize society to use the democratic election mechanism at its disposal
          to elect good incorruptible and responsible leaders. Leaders with personal
          integrity, committed to the development of society and to the pursuit of the
          interests and welfare of the whole society;
         Improve public service delivery by ensuring that public servants are
          accountable to the people;
         Permit a greater role for local actors to own and drive the process of their
          development. Local people know their problems best and are better placed
          to judge what they need, what is possible to achieve and how it can
          effectively be achieved; and
         Decentralize the political administration and the fiscal structure roles and
          responsibilities on the basis of the principle of subsidiarity to commit
          individuals, households, communities and local government to the pursuit
          of the common Vision goal.

   3. Monitoring, Evaluation and Review

       Ensure that the process of evaluation and monitoring is used to track down
        progress towards the realization of the Development Vision goals. The
        best way to track down such progress is to start with the envisioned end-
        result and work backwards to map out the corresponding milestones;
       Develop specific performance benchmarks and measurable outputs to
        assist in monitoring the process of implementing the Development Vision
        goals;
       Review the Development Vision every five years in order to gauge how
        the nation is faring and what adjustments need to be made as part of a
        regular evaluation and monitoring exercise; and
       Establish an efficient system of information and communication to
        facilitate timely monitoring and evaluation and ensuring a synergy
        between the various actors in society.




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4.3.4 Key Challenges of Vision Implementation in Low and Middle
      Income Countries

Key challenges have been identified in low and middle income countries in terms of
applying and implementing a Comprehensive Development Framework.

   1. Participatory processes at the macro level are still generally once-off events,
      often focusing on organised groups, and with weak follow-up on expressed
      priorities. Involving the poor, marginalized and unorganised groups remains a
      major challenge.

   2. Lack of adequate country capacity poses serious challenges for meaningful
      ownership in many countries. Country capacity is critical for strategy
      formulation, building country ownership, forging stronger partnership and to
      monitor and evaluate progress.

   3. Country ownership calls for broadening the base beyond, and within,
      government and national institutions.

   4. A recurring problem in strengthening country ownership is the lack of
      adequate institutional capacity which is often founded by a lack of analytical
      and administrative skills, low salaries and poor incentives, high degree of
      centralisation in decision-making and poor enforcement of regulations.

   5. Progress in aligning the country assistance strategies of external partners to the
      national strategy is still low.

   6. Harmonisation of operational policies and procedures remains a problem.

   7. Focusing on development results requires steps to increase public awareness
      of plans and progress in their implementation, as well as towards developing
      intermediate indicators.



4.3.5 Key Recommendations

Based on key research findings within various countries, some guiding
recommendations can be made that would increase the overall success of
implementing a Vision at national scale:

1. Link long-term plans to medium-term strategies and disciplined
   implementation frameworks
   The expression of a long-term vision in a document in and of itself is of limited
   value, unless it is closely linked to and accompanied by a medium-term strategy
   and a disciplined implementation framework to translate the broad development
   goals into prioritised public policy actions.




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2. Balance macro-economic, social, structural and institutional factors
   The key in implementing a comprehensive development approach is the balancing
   of the macro-economic with the social, structural and institutional factors essential
   for sustainable development. A clear articulation of sectoral strategies in key
   social areas such as health and education, in economic areas such as transportation
   and infrastructure, banking and finance, but also cross-sectoral strategies such as
   rural development, trade and environment will provide an organisational
   framework, which needs to be costed and embedded within a stable macro-
   economic framework in order to contribute to growth.

3. Strong and committed leadership
   Achieving genuine country ownership calls for strong government leadership,
   broad based participatory approaches, good institutional capacity and a policy
   framework around which to build broad agreement.

4. Partnership between stakeholders
   Country ownership is closely linked with strong partnership among Government,
   representative institutions, civil society, the private sector, donors, international
   agencies and other development factors. Such partnership should bring together,
   within a single framework and under Government leadership:

        Analytical and diagnostic work;
        Alignment of donor actions to the national strategy;
        Promotion of selectivity to avoid duplication and reduce wasteful
         competition;
        Harmonisation of common procedures and practices amongst development
         partners; and
        Support to the government’s lead in managing aid co-ordination.

5. Effective co-ordination of activities
   Country ownership pre-supposes the ability to co-ordinate the activities of
   external partners. A key challenge in building ownership is greater coherence
   within the public sector. In countries where development planning is facilitated by
   a separate line ministry such as the National Planning Commission, while the
   Ministry of Finance remains responsible for macro-economic policy and is the key
   concurring partner with development agencies, closer collaboration between the
   two ministries is clearly required.

6. Effective participation
   Participation provides information which is essential for policy making, resource
   allocation and facilitating accountability and transparency. Building institutions
   that allow for effective participatory exercises should therefore be seen as a
   necessary part of implementing national development goals.

7. Set priorities
   Aligning priority setting for public policy action with a country’s capacity is an
   issue. Support in developing systems for public expenditure, procurement and
   financial management are required to help strengthen country implementation
   capacity.


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8. Monitor results
   It is important to focus on development results, to provide a link between a
   country’s national vision and the concrete progress being made towards that
   vision’s aim. Tracking progress requires elements to be put in place to allow an
   assessment of such an impact, in due course, and to provide transparent public
   information on progress. These elements include the systems which government
   needs in order to collect and analyse key information, the extend to which such
   information is being made transparent, and arrangements in-country for
   monitoring specific development progress. As such, results-focused strategic
   planning and implementation processes require a significant build up of statistical
   capacity in many of its dimensions (methods, collection, processing, analysis,
   independence and transparency). Equally important is the close integration of
   quantitative data with policy analysis, formulation and implementation through
   the monitoring and evaluation stages.




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5 VISION 2030 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
  OVERVIEW
5.1 GENERAL CONCEPTS
5.1.1 Key Principles for Strategy Implementation

In line with the principles of a comprehensive strategic planning process, the
implementation strategy needs to be aligned into identified objectives as well as its
long-, medium-, and short-term strategy components. Firstly, an implementation
strategy needs to be formulated, which should then lay the foundation for the practical
design of detailed action plans with clearly identified timelines, targets, allocated
responsibilities and performance measures.

In essence, effective implementation requires up-front planning, implementation
infrastructure and resources, strong project management and a robust progress
reporting system. In terms of the previous section, as well as acknowledged best
practices in strategy implementation, the following components have been identified
as underlying principles in achieving effective strategy implementation:




Throughout the Vision 2030 Implementation Strategy formulation process, these
fundamental principles have been applied to the various long-, medium, and short
term proposed strategic interventions with the aim of ensuring completeness and
effectiveness of the proposed implementation processes.




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5.2 OBJECTIVES OF IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
5.2.1 Purpose of the Vision 2030 Implementation Strategy

The key purpose of the Vision 2030 Implementation Strategy is to establish a clearly
defined methodology as to how the theme-based objectives, strategies and targets, as
documented in Vision 2030, are allocated and assigned to relevant authorities,
institutions and stakeholders through established national planning tools, with the aim
to foster ownership and ensure an active drive towards achieving the stated goals.

Considering that the NDPs are destined to remain Namibia’s primary policy and
national planning implementation tool, the Vision 2030 Implementation Strategy
needs to design practical approaches towards guiding the formulation of the NDPs
with a focus on integrated and outcome-orientated implementation approaches, the
harmonisation and alignment of Vision 2030 thematic areas with sectors, the
monitoring and evaluation of long-, medium-, and short-term targets, as well as the
critical human capacities, infrastructure and financial resources which are required for
the realisation of the identified objectives and the Vision itself.


5.2.2 Objectives of the Vision 2030 Implementation Strategy

Within the mindset of considering the key components of an effective national
development framework as indicated under section 2 of this document, the Vision
2030 Implementation Strategy needs to ensure that it offers a practical approach
towards achieving Vision 2030. Key objectives for the strategy have thus been
identified to include:

   1. To provide an understandable and practical guideline on the integration and
      linkages of Vision 2030 to the existing sector-based national planning
      methodology;

   2. To integrate a long-term planning approach into the national development
      planning framework;

   3. To acknowledge other external development requirements and guidelines and
      the impact thereof on Vision 2030 and national development;

   4. To consider key success factors and elements of national strategy
      implementation as identified and experienced by other countries; and

   5. To promote flexibility, ownership, participation, accountability                       and
      transparency throughout the entire implementation process.




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5.3 VISION 2030 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY OVERVIEW
5.3.1 Strategy Concept

The underlying principle of effective strategic planning is the segregation of a long-
term ambition or Vision into medium and short-term definable and measurable
targets, which can be monitored to ensure contribution towards long-term objective
and vision realisation.

Within the context of Vision 2030 the identified theme-based objectives and sub-
visions relate to a period of 30 years. The key challenge within this planning
framework is to ensure that sector based 5-yearly National Development Plans are
formulated in line with and complementary to the thematic objectives and sub-visions
set within Vision 2030.

Most critical within this process is the continuous monitoring of achievements and
progress towards these long-term objectives and flexibility of the planning process to
realign identified medium-term strategies in the case where actual performance is not
in line with anticipated outcomes. Effective and timely monitoring and evaluation of
implemented programmes and projects on an annual basis will be required to
effectively manage the timeline of Vision 2030 objectives and ensure speedy
redirection of short-, and medium-term strategies in order to overcome identified
constraints, which hamper long-term objective achievement.

Mapping the anticipated Gross Domestic Product (“GDP”) growth rates as indicated
within Vision 2030, and comparing these to the extrapolated current growth rate of
approximately 3.5% over the next 25 years, provides a clear indication of the required
economic growth that needs to be attained over and above the current economic
growth performance of the country. It also indicates the enhanced growth
requirements within each consecutive NDP period, emphasising that each NDP
creates the prerequisite foundation for required performance of the next 5-year
planning period. As such, any mal-performance within NDP III, and consecutive
NDPs, will result in non-achievement of Vision 2030 unless economic performance
can be redirected to catch-up within the consecutive NDPs.
                                            Vision 2030 Anticipated GDP Growth
                                             Vision 2030 Anticipated GDP Growth
                  180,000
                   180,000
                  160,000
                   160,000
                  140,000
                                                                     Projected Vision 2030
                   140,000                                           GDP Growth
                  120,000
    N$ Millions




                   120,000
   N$ Millions




                  100,000
                   100,000
                   80,000
                    80,000
                   60,000
                    60,000                                                             Extrapolated Current
                   40,000
                    40,000                                                             GDP Growth
                   20,000
                    20,000
                      -
                        -
                              2001-2005  2006-2010  2011-2015  2016-2020  2021-2025  2026-2030
                               2001-2005  2006-2010  2011-2015  2016-2020  2021-2025  2026-2030



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It thus needs to be emphasised that each NDP has its rightful and equally important
place within the overall Vision 2030 planning framework, and that any strategic
realignment needs to be detected and implemented on a continuous basis throughout
the project and programme planning cycle, which serves as foundation for the Vision
2030 implementation, in order to ensure fast-track progress towards the stated Vision
2030 objectives.


5.3.2 Strategy Components

The overall Vision 2030 Implementation Strategy is bridged into three main
components:

   1. Vision 2030 Realignment;
   2. Correlating Objectives with Resources; and
   3. Needs Assessment & Resource Management.

The above-mentioned three components are primarily focused around activities that
need to be implemented on a long-, medium,- and short term basis respectively, and
are aligned to interlink with existing national planning and implementation
methodologies, tools and programmes.




A new concept introduced within the proposed framework for national development is
the formulation of a 10-year long-term development planning framework, which
translates a 30 year vision for the country into 10-year milestones. These are then

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linked to the 5-year NDPs and public sector investment programmes, which are then
divided into the three-year Medium Term Expenditure Framework and the annual
budget cycle.

The rationale for introducing an additional national planning concept in form of the
10-year National Development Framework is based on the following:

    Supporting the effective break-down of 30 year targets into 10 year sectoral
     objectives;
    Enhancing the value of priority setting towards the anticipated
     industrialisation on a sectoral level;
    Ensuring that progress and the effective planning of NDPs are in line with
     identified national development priorities; and
    Enabling a more flexible approach towards realignment of long- and medium-
     term development strategies in relation to global and national economic
     developments.



5.3.3 Fundamentals of the Strategy

The overall Vision 2030 Implementation Strategy has several fundamental
components which are discussed in the sections to follow. Some of these components
include:

1. Re-alignment of Vision 2030

    Linking the main themes and sub-visions with sectors
     Vision 2030 is constructed and around 3 main themes with 11 resulting sub-
     themes and 43 sub-visions (see section 3.2.1). These theme-based objectives
     need to be aligned to the current sectoral structure of the Namibian economy.
     As Government has also already aligned itself into this sectoral structure, it is
     envisaged that this would be the most suitable solution for ensuring the
     successful implementation of Vision 2030. (Please refer to section 6.2.3)

    Augmentation of theme-based sub-visions and objectives
     All theme-based objectives, themes and sub-visions need to be re-aligned to
     reflect specificity, measurability, attainability, result-orientated and time-
     bound (SMART) features. (Please refer to section 6.2.4)

2. Prioritisation of Vision objectives
      All theme-based objectives, themes and sub-visions need to be prioritised
      through the utilisation of macro-economical modelling. The development of
      10-year National Development Frameworks will play a critical role in the
      efficient prioritisation of the long-term objectives. (Please refer to section
      7.1.2)

3. Assigning responsibilities
      Once the theme-based objectives, themes and sub-visions are assigned to
      sectors, made measurable and prioritised in terms of the 10-year National

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       Development Frameworks, then specific responsibilities need to be assigned to
       ensure the effective implementation of the Vision. It is foreseen that current
       sectoral stakeholders should take responsibility for the achievement of the sub-
       vision objectives. This should be done under the leadership and facilitation of
       the various line-ministries responsible for the respective sectors. These line
       ministries should be supported by stakeholders that could include other
       ministries, private sector role-players as well as external agencies and civil
       society. (Please refer to section 7.1.3 and 7.1.4)

4. Public / Private partnership
      The achievement of the objectives within Vision 2030 will not be possible
      without the commitment and co-operation of the entire Namibian Nation.
      Government and private sector should continuously engage in partnerships to
      ensure the implementation of the sub-vision objectives. The responsible line
      ministries should create platforms of co-operation within their respective
      sectors to facilitate collective formulation of long- and short-term strategies.
      (Please refer to section 7 and section 9.1.4)

5. Strategies need to be supported by short-term programmes
      The 10-year National Development Framework and 5-year National
      Development Plan strategies need to be supported by short-term national
      programmes. These programmes also need to be transferred into the MTEF
      and annual budgets. (Please refer to section 7.2.1)

6. National co-ordination
      The sectoral strategies and work-plans need to be co-ordinated on a national
      level to ensure that efficient communication takes place between sectors and
      to ensure that resource gaps are adequately addressed. (Please refer to section
      7 and section 9.1.5)

7. Continuous monitoring of results
      The short-, medium-, and long-term strategies and programmes need to be
      continuously monitored to ensure that deviations are adequately addressed.
      (Please refer to section 9.7)

8. Communication
     The participation of all Namibians is critical for the successful achievement of
     the objectives within Vision 2030. The enhancement of the awareness of the
     fundamentals of the Vision, improvement of the understanding of the key
     success factors as well as the overall buy-in of all Namibians are key factors
     for successful implementation. (Please refer to section 7 and section 9.2)




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6 VISION 2030 REALIGNMENT


6.1 RATIONALE FOR REALIGNMENT

Vision 2030 is presumed and expected to become and remain the key guiding
development policy for national development. In order to remain as such, the Vision
needs to evolve in light of a continuously changing environment, globalisation and
other economic and socio-economic dimensions. As indicated in the Vision 2030
document, the Vision itself, as well as the strive towards its achievement, involves a
process that needs to be realigned on a continuous basis to ensure that it is still in line
with the Nation’s needs and aspirations.


6.2 REVISIT FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF VISION 2030
6.2.1 Evolvement of Vision Objectives and Targets

The Vision is based on Namibia’s key economic and socio-economic concerns, which
have been identified as critical intervention areas within national development and
which have been addressed through a theme-based approach. Overall Vision 2030
objectives, as well as sub-vision, objectives, strategies and targets have been
formulated around these identified concerns, based on the current situation within the
country. Considering however, that the global economy is a dynamic system of
continuous change, and that Namibia as a developing country has to undergo a
considerable transformation in order to catch-up and effectively establish itself on an
international scale in line with impact of enhanced globalisation, we need to ensure
that our national planning framework is responsive towards external and global
developments.

Vision 2030, as overriding national development policy, needs to be re-evaluated on a
continuous basis in order to ensure that the theory of industrialisation and the
components of achieving such, still remain valid within the global economic context.
Considering that specifically Sub-Saharan African (“SSA”) countries have a
tremendous challenge in catching-up with existing developed countries, this process
does not only mean attaining current development status as defined today, but
attaining developed country status by the year 2030, which means SSA countries will
have to grow faster than current developed countries will in the forthcoming years,
and as such have to come up with more effective ways of achieving national
development. The traditional route towards achieving an industrialised and eventual
knowledge-based nation might have to be restructured to shorten the process and to
achieve the desired modernised economy and society through alternative, more
effective means.

Similarly, development progress and achievements of Vision objectives, sub-visions
and targets requires a redefinition and realignment in order to ensure continuous
development through prioritisation and the establishment of comparative and

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competitive advantages in order to participate effectively within the global economic
context.


6.2.2 Harmonisation of International and National Development
      Frameworks

In the light of a majority of international and national development frameworks,
which Namibia needs to comply to, ensuring that Vision 2030 remains Namibia’s
overall development policy, the MDGs, the SWAPO Manifesto, International Bi- and
Multilateral Trade Agreements, as well as national policies (such as the National
Poverty Reduction Strategy, the Human Development Policy, etc) need to be
harmonised and aligned within Vision 2030. The Vision as such needs to
accommodate the global context and ensure that national development and policy
design is guided by its overall objectives.


6.2.3 Linking Theme-based Sub-Visions to Overall Vision 2030
      Objectives

A country vision encapsulates the desired future state or aspirations of a Nation, a
sense of discovery and destiny that guides national development. Throughout a
generic strategic planning process, the vision is then broken down into long-,
medium-, and short-term objectives, strategies and targets essential to achieve this
desired state.

