Ethical issues in nursing practice

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					Ethical issues in nursing
         practice

Professional commitment is shown through

               A desire to help,
            A sense of obligation,
      Efforts to enhance competence.
Professional accountability depends upon an
             individual sense of
    responsibility and personal integrity.
• ICN code for nurses was formed in 1933.
• While the international code of nursing ethics
  accepted in 1953.
• In 1973 the new ICN code of ethics was
  approved. It identifies four major responsibilities
  of the nurse:
• Promote health.
• Prevent illness.
• Restore health.
• Alleviate suffering.
                 Ethical decision making:


• Society is rapidly changing its attitude about major ethical
     issues.
• New emphasis on equal rights and individual rights bring up
    issues such as changes in the role of women.
• Changes in health care from remedies to preventive
    medicine.
• Expand in the role of patient or client in making a decision
     toward his health.
• Changing social attitudes about birth control, sterilization,
     abortion, and the possibility of genetic manipulation
• Having to make decisions on ethical issues is a contributing
      factor to stress in nurses work .
• Ethics is a personal matter because every person has an
       individual concept of what is good and what is evil.
                     Bioethical issues


• Are concerned with problems associated with biology or
  the field of medicine, mainly that are related to birth and
  to death, and life supporting measures.
• ………..To birth: Involve:
• Processes that prevent conception.
• Terminate pregnancy maturity.
• Process that enable conception and pregnancy to occur
  through direct intervention rather than through normal
  developments.( Sterilization, contraception, and abortion
  on the one hand, and test-tube conception and artificial
  insemination.)
             Sterilization

• The reason for elective sterilization.
• Meaning of eugenic sterilization> A couple
  who fears giving birth to a defective baby
  because of a genetic trait.
• The choice in front of the male to do
  vasectomy or the female to do tubal-
  ligation.
• ( Some state still permit
  compulsory eugenic sterilization of
  certain prison and mental hospital
  inmates to prevent conception of
  children with various disorders
  who might become a finical burden
  to society)
                   Abortion


• Elective abortions performed has
  increased and the procedure has become
  a major bioethical issues. Abortion is a
  deliberate termination of the life of a fetus
  before the end of the sixth month of
  gestation.
(Contraversery exists about
         whether
 the fetus is actually a human
    being before that time)
• (In 1973, the united state supreme court ruled
  that it was unconstitutional to prohibit a women
  from having an abortion during the first three
  months of pregnancy)
           " Until that ruling was made,
               Physicians
• Generally were called upon to offer a medical
  judgment as to whether a dangerous pregnancy
  should be terminated by therapeutic abortion"
• "The federal government now permits
  abortions to be performed until the end of
  six month" the consent of a spouse is not
  required for an abortion to be performed.
  Age of consent of a spouse is not required
  for an abortion to be performed. Age of
  consent and parental consent are issues
  in this procedure when minors are
  involved.”
              Contraception

The contraversery questions around are
1.Whether individuals have a right to control
  parenthood?
2.Which type of contraceptive method is
  best?
3. Who should practice contraceptive?
4.At what age contraception would be used?
             Age of consent


• Children who are under the age of
  eighteen years may be sexually active and
  require health care because of pregnancy
  or sexually transmitted diseases.
• Some student ask the physician or school
  nurse for birth control devices.
            Artificial insemination


• Because Various reasons, including
  impotence or an inability to carry a child,
  alternative means of conception may be
  pursued. The donor of the sperm may be
  the woman's husband or another man; the
  woman in whom the sperm fertilized egg is
  implanted may be the donors wife or
  another woman (surrogate mother).
1.The legitimacy of the child produced.
2. The paternal/ maternal rights of the
  man and woman who participate in this
  alternative form of conception.
3. If the couple is later separated or
  divorced, custody and visiting rights of
  the child may also be a problem.
             Genetic research


• How much power should present
  generations assume in making decisions
  about the nature and characteristics of
  future generation?
• Who should regulate genetic research and
  its uses?
• cloning of human being gives rise to many
  unanswered question
•   Genetic screening discovered the potential
    parents are carriers of recessive genes that
    could cause disorders, in future offspring.
•   Nurses must remember that in this area, as in
    all other situations, they are ethically
    committed to a nonjudgmental attitude, to
    honest, and to protecting the confidentiality
    and right to privacy of the client.
            Test tube conception


A conception in between the woman ovum and the
  husband sperm in the test tube . The fertilized
  ovum was then implanted in her uterus.
1. It is a medical-scientific achievement.
2. The others, including theologians, expressed
  great concern about the unnatural method of
  uniting the fathers sperm with the mothers ovum.

				
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