National Priorities for Science and Technology

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					National Priorities for Science and
           Technology

A View from the Academic Sector

           Dr. G. Wayne Clough
President, Georgia Institute of Technology
               April 11, 2002
Effective Science Research
Requires:
• Stable funding
• Balanced portfolio
• Expanding talent
            Rita Colwell
           Director, NSF
                   “The heritage of the
                   past is the seed that
                   brings forth the harvest
                   of all the future.”
                         National Archives plaque




Nikita Krushchev
 % U.S. Industry Patents Citing Federally Funded
               Research, 1993-94




Narin, Francis, Kimberly Hamilton, Dominic Olivastro. “Increasing Linkage Between U.S.
Technology and Public Science,” AAAS Science & Technology Policy Yearbook 1998.
    Federal Funding for R&D
    As percentage of the Gross Domestic Product

2.00


1.50


1.00


0.50


0.00
    87


           89


                  91


                         93


                                95


                                       97


                                              99
  19


         19


                19


                       19


                              19


                                     19


                                            19
U.S. Competitiveness 2001, Council on Competitiveness
   Total R&D as Percentage of GDP




National Science Board: Science & Engineering Indicators 2000
  Total R&D Funding as Percent of GDP
                      In 1992 Dollars




National Science Board: Science & Engineering Indicators 2000
R&D Expenditures by Type of Research




National Science Board: Science & Engineering Indicators 2000
Surprise “is the element that distinguishes applied
science from basic… When you are organized to
apply knowledge, set up targets, produce a usable
product, you require a high degree of certainty
from the outset…
“In basic research, everything is just the
opposite… You start with an incomplete roster of
facts, characterized by their ambiguity; often the
problem consists of discovering the connections
between unrelated pieces of information.”
                                             Dr. Lewis Thomas
               The Lives of a Cell: Notes of a Biology Watcher
Change in Federal Research Funding
                     FY 1993-1999
     80
                 Total
     60          University

     40

     20
     0

    -20
    -40

    -60

National Research Council: Trends in Federal Support of
Research and Graduate Education
    Engineering Enrollment, 1978-98




National Science Board: Science & Engineering Indicators 2000
    Graduate Enrollment (in Thousands)




National Science Board: Science & Engineering Indicators 2000
U.S. Doctoral Degrees Awarded in Science
              & Engineering




National Science Board: Science & Engineering Indicators 2000
Percentage of 24-year-olds with Science or
          Engineering Degrees
                           1998




National Science Board: Science & Engineering Indicators 2000
“The acquisition of knowledge is
the mission of research… the
application of knowledge is the
mission of public service.”
                            Dr. James A. Perkins
             Former President, Cornell University
         The Bayh-Dole Act
The most pertinent question to ask is:
In whose hands will the vestiture of primary
rights to inventions serve to transfer the
inventive technology most quickly to the
public for its use and benefit?
In the United States, the answer has been the
university-private sector partnership.
                                 Howard W. Bremer
                          to NASULGC, Nov 11, 2001
            Georgia Tech
           undergraduate
    Christyn Magill was
 the youngest presenter
       at the Biomedical
    Engineering Society
    last October. Patent
   royalties helped fund
           her research in
replacement tissues for
      articular cartilage.
         Academic Patents Granted




National Science Board: Science & Engineering Indicators 2000
“The return to the federal government in
taxes paid on university technology
transfer induced corporate and individual
earnings alone equals a 15 percent return
on sales of licensed products….
Annual gross revenues generated from a
university’s technology transfer activities
generally total less than three percent of
research dollars spent by that university.”
                     Council on Governmental Relations
       Technology Transfer in U.S. Research Universities:
                               Dispelling Common Myths
“For maximum economic leverage, the
culture at university and government
research facilities must be open to the
prospect of commercial application.
Localities in which academics are
encouraged to license their research and to
move freely between the non-profit and the
private sectors will be ahead of the game.”
                                   Ross C. DeVol
                       The Milken Institute Review
                               First Quarter 2002

				
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