Some specific features of the Vision 2030 document complicate the alignment of
Vision 2030 with the existing medium -, and short-term national planning framework:

   1. The Vision is theme based, while the existing national planning framework is
      sector based;

   2. The Vision document entails explicit targets for certain themes and sub-
      visions, while others do not entail any measurable set of accomplishments;

   3. It is not evident within the document, although implied, that the achievement
      and as such the consolidation of all the mentioned targets will result in
      achievement of the Vision;

   4. The overall Vision 2030 objectives are not clearly linked with the specified
      sub-visions;

   5. The interrelationship between sub-visions is not clear, and as such the targets
      do not correlate with sector-based targets identified within the existing NDP
      planning process;

   6. It is not clear how theme-based targets link to other international development
      frameworks (such as the MDGs, international trade agreements and regional
      development initiatives) as well as national development policies.

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   7. Key priority areas indicated in the NDP II and the recent cabinet retreat do not
      feature in the Vision 2030 document with the same empirical intent; and

   8. Certain developing primary commodity sectors, such as mining and energy
      provision, barely feature in Vision 2030 as key developing and important
      economic growth fostering sectors.

As such, the fact that the Vision document contains detailed targets applicable for a
30 year planning period, overcomplicates the classification and integration of Vision
2030 into the existing national medium -, and short-term planning framework.

In order to enhance the common national understanding and achieve national buy-in
of Vision 2030 through the emphasis and communication of the benefits that such a
strategic intent entails for the nation, the focus of Vision 2030 should be applied to the
identified Vision Statement and the overall and theme-based objectives and strategies
identified within the document.

The individual 11 theme-based objectives and their corresponding sub-visions need to
be linked to the overall eight Vision 2030 objectives in order to ensure that each
overall objective is addressed by a specific sub-vision. This process has been
performed and a proposed framework is included under Annexure A.


6.2.4 Augmentation of Theme-based Sub-Visions and Objectives

Following the identified linkages between overall Vision 2030 objectives and the
individual sub-visions, effective strategic planning requires objectives to reflect
specificity, measurability, attainability, results-orientated and time bound (i.e
SMART) features. This means that some of the theme-based sub-visions and
corresponding objectives need to be augmented to include the above-mentioned
features.

The measurable component of a theme-based sub-vision and corresponding
objectives, in the form of an applicable target, needs to clearly link to the overall
economic and socio-economic targets identified within the Vision 2030 document in
terms of GDP growth rates, Gini coefficient or Human Development index figures.
This process could be achieved through the use of macro-economic and socio-
economic models such as the SAM and NAMEX model, which have been designed to
evaluate the economic impact of individual policy considerations on the Namibian
Macro-economic context.

This process will ensure that the Vision 2030 sub-visions and corresponding
objectives complementarily achieve the desired outcome as incorporated within the
Vision Statement, as well as enable effective sector-based national planning. It will
also ease the realignment of Vision 2030 objectives by way of enabling comparison of
these with global economic and socio-economic development guidelines and results
on a continuous basis.




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6.3 SECTORAL ALLOCATION OF VISION 2030 SUB-VISIONS
AND CORRESPONDING OBJECTIVES

Following the above process of augmenting theme-based sub-visions and linking
these to overall Vision 2030 objectives, the next step in terms of the Vision 2030
Implementation Strategy is the sectoral allocation of the theme-based, long-term sub-
visions.

The first step in linking theme-based sub-visions is to consolidate all investments
identified in the theme-based sub-visions, objectives and strategies into a single,
sector-based coherent document. It is important that these theme-based clusters be
reconciled to avoid double-counting or inconsistencies.




By reviewing the specified sub-visions, primary and supporting sectors can be
identified to share in the accomplishment of the sub-vision, based on their individual
ministerial mandate. This process, though not without discretionary allocations, will
ensure that individual sectors acknowledge contribution and responsibility to a wider
spectrum of development goals, inclusive of cross-sectoral development issues.

An example of a sectoral allocation of the Population, Health and Development theme
has been attached under Annexure B.



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6.4 PRIORITISATION OF VISION 2030 OBJECTIVES
6.4.1 Introduction

Limited resources and capacities warrant prioritisation of development interventions
as a necessary prerequisite for attaining stated development goals and objectives.
Whilst economic and socio-economic development is inseparable throughout the
industrialisation process, there is no fixed recipe on the mix of priorities within these
two broad-based categories. Prioritisation needs to be aligned in terms of the
country’s existing economic and socio-economic status and the impact of individual
interventions needs to be analysed by means of economic and socio-economic
modelling. The underlying principle within this process is the acknowledgement of
interventions which enhance and extend the country’s taxation base.

The principle of prioritisation needs to be applied throughout the entire national
planning process and starts with prioritising the identified 43 Sub-visions, which are
aligned to the 8 overall Vision 2030 objectives, over the next 25 years. The key focus
in this regard is the identification of key intervention areas that will spearhead the
intended industrialisation process and ensure attainments of a developed country
status within the shortest possible timeframe, given the country’s existing and
potential national resource base.


6.4.2 Guidelines in Establishing Long-term Objective Priorities

The key economic development drivers for high performing economies and those that
have achieved successful transformation into an enhanced developing country status
or even a modernised and globally competitive economy include the following:

       Competitive and diversified export-orientated manufacturing;
       Modernisation of the agricultural sector;
       Broadening of the manufacturing and service sectors;
       Investment in human resources;
       Building technological capabilities;
       Investment in infrastructure;
       Repatriation of capital and capital market development;
       Foreign Direct Investment;
       Raising workforce productivity and quality;
       Developing competitive advantages and expertise;
       Promoting industry and enterprise clustering;
       Maximising comparative advantages;
       Rationalisation of the public sector;
       Strengthen private sector inputs and partnerships
       Good governance; and
       Effective administrative systems for follow-up and management of the
        implementation processes.

The key challenge in assigning priorities and investment needs to the abovementioned
key success factors vests in balancing macro-economic, social and structural issues in
the most effective manner. In order to determine the most effective mix of economic
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and socio-economic interventions, interrelationships between the relevant
interventions need to be clarified and alternative scenarios in terms of the impact
assessment of alternative strategies need to be conducted through available economic
and social accounting matrixes such as the NAMEX and SAM models. The required
prioritisation mechanism within this phase of the Vision 2030 Implementation
Strategy refers to broad-based prioritisation of the overall Vision 2030 objectives and
their underlying sub-visions.

A majority of the above-mentioned development measures are already addressed
within the NDP II and in terms of recent Government planning workshops and
discussion sessions. However, the prioritisation and alignment of these interventions
over the Vision 2030 planning timeline needs to be clearly identified and
implemented through the supporting medium-, and short-term programmes and
project planning cycle.




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7 CORRELATING OBJECTIVES WITH RESOURCES

7.1 FORMULATION OF A 10 - YEAR SECTORAL NATIONAL
DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK
7.1.1 Linking Vision and Strategy

The process of national strategy formulation is often dominated by short-term
macroeconomic needs, and often fails to achieve a balance in addressing
macroeconomic, social and structural issues. Cross-sectoral linkages and priority
setting across development goals need to be fostered and linked to the public
expenditure programmes.

The Vision Statement should be linked to clearly defined medium-term strategies,
which in turn, need to be closely linked to a consistent budgetary framework. This is
critical for setting priorities and striking a balance between short and medium-term
public policy decisions. This process will be facilitated through the establishment of a
long-term national planning mechanism in the form of a 10-year National
Development Framework. Vision 2030 implementation requires a bold, needs-based,
goal oriented investment framework over 10 years aimed at achieving quantitative
targets determined within this framework and linked to the Vision 2030 objectives.

The objective of the 10-year National Development Framework is to ensure that
Vision 2030 objectives are broken down into sector based long-term objectives,
strategies and targets. Whilst the theme-based Vision objectives and sub-visions have
been allocated to responsible sectors as indicated under section 4.3, each sector’s role
and contribution towards the achievement of the Vision 2030 sub-visions has to be
clarified through clearly defined long-term (10 year) sectoral objectives, strategies
and targets.

The 10-year National Development Framework will:

    Set priorities and sequence interventions within the broader defined priorities
     of the Vision 2030 sub-visions;
    Specify the supporting policies and institutional reforms; and
    Divide responsibilities among key stakeholders.

This long-term framework then serves as the basis for formulating the five-year NDPs
as medium-term national development strategy and implementation method.

Crucially, the 10-year National Development Framework (“NDF”) and the 5-year
NDPs should include the public sector management strategy with a key focus on
transparency, accountability, human rights, and results-based management. They
should also include a clear strategy for decentralizing, target setting, decision making,
budgeting and implementation responsibilities to the level of local governments.
Furthermore there should be a clear private sector strategy to promote economic
growth and have the country “graduate” from donor assistance in the longer-term.

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7.1.2 Prioritising Objectives within the 10-year National
      Development Framework

When implementation capacity is constrained by limited human resources,
infrastructure and management systems, government will have to set implementation
priorities. Priority setting encompasses two elements: identifying how to sequence
key interventions across the identified broad-based Vision 2030 objectives, and
thereafter identifying key interventions within each sector that contributes to the
stated and prioritised theme-based sub-visions which are allocated to individual
sectors.

Following sectoral prioritisation, the sequence for rolling out the intervention across
the different regions of a country has then to be taken into account. Key
considerations include:

    Given limited delivery capacity, which interventions, if any, should be
     implemented nationwide rather than region by region?
    Should priority be given to parts of the country where interventions are easy to
     roll out or to parts where needs are highest regardless of costs?
    Can interventions be delivered without major infrastructure or do they depend
     on networked infrastructure and delivery systems that impose a sequenced
     approach to expanding coverage?
    How should countries sequence the delivery of urban and rural interventions
     respectively?
    What is the appropriate timeframe for national, district and local rollout?

Capacity critical interventions need to be implemented immediately to build the
capacity for scaling up the delivery of socio-economic related interventions. Only by
frontloading these investments can national implementation capacity be increased
over the longer term. Three specific capacity-critical investment areas are
management systems, human resources and infrastructure. Public sector management
systems are a particularly important dimension of scale-up and essential for using
increased resources efficiently. Improving public management systems will therefore
be a high and early priority in national plans of action.

The underlying rationale for a strategy that emphasizes infrastructure and skills
development. is related to the fact that these two issues are renowned for their
contribution to a country’s gross domestic product (GDP) and, as such, represent two
of the four groups of production factors that are utilized in the process of value
creation.
The productive investments of the private sector to augment new output capacity
through factories and machinery and equipment are not possible beyond a certain
ceiling unless they are supplemented by adequate social and economic infrastructure.
For example, increased agricultural output for export purposes will simply rot in the
absence of sufficient transport, storage and harbour facilities.
The role of skills development in the process of development and growth cannot be
over-emphasised, as the remuneration of highly skilled people today represents the
single largest contributor to the GDPs of high and middle income countries. The
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Research Team is of the opinion that a development strategy that emphasizes
infrastructure and skills development will lead to the following benefits:


     Infrastructure expansion and maintenance has proven to realize high rates of
      return to society. Projects relating to transportation, power, water and
      sanitation usually result in significant output increases for every monetary
      unit of increase in the level of infrastructure. These returns can be quantified
      through input/output table analysis and relate to GDP, employment creation
      and also the expansion of a country’s taxation base.

     Rural areas, particularly those that rely on agriculture and food processing,
      stand to benefit from improved transportation. Research confirms that the
      absence of good roads can increase the cost of producing surplus crops by as
      much as 100%.

     Research confirms that education and income are highly correlated at both the
      individual and the societal level. The attractiveness to government of policies
      that attract and develop higher skills is quite obvious, as an improvement of
      upward economic mobility (via enhanced skills) invariably leads to a larger
      than proportional increase in taxation revenues (as a result of the progressive
      income tax system).

     Increased international competitiveness and globalisation have accentuated
      the need for competitiveness within existing and new industries, especially
      within the services sectors. In most instances, the effective maintenance of
      competitiveness is intimately related to a country’s ability to develop a highly
      skilled workforce.

A development intervention needs assessment, among others, estimates the required
human resources and the number of people that need to be trained to achieve the set
development goals. Special attention will need to go to scaling up pre-service training
in the early years of the national strategy, since training may take several years. An
overall policy framework for human resources will need to ensure adequate
compensation and incentives, decent working conditions and opportunities for
continual learning and performance-based promotion.

To achieve the human resource development goals will require significant and
immediate investments in infrastructure, such as schools and health posts. Long-term
planning is particularly important for networked infrastructure, such as electricity grid
extension or infrastructure for improved water management to increase sustainable
access to water. That is one reason why it is recommended that priorities are set for
planning and building such infrastructure in the early years of the 10-year NDF. A
special effort is needed to identify investments with long time lags and to ensure that
they are made in time to contribute to achieving the long-term development goals.

The 10-year NDF will also need to outline key elements of the country’s
decentralisation strategy, such as control and funding for implementation across
identified theme-based investment clusters and sectors.


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7.1.3 Correlating Sectoral Objectives with Theme-based
      Objectives

The identification of sectors responsible for the implementation of the allocated
theme-based sub-visions will result in various line ministries having to identify and
quantify their contribution towards the stated theme-based sub-vision. As such, each
theme-based objective needs to be broken down into sectoral components. As a
fundamental national planning principle, National Policies need to be accommodated
within the 10-year sectoral NDFs, and similarly could guide the prioritisation and
formulation of these sector-based long-term objectives.

Sectoral components, in the form of 10-year sector-based objectives, need to be
prioritised and consolidated to ensure congruence to the corresponding long-term
theme-based objectives and sub-visions documented within Vision 2030.

This process requires complex macro- and socio-economic modelling in order to
ensure that broad based interventions consolidate into the required outcome. The
identified sectoral objectives set the framework for the formulation of long-term
sectoral strategies that will guide the establishment of medium-term objectives and
strategies within the NDPs.

In addition, this process will ensure that cross-sectoral development concerns (such as
HIV/AIDS, income distribution, poverty reduction etc) will be allocated to specific
line ministries, which should enhance the implementation of existing national policies
on these matters.




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7.1.4 Assigning Responsibilities

It is important to determine who will be responsible for co-ordinating and overseeing
the implementation of each set of objectives and corresponding interventions. Under
the coordination of an appointed Vision 2030 Implementation Task Team, the overall
implementation plan can be separated into discrete areas of responsibility and each
area assigned to relevant line ministries and other implementing agencies.

National government bears the responsibility of guaranteeing and overseeing the
provision of basic services to meet national development goals, but delivery can be
delegated to the private sector or civil society when it is more efficient or cost-
effective to do so. However, this may require targeted public subsidies, even if service
delivery has been contracted out to a non-governmental organisation or private
company. This process will also divide responsibilities between central government
and decentralised levels of authority to the extent needed.

The decentralisation process may play a critical part in allowing sectoral strategies to
adapt to regional variation, increasing the efficiency and long-term viability of service
delivery and improving the transparency and public participation in the national
development planning process.

Decentralisation strategies have to allocate responsibility in three key areas: Planning,
implementation and financing. Decentralised planning makes it critical to translate
national goals and targets to operational objectives at the local level and that
mechanisms are in place for communities and authorities to make decisions about
how to reach those objectives. As a general rule, countries should also assign
responsibility for the intervention to the level where action is necessary. In many
cases this will include partnering with community groups for service delivery. For
decentralisation strategies to be effective, they must ensure that political and
administrative responsibilities for public interventions is linked to real budgets and
adequate accountability mechanisms ensure equity and transparency at all levels.

Section 7.2 offers a detailed description of the responsibilities of relevant stakeholders
for the facilitation of identified components of the Vision 2030 Implementation
Strategy.


7.1.5 Namibia’s Existing Development Planning Guidelines

Namibia has established the Development Planning Manual, which was developed by
the NPCS during 1993 as a reference work on planning principles, techniques and
procedures for all planners within the public sector.

Whilst this document comprises a generic planning framework, it does not include a
long-term planning structure as envisaged for the implementation of Vision 2030. The
recommended long-term planning cycle, through the establishment of the 10-year
NDF, is a mere strategic realignment and break-down of long-term objectives, and
with revision and updating of the Planning Manual, this and other additional proposed
planning processes should be included within the manual.


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7.2 LINKING LONG-TERM OBJECTIVES WITH PROGRAMME
    BASED ANNUAL BUDGETS
7.2.1 Overview of the Detailed Planning Process

The formulation of the 10-year sectoral objectives, strategies and targets needs to be
assessed in terms of the following:

   1. Are long-term sectoral objectives aligned with the Vision 2030 theme-based
      objectives?
   2. Is the sectoral strategy aligned with all of the sectoral objectives?
   3. Are the long-term targets substantiated with a solid analysis of the needed
      inputs?
   4. Is the strategy grounded in a long-term assessment of needs?
   5. Is the budget consistent with the level of inputs needed to achieve the Vision
      2030 objectives?

The 10-year National Development Framework serves a two-sided purpose. Firstly
the break-down of 30 year theme-based Vision 2030 objectives into shorter period,
10-year sectoral development objectives, strategies and targets and secondly the
alignment of long-term objectives with a national needs assessment and the available
country resources to ensure attainability of long-term targets.

The NDF objectives will be identified according to the Vision 2030 theme-based, sub-
visions. These will then be broken-down into two sets of 5-year National
Development Plan objectives, again based on identified priorities over the two
consecutive, medium term planning periods.

All sectors, through their respective line ministry, will have to compile a set of 5-year
programme based work plans which, upon consolidation, need to achieve the
predetermined 5-year National Development Plan objectives. These 5-year sector
support programmes will include current and recurring programmes, which the
ministries conduct on an ongoing basis. A prerequisite for these programmes is the
compilation of a Cost/Benefit analysis, which will determine the contribution of these
programmes to the medium-term national development goals, as well as to enable
detailed costing to be projected within the Public Sector Investment Programme,
Medium Term Expenditure Framework and the Annual Recurring and Development
Budgets.

In addition, the Cost/Benefit analysis will firstly link the intended intervention to the
identified local and regional economic and socio-economic needs and will secondly
specify the resources required to successfully execute such interventions. These will
then need to be compared to available resources within the specific sector in order to
determine a potential shortage of national resources, which are required to accomplish
the stated medium-term objectives.




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A crucial planning component flowing from the Cost/Benefit Analysis is the
evaluation of alternative scenarios where planning forecasts are made on key
economic parameters and assumptions.


                      10-Year Sectoral Objectives


                                                                                 1.     Design Strategy to
                                   Resource                                             Fill Identified
                                                                                        Resource Gap
                                     Gap
                                                                                 2.     Realign priorities
                                Resource Audit                                          and targets
                                                                                 3.     Ensure medium and
                              Needs Assessment                                          long-term plan
                                                                                        complement each
                                                                                        other


                        5-Year NDP Objectives
                        5 Year

                            Cost/Benefit Analysis to                   Medium Term
                           ensure contribution to NDP                   Expenditure
                                   Objectives                           Framework




                                   5 -Year
                                     Year                            Annual Recurring
                               Project Based                         and Development
                                Work Plans                                Budget




The identified resource gap needs to be addressed through the formulation of a
corresponding strategy to overcome the identified obstacles, whether by means of
reprioritisation of stated objectives and targets in order to reassign available resources
to key priority areas or through the application for additional donor support and funds.

In essence, the individual work-plans need to achieve the desired NDP objectives,
which in turn need to consolidate into the 10-year Sectoral Development Objectives.
The needs assessments and resource audits will ensure that long- and medium-term
objectives are practically and realistically achievable, given the current resource base
of the country.




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7.2.2 Long- and Medium Term Planning Guide

The step-by step planning approach linking long- and medium term planning
methodologies within a single National Planning Framework include the following:




The appropriate allocation of planning responsibilities in this regard is defined as
follows:

 STEP                                                     RESPONSIBLE INSTITUTION

 1. Link sub-visions to overall Vision 2030               NPCS, PEAC, IACMP
    objectives and prioritise

 2. Identify Primary and Supporting Sector                NPCS, Line Ministries

 3. Correlate sub-vision objectives into                  NPCS, Line Ministries, Inter-Agency
    sector-based objectives                               Technical Committee, IACMP

 4. Link sectoral objectives to sub-visions               NPCS



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 5. Correlate 10-year objectives into two sets            NPCS, Line Ministries, Inter-Agency
    of 5-year objectives                                  Technical Committees, IACMP

 6. Define 5-year programme based                         NPCS, Line Ministries, Inter-Agency
    interventions                                         Technical Committee, IACMP

 7. Costing of 5-year Sector Support                      Line Ministries, Inter-Agency
    Programme                                             Technical Committee




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8 NEEDS ASSESSMENT AND RESOURCE
  MANAGEMENT
8.1 NDP STRATEGY FORMULATION PROCESS
8.1.1 Overview of Sector Programme Planning

The current NDP planning guidelines, as well as the Development Planning Manual,
offer detailed descriptions of the required methodology to the NDP and annual budget
formulation process. Although some of the planning manual principles might seem
outdated, the majority of underlying principles and techniques are still valid and
crucial towards effective planning.

The underlying principles of the NDP vest in ensuring that medium-term objectives,
strategies and targets achieve the predetermined 10-year sectoral development
objectives. The basis for achieving this is conducted through a bottom-up planning
approach which entails the following components:

       1. The break-down of 10-year National Development Framework objectives
          and targets into two successive and complementary sets of 5-year
          objectives, strategies and targets in form of the NDPs;

       2. Identifying the underlying interventions and substantiating these through
          detailed formulated work plans and programmes (in form of the sector
          support programme), which would foster achievement of the stated
          objectives and targets;

       3. Evaluating the initially identified programmes in terms of:
           Existing capabilities and national resource availability
           Detailed Cost/Benefit Analysis

       4. Identify potential and practical resource constraints;

       5. Formulate a corresponding strategy to fill the identified resource gap; and

       6. Design the corresponding public sector investment programme, MTEF,
          development and annual budgets upon final consolidation of the sector
          support programme.

Key additional considerations in this regard are that, due to the restructuring of the
annual budget process into a programme-based approach, the NDPs should also
include both recurring operations, programmes and public services, as well as donor
projects and corresponding external financial and technical assistance provided in this
regard.

This will ensure that all government services and activities are included within the
national planning framework and that all of these are aligned to the identified medium
and long-term objectives and strategies. In addition the effectiveness and cost

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implication of existing and recurrent services will be evaluated throughout this
process and ensure a more efficient and streamlined operational approach within the
public service.


The Sector Programme Planning guideline is configures as follows:




8.1.2 Alignment of Objectives, Strategies and Targets

The Vision 2030 based National Development Plan should detail the intervention,
policies and institutional reforms covered in the first five years of the 10-year
National Development Framework. Particular attention needs to go to setting
priorities, sequencing interventions and assigning clear responsibilities for
implementation. The NDPs will also need to include the financing strategy in the form
of the public sector investment programme and need to closely link NDP programmes
to the MTEF and the annual recurring and development budgets in order to ensure
accountability and effective evaluation.

The NDP II review recommended that a more technical approach is needed in the
setting of national, regional and sectoral objectives in order to bring about a clear
distinction between strategies and objectives. Sectoral objectives should be limited to
4-6 and each objective should be aligned to one or more strategies. The strict use of a
logical strategic planning framework was recommended.

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Within the scope of the 10-year NDF objectives that have been set as well as the
identified long-term priorities, 5-year NDP objectives, strategies and targets need to
be strictly aligned to these long-term “goalposts”. As such the NDP III sectoral
objectives should not be based on NDP I and NDP II strategic directions, but should
be formulated to substantiate long-term development goals and priorities established
within the first 10-year National Development Framework in line with Vision 2030.


8.1.3 Develop a Vision-based National Development Strategy

Achieving the objectives of Vision 2030 within their anticipated timelines requires a
shift in development practice from planning for modest incremental expansion of
social services and infrastructure to bold and long-term strategies aimed at achieving
the quantitative targets and goals. Instead of strategies to “accelerate progress towards
the Vision”, strategies are needed to “achieve the Vision”.


                                       Typical national development strategy today
 Vision
Objectives
        Progress towards objectives




                                                                                                        Implied trajectory still falls
                                                                                                           short of objectives
                                                                          “Accelerated” progress
                                                                             through national
                                                                           development strategy

                                         Slow or no progress to date




                                      Base Year                                   2006           2011                     2030 target
                                                                                                                           deadline


                                      Vision-based national development strategy today
 Vision
Objectives
                                                                                          Scaled-up plans to achieve
                                                                                          the Vision objectives based
                                                                                               on country needs
        Progress towards objectives




                                                                                                  assessment


                                                                        National Development
                                                                         strategy aligned with
                                                                             Vision needs
                                                                              assessment
                                         Slow or no progress to date
                                                                                                 Vision 2030 objectives guide the
                                                                                                  national development strategy


                                      Base Year                                   2006           2011                     2030 target
                                                                                                                           deadline




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To this end, it is proposed that a Vision-based approach to preparing a national
development strategy is applied, that aims to answer: ”What will it take to achieve the
Vision?” This involves defining the overall objectives of Vision 2030, transforming
the objectives into measurable targets, and then working backwards to determine the
required rate of developmental programmes.

Similar to the long-term sectoral objective and strategy formulation process, NDP III
objectives should establish priorities within each sector, as well as in terms of cross-
sectoral development matters. The involvement and responsibility of each sector
towards cross-sectoral development goals has already been defined through the
transformation of theme-based Vision 2030 objectives into 10-year sectoral
objectives. The NDP objectives for each sector and corresponding ministry thus need
to ensure that they are complementary to identified long-term NDF objectives.

The finalised NDP objectives, strategies and targets will depend on the outcome of the
following planning procedures:

   1. The strategic direction provided by the 10-year National Development
      Framework;
   2. The needs assessment, which will identify the resources required to achieve
      the medium-term goals identified through the fragmentation of the 10-year
      (NDF) objectives into two sets of 5-year (NDP) objectives;
   3. The resource audit, which will quantify and evaluate the national and sectoral
      resource base;
   4. The subsequent strategy to overcome identified resource shortages or
      constraints;
   5. The Cost/Benefit Analysis of the identified projects and programmes that
      underlie the identified interventions and objectives of the NDP.

Macro- and socio-economic modelling, as well as establishment of alternative
scenarios within this process will ensure that the identified sectoral objectives
substantiate and promote the identified long-term objectives.



8.2 FORMULATION OF MEDIUM TERM EXPENDITURE
FRAMEWORK AND ANNUAL BUDGETS
8.2.1 General Guidelines

The NDP, and the corresponding Public Sector Investment Programme (“PSIP”), need
to be translated into an operational medium term expenditure framework (MTEF) that
links national development interventions to specific allocations in the national budget.
A country’s national development strategy can only be effectively implemented if the
MTEF and annual budgets are consistent with the development needs assessment and
identified financing strategy. Currently too many national policies are still
disconnected from MTEF and budget frameworks. To overcome this disconnect,
development expenditure projections derived from the needs assessment and the


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project based Cost/Benefit Analyses need to be aligned into the MTEF, which then
guides the annual budget process.

At the central level the NPC, MoF and BoN have been responsible for overall policy
advice, economic and development management. The annual budget is prepared
within a Medium Term Expenditure Framework with inter-ministerial participation.
MTEF presents budget ceilings for three years, linking these to Ministry objectives
and identified performance indicators as part of the PEMP, which contains outcomes
and outputs the Ministries are expected to meet with allocated resources.

Government has used the Annual Budget as its key instrument in translating NDP
objectives, programmes and projects into reality. For the budgeting process to remain
effective, the budgeting system needs to be clearly aligned to the proposed planning
framework and maintain the following characteristics:

    Realism of projects and programmes based on the relevant cost/benefit
     analyses and resource audits;
    Focussing on policy related programmes and projects, not just expenditures;
    Enjoying political support and commitment;
    A strong link to the long-, and medium-term planning framework;
    Fiscal Discipline; and
    Flexibility.

Currently the NPCS ensures that every policy, programme and project idea passes
through the integrated stages of Policy, Programme and Project Implementation cycle
in order to ensure consistency with national, regional and sectoral objectives. These
stages consist of an initial screening and selection, detailed design and preparation,
detailed appraisal and inclusion within the budget submission, approval by Cabinet
and Parliament, implementation, monitoring and control.

An additional point to the above is that the newly established project based budgeting
framework enables the review and integration of recurring activities into the overall
development process. All expenditure items are included within the sector based
programme and as such compel the relevant ministries to re-deploy existing resources
more efficiently.



8.3 NEEDS ASSESSMENT
8.3.1 Process Overview

Each sector should map the key dimensions and underlying determinants of national
development, by sector, region and locality. Consistent with the development maps,
the needs assessment should identify the specific public investments necessary to
achieve the indicated long-term goals.

Needs assessments map out the interrelated interventions needed to meet the national
development goals and quantify the necessary human resources, infrastructure and
financial resources required to achieve these. Too often development policies and

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social interventions are compiled without a clear assessment of the scope and
capabilities of the country’s resources.

A needs assessment answers the question of what investments will be required to
reach national development goals and consequently Vision 2030. It yields aggregate
financial costs but also quantitative estimates of necessary infrastructure. These
estimates will subsequently form the core inputs to a strategy for sequencing and
capacity building.

It is the fundamental mechanism to establish a clear picture of the current economic
and socio-economic situation of the country and facilitate the identification of
priorities for future development planning. This needs assessment needs to be
conducted on sectoral and cross-sectoral basis with clear indications of the
interrelatedness between sectoral and cross-sectoral issues.


8.3.2 Needs Assessment Components

There are four parts to a needs assessment:

   1. Identify Interventions. Interventions are goods, services and infrastructure
      that will enable the country to meet its development goals. In some cases
      policies will have significant financial implications and these impacts should
      be included in the needs assessment, which may consider more than one
      policy scenario. To develop a useful framework for national development,
      countries will want to combine a needs assessment with a detailed analysis of
      policy options.

   2. Define Targets. The Vision 2030 objectives provide the quantitative basis for
      national development targets. While it is often difficult to precisely quantify
      the link between coverage of interventions and outcomes, effective national
      planning involves mapping interventions to anticipated development
      outcomes, setting coverage targets for the delivery of services and provision of
      infrastructure and establishing interim milestones to measure progress.

   3. Estimate resource needs. The resources required to achieve Vision 2030 are
      estimated using an intervention-based needs assessment approach. The needs
      assessment quantify human resources and infrastructure needs as well as the
      financial costs of goods and services. Estimating resource needs for cross-
      national cooperation entails costing the interventions, institutions and policy
      reforms needed to achieve established targets.

   4. Check results. At the end of a needs assessment, the results need to be
      reviewed to make sure that they are accurate and adequate to reach the
      formulated development goals. Underlying these estimates is the assumption
      that the scaling up of investment goes hand in hand with optimising current
      public expenditure using best practices.




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8.4 RESOURCE AUDIT
8.4.1 Scope of a Resource Audit

To begin planning for national development, countries will need to take stock of the
current situation by defining the baseline status of the priority development areas.
Conducting a national resource audit includes an assessment of the country’s existing
capacities and capabilities in terms of human, infrastructure, technological, financial
and natural resources.

In addition, the resource audit should include the availability of both technical and
financial resources from external development partners. The ultimate objective, when
it comes to national support provided by external development partners, is to fully
integrate these into the national planning framework and the corresponding financial
planning tools (Public Sector Investment Programme, MTEF and Annual Budgets).

A crucial component within the national resource audit is the assessment of existing,
as well as potential, financial resources. Government’s primary source of income
relates to the imposition and collection of duties and taxes. Similarly to costing public
expenditure programmes, the public income cycle needs to be assessed. Scenario
analysis through economic modelling can assist in establishing the impact of current
and changing monetary and fiscal policy decisions on the country’s existing and
potential income streams.

Considering that the fundamental national development priority vest in enhancing the
country’s taxation base as a major foundation towards fostering enhanced economic
growth, the resource audit of existing and potential income streams forms an
important component towards effective impact analysis of identified development
interventions.

In addition to the above, the MoF needs to assess the impact of an increased debt
burden. In this regard it needs to be borne in mind that any additional debt would need
to be applied and evaluated on a project and programme level, and as long as the Net
Present Value of the project is positive over its anticipated lifespan, it would seem
worthwhile to incur an additional debt burden for the sake of enhanced future revenue
streams.


8.4.2 Information Strategy

As countries work to develop strategies to help them to realise the economic, social
and political benefits of becoming a society which is knowledge based, civil society
and other knowledge workers are the pivotal professional group able to assist
government to realise these aims.

Accurate and comprehensive information is a key input to a good national
development strategy and specifically the national resource audit. This information
can come from three main sources: administrative data, survey data and information
and advice from development professionals.

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Administrative data describe inputs to government programs and activities carried out
and the basic goods and services provided. Civil society organisations and
international organisations often keep similar data on the services they provide.
Survey data is crucial in collecting up-to-date, relevant and detailed information, but
is costly and cumbersome to obtain.

A key to ensuring availability of relevant and timely information vests in the
formulation of a National Information Strategy, which could realise the benefits of a
knowledge-led world to assist in national development. Such a strategy could consist
of three components:

   1. Knowledge Access

   This is about connectivity and the need to integrate information technology
   infrastructure in a country. Knowledge access fits well into policies relating to
   social and educational equity.

   2. Knowledge Resources

   This looks at the knowledge base of the country and asks what information
   resources are freely available to citizens either through government funded
   agencies (including tertiary learning and research institutions) or Local Authority
   organisations. The Knowledge Resources section of the strategy is designed to
   make Government information more accessible to citizens.

   3. Knowledge Equity

   Knowledge equity is fundamental to the success of a National Information
   Strategy. It is based on the assumption that unless citizens are literate and
   information literate, they will be disenfranchised from many of the benefits of a
   knowledge society. A country which has a robust and integrated IT infrastructure
   and excellent knowledge resources for its citizens is not delivering on its
   information strategy if there are significant numbers who cannot read or write or
   access information.

The formulation of an Information Strategy could thus considerably contribute to the
national planning process and the strive towards the achievement of Vision 2030.



8.5 ALLOCATION OF CROSS-SECTORAL OBJECTIVES
8.5.1 Planning vs Reporting Perspective

The transformation of theme-based Vision 2030 objectives into 10-year sectoral
development frameworks is a clear process whereby cross-sectoral development
concerns are allocated to the respective sectors, which as such undertake to address
these concerns within their long-, medium- and short term development plans. In
addition, the Vision 2030 realignment process will also acknowledge the development
requirements of the MDGs and include such within the long-term sectoral
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development framework, with a clear definition of responsibility and contribution of
each sector’s stakeholders within each sector-based programme.

As such it is the intention of the 10-year National Development Framework to
effectively address the implementation of cross-sectoral policies and Vision
statements throughout the entire planning and implementation process. However, the
reporting of cross-sectoral development concerns and achievements should still
remain within the chapters of the relevant 10-year NDFs and the 5-year NDPs. This
will primarily serve the purpose of progress reporting towards the theme-based Vision
2030 objectives and the MDGs.



8.6 ASSESSMENT OF RESOURCE GAP
8.6.1 Onset for Strategy Realignment

Capacity and capability building are key foundations to successful industrialisation
and beyond, towards a knowledge-based and modernised society. In order to
understand and bridge any shortages within the national resource base, the gap
between existing resources, and those required to implement the identified
interventions attaining Vision 2030, needs to be clearly defined in terms of technical
and financial measures.

In light of quantifying the resource gap, established long- and medium term
development strategies might have to be rearranged. The majority of infrastructural,
technological and human resources can be increased and enhanced on a continuous
basis. The country’s natural resource base however is a given, that needs to be
sustained at its maximum return potential. With the deterioration of natural resource
returns, country development will have to increasingly be aligned to skills,
competencies and knowledge-based products and services. As such the resource gap
will instigate a process of re-strategising in light of achieving the required medium
and long-term objectives.



8.7 STRATEGY FORMULATION TO OVERCOME THE
RESOURCE GAP
8.7.1 Strategic Options

The identified and quantified resource gap will offer a realistic view on the real
capabilities of the country to achieve Vision 2030. This process will result in
deploying one of three choices within each sector-based programme:

   1. Whether additional resources can be obtained from external sources to fill the
      resource gap;
   2. Whether identified priorities need to be reshuffled and implementation of
      lower priority projects need to be extended to a later development stage; or

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   3. Whether the predetermined objective and target is realistic given the existing
      and potential resource endowments of the country.


8.7.2 Mobilisation of Additional Resources

It is crucial that the national development process is based on the realistic assessment
of available and national resources, but that simultaneously, alternative options of
increasing and enhancing the existing resource pool are taken into consideration prior
to any strategy or objective realignment.

Additional resources could be mobilised through increased assistance from
development partners, increased debt-relief, enhanced contributions and mobilisation
from the private sector (also by way of considering outsourcing and public-private
partnership options), or by means of the revision of applicable income-generating
policies. However, the impact of any of these options needs to be clearly evaluated in
terms of an impact assessment by means of macro-economic modelling.

When domestic resource mobilisation is insufficient to meet the necessary
expenditures, the identified financing gap needs to be covered through enhanced debt
relief and increased official development assistance.



8.8 PROGRAMME AND PROJECT ORIENTATION
8.8.1 Founding Principle for Vision 2030 Implementation

The current NDP planning framework is based on a programme and project based
orientation in terms of identified 5-year national development objectives. The public
sector investment programme identifies and quantifies the financial implications of
the NDP based development programmes and projects per sector and per region. The
MTEF and annual recurring budget have, until recently, been based on expenditure
items rather that project based costing. However, this process has been revised in
order to introduce an annual programme and project based budgeting methodology,
which is more closely aligned with the NDP project based approach.

A considerable step within the newly applied annual budgeting methodology is the
process of incorporating recurring service delivery operations and expenditures into a
programme based approach. This will enable the evaluation of the effectiveness as
well as the contribution of existing service delivery mechanisms to the objectives of
Vision 2030.

The programme based budgeting methodology is thus already a huge step towards
effective implementation of long-term development goals and Vision 2030. The key
recommendation within the overall Vision 2030 Implementation Strategy is that
recurring and existing public services are included within the short-, medium, (NDP)
and long-term (10-year National Development Framework) national development
plans in terms of a programme and project orientated planning approach.


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However, this process also requires extensive project management skills throughout
the entire planning timeline, both in terms of individual programmes and projects, as
well for the evaluation of the collective impact of the project portfolio on the medium
and long-term development objectives.




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9 KEY RECOMMENDATIONS AND CRITICAL
  SUCCESS FACTORS

9.1 CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS UNDERLYING THE LONG-
    TERM PLANNING PROCESS
9.1.1 Enhancing Country Ownership

Experience shows that country ownership is dependent on country capacity. It is
generally accepted that national debate and the search for consensus on a long-term
vision and national strategy should extend beyond government and involve a broad
spectrum of the population and national institutions. For a development strategy to
have a reasonable chance of successful implementation it must be owned and
managed by the country’s stakeholders themselves.

Strategies and targets are often left without clearly defined institutional response and
without clear follow-up actions. Private sector commitment to national strategy, a key
pillar of any long-term development agenda, is often very weak. National strategies
should involve a participatory process and should provide the basis for debate in the
countries’ national assemblies and other elected bodies. Elected institutions have a
key role to play in providing a vehicle through which the views of the poor and
marginalized society can be represented.

Governments should be encouraged to identify institutional channels for discussing
and acting on the results of the national dialogue or other national consultation
mechanisms being used to identify priorities. Country ownership is greatly
strengthened where there is commitment and leadership from the highest political
levels.

Country ownership may be manifested through the leadership role taken up by
government, key policy makers accepting the direction and analytical foundations of
its policy performance targets, top political leadership and cabinet provide evidence of
public support and broad based participation through representative institutions.


9.1.2 High Level Political Commitment

Full and sustained high-level political leadership is essential to preparing national
development strategies. The support of Parliament and other legislative bodies cannot
be overemphasized.

It is important for Government to own and lead the process – and to be accountable
for the analysis and recommended strategies. National, regional and local
governments are all integral to the process. Line ministries need to be empowered in
planning and implementation, with their work typically co-ordinated by the National
Planning Commission, the offices of the President and Prime Minister, and the Vision
2030 Implementation Task Team.

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Another key challenge in building ownership is the greater coherence and
collaboration within the public sector. Considering the project based inter-sectoral
approach towards implementing Vision 2030, close collaboration between Ministries
is required in order to enable project implementation at the lowest level.


9.1.3 Country-led Partnership

The correlation between donor programmes and national development goals is a vital
component of successful strategy implementation. Donors’ assistance strategies need
to be well aligned to the country’s long-, medium-, and short term strategies.
Developing countries have a responsibility to improve the enabling environment for
partnership by expressing clear leadership and taking steps to address constraints to
the more effective absorption of external support. Enhancing the impact of external
support requires innovative operational instruments, sector-wide approaches and the
harmonisation of operational policies and procedures.

The CDF approach recognises the private sector’s potential as the main engine of
sustainable growth and a major contributor to poverty reduction. Limited resources
and capacity within the state implies that the role of the private sector in service
delivery is critical. The formulation of a country’s vision and strategy should outline
the private sector’s role and contribution in achieving national development goals. An
important aspect of the role of the private sector is the scope for public-private
partnerships, especially in the delivery of infrastructure and social services.

The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (“NEPAD”) has a significant role to
play in facilitating deeper forms of business, government and donor cooperation. For
example the current African Peer Review Mechanism (“APRM”), which has so far
concentrated on governance issues, can be extended to provide an incentive for
African countries to learn from each other. Along these lines APRM can be utilised to
create competition in policy reforms, as well as informing potential investors and
breaking widespread perceptions about Africa’s Investment environment.


9.1.4 Enlisting the Private Sector into National Development

Private businesses are important in achieving national development goals. Long-term
poverty reduction and national development in developing countries will not occur
without sustained economic growth, which requires a vibrant private sector. In low-
income countries, the majority of the labour force works in rural agriculture, therefore
a powerful route to growth is through a boost in farm productivity and a transition
from subsistence farming to commercial farming. In urban areas the transition should
be from informal employment to formal employment in internationally competitive
manufacturing and services.

Strong public systems are needed to provide human capital and infrastructure needed
for firms to thrive and have access to world markets. The domestic private sector can
support national development by making investments to increase productivity and


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create jobs. In some situations it can assist in rendering support services through
public-private partnerships.

The private sector should furthermore support national development goals by
promoting transparency and corporate governance initiatives, by advocating for the
goals and by engaging responsibly with the government in economic policy
discussions.

As an important demonstration of corporate social responsibility, it is recommended
that large and international businesses, especially those that have signed up to the
Vision 2030 Compact, report their contributions through a Vision 2030 scorecard in
their annual reports.

The capacity of both public and private sector need to be increased if they are to form
effective partnerships. While there is an important role to be played by formal
industry organisations such as chambers of industry, it is necessary to clarify the
capacity building needs of private sector beyond these organisations. The introduction
of realistic but tangible targets to be achieved by the public and private sector can
significantly improve the quality of consultations between the parties and produce
more outcome orientated partnerships. Overall, a culture change is needed whereby
policy makers acknowledge that crucial poverty reduction is the “crowding” in of
private entrepreneurship and investment.

At the implementation stage, the relative sparseness of private sector goals and targets
mean that there is little to gauge the participation and effectiveness of private sector
efforts in achieving the aims of poverty reduction and national development. While
they contain detailed plans and targets with respect to public sector and government
responsibilities, there are no specific targets for the private sector. When included, the
indicators related to industry are overwhelmingly aggregate, such as the growth rate
of manufacturing’s contribution to GDP and of manufacturing employment. For
private enterprises that have an outcome-oriented outlook, the lack of such targets
might mean that no action is undertaken or that the development plans are not taken
seriously at all.

Policies that will ensure long-term sustainable growth spearheaded by the private
sector need to be brought to the core of National Development and Poverty Reduction
Plans.


9.1.5 NPCS Strategic Development Plan

The NDP II’s Mid-term Review indicates that the NPCS’s present structure is
inappropriate for its mandate, functions, workload and circumstances. Other
constraints that have been mentioned in this regard include poor co-ordination and
lack of accountability, inefficiency in plan implementation and management,
ineffectiveness in plan implementation, monitoring and evaluation, lack of
consultation, delay in production of macro-economic framework and late release of
the Auditor General’s Report.



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The collection and analysis of economic and socio-economic information primarily
vests within the mandate of the NPC. National, sectoral and cross-sectoral planning is
dependent on the availability and timely submission of relevant information, which
also guides the monitoring and evaluation phases as a crucial element of strategy
implementation.

Considering the NPCS’s mandate to provide professional and technical services to the
NPC in formulating policies, plans and programmes, as well as to assist in monitoring
their execution, the NPC, in light of the anticipated national development strategy, has
to come-up with a strategic development plan, which will effectively support the
national planning and implementation process.

Whilst not clearly spelled out within the Vision 2030 document, the NPC will
similarly have to establish its own long-, medium, and short-term objectives and
programmes, based on the service requirements and expectations from other line
ministries, as well as its own assessment on the resources required to effectively fulfil
its mandate within the given National Development Process.

Government needs to take note that the role and effective operation of the NPC is
crucial to the national development process, and that capacity and capability building
within the NPC is an important component of the national capacity building process
and priorities.



9.2 ENHANCE AWARENESS, UNDERSTANDING AND BUY-IN
    OF VISION 2030
9.2.1 Current Challenges

Throughout the practise of exercising national development through strategic
planning, the sensitisation and communication of the anticipated development process
is crucial towards fostering community, private and public sector buy-in. Key
challenges which currently affect public support for Vision 2030 is the indicated
limited awareness and understanding of the document and its fundamental principles.

In addition, the theme-based objectives and sub-visions complicate the identification
of specific interventions that can be fostered by non-governmental and private sector
institutions without clear guidelines from Government. Even within the ministries and
other public sector institutions, feedback received from various stakeholders indicated
that the document itself was not sufficiently promoted and explained to the various
parties and that ownership towards this policy document was therefore lacking. Both
public and private sector await clear guidelines from Government when it comes to
the implementation of Vision 2030.




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9.2.2 Key Recommendations

Subject to the identified challenges and complexities of the Vision 2030 document,
the following recommendations are made in terms of fostering ownership and support
for the implementation of Vision 2030:

   1. Apportionment of the Vision 2030 statement and objectives to a level of
      understanding at grass-root level communities. This entails:
         a. Identifying the benefits of Vision 2030 and communicating these to
             local communities and individuals themselves;
         b. Explaining their role and responsibility towards achievement of Vision
             2030 and the rewards which the local community and individuals
             would reap from supporting the implementation of Vision 2030;
         c. Translating the above into the various ethnic languages in Namibia;
         d. Identifying optimal communication media to reach the identified
             communities.

   2. Instigate a public promotion and awareness campaign for Vision 2030, which
      should:
          a. Emphasise the purpose and objectives of the Vision;
          b. Highlight the Vision Statement and Objectives rather than the
              individual theme-based sub-visions and targets;
          c. Enhance the public distribution of the document through local book
              stores, stationers and retail outlets;
          d. Facilitate the free of charge distribution of the summarised Vision
              2030 document through private sector associations, civil society
              organisations, NGOs, regional and local authorities;

   3. Include Vision 2030 within the primary, secondary and tertiary educational
      curricula;

   4. Facilitate Road-shows across the country to foster awareness and
      understanding right down to local community level;

   5. Facilitate discussion sessions and workshops with key implementing
      stakeholders such as the private sector, civil society, development partners etc
      in order to foster understanding, commitment and a clear definition and
      assignment of responsibilities. These need to be conducted on sectoral and
      regional level.

A final step in the effective implementation of Vision 2030 is the recommendation
that government, donors, international organisations and other critical stakeholders
sign a compact committing them towards achieving the Vision. This compact would
be designed to outline how each party will contribute to implementing the identified
objectives. It should be drafted jointly after the Vision 2030 Implementation Strategy
has been carefully reviewed and approved by all partners.




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9.3 KEY CONCEPTS WITHIN THE INDUSTRIALISATION
    PROCESS TO GUIDE PRIORITISATION
9.3.1 Background

The Millennium Declaration poses a major challenge to development thinking and
practice in that it places social objectives upfront. This reflects the conviction that,
particularly in the worst-off countries, social outcomes cannot be expected to result as
an automatic by-product of protracted economic development processes, assuming
that these actually occur.

Economic transformation and industrialisation are largely based on the accumulation
of human and technological Capital. This requires building capabilities and learning,
which in turn leads to higher earnings for a wide spectrum of the population in
increasingly open economies. Hence, reaching minimum thresholds – and indeed, the
MDG’s themselves – can best be seen, not as points of arrival but departure towards
sustainable development, economically, socially and environmentally.

The breakthrough by important developing countries into the global market for
manufacturers has probably been the main structural economic event of the past
quarter-century – and Africa is the main low-income region not to have shared in this
transformation.

Africa’s manufacturing industry has been in decline for two decades. Compounding
this, productivity has been stagnant. Thus the productivity gap between African firms
and those in the rest of the world has steadily widened. If African manufacturing is to
become internationally competitive, either its existing firms will have to experience a
prolonged period of rapid growth, or new firms will have to replace them.
Emperically there seem to be three ways of raising productivity growth: intensifying
domestic competition, providing the necessary incentives and public goods, and
exposing firms to export markets. Just as important, domestic firms also require an
appropriate macro- and micro-economic framework, an incentives regime that
rewards innovation and the supply of public goods needed to offset private under-
investment in human capital, technology and the environment. Without these, trade
liberalisation and increased competition by themselves will just not do.

A variant on the strategy for enhanced productivity at the national level is to integrate
markets on a regional basis. Regional integration will work best where countries are at
similar stages of development, have similarly-sized markets and adopt low external
tariffs. Regional trade integration can sometimes complement a strategy for
integration into international markets, but it also risks shifting industry within the
integrated market from poorer countries to richer countries, and in the process making
the poorest countries even poorer. The strategy of regional integration thus needs to
be judged on a case-by-case basis.

Whilst success in natural-resource economies depends primarily upon improving
governance, in contrast, success in coastal economies depends upon becoming
globally competitive manufacturers.



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9.3.2 Structural Transformation

Structural transformation – specifically the growth of manufacturing and of services –
is a pre-requisite for rapid and sustainable poverty reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa
(“SSA”). To achieve their income poverty Millennium Development Goal, SSA
countries must more than double the rate of per capita income growth achieved in the
last few years. Conversely, economic growth and structural transformation depend on
reaching the MDG threshold themselves.

On their way to attaining the required higher level of economic growth, SSA countries
must undergo three major phases of structural change:

   1. Demographic transition: a reduction in the fertility rate which will reduce the
      denominator in the income per capita indicator, while releasing resources for
      investing in human capital, with the net effect of raising human capital per
      capita.

   2. Structural change in agriculture: via the introduction of better cultivation
      practices including irrigation, use of fertilizer and chemicals, improved seeds,
      mechanisation, agricultural extension services and enhanced rural
      infrastructure. Over time this should lead to increased agricultural output
      driven by higher labour productivity in the farming sector and a reduction of
      the sector’s share in total employment.

   3. Compositional change within manufacturing so that employers can absorb
      surplus labour from the agricultural sector while shifting upmarket from a
      preponderance of low-income elasticity sub-sectors such as food, textiles,
      apparel, footwear and furniture to more capital – and skills intensive activities.
      To counter increased domestic and international competition this industrial
      transformation demands improved skills and capacity to exploit advanced
      technologies, which in turn requires access to improved infrastructure of
      services for the sector, as well as an environment conducive to entrepreneurial
      risk-taking and innovation.




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As countries industrialise, labour shifts from low-productivity agriculture to higher-
productivity manufacturing, whose share of both output and employment increase
rapidly. Declining farm sector employment is offset by technological advances that
raise productivity in agriculture, while the demand for services grows in the
transaction-intensive manufacturing sector.

Successful industrialisation episodes in developing countries are characterised by
increased investment ratios and growing shares of Manufacturing Value Added
(“MVA”) in GDP and of manufactures in total exports. Gradually upgraded
manufactured exports enlarge the scope of the market, boost the rate of return on
investment and provide the foreign exchange needed to finance capital goods and
technology imports. Improved technology enhances productivity thereby facilitating
the penetration of foreign markets. During periods of very rapid growth, industry was
the main source of economy-wide growth in labour productivity.

Most poverty reduction strategy papers make agriculture and rural development the
priority because three quarters of the world’s poor live in rural areas and depend on
agriculture for their livelihood. Experience in high performing economies confirms
that rapid growth in agricultural productivity is a precondition for economic takeoff
and sustained poverty reduction. But the experience of these countries also supports
the view that agricultural growth, especially at the initial stages of development is in
itself a vehicle for facilitating industrialisation. Efforts to promote rural development
and alleviate poverty can be more effective if rural incomes can be raised through
small scale manufacturing activities such as agro-processing. Therefore, the
contribution of agricultural development to poverty reduction in SSA countries should

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take the form of both raising rural incomes directly, while facilitating movement
surplus labour out of agriculture into more productive, higher paid, industrial service
activities. This would involve both productivity and infrastructure enhancement along
with improvements in the health, sanitation, education and property rights of the rural
poor.

Structural change in high performing economies also indicates that poverty reduction
in SSA will not occur in the absence of accelerated industrial and service sector
development.


9.3.3 Main Lessons from High Performing Economies’ Experience

Because the experiences of the High Performing Economies (“HPE”) are so diverse,
there is no single, unique HPE industrialization model that SSA countries can seek to
emulate. However, HPE experience provides a number of important lessons:

   1. Agricultural development is a platform for industrialisation. Linkages with
      agriculture played an important role in some of the SSA’s more industrialised
      countries.

   2. For latecomers the industrialisation process was more capital and skills
      intensive. Given SSA’s resource endowment, this underlines the necessity of
      strengthening the financial infrastructure so that savings can be mobilised
      more effectively than at present, while creating an investment-friendly
      business environment to foster both domestic and foreign investment, while
      government itself invest heavily in infrastructure and skills development.

   3. HPE experience highlights the critical role of manufactured exports. While
      such export-platform success is explained partially by special factors (e.g.
      AGOA) it demonstrates that SSA countries can become significant exporters
      of manufacturers, as have South Africa and Mozambique.

   4. A related lesson (as illustrated by China) is the requirement to maintain
      competitive exchange rates.

   5. Very high levels of underemployment and disguised unemployment in SSA’s
      agriculture offer scope for substantial productivity gains initially in farming
      itself, but subsequently in manufacturing and to a lesser degree, in services, as
      low productivity workers shift into higher productivity secondary and tertiary
      activities.

   6. Adverse initial conditions in SSA countries explain much of the difference
      between growth rates in SSA and those in the HPE’s. The MDG’s amount to a
      bold step by the international community to help producing an accelerated
      improvement on initial conditions.

The overriding conclusion to be drawn from the HPE experience is not just that there
are no shortcuts to industrial growth, but also that carefully crafted country-specific
strategies are required. There is a broad range of policies that were implemented

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successfully in HPE countries, largely focused on private sector led capacity building
in technology and trade.

A common feature of the HPEs is that they started from a small industrial base and
that they specialised internationally in relatively labour intensive manufacturing
activities. HPE experience shows too, that industrialization was facilitated by rapid
growth in agricultural productivity, which released the labour required by industry.
Furthermore, industrial productivity grew more slowly in countries that either took off
earlier or that specialised in resource-intensive industrial activities or in labour-
intensive manufactures. Compositional change – the shift of resources, especially
labour, from low productivity agriculture to higher productivity manufacturing – is
likely to have a strongly positive impact on SSA economies. The combination of
rising productivity in agriculture and the shift of workers into manufacturing,
increases output per worker in the economy as a whole.

While the immediate challenge for SSA countries is to diversify their export
portfolios and reduce reliance on primary commodity exports, it is also essential to
move upmarket into faster-growing export markets for medium – and higher-
technology products. This is more important given the competitive strength of Asian
exporters in labour-intensive manufactured exports.

A further important lesson from HPE experience is the need for heavy investment in
infrastructure, especially given the wealth of evidence showing the severe extent to
which SSA exporters are disadvantaged by high transport costs and inefficient
transport networks.


9.3.4 Financing Industrial Growth

One of the most striking realities about Africa’s failure to industrialise in the last few
decades is that is has been a net exporter of capital. Capital-market development, FDI
and the repatriation of capital are not accorded serious attention in National
Development and Poverty Reduction Plans.

Four priorities for successful industrial development have been identified:

   1. The restructuring of weak, inefficient financial systems;
   2. The development of domestic capital markets;
   3. The encouragement of FDI, not only its contribution to bridging financial and
      foreign exchange gaps, but even more because of the access it provides to
      skills, technology, patents, export markets, networking and production-sharing
      opportunities; and
   4. The promotion of policies to attract African capital that is held abroad back to
      the continent.

The drive to attract FDI reflects, first and foremost, acceptance of private enterprises
as the driving force in economic development, as well as the belief that FDI brings
with it many benefits, such as technology and access to foreign markets. However,
there is a clear complementary correlation between sound micro and macro policies
and the ability to benefit from FDI. The better the standard of education and

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infrastructure, the greater the clarity and observance of property rights, the larger the
gains from any given level of FDI inflow.

EPZs are often a good way to provide the industrial infrastructure for export activity.
Recommendations include:

    Analyse infrastructure deficiencies faced by industry and develop a prioritised
     program to meet the most pressing ones. Involve private sector intimately in
     this analysis and implementation.
    Pool resources with other countries wherever this would lead to the
     development of an efficient infrastructure serving common needs.
    Involve private-sector providers for public services.
    Pay particular attention to the infrastructure needed for technologically
     progressive industries and to ITC needs of exporters.
    Develop efficient EPZs, run private sector lines. Ensure that their procedures
     and facilities match those offered by competitors.


9.3.5 Policy Needs for Industrial Development

Three transitions are at stake in this respect. First the demographic transition
involving substantial fall in fertility rates. This helps reduce the denominator in the
income per capita indicator while releasing resources in the incomer per capital per
head. Second, structural change in agriculture (or the productivity transition) via the
introduction of better cultivation practices. And third, the technological transition, that
is compositional change within manufacturing to absorb surplus labour from the
agricultural sector, while shifting upmarket from low income elasticity sub-sectors to
more capital and skill intensive activities.

This transformation requires capacities to exploit advanced technologies, access to
infrastructure services and an environment conducive to entrepreneurial risk-taking
and innovation. The sum total of these transitions translates into the economy-wide
productivity growth, which is the ultimate growth engine. Successful industrialisation
has long been, and remains, the most powerful engine of structural change and
modernisation.

FDI is still a further potential growth engine to be tapped, particularly in connection
with the diversification of the economies to exploit foreign market opportunities.
Ultimately maximising growth entails paying enough attention to the microeconomic
foundations of development rather than grandiose macroeconomic plans and
strategies. It is this critical mass of multi-dimensional policies and measures, some of
them minor, that will create the underpinnings of wealth creation and sustainable
growth. The challenge for SSA is to move beyond the design of appropriate macro-
economic policies to the implementation of effective microeconomic measures that
foster productivity growth. Attracting FDI, particularly in export orientated activities,
also requires strong local capabilities. Increasingly it also needs efficient local
suppliers and support institutions. SSA countries thus need to do more than open up to
international markets and improve the investment climate if it is to build strong
industrial capabilities. A vigorous supply response can arise only if governments help
develop new product capabilities. In the absence of such policies, the investment

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response of the private sector (local and foreign) is bound to be hesitant and
inadequate.

Increased public sector spending and investment to achieve the MDGs as envisaged in
the National Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers will help to create a platform for
take-off. But take-off will only occur if private enterprise is “crowded in”.

Industrialisation has a critical role to play in helping Africa to raise growth rates.
Productive development is the motive force for applying new technologies to
production and the most important source and carrier of technological innovation. It
creates new skills and work attitudes, catalyses institutional change and fosters
modern entrepreneurship. It is the best means of modernising the export structure and
creating the base for sustained export increase, along with higher wages. Successful
industrialisation helps create the employment that poor economies need as they
release labour from agriculture, both directly and by stimulating the development of
modern services. Indeed, all developed countries have undergone a long period of
industrialisation before they reached levels of income and structural complexity where
they could shift into high-value services.

Not only is much of Africa becoming marginal to the dynamics of the global
economy, but it also shows little sign of a dynamic technological response to the new
challenges. Any strategy to revive industrial growth in Africa must focus on these
structural issues, prominent amongst which are those relating to domestic capability
building and the strengthening of domestic factor markets and the supply of public
goods.

In this regard it is recommended to:

    Conduct more research on and benchmarking of African manufacturing to
     strengthen existing activities;
    Develop a strategy for entering new areas;
    Involve the private sector directly and continuously in development planning;
    Strengthen private sector inputs. The private sector for its part must conduct
     better analysis and propose solutions. It should use business associations,
     think-tanks and other agencies to formulate realistic programs to overcome its
     competitive deficiencies;
    Provide specific targets and deadlines, but be flexible. Flexibility is an
     essential part of any strategy, as technological, market and competitive
     conditions change constantly;
    Enhance public-private partnership in the implementation of strategies; and
    Integrate trade capacity building better into the development strategy.

The development of a strategy for industrial development involves the following
steps:

    Defining a clear national vision of an overall development strategy;
    The development of consensus around an overall development vision, in a
     manner similar to that of Technology Foresight exercises, with the
     involvement of all major stakeholders;


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    Assessing the productive sectors, evaluating their performance in domestic
     and export markets and the main determinants of performance ( the framework
     conditions, human resources, technology, FDI, finance, physical infrastructure
     and support institutions). This is essentially a benchmarking exercise, with
     quantitative and qualitative comparisons benchmarked against selected
     counterparts (within the region, in other developing regions and in more
     advanced countries) to serve as role models;
    Evaluating the support needs of each sector. There are three categories of
     industrial activities: those that do not need additional policy support; those that
     can become competitive with additional support and new activities that will
     conform the economy’s dynamic comparative advantage;
    Designing policies and programs which are bound to allocate limited resources
     to prioritised areas;
    Implementing policies and programs with the full knowledge and cooperation
     of the productive sector, workers and other stakeholders; and
    Monitoring the progress of the strategy, making constant adjustments and
     improving policies as circumstances change. Good strategy builds flexibility
     and policy learning into the process, with constant feedback from the
     stakeholders.


African countries may have to launch their industrialisation on the basis of abundant
low-cost labour force, maximising comparative advantage in labour-intensive
industries at the mature technology stage. At this stage, on the supply side of
technology, it is important to introduce public policies and corporate strategies that
develop sufficient technological capability to undertake imitative reverse engineering
of mature foreign products without infringing intellectual property rights. For this
purpose, human resource development, liberal policy on brain-drain, management of
foreign technology transfer, local efforts to develop capabilities are in order. The
following steps are proposed:

1. Aggressive investments in human resource development, not only at the primary
   education level but also at the secondary and tertiary levels are important
   prerequisite.
2. A liberal brain-drain policy is recommended. Such a policy allows the migration
   of scarce scientists and engineers to advanced countries but sows important seeds
   for the future. Korea and Taiwan benefited most from these scientists and
   engineers abroad at the subsequent stages.
3. Foreign technology transfer through foreign direct investment and licensing is an
   essential source of building knowledge base for developing countries, but does not
   transfer little more than production technologies.
4. It is essential for local firms to develop their own capabilities to strengthen their
   bargaining power in technology transfer and to expedite the assimilation of the
   imported technologies.

On the demand side of technology, export promotion, competition policy and crisis
construction may be useful tools for the governments in Africa to stimulate the
demands for technology and capability.



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These may be applied as follows:

1. Export promotion can be the most influential mechanism to stimulate local efforts
   in building technological capability. For that reason, studies show that countries
   with export-oriented industrialisation grew far faster than those with import-
   substituting industrialisation did.
2. Infant industry protection is necessary for the initial stage of industrialisation, but
   it is essential to deploy policy instruments to ensure competition even in the local
   market.
3. Both the government and corporations can construct crises proactively by
   imposing ambitious goals to expedite technological learning.

Entrepreneurship promotion, balanced industrial structure and effective management
of national innovation system are other important lessons Africa could learn from the
experiences of other developing countries.



9.3.6 The Contribution of Industry Clusters to Industrialisation

Research on industrial and enterprise clusters suggests that the grouping of enterprises
into sectoral and geographic clusters gives rise to a certain collective efficiency that
can enhance competitiveness and foster industrialisation.

Enterprise clustering can affect industrialisation by making it easier for this process of
specialisation and differentiation to take place. When firms undertake related
activities in close geographic proximity, both the immediate environment and the
firms themselves are likely to change. The environment begins to adapt to the
presence of the firms by attracting customers, traders, workers with related skills,
individuals and firms wanting to offer services, and still more enterprises anxious to
benefit form the markets being created. At the most basic level, clustering seems to
encourage information sharing opportunities for learning new techniques and designs.

Clustering appears to have the potential to enable African countries to overcome or
ease some of the barriers to industrial development. By increasing market access,
fostering communication and information sharing, facilitating technological
upgrading, increasing efficiency and contributing to the development of supportive
institutions, clusters can build industrial capacity. In this way clusters can provide
gains not easily available to dispersed enterprises. These gains have been termed
collective efficiency, defined as the competitive advantage derived from local external
economies and joint action.

Clustering clearly facilitates market access and allows some firms to produce their
goods in quantity. Some may then make the transition to factory production, while
others combine craft methods with increasing mechanisation. The fact that the firms
are clustered also encourages associational activity to begin. Such clusters usually
focus on efforts to improve working conditions within the cluster or gain access to
needed supplies. Infrastructure, especially water, electricity and access to roads are
the most basic needs to industrial production. Without them, these clusters are
unlikely to move ahead.
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Many small-enterprise clusters derive in one way or another from the implementation
of government spatial policies barring certain activities from residential areas and
central business districts. There seems plenty of scope for positive interventions at
both policy and programme levels in enterprise clusters. Countries with
industrialisation on their development agenda would do well to enact policies
favourable to cluster formation. Such policies might include incentives for producing
firms of varying sizes to locate within clusters, priority to clusters in infrastructure
decisions and encouragement of associational activity. At the level of programmes,
both government and non-governmental organisations can assist the development of
collective efficiency by providing business ideas and training to encourage the
emergence of specialist producers, traders and service enterprises, or strengthening
cooperation between enterprises. The measures to be considered include: subsidising
visits to trade fairs or joint stands at such fairs, support for standardisation, support for
arbitration services, or fostering cooperation between enterprises through external
assistance.


9.3.7 Building Industrial Capabilities

A new strategy is needed to catalyse development in SSA countries. At its heart is the
building of industrial capabilities, which calls for much more than the obviously
essential triad for better macro management, improved governance and healthy
investment climates. The first step in revitalising SSA industry is to focus on supply-
side policies such as the NEPAD sponsored Productive Capacity Initiative. It must
spell out policies and measures for strengthening capabilities, based on an
understanding of the competitive weaknesses and the institutional needs in each
country. This needs additions to physical capacity; new factories, equipment and so
on. But just building capacities is not the answer to SSA real sector problems. More
important is to build capabilities – to operate plant at competitive levels, raise quality,
introduce new products, upgrade practices and diversify into higher value-added
activities. This also requires investment, but it needs a set of resources more precious
than money: skills, organisation, knowledge, effort and institutions.

Scenarios for institutional and capability development ought to be drawn up as a
necessary supplement to the MDGs and in line with MDG-required growth rates.
Institutional and capability development can, in turn, be expressed in terms of specific
indicative yardsticks, in the same manner as with the MDGs, since, in the last resort,
what underpins such development is the availability of skills and services that are
essentially quantifiable.

Some possible yardsticks include:

     Exports: the overall growth required to achieve the MDGs is associated with
      indicative non-primary export objectives that can be quantified and sought.
      Based on past performance and on the import changes in the global trade
      environment due to take place within the next few years, increasing the share
      of manufactures in total African exports from 33 percent to 50 percent within
      the next decade should be called for.


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     FDI: it is imperative to raise FDI in SSA, both in the industries that add value
      to local resources and in those that expand pure manufacturing exports. It also
      requires better and more focused investment promotion. Resources are needed
      to achieve minimum critical mass in investment promotion activities. The
      share of FDI attracted to SSAs by investment promotion agencies could be
      sought to rise from the current 10% to 25% over the next 10 years.

     Skills: the MDGs have targets for education. Industrial development needs
      more and better general education, but it also needs specific skills geared to
      the capability needs of manufacturing activities, both those already existing
      and new ones that could be introduced. These quantitative indicators call for a
      schedule of improvements to narrow the gap with more advanced developing
      countries, which may consist of tripling the share of scientific and technical
      personnel in enterprises within the next 10 years.

     Technological effort: At SSA’s level of industrial development, formal R&D
      should be quite low – but some should take place and it should grow over
      time, particularly in complex industries. One target would be to take
      enterprise financed R&D spending in 10 years and raise total R&D to 0.6% of
      GDP. Government technology institutions should aim to earn 40% of their
      budgets from selling research and other services to the industry in five years.

In particular, the SSA countries (as well as LDCs elsewhere) need to articulate
coherent packages of policies able to meet two standards: first, to effectively tap
available sources of growth and second, to comply with international agreements
currently in place in order to prevent unnecessary trade frictions – even though there
may be some blurred areas subject to controversy. This approach should render what,
correspondingly, would amount to today’s equivalent of the policy interventions that
led to the recent successful industrialisation experience in Southeast Asia. This, with
the necessary equity considerations, would appear to be the road forward.



9.4 CAPACITY BUILDING AS UNDERLYING PRIORITY FOR
    LONG-TERM PLANNING
9.4.1 Impact on National Development

When a country’s capital stock (including physical, natural and human capital) is too
low, the economy is unproductive. Without private saving, public investment and
foreign investment, there is no improvement in productivity. With brain-drain,
population growth, environmental degradation and ongoing risk of violence, the
situation continues to degenerate. The key to escaping the poverty trap is to raise the
economy’s capital stock to the point where the downward spiral ends and self-
sustaining economic growth takes over.

Low income countries are urged to increase their own resource mobilisation for
national development and poverty reduction by devoting budget revenues to priority
investments. In countries where governance is adequate but domestic resources are


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not, additional resource mobilisation could be fostered through the enhanced support
of international development partners.

Advances in science and technology allow societies to mobilize new resources of
energy and materials, fight disease, improve and diversify agriculture, mobilize and
disseminate information, transport people and goods with greater speed and safety,
limit family size as desired and much more. These technologies require enormous
social investments in education, scientific discovery and targeted technological
projects. Any strategy to meet national development and poverty reduction plans
requires a special global effort to build scientific and technological capacities. A focus
should be on strengthening institutions of higher education. A special global effort is
also required to direct research and development towards specific challenges facing
the poor.

The most complex and demanding aspect of capability building lies in strengthening
the factor markets and institutions that enterprises draw upon to build internal
capabilities. There are several markets involved, those of human capital, technology
supportive infrastructure, broader infrastructure, industrial development and a
sustainable environment.

Building strategic capabilities is perhaps the most challenging task in mounting
development strategy. As countries come to converge in terms of framework
conditions – good macro management, open trade and investment regimes, lower
business costs and good investment climates – the real competitive edge will lie in the
ability of governments to design and implement strategies to support capability
building and productivity improvement.

Building capabilities, not capacities, is the essence of industrial success. The main
need therefore is for skills, information and technology, brought together in forms that
allow a low income and developing country to fully exploit its late-latecomer
advantages in competitive markets.

The pervasive nature of the way that infrastructure stimulates economic activity is
manifested in various causal effects that flow from an increased level of public sector
capital expenditures. The most important ones relate to poverty alleviation (due to the
enhanced provision of access to markets), facilitation of future growth in key
industries (especially tourism), increased employment, a direct and indirect
contribution to GDP, and the generation of fiscal revenue for government.
It is recommended, therefore, that an agenda be prepared by all the stakeholders in the
infrastructure sectors to resolve any maintenance and construction backlogs, and to
identify new projects that possess the potential to provide basic services, whilst
simultaneously enhancing the country’s taxation base. The latter issue cannot be over-
emphasized. Macro-economic impact assessments of any particular infrastructure
project will clearly reveal the presence or absence of sustained economic benefits that
may outweigh the associated costs to the fiscus.

In the event of projects being funded through a combination of fiscal resources, grant
funding and concessional loans, these benefits will tend to be far greater than the

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costs. Any new infrastructure project should ideally involve cost-benefit analyses and
a concerted public-private sector partnership approach to local economic
development. The latter should draw upon the resources of local economies that exist
within Namibia and channel them into integrated national development programmes.


9.4.2 Science, Technology and Innovation

The MDGs make clear the need to invest in science, technology and innovation since
technological advance is the long-term driving force of development and economic
growth. Basic investments in communication infrastructure are often a precondition
for private investment and support to research institutions can foster breakthroughs in
technology. Governments can facilitate the generation, use and diffusion of
knowledge by building capacity for scientific research and technological learning.
Public interventions can also play a catalytic and supportive role for promoting
technological and scientific innovation by business enterprises.

African countries have generally lagged behind other regions in developing explicit
science and technology (S&T) strategies and in providing technological support to
industrial enterprises. Infrastructure serves as a strategic foundation for economic
transformation in general and the application of technology to development in
particular. It is an essential element of the long-term development efforts and should
include direct links with human resource development, enterprise creation and R&D.

Recommendations on the technology infrastructure include:

    Promote a “technology culture” in private enterprises through measures like
     fiscal incentives, subsidized credit, and venture-capital provision, as well as
     through persuading enterprises of the need for greater technological effort, and
     for many a change in management outlook, work practices and resource
     allocation.

    Raise awareness of quality needs, systems and techniques. Base this on
     detailed analysis of enterprise practices and gaps, benchmarked against
     international standards.

    Improve the infrastructure for metrology, standards, testing and quality
     (MSTQ), ensuring that industries have access to accredited facilities for
     testing, certification and calibration.

    Strengthen the R&D base in the public sector and universities, improving their
     equipment, skills, access to information and interactions with similar bodies
     abroad.

    Associate R&D institutions and universities more closely with industry by
     using catalytic programs to fund enterprise research contracts and induce
     institutions to earn more by selling services to industry.

    Improve SME extension services and set up productivity centres.

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Many processing activities need advanced capital- and skills-intensive technologies to
meet the rigorous standards of export markets. Food products are particularly
demanding because of the sanitary requirements. Sub-Saharan African (“SSA”)
countries cannot industrialise using their ample resources unless they develop the
capabilities to handle such complex technologies efficiently.

Building technological capabilities is a critical element of structural change in SSA
countries. This entails not only the capacity to adopt conventional technologies, which
play a significant role in earlier stages of industrial development, but also the building
of capabilities to respond to challenges and opportunities presented by emerging
technologies. The ability to tap into advanced technologies can improve productivity
dramatically in all sectors as well as enhancing governance. The ability to utilize
advanced technologies at the enterprise level requires building capabilities and
networks between public institutions such as universities and vocational training
centres, industry support organisations and R&D, and other sectors such as banking.

There is a common misconception that R&D and technological foresight activities are
luxuries that SSA countries cannot afford. However, R&D is critical to adopting
technologies as well as to keep abreast of new technologies as they emerge.

The adoption, adaptation and eventually innovation related to technological upgrading
require the ready availability of a certain skill pool. The achievement of the MDG’s
require an important impetus to the provision of the necessary skill pool. Achieving
universal primary schooling and ensuring gender equality in secondary education will
help to create the base for improving tertiary education. In this respect, it is advisable
that SSA governments devise a strategy in stages for the medium-to long-term,
starting with improving basic skills and gradually building up more capacity in
advanced education and training. A viable strategy requires, along with the
strengthening of the educational base, substantial investments to improve the existing
capabilities of the scientists, public and private research personnel and entrepreneurial
firms in SSA countries and improve the links between them. SSA countries must
strengthen industrial capabilities, regardless of its ownership, resource base or
technology levels, within feasible patterns of competitive specialisation.

An industrial development strategy also needs to pay attention to the supply of non-
financial services, especially those aimed at entrepreneurial technological institutions
to deliver support services to industry; and business consortia to improve access to
markets, finance and input factors.

The widespread use of modern standards, backed by certification from accredited
laboratory facilities and metrology service providers is a key requirement for
industrial development. This is vital to the diffusion of technology and the upgrading
of quality to competitive levels. Private participation in the provision of metrology,
standards, testing and quality institutions should be encouraged.

Much of Research and Development (“R&D”), even in industrialised countries, goes
into absorbing and adapting new technologies and keeping track of technological
changes in the world. The successful countries in East Asia invest significantly in
R&D, both in the enterprise sector and in the government, to fuel the technological
upgrading that their export competitiveness requires. African governments have not

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given much priority to industrial research, in private and public institutions. The
strengthening of technological activity by institutions thus requires policies to
promote enterprise Research and Development (“R&D”). This is partly about offering
fiscal incentives, tax credits or subsidized credit to enterprises to contract R&D
institutions.


9.4.3 Public Management Systems

The 10-year National Development Framework should include provisions for
establishing effective public accountability mechanisms to ensure proper and effective
use of government resources and development assistance. The accountability
mechanisms serve two purposes:

    They put rigorous accounting and reporting systems in place to identify
     exactly how funds have been spent, thereby increasing accountability to
     development partners; and

    They provide opportunities for public participation and external review and
     consequently empower constituencies to examine their governments’ actions.

Public management systems comprise the set of people, institutions, and procedures
that allow government and public administration to function. These systems critically
depend on policy decisions about how systems should be organised and managed, as
well as clear definitions of responsibility and lines of accountability. Clear
accountability chains and feedback mechanisms are also part of this central policy
guidance. In this regard ministries of finance and planning and other cross-sectoral
government bodies will need to make specific investments to support the scale-up of
public services. These investments include financial and accounting systems to allow
governments to allocate public funds and track spending, central statistics and record
keeping to allow countries to maintain accountability for results to citizens and donors
and to make midcourse corrections, and legislative systems to strengthen the rule of
law, protect human rights, protect property rights, streamline and simplify
administrative processes and fight corruption.


9.4.4 Building Human Capital

Empirical research confirms the fact that most developing countries are following the
universal trend of moving to a post-industrial economy, where the services sectors are
the dominant generators of Gross Value Added and employment. In general, skills
requirements in the tertiary sector of the economy exhibit a strong demand for
graduates.

International agencies that are responsible for the rating of countries in terms of
perceived competitiveness levels invariably utilise data pertaining to higher education
to assess overall competitiveness. The standards of tuition as well as the numbers of
graduates in high value-added professions feature strongly in the composition of such
competitiveness indicators.

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It is quite clear that high skills levels augment a country’s ability to increase the rate
of economic growth and also to meet the challenges of development. Appropriate
skills development initiatives have proven to accelerate the process of economic value
creation in virtually all of the world’s free enterprise democracies, with Ireland,
Germany, South Korea and India representing particularly good examples. Namibia
could benefit from a more pro-active policy stance towards skills development in
general, and higher education, in particular. This could become manifested in amore
flexible approach towards migration policies, especially where imported skills are
also incentivised to become involved in skills transfer initiatives.

Recommendations on building human capital include:

    Raise the quantity and improve the quality of formal education, especially at
     the secondary and tertiary level, increasing the focus on technical,
     entrepreneurial and managerial skills.

    At the industrial level conduct a comprehensive audit of skill needs and
     continue such surveys on a regular basis.

    Ensure effective interaction between employers and training institutions.

    Improve the functioning of skills levy systems and make their operations
     credible and relevant to the industry.

    Launching training institutions directly linked with and in some cases
     managed by industry. Encourage industry associations by incentives and risk
     sharing to set up training centres. Involve private training providers in all
     schemes where their product meets the relevant standards and, where
     necessary, establish standard setting bodies.

    Promote enterprise training by information and persuasion and, where
     desirable, by incentives and establishment of institutions and programs.

    Support SMEs by providing special information and incentive programs to
     recruit better-trained labour and to invest in formal training.



9.5 ALIGNING STRUCTURE TO STRATEGY
9.5.1 Integration with existing National Planning Processes

The Vision 2030 Implementation Strategy needs to be integrated into existing
government programs and planning processes. The overall planning framework needs
to ensure that effective structures are in place to foster effective strategy
implementation.



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The programme based planning process requires the effective interaction of a wide
range of stakeholders within the planning and implementation process. The
implementation structure as such should provide for cross-sectoral interaction, cross-
functional interaction within the line ministry, as well as effective interaction with
external stakeholders.

The inter-ministerial planning structure should as such consider the following
structural alignment proposals:

   1. Establishment of a project co-ordinating team in the form of the Inter-Agency
      Technical Committee;

   2. Engaging in cross-sectoral coordination through the establishment of a project
      steering committee representing relevant public sector and external
      stakeholders; and

   3. Establishment of Cross-functional Task Teams, consisting of inter-
      departmental and inter-ministerial planning units.




Within the above structure emphasis should be placed on dual reporting on project
and ministerial level and enhanced co-operation between inter-ministerial directorates
and divisions.

This structural alignment will offer a prospective outlook into the effectiveness of the
existing ministerial structures and as to whether the mandate of individual ministries

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would need to be reconsidered over the long-term, considering the scope and
involvement of each ministry within the overall Vision 2030 objectives.


9.5.2 Ministerial Strategic Plans

The Office of the Prime Minister is establishing a clear drive for the establishment of
Strategic Plans at Ministerial and Regional Authority Level. The key aim of these
internal strategic plans is to foster implementation planning and execution through a
coordinated process. The internal Strategic Plan should link ministerial objectives,
strategies and programmes to the corresponding sector-based goals, objectives and
strategies as outlined within the NDPs and the corresponding Sector Support
Programmes. It will provide a clear guideline on the ministerial operational, financial
and human resource requirements to foster effective programme implementation in
line with medium and long-term national development objectives and Vision 2030.


9.5.3 Decentralisation

The Decentralisation Policy was established with the aim of ensuring economic,
cultural and socio-economic development, and providing people at grass root level
with the opportunity to participate in their own decision making and extending
democracy to them as a right based on national ideals and values.

The policy itself is aimed at devolution over the long-term, and is based on the
concept that it is the prerogative of the state to decide upon the scope and timeframe
of the decentralisation functions.

Considering the key objectives of the decentralisation process of extending,
enhancing and guaranteeing participatory democracy, as well as to improve the
capacity of regional and local government councils and settlement advisory
committees to plan, implement, manage and monitor service delivery, the
decentralisation process is a critical tool in fostering effective national development
planning and implementation.

In line with the Vision 2030 Implementation Strategy Framework, it needs to be
considered how the implementation of the Decentralisation Policy will speed up and
enhance Vision 2030 implementation, and to what extend this policy needs to be
realigned in order to accommodate the recommended planning and implementation
processes.



9.6 ALLOCATING RESPONSIBILITIES AND REWARDS
9.6.1 Focus on Development Results

One of the four main principles of an effective national development framework is the
focus on and accountability for development results. In part, limited progress could
also be explained by the lack of monitoring capacity, frequent lack of baseline data,
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weak capacity to select appropriate goals and a lack of country ownership of
monitoring systems.

Very few countries have adequate development coordination information systems or a
formal mechanism to track development results, whilst very few are making
development information accessible in a transparent manner to all stakeholders.
Public demand for transparency and greater accountability of governments towards
their people and to the larger global community continues to increase. Countries
continue to require concerted support to develop monitoring and evaluation capacity,
which is consistent with domestic reporting on development results and for decision
making processes. Public-private partnerships may offer important means to bridge
capacity gaps in this regard.

A clear focus on development results requires:

    The setting of clear national and sectoral targets in line with medium and long-
     term goals;
    Establishing specific indicators to assess performance;
    Establishing baseline information on current conditions to have a basis for
     tracking progress through the indicators; and
    Defining intermediate targets that can help government to manage for
     development results.

Results focused strategic planning processes require a significant build-up of
statistical capacity in many of its dimensions (methods, collection, processing,
analysis, independence, transparency). Equally important is the close integration of
quantitative data with policy analysis, formulation and implementation through
monitoring and evaluation stages.


9.6.2 Transparency

A fully transparent process permits an open national dialogue about policy priorities,
intervention strategies, interim milestones, target groups and so forth. The analysis
needs to be explicitly shared with all stakeholders and made available for public
review.


9.6.3 Fostering Accountability

There are a number of initiatives taken across government to improve efficient
performance such as the Office of the Prime Minister running the Performance
Management Programme (“PEMP”) and the Cabinet Secretariat having established a
Policy Evaluation Section (“PES”). Where required, these programmes need to be
amended in order to accommodate the additional planning steps in form of the 10-
year National Development Framework.

The Performance and Effectiveness Management Programme was started during 1998
with the aim of changing an input-orientated public service culture towards a results-
based output orientated approach.

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The close link between PEMP and the Medium Term Expenditure Framework has
culminated in the integration of the two processes into the Medium Term Plan
programme based budget process. The budgeting process has correspondingly been
changed from a structural line item basis towards a focus on development objectives,
programmes and outcome-based performance data. Line ministries are now required
to present the PEMP data as a mandatory part of their Budget Submission.

The underlying principle in fostering accountability is achieved by linking
performance to incentives. Unless responsible individuals are penalised or rewarded
for achievement of stated objectives and effective implementation of programmes,
accomplishment of the Vision in 2030 is destined to fail.



9.7 MONITORING PROGRESS TOWARDS VISION 2030
9.7.1 Progress Measurement and Objective Realignment

A crucial element to successful strategy implementation is the clear focus on
development results. Whilst throughout the Vision 2030 Implementation Framework
relevant targets and performance indicators will be linked to all sector-based planning
cycles (i.e. long-term, medium-term, programme and budget cycles), progress
tracking, monitoring and evaluation of achievements of theme-based Vision 2030
objectives and sub-visions also needs to be conducted on a continuous basis.

The Vision in itself, as well as its implementation, is a process that will evolve over
time. In light of the development of the global economy, Namibia needs to re-
establish its competitive and economic position continuously in order to ensure
successful development. As the goalposts for Vision 2030 shift through external
development requirements (globalisation, MDG Compact etc), the effectiveness of
development interventions needs to be assessed continuously to ensure that progress
is made in the right direction.

Monitoring actual results against the theme-based objectives and sub-visions will
offer a clear indication of whether the established long-term sectoral objectives,
strategies and targets have been defined correctly. The corresponding monitoring of
long-term sectoral objectives and targets will evaluate whether Vision 2030 objectives
are attainable and realistic given the country’s available resource base.



9.7.2 Assign Vision 2030 Implementation Task Team

The proposed Vision 2030 Implementation Strategy requires the commitment and
authority of an independent party, which is able to direct and enforce proposed
planning and implementation guidelines. Transparency, accountability, participatory
approaches and progress reporting are key considerations in fostering country
ownership and support for the implementation of Vision 2030. Best practice
guidelines require that external stakeholders are not only included within the planning
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process, but also within the monitoring and evaluation activities, as strategic
realignments are based on actual outcomes and identified capacity constraints.

Considering the NPC’s constitutional mandate, the task of guiding and monitoring the
implementation of Vision 2030 automatically vests within the Commission.

The currently established structure to guide the Vision 2030 implementation process
is composed of the following three committees:

   1. The Vision 2030 and MDG Guiding Coalition is tasked with the overall
      responsibility of formulating the Vision 2030 Implementation Strategy. Its
      detailed tasks include the internalisation of Vision 2030 to foster awareness
      and understanding, mobilisation of political support, enhancing the
      participatory process through stakeholders’ workshops, enhancing dialogue
      and consensus, formulating the Vision 2030 Implementation Strategy and
      guiding NDP development.

   2. The Technical Team provides the technical, day-to-day support and
      assistance to the Guiding Coalition in the form of advice on key strategies and
      issues considered relevant to the formulation of Vision 2030 implementation,
      integrating stakeholders’ input into the Vision 2030 implementation strategy,
      assisting in the compilation of the NDPs, contributing to national dialogue on
      the Vision 2030 Implementation Strategy and NDP formulation, and serving
      as secretariat for the Guiding Coalition.

   3. The Thematic Working Groups are not established to date, but their key
      mandate is to spearhead the formulation of NDPs.

Without reshuffling the existing national planning structures and formations, the
Vision 2030 Implementation Strategy identifies additional planning and
implementation tasks, which need to be accommodated within the NPC. The
following recommendations in terms of the institutional planning and implementation
framework are made:

   1. Extend the mandate of the Technical Team with the facilitation of the entire
      Vision 2030 Realignment Process in collaboration with proposed
      Development Area Committees and the Thematic Working Groups;

   2. Establish Priority Development Area Committees (preferably in consideration
      of the newly established PEAC), which will guide and co-ordinate the required
      inputs, programmes and funding in priority areas and assign responsibility to
      relevant sectors that need to contribute towards these development areas;

   3. Reintegrate the Inter Agency Committee on Macro-economic Planning
      (IACMP) comprising of members of the NPC, BoN and MoF into the overall
      Vision 2030 Implementation and National Planning process;

   4. Assign the responsibility of the formulation and evaluation of the 10 year
      Development Frameworks and the NDPs to the Thematic Working Groups;


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   5. Assign sectoral short-term progress evaluation to the relevant line ministries
      with reporting requirements to the Technical Team;

   6. Ensure public participation throughout the entire planning and evaluation
      process; and

   7. Foster close collaboration between the Priority Development Area
      Committees, the IACMP, the Thematic Working Groups and the Technical
      Team under the umbrella of the Guiding Coalition.



9.7.3 Establishment of a Regional Development Agency (RDA) for
      Namibia

The Terms of Reference for the Namibia Vision 2030 Implementation Strategy
Project clearly identifies the need to adopt practical approaches towards the design
and implementation of Namibia’s National Development Plans. Mindful of this
requirement, the Research Team conducted an investigation into the feasibility of
establishing a Regional Development Agency (“RDA”) for Namibia and to provide a
framework for the design of an appropriate RDA model.

The business model that has been proposed for future consideration (or further
research) is based on a best practice analysis, consisting of seven different case
studies involving the successful implementation of local economic development
(“LED”) programmes under the auspices of an institutionalised development agency.
The Research Team is of the opinion that the establishment of a Namibia Regional
Development Agency (“NRDA”) has the potential to streamline and consolidate
various LED initiatives that are currently embodied in the NDP. As such it also has
the potential to assist the Namibian Government in realising certain of the objectives
of Vision 2030.

In conducting the research, the following potential advantages of an RDA were
identified:

    Coordination and integration of other institutions and associations around a
     shared national vision of local economic development
    Employment creation
    Expansion of the tax base at regional and national level
    Promotion of small, medium and micro enterprises (SMMEs), inter alia
     through the development of an entrepreneurial culture and various tangible
     support measures
    Strengthening the comparative advantages inherent in endogenous resources


A comparison between the utilisation of public sector agencies and a separate RDA as
vehicles for the implementation of LED initiatives often reveals an inherent

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superiority of the latter option. Key reasons for this finding are related to the fact that
such agencies have less bureaucratic structures and are often managed along free
enterprise principles.

An RDA also has the advantage of being apolitical in its approach towards
development and only focusing on the requirements for the successful implementation
of viable projects. The latter approach is usually guided very strongly by appropriate
and on-going research into development alternatives, as well as the conducting of
cost-benefit analysis prior to launching a project.



9.7.4 Overview of Review Process

The NDPs and the 10-year NDFs comprise of complementary medium-, and long-
term national objectives and strategies. The importance of each NDP and each year
within the respective NDP toward the establishment of Vision 2030 can not be
undermined. Non-performance of an individual programme will negatively affect the
achievement of long-term Vision 2030 objectives and extend the timeframe for the
accomplishment of these.

It is therefore imperative to include mechanisms for regular review follow-up in terms
of the identified planning tools, but also on a project based level. Mid-term
evaluations of projects and development plans ensures that the implementation
progresses according to plan and monitors any discrepancies which need to be
realigned prior to completion of the project. Terminal evaluation will be conducted
once the project is completed in order to assess whether the implementation has
achieved the desired outcomes. The same principle applies to reviewing the medium
and long-term national development plans (i.e NDP and 10-year NDFs).

The formal review process will include:

   1. Financial monitoring – assessment of efficiency with which the resources
      invested in the project were used.

   2. Physical monitoring – review of activities undertaken within a project to
      ensure it achieves the stated objectives.

   3. Impact monitoring – achievement of state objectives.



9.7.5 Progress Reporting System

A critical success factor for effective national development strategy implementation
relates to the mechanisms for monitoring and periodically reviewing progress on
development outcomes. Regular monitoring of key development indicators in a
systematic evaluation process offers the opportunity to make mid-course corrections
and will inform the strategies for the next national development plan. Likewise,

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investments in statistical capacity may be needed to standardise the collection,
processing and use of relevant statistical data.

In addition, the NDPs and the NDFs will need to be periodically revised in light of the
pace of progress toward these medium and long-term objectives, the observed
effectiveness of interventions and the cost of implementing them. The Development
Planning Manual for Namibia, although outdated in some aspects, offers valid
guidelines and fundamental principles for project and strategy evaluation procedures.
However, the overall progress reporting system and methodology needs to be clearly
defined and linked to the proposed planning and implementation system.

The NPCS has continued to publish its Annual Progress Report (“APR”) as a means
to assess progress made in achieving the objectives and targets and as a tool in
monitoring the implementation of the NDPs. The additional Machinery for Plan
Implementation, Monitoring and Progress Reporting (“MPIMPR”), which serves as
guide to all plan implementers is still to be utilised.

In addition, Government has conducted the Public Expenditure Tracking Survey
(PETS) in identified Ministries, and which is aimed at providing an in-depth analysis
of whether public expenditure meets its objectives, thereby correlating expenditures
with results from these public sectors. This system should be applied to and
implemented at all sectors.

All of the above-mentioned progress reporting mechanisms need to be aligned and
integrated into the proposed national planning and implementation framework in
order to ensure the utilisation of an effective progress reporting system. The obtaining
of key and relevant economic and socio-economic information is a prerequisite and
integrated part of such an effective reporting system.



9.7.6 Enhancing Planning and Implementation Capabilities

Section 9.1.5 outlines the importance of the compilation of a strategic development
plan for the National Planning Commission, both in terms of their mandate to foster
effective national planning and strategy implementation within the national planning
process, as well as from an internal resource management and deployment
perspective.

Throughout the first half of NDP II lack of capacity has continued to be one of the
key factors that seriously constrained the effective planning as well as the
implementation and monitoring of national development plans. This refers to both
human resource and statistics development.

A detailed strategy needs to be designed to ensure that NPC is able to fulfil its
mandate in terms of planning and implementation requirements effectively. The
Capacity Building for Development Planning Programme has already been
established and could considerably assist in this regard. Insufficient planning,
monitoring and control will doom the best strategic plans and national development
ambitions.

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This strategy needs to take cognisance of the following:

   1. The scope and availability of planning supportive information and data;

   2. The human, technological and financial resource capabilities required to
      facilitate the identified planning and implementation services;

   3. The identification of the resource gap and a consecutive strategy to fill the
      gap:
         a. Considering outsourcing of data collection, collation and analysis
             functions;
         b. Considering public-private partnerships with established private and
             public research institutions; and
         c. Considering the reallocation of some project and medium-term
             planning and evaluation functions to the line ministries.




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10 REFERENCES


10.1 LIST OF EXTERNAL MATERIAL REFERENCES

Republic of Namibia, Namibia Vision 2030: Policy Framework for Long-Term
National Development, Office of the President (2004);

Government of the Republic of Namibia, Second National Development Plan,
National Planning Commission (2001);

Government of the Republic of Namibia, Mid-Term Review of the Second National
Development Plan, National Planning Commission (2005);

United Nations Industrial Development Organisation, Capability Building for
Catching-Up, Industrial Development Report (2005);

United Nations Industrial Development Organisation, Industrialisation,
Environment and the Millennium Development Goals in Sub-Saharan Africa,
Industrial Development Report (2004);

United Nations Millennium Project, Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to
achieve the Millennium Development Goals, United Nations Development
Programme (2005);

United Nations Millennium Project, Preparing National Strategies to Achieve the
Millennium Development Goals: A Handbook, Report to the UN Secretary General
(2005);

Office of the President, Namibia 2004 Millennium Development Goals, National
Planning Commission (2004);

Dr. Godwin D. Mjema, Strategic Long-Term Planning and Policy Management:
Some Reflections from Tanzania;

Dorothy McCormick, Enterprise Clusters in Africa: On the Way to
Industrialisation?, University of Nairobi (1998);

Centre of Business Analysis and Research, Controversies of Globalisation,
University of Australia (2000);

Republic of Namibia, Discussion Paper for 2005 Cabinet Retreat: Economic
Growth and Sustainable Development, National Planning Commission (2005);

Republic of Namibia, Development Planning Manual for Namibia, National
Planning Commission (1993);


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World Bank Institute, Comprehensive Development Framework: Implementation
Experience in Low- and Middle-Income Countries, Comprehensive Development
Framework Secretariat (2001);

World Bank Institute, Comprehensive Development Framework: Meeting the
Promise, Comprehensive Development Framework Secretariat (2001);

World Bank Institute, A Vision of the Future and Country Competitiveness: An
Integrated Approach, Djordjija Petkoski (2001);

World Bank Institute, Botswana Towards Prosperity for All: A Comprehensive
Development Framework Profile, Operations Policy and Country Services;

World Bank Institute, Mauritius: One Nation, One Destiny: A Comprehensive
Development Framework Profile, Operations Policy and Country Services;

World Bank Institute, Supporting Development Programs Effectively: Applying
the Comprehensive Development Framework, Operations Policy and Country
Services (2004);

Bank of Namibia, Private Equity: Lessons for Namibia, Research Department
(2005);

National Planning Commission, Summary Report on the Donor Round Table
Conference of Namibia’s Second National Development Plan, (2003);

Namibian Economic Policy Research Unit, A Social Accounting Matrix for
Namibia, (2002);

Bank of Namibia, Namibia Macro-Economic Model (NAMEX), Research
Department (2005);

International Monetary Fund, Namibia: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix,
IMF Country Report, Washington (2005);

SWAPO Party, Election Manifesto 2004: SWAPO’s Plan of Action for Peace,
Unity and Sustainable Development (2004);

SWAPO Party, SWAPO Party Leadership Strategic Planning: Agriculture the
Mainstay of the Namibian Economy, (2005);

Office of the President, Sectoral Planning Guidelines, National Planning
Commission website, (2005);

Meat Board of Namibia, Planning Session 19/05/05: The Way Forward and Time
Frames, (2005);

The Namibian Agronomic Board, Strategic Planning Process: Plans for the
following 5 years in line with Vision 2030, (2006);


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The Namibian Agronomic Board, Toward a Vision 2030 for the Agronomic
Industry in Namibia, (2006);

Electricity Control Board, The Application of Vision 2030 to the ECB, (2006);



10.2 LIST OF INTERVIEWED STAKEHOLDERS

 Office/Entity/ Institute                                     Key Discussion Partner

 Office of the President                                      His Excellency Hifikepunye Pohamba
                                                              Hon. Minister of Presidential Affairs:
                                                              Dr A. Kawana
 Presidential Economic Advisory Council                       Mr D. Nuyoma, Mr A. Mushimba,
                                                              Ambassador Tonata Itenge-Emvula,
 Office of the Prime Minister                                 Honourable Prime Minister: N.
                                                              Angula
 Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry                  Hon. Deputy Minister: P. Smit

 Ministry of Defence                                          Permanent Secretary: P. Shivute

 Ministry of Education                                        Hon. Minister: N. Mbumba

 Ministry of Environment & Tourism                            Hon.    Minister:      W.    Konjore,
                                                              Permanent Secretary: Dr M. Lindeque
 Ministry of Finance                                          Hon. Deputy Minister: T. Tweya
                                                              Permanent Secretary: C. Schlettwein
 Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources                   Hon. Minister: Dr. A. Iyambo

 Ministry of Foreign Affairs            Hon. Minister: M. Hausiko
                                        Permanent Secretary: Mr V. Nghiwete
 Ministry of Gender, Equality and Child Divisional Directors and Deputy
 Welfare                                Directors
 Ministry of Health and Social Services Permanent Secretary: Dr. K. Shangula

 Ministry of Home Affairs and Immigration                     Hon. Minister: R. Nghidinwa
                                                              Hon Deputy Minister: T. Mushelenga
                                                              Permanent Secretary: S. Goagoseb
 Ministry of Information and Broadcasting                     Hon. Minister: N. Nandi-Ndaitwah

 Ministry of Justice and Attorney General                     Hon. Minister and Attorney General:
                                                              P. Iivula-Iithana
 Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare                        Hon. Minister: A !Naruseb

 Ministry of Lands and Resettlement                           Permanent Secretary: F. Tsheehama




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 Ministry of Mines and Energy               Hon. Minister: Dr E. Nghitima
                                            Hon. Deputy Minister: H. Ya Kasita
 Ministry of Regional and Local Government, Hon. Minister: J.A. Pandeni
 Housing and Rural Development
 Ministry of Safety and Security            Permanent Secretary : P. Mwatile:

 Ministry of Trade and Industry                                Hon. Minister: I. Ngatjizeko

 Ministry    of    Works,   Transport   and Mr P. Amunyela, Mr J. Shipepe, Mr
 Communication                               K. Kathindi, Mr K. Kauaria
 Ministry of Youth, National Services, Sport Hon. Minister: J. Mutorwa
 and Culture
 National Planning Commission                Hon. Director General: H. Angula

 Public Service Commission                                     Mr Shihepo

 Council of Churches                                           Rev. P. Strydom

 German Agency for Technical Co-operation                      Ms C. Kalle

 Central Governance Agency                                     Mr L. Uaandja

 Development Bank of Namibia                                   Mr D. Nuyoma

 Namibia Financial Institutions Supervisory Ms L. Brand
 Board
 Bankers’ Association of Namibia            Mr T. Mberirua

 Institute for Public Policy Research                          Mr D. Mutinga

 Labour Resource and Research Institute                        Mr H. Jauch

 Namibia Chamber of Commerce and Industry                      Representatives of the Board: Ms I.
                                                               Zaamwani, Mr J. Mandy, Adv. V.
                                                               Rukoro
 African Development Foundation                                Mr I.M.U. Dempers

 Namibian Qualifications Authority                             Mr F. Gertze

 Namibia Economic Policy Research Unit                         Mr K. Schade

 Namibian Stock Exchange                                       Mr J. Mandy

 Air Namibia                                                   Mr K. H. Egumbo

 Electricity Control Board                                     Mr S.C. Simasiku



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 Government Institutions’ Pension Fund                       Mr P. Hangu

 Meat Board of Namibia                                       Mr P. Strydom

 Meat Corporation of Namibia                                 Mr P. Stoffberg

 Namibia Broadcasting Corporation                            Mr S.M. Simataa

 Namibia Ports Authority                                     Mr S. Kankondi

 Namibia Post Ltd                                            Mr S. H. Nghikembua

 Namibia Tourism Board                                       Mr G. Shilongo

 National Union for Namibian Workers                         Mr Kaaronda

 National Housing Enterprise                                 Mr V. Hailulu

 National Youth Council of Namibia                           Ms J. Kavetuna

 Namibian Agronomic Board                                    Mr C. Brock

 Namibia Power Corporation                                   Dr L. Hangala

 Bank of Namibia                                             Mr I.W. Shiimi

 University of Namibia                                       Dr. Hinu Mu Ashekele
                                                             Prof. G.E Kiangi
 The Chamber of Mines of Namibia                             Mr V. Malango
                                                             Mr M.T Dawe
 United Nations Development Programme                        Mr S. Levine

 Economist                                                   Mr R. Ritter

 European Union Office in Namibia                            Mr E. Loher




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11 ANNEXURES


11.1 ANNEXURE A – SUMMARY OF SUBVISIONS

                                          NAMIBIA VISION 2030

   A PROSPEROUS AND INDUSTRIALISED NAMIBIA, DEVELOPED BY HER HUMAN
      RESOURCES, ENJOYING PEACE, HARMONY AND POLITCAL STABILITY

                           Ensure that Namibia is a fair, gender responsive, caring and
   Objective # 1           committed nation, in which all citizens are able to realise their
                           full potential, in a safe and decent living environment

                                                              Sub-vision
Inequalities       and     Population Age and         Namibia is just, moral, tolerant and safe society
social welfare             Sex Distribution           with legislative, economic and social structures
                                                      in place to eliminate marginalisation and ensure
                                                      peace and equity between women and men,
                                                      the diverse ethnic groups and people of
                                                      different ages, interests and abilities.

                           Gender             and     Namibia is a just, moral, tolerant and safe
                           Development                society, with legislative, economic and social
                                                      structures    in     place     that     eliminate
                                                      marginalisation and ensure peace and equity
                                                      between women and men, the diverse ethnic
                                                      groups, and people of different interests.

                           Youth              and     Namibia will be a just, moral, tolerant and safe
                           Development                society with legislative, economic and social
                                                      structures in place to eliminate marginalisation
                                                      and ensure peace and equity and a conducive
                                                      environment for child and youth development.

                           Senior Citizens            The elderly citizens are acknowledged and well
                                                      esteemed for their past contributions to the
                                                      development of the country, and in their old age
                                                      they are well cared for and remain happy senior
                                                      citizens in a safe and loving environment.

                           People             with    Namibia is a caring state ad society, which
                           disabilities               pays particular attention to vulnerable people
                                                      and groups, who are unable to utilise
                                                      capabilities, care for themselves or get
                                                      assistance from family networks.

                           Fostering          and     Families are available and willing to
                           Orphanage                  accommodate orphans and are being assisted,
                                                      when necessary, by the government /
                                                      community through well a managed public
                                                      orphanage programme, in which such
                                                      disadvantaged children are supported to live a
                                                      meaningful life that prepares them adequately


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                                                  for the future.

                       Culture            and     People and society are tolerant and supportive
                       Tradition                  of a diversity of religious beliefs, cultures and
                                                  ethnicity, and work to optimise the strengths of
                                                  diversity.
                       The Family                 The family is sacred and well respected, and
                                                  parents fulfil their responsibilities, while children
                                                  remain obedient and responsible.


                                     NAMIBIA VISION 2030

   A PROSPEROUS AND INDUSTRIALISED NAMIBIA, DEVELOPED BY HER HUMAN
      RESOURCES, ENJOYING PEACE, HARMONY AND POLITCAL STABILITY

                       Create and consolidate a legitimate, effective and democratic
   Objective # 2       political system (under the Constitution) and an equitable,
                       tolerant and free society, that is characterised by sustainable
                       and equitable development and effective institutions, which
                       guarantee peace and political stability

                                                          Sub-vision
Peace and Political    Legislative            /   Cross-sectoral      internal     and    external
Stability              Regulatory                 developments in the field of knowledge,
                                                  information and technology are constantly
                                                  monitored to assess their impact on the rights
                                                  of the individual and the functioning of society
                                                  and the national economy; and appropriate
                                                  legislation and regulations are promulgated.

                       Civic Affairs              All Namibians have national documents, and
                                                  there is a smooth and efficient regulative and
                                                  controlling mechanism for refugees and
                                                  immigrants into Namibia as well as their
                                                  residence in the country, supported by a well
                                                  developed criminal justice system.

                       Civil Society and          Civil society, its individuals, groups and
                       Organisations              organisations are highly resourceful and co-
                                                  operative with Government and its agencies at
                                                  local, regional and national level; respect each
                                                  other and strive to consolidate democratic
                                                  ideals, and collaborate in social and economic
                                                  development for the benefit of all.

                       Public Safety              Namibia provides a socio-cultural environment
                                                  which marginalises social evils and creates a
                                                  societ, in which the rule of law and order is
                                                  respected, and which, to a large extent, is free
                                                  from violence.

                       Sustainable                Namibia develops a significantly more equitable
                       Development                distribution of social well-being, through the
                                                  sustainable utilisation of natural resources in a
                                                  mixed economy, characteristic of higher income
                                                  countries, primarily through stringer growth and
                                                  poverty reduction.

                       Democratic                 Namibia maintains, consolidates and extends

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                     Governance                 the good governance practices of a multi-party
                                                democracy with high levels of participation,
                                                rights, freedoms and legitimacy (under the
                                                Constitution), which continue to serve as a
                                                model for other countries.

                     Decentralisation           Local communities and regional bodies are
                                                empowered, and are fully involved in the
                                                development process; they actually formulate
                                                and implement their respective development
                                                plans, while the national government - working
                                                hand-in-hand with civil society originations -
                                                provides the enabling environment (Laws,
                                                policies, finance, security, etc.) for the effective
                                                management of national regional and local
                                                development efforts.

                     Responsible                Namibia's goal is to promote and strengthen
                     Decision-making            "smart-partnerships"         for      sustainable
                                                development, to optimise her comparative and
                                                competitive advantages, and to generate and
                                                manage good quality information and
                                                knowledge by supporting and fostering active
                                                and critical science and research through well-
                                                structured national institutions, as well as in
                                                partnership with institutions abroad.

                     Institutional              Namibia has well-established democratic
                     Capacity for               institutions   that    provide    the    enabling
                     Development                environment for effective participation of all
                                                citizens in modern social and economic
                                                development. In support of the process of
                                                capacity-building, the nation's education system
                                                consists of public and private initiatives that,
                                                together, respond adequately to the challenges
                                                of modern technologically developed and
                                                industrial society by producing all the required
                                                managerial,      technical   and     professional
                                                personnel.




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                                    NAMIBIA VISION 2030

  A PROSPEROUS AND INDUSTRIALISED NAMIBIA, DEVELOPED BY HER HUMAN
     RESOURCES, ENJOYING PEACE, HARMONY AND POLITCAL STABILITY

                      Develop diversified, competent and highly productive human
  Objective # 3       resources and institutions, fully utilising human potential, and
                      achieving efficient and effective delivery of customer-focused
                      services which are competitive not only nationally, but also
                      regionally and internationally

                                                         Sub-vision
Human Resources,      Education          and     A fully integrated, unified and flexible education
Institutional &       Training                   and training system, which prepares Namibian
Capacity Building                                learners to take advantage of a rapidly
                                                 changing environment and contributes to the
                                                 economic,      moral,     cultural   and    social
                                                 development of the citizens throughout their
                                                 lives.

                      Early   Childhood          All children aged 0 to 6 years have
                      Development                opportunities for early childhood development,
                                                 in addition to the care of individuals and
                                                 communities.




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                                    NAMIBIA VISION 2030

  A PROSPEROUS AND INDUSTRIALISED NAMIBIA, DEVELOPED BY HER HUMAN
     RESOURCES, ENJOYING PEACE, HARMONY AND POLITCAL STABILITY

                      Transform Namibia into an industrialised country of equal
  Objective # 4       opportunities, which is globally competitive, realising its
                      maximum growth potential on a sustainable bases, with
                      improved quality of life for all Namibians

                                                        Sub-vision
Macro-Economical      Macro-economic             Namibia      operates    an    open,     dynamic,
Issues                Environment                competitive and diversified economy that
                                                 provides sustained economic growth, the basis
                                                 for availing resources for the fulfilment of major
                                                 national objectives like poverty reduction,
                                                 human resource development, employment
                                                 creation, and the provision of adequate social
                                                 services and infrastructural facilities.

                      Transport                  Safe & cost effective transport infrastructure is
                      Infrastructure             available throughout the country; and so also
                                                 specialised services in their different modes, to
                                                 balance the demand and the supply thereof in
                                                 an economically efficient way; and there is
                                                 freedom of participation in the provision of
                                                 transport services, subject mainly to quality
                                                 regulation.

                      Employment &               The economic environment is suitable for all
                      Unemployment               citizens who are able and willing to work, and
                                                 there is full employment in the economy; with a
                                                 well-established and functioning Labour Market
                                                 Information     System     for   the  effective
                                                 management of the dynamics of the Labour
                                                 Force.

                      Poverty Reduction          Poverty is reduced to the minimum, the existing
                                                 pattern of income-distribution is equitable and
                                                 disparity is at the minimum




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                                     NAMIBIA VISION 2030

   A PROSPEROUS AND INDUSTRIALISED NAMIBIA, DEVELOPED BY HER HUMAN
      RESOURCES, ENJOYING PEACE, HARMONY AND POLITCAL STABILITY

                       Ensure a healthy, food-secured and breastfeeding nation, in
   Objective # 5       which all preventable, infections and parasitic diseases are
                       under secure control, and in which people enjoy a high standard
                       of living, with access to quality education, health and other vital
                       services, in an atmosphere of sustainable population growth and
                       development

                                                          Sub-vision
Population, Health     Population Size            A healthy and food-secured nation in which all
& Development          and Growth                 preventative, infectious and parasitic diseases
                                                  are under secure control; people enjoy a high
                                                  standard of living, good quality life and have
                                                  access to quality education, health and other
                                                  vital services. All of these translate into long life
                                                  expectancy and sustainable population growth.

                       Migration,                 There is free movement of the population within
                       Urbanisation and           the country and population distribution is
                       Population                 maturely adjusted to the location of resources
                       Distribution               for livelihood. Namibia is a highly urbanised
                                                  country with about 75 percent of the population
                                                  living in proclaimed urban centres, while the
                                                  predominance of Windhoek has considerably
                                                  reduced as a result of growth of other urban
                                                  centres throughout the country.

                       Healthy Living for         Namibia is free of diseases of poverty and
                       Longevity                  inequality; and the majority of Namibians are
                                                  living healthy lifestyles, provided with safe
                                                  drinking    water    and   a    comprehensive
                                                  preventative and curative health service, to
                                                  which all have equal access.

                       Promoting Healthy          All the people of Namibia have equitable
                       Human                      access to high quality and affordable health
                       Environment                care services; the health infrastructure is
                                                  strong; equitably distributed and is being
                                                  supported by adequate human, material and
                                                  financial resources.

                       The Urban                  Despite high growth rates, Namibia's urban
                       Environment                areas will provide equitable access to safety,
                                                  shelter, essential services and innovative
                                                  employment opportunities within an efficiently
                                                  managed, clean and aesthetically pleasing
                                                  environment.




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                                     NAMIBIA VISION 2030

  A PROSPEROUS AND INDUSTRIALISED NAMIBIA, DEVELOPED BY HER HUMAN
     RESOURCES, ENJOYING PEACE, HARMONY AND POLITCAL STABILITY

                       Ensure the development of Namibia's 'natural capital' and its
   Objective # 6       sustainable utilization, for the benefit of the country's social,
                       economical and ecological well-being

                                                         Sub-vision
Natural Resources      Production                 Namibia is an industrialised nation, with a
& Environment          Technology                 viable natural resources export sector,
                                                  increased size of skills based industrial and
                                                  service sector, and market oriented production;
                                                  there is high level of self sufficiency, reliable
                                                  and competitive priced energy, meeting the
                                                  demand of households and industry.

                       Freshwater &               Namibia's freshwater resources are kept free of
                       Associated                 pollution and are used to ensure social well-
                       resources                  being, support economic development, and to
                                                  maintain natural habitats.

                       Land & Agricultural        Land is used appropriately and equitably,
                       Production                 significantly contributing towards food security
                                                  at household and national levels, and
                                                  supporting the sustainable and equitable
                                                  growth     of   Namibia's     economy,    whilst
                                                  maintaining & improving land capability.

                       Forestry                   Namibia's    diverse   natural    woodlands,
                                                  savannahs and the many resources they
                                                  provide, are managed in a participatory and
                                                  sustainable manner to help support rural
                                                  livelihoods,    enhance       socio-economic
                                                  development, and ensure environmental
                                                  stability.

                       Wildlife & Tourism         The integrity of Namibia's natural habitats and
                                                  wildlife populations are maintained, whilst
                                                  significantly supporting national socio-economic
                                                  development through sustainable, low-impact,
                                                  consumptive and non-consumptive tourism.

                       Fisheries and              Namibia's marine species and habitats
                       Marine Resources           significantly contribute to the economy without
                                                  threatening biodiversity or the functioning of
                                                  natural ecosystems, in a dynamic external
                                                  environment.

                       Non-renewable              Namibia's mineral resources are strategically
                       Resources                  exploited and optimally beneficiated, providing
                                                  equitable opportunities for all Namibians to
                                                  participate in the industry; while ensuring that
                                                  environmental impacts are minimised, and
                                                  investments resulting from mining are made to
                                                  develop other, sustainable industries and


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                                                human    capital        for     long-term   national
                                                development.

                     Bio-diversity              The integrity of vital ecological processes,
                                                natural habitats and wild species throughout
                                                Namibia is maintained whilst significantly
                                                supporting       national      socio-economical
                                                development through sustainable low-impact,
                                                high quality consumptive and no-consumptive
                                                uses, as well as providing diversity for rural and
                                                urban livelihoods.




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                                        NAMIBIA VISION 2030

   A PROSPEROUS AND INDUSTRIALISED NAMIBIA, DEVELOPED BY HER HUMAN
      RESOURCES, ENJOYING PEACE, HARMONY AND POLITCAL STABILITY

                          Accomplish the transformation of Namibia into a knowledge-
   Objective # 7          based, highly competitive, industrialised and eco-friendly nation,
                          with sustainable economic growth and a high quality of life

                                                             Sub-vision
Knowledge                 Data & Research            Namibia has a wealth of accurate, reliable and
Information &                                        current information on aspects of its population
Technology                                           in relation to social and economic development
                                                     planning and programme management; through
                                                     research, the range of information available on
                                                     population and development in Namibia is
                                                     consolidated, the national research programme
                                                     continues to identify and fill gaps in knowledge.

                          Information and            Advanced microelectronics-based Information
                          Communication              and Communication Technologies (ICT's) are
                          Technology (ICT)           used to achieve social and economic
                                                     transformations in Namibia; the costs of ICT's
                                                     continue to fall as their capabilities increase,
                                                     and ICT's are being applied throughout all
                                                     sectors of the economy and society to serve
                                                     development goals.




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                                      NAMIBIA VISION 2030

  A PROSPEROUS AND INDUSTRIALISED NAMIBIA, DEVELOPED BY HER HUMAN
     RESOURCES, ENJOYING PEACE, HARMONY AND POLITCAL STABILITY

                        Achieve stability, full regional integration and democratised
  Objective # 8         international relations; the transformation from an aid-recipient
                        country to that of a provided of development assistance

                                                          Sub-vision
External                International              A new international order, has been established
Environment             Relations                  based on sovereign equality of nations, where
                                                   sustainable development, peace and human
                                                   progress is ensured.

                        Development Co-            Namibia has achieved a level of transformation
                        operation                  in the flow of development co-operation
                                                   resources, and has advanced from a recipient
                                                   of grant assistance to a provider of assistance
                                                   to countries in need.

                        Peace and Security         Collective regional and international peace and
                                                   security have been accomplished.

                        Regional                   Namibia enjoys full regional integration in terms
                        Integration                of socio-economical and political structures
                                                   through effective supra-national organisations.

                        Globalisation              The benefits of technology, trade, investment
                                                   and capital flows have contributed to a
                                                   significant reduction in poverty in most regions
                                                   of the world, and Namibia enjoys optimal
                                                   participation and integration in the global
                                                   village.




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11.2 ANNEXURE B - POPULATION, HEALTH AND
     DEVELOPMENT




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                                                                    Namibia Vision 2030
      A prosperous and industrialised Namibia, developed by her human resources, enjoying peace, harmony and
                                                  political stability
                                                                           Ensure a healthy, food-secured and breastfeeding nation, in which all preventable, infections
5                                                                          and parasitic diseases are under secure control, and in which people enjoy a high standard
       Population, Health & Development                                    of living, with access to quality education, health and other vital services, in an atmosphere
                                                                           of sustainable population growth and development

                                Sub-vision                                                     Targets                                           Responsible Ministry
5.1    Population     A healthy and food-secured nation in which all       Population growth is about 2% per annum
       Size     and   preventable, infectious and parasitic diseases                                                                 Health & Social Services supported by:
                                                                           Life expectancy is 68 years for males and 70
       Growth         are under secure control; people enjoy a high                                                                   Labour & Social Welfare
                                                                           years for females
                      standard of living, good quality life and have                                                                  Gender Equality & Child Welfare
                                                                           Population of Namibia is 3.5 million
                      access to quality education, health and other                                                                   Education
                      vital services. All of these translate into long     Infant mortality rate is 10 for every 1,000 live
                      life expectancy and sustainable population           births
                      growth.                                              Total Fertility Rate is 2.0
                                                                           All infectious diseases are under control
5.2    Migration,     There is free movement of the population             Namibia is a highly urbanised country with 75%
       Urbanisation   within the country and population distribution       of the population residing in designated urban            Regional & Local Government, Housing & Rural
       and            is maturely adjusted to the location of              areas                                                     Development supported by:
       Population     resources for livelihood. Namibia is a highly        Basic social services and infrastructural facilities
       Distribution   urbanised country with about 75 percent of           available in both urban and rural areas of the               Labour & Social Welfare
                      the population living in proclaimed urban            country                                                      Land & Resettlement
                      centres, while the predominance of Windhoek          Urban places widely distributed in the country,              Health & Social Services
                      has considerably reduced as a result of              and over-concentration of population in some                 Trade & Industry
                      growth of other urban centres throughout the         centres, absent
                      country.                                             Municipal administration is strengthened by
                                                                           adequate economic base
                                                                           Rural population has diversified economy and
                                                                           healthy living environment prevails




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                                                                   Namibia Vision 2030
      A prosperous and industrialised Namibia, developed by her human resources, enjoying peace, harmony and
                                                  political stability
                                                                          Ensure a healthy, food-secured and breastfeeding nation, in which all preventable, infections
5                                                                         and parasitic diseases are under secure control, and in which people enjoy a high standard
       Population, Health & Development                                   of living, with access to quality education, health and other vital services, in an atmosphere
                                                                          of sustainable population growth and development

                                 Sub-vision                                                        Targets                                      Responsible Ministry
5.3    Healthy         Namibia is free of diseases of poverty and
       Living    for   inequality; and the majority of Namibians are      Namibia is a healthy, food secured nation                 Health & Social Services supported by:
       Longevity       living healthy lifestyles, provided with safe      Average life expectancy is about 69 years for
                       drinking water and a comprehensive                 both sexes, since death rates across the ages                Agriculture, Water & Forestry
                       preventative and curative health service, to       are low                                                      Gender Equality & Child Welfare
                       which all have equal access.
                                                                          All communicable diseases are under control,
                                                                          including HIV

                                                                          People have access to safe drinking water,
                                                                          adequate housing and sanitation

                                                                          All couples have access to and use effective
                                                                          means of family planning
5.4    Promoting       All the people of Namibia have equitable
       Healthy         access to high quality and affordable health       Healthy environment for all Namibians                     Health & Social Services supported by:
       Human           care services; the health infrastructure is
       Environment     strong; equitably distributed and is being         Healthy facilities within easy reach of people in            Regional & Local Government, Housing &
                       supported by adequate human, material and          rural and urban places                                        Rural Development
                       financial resources.                                                                                            Agriculture, Water & Forestry
                                                                          Adequate housing, with water and sanitation                  Education
                                                                          facilities for all
                                                                          Medical facilities have adequate staff (doctors,
                                                                          nurses, etc) mostly Namibians



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                                                                  Namibia Vision 2030
      A prosperous and industrialised Namibia, developed by her human resources, enjoying peace, harmony and
                                                  political stability
                                                                         Ensure a healthy, food-secured and breastfeeding nation, in which all preventable, infections
5                                                                        and parasitic diseases are under secure control, and in which people enjoy a high standard
       Population, Health & Development                                  of living, with access to quality education, health and other vital services, in an atmosphere
                                                                         of sustainable population growth and development

                               Sub-vision                                                      Targets                                         Responsible Ministry
5.5    The    Urban   Despite high growth rates, Namibia's urban         Healthy, self sufficient rural populations and
       Environment    areas will provide equitable access to safety,     reduced rates of rural-to-urban migration                 Regional & Local Government, Housing & Rural
                      shelter, essential services and innovative         Well planned, well managed, clean, safe and               Development supported by:
                      employment opportunities within an efficiently     aesthetically pleasing urban areas
                      managed, clean and aesthetically pleasing          Recreation facilities (parks, monuments,                     Lands & Resettlement
                      environment.                                       museums, etc) available in cities                            Trade & Industry
                                                                                                                                      Agriculture, Water & Forestry
                                                                         Equitable access to land and essential services
                                                                         Opportunities for innovative and sustainable
                                                                         employment
                                                                         Pro-active, citizens with high levels of civic pride,
                                                                         involved in decision-making




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    11.3 ANNEXURE C – VISION 2030 IMPLEMENTATION
         STRATEGY – ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE

                                        Namibia Vision 2030
   A prosperous and industrialised Namibia, developed by her human resources, enjoying
                               peace, harmony and political stability
                                              Ensure a healthy, food-secured and breastfeeding
Population, Health & Development              nation, in which all preventable, infections and
                                              parasitic diseases are under secure control, and
                                              in which people enjoy a high standard of living,
                                              with access to quality education, health and other
                                              vital services, in an atmosphere of sustainable
                                              population growth and development
               Sub-vision                             Targets           Responsible Ministry
Population A healthy and food-secured Population growth is
Size and nation         in     which      all about 2% per annum      Health & Social Services
Growth      preventable, infectious and Life expectancy is 68 supported by:
            parasitic diseases are under years for males and 70
            secure control; people enjoy years for females              Labour      &    Social
            a high standard of living, Population of Namibia              Welfare
            good quality life and have is 3.5 million                   Gender Equality &
            access to quality education, Infant mortality rate is         Child Welfare
            health    and      other    vital 10 for every 1,000 live  Education
            services. All of these translate births
            into long life expectancy and Total Fertility Rate is
            sustainable          population 2.0
            growth.                           All infectious diseases
                                              are under control

The Ministry of Health & Social Services is assumed to be the Primary Ministry responsible for the
achievement of the sub-vision - Population Size & Growth. To assist the Ministry of Health &
Social Services the following Ministries will be the Secondary Ministries and also need to
contribute towards the achievement of the sub-vision:

         Ministry of Labour & Social Welfare
         Ministry of Gender Equality & Child Welfare
         Ministry of Education

Other stakeholders that could also contribute to the achievement of the sub-vision could include:

           Medical Practitioners’ Professional Boards
           Private hospital groups & clinics
           Medical Aid Funds / Administrators
           International agencies (i.e. Red Cross, UNICEF etc.)

In collaboration, all stakeholders, under the chairmanship and leadership of the Ministry of Health
& Social Services supported by National Planning Commission and the Thematic Working
Groups, should design long-, medium- and short-term strategies to ensure the achievement of the
sub-vision as stated above.

The following phased approach is recommended in terms of the above:

    1. Ensure that the targets as indicated in Vision 2030 are realigned to be measurable and
       comply with SMART principles. This step should be performed by the NPC, in
       consultation with the Primary Responsible Ministry – in this case the Ministry of Health
       and Social Services.


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2. The sub-vision should be broken down into 10-year sectoral objectives that form the 10-
   year National Development Framework, that should ensure the overall achievement of
   this sub-vision by 2030. This step should be also be performed by the NPC, in
   consultation with the Primary Responsible Ministry. As an example, the 10-year strategies
   could include:

       Intensify and consolidate the development of primary health care
       Development in health care infrastructure
       Focused resource allocation
       Promotion of public/private partnerships
       Decentralisation
       Enhanced human resource development
       Improved maintenance of infrastructure

3. The long-term 10-year strategies should then be broken down into two 5-year short-term
   development strategies that will form the basis of the development of the two National
   Development Plans that relates to the 10-year National Development Framework.

4. The short-term 5-year strategies should be supported by detailed 5-year sector
   programmes that could, as an example, include:

     Decease control – specifically aimed at:
          Increasing detection rate of tuberculosis
          Ensuring that all health facilities have adequate equipment for detecting
            tuberculosis
          HIV/AIDS interventions aimed reducing the prevalence rate amongst certain
            age groups

     Fertility rate interventions:
           Family planning programmes
           Adolescent health care and school health

     Improvement in mortality rates
          Improve rural sanitation facilities
          Food & nutrition interventions
          Decent access to primary health car facilities

5. Resource needs and resulting resource gaps, relating to the specific short-term 5-year
   programmes should be identified and quantified through the Public Sector Investment
   Programme, and merged into the Medium Term Expenditure Framework as well as the
   Annual Budgets. These should include both financial as well as human resources needed
   to achieve the short-term sectoral programmes. It would therefore be necessary to
   quantify the resources needed to ensure for example the provision of adequate
   equipment for detecting tuberculosis in terms of both financial needs (Say N$100 million
   per annum) as well as the human capacity to operate the equipment (say 100
   professionals per annum). This should be supported by formal needs assessments and
   resource audits.

6. The overall strategic plan, consisting of the detailed short-term 5-year sector programmes
   contained within the National Development Plans, which are linked to longer-term 10-year
   National Development Framework and ultimately the overall theme-based Vision 2030
   sub-visions and overall objectives, should be presented to the National Planning
   Commission for evaluation and approval.

7. The NPC should, after obtaining all sectoral strategies and programmes ensure that the
   cross-cutting issued between this specific sector and other sectors are adequately
   addressed.

8. The NPC should combine the resource gaps identified by the Primary Responsible
   Ministry (Health & Social Services) with all resource gaps as identified by the various

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   Primary Responsible Ministries, and provide solutions or amendments to the Primary
   Responsible Ministries relating to the short- and long-term sector strategies and
   programmes as designed under step three and four.




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