Social Reform Movements

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					Social Reform Movements

1.      What has been the major spur for social reform in America? (A) The national
conscience (B) The Protestant church (C) Disgust with the evils brought about by the
industrial age (D) The Revolutionary War.

2.      What was the Enlightenment? (A) The era following the creation of the atomic
bomb in the twentieth century (B) A fifteenth-century revival of classic art and
architecture (C) A European intellectual movement that highlighted the importance of
reason (D) An eighteenth-century religious awakening in the United States.

3.     What was the revolutionary new concept behind the Tennessee Valley Authority
(TV(A)? (A) It raised the living conditions of millions of people all at once. (B) It took
power from the states and placed it in the hands of the federal government. (C) It put
government into direct competition with private industry. (D) It was a relief program
aimed at helping rural poor.

4.      Who was John Brown? (A) An abolitionist who was a former slave (B) A
fanatical abolitionist (C) A Southerner who renounced slavery (D) An independent
presidential candidate.

5.     How were consumer prices set in the late nineteenth century [1800s]? (A)
Arbitrarily, by the trusts (B) By supply and demand (C) By the government (D) By open
market competition.

6.      How did the labor movement force reforms from management? (A) Through
legislation (B) Through violence (C) Through strikes (D) Through collective bargaining.

7.      How did expansion of railroads west of the Mississippi River after the Civil War
contribute to life in the West? (A) Many easterners moved to the West as railroad
workers. (B) Railroads sold land to settlers at high prices. (C) Railroads provided farmers
with a quick way to ship their produce to markets. (D) Railroads set rates that made travel
too expensive for the poor.

8.     What changed the perception of the average American that his country was a land
of opportunity? (A) The Westward Movement (B) The Industrial Revolution (C)
Expansion of slavery ((D) The Revolutionary War.

9.       In 1932, angry veterans of World War I marched on Washington, D.C., seeking
early payment of a bonus for their service. How were they received? (A) The army
provided housing for the veterans. (B) The government ordered immediate payment of
the bonus. (C) The army supported the veterans. (D) The army evicted them from the

10.    How were the policies of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) different from
those of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)? (A) AFL demanded the closed
shop; CIO would settle for the union shop. (B) AFL represented skilled craftsmen; CIO
represented all workers in a particular industry. (C) AFL urged workers to strike; CIO
discouraged strikes as a method of achieving reforms for workers. (D) AFL opposed
gangster infiltration of unions; CIO did not.

11.    How did the increase in immigration following the Civil War affect working
conditions? (A) The influx of immigrants created a new demand for factory output and
more jobs to fill this demand. (B) Immigrant workers were at a disadvantage because
they could not speak English. (C) Native workers were given preference over immigrants.
(D) The great influx of foreign laborers kept native workers at the mercy of their

12.   Which of the following did not result from periods of depression? (A) Widespread
competition for jobs (B) Widespread unemployment (C) Severe labor unrest (D)
Government welfare payments.

14.     How did the “involuntary immigrants” accept the life under the system of
slavery? (A) They voted to end slavery. (B) They fought against it. (C) They accepted it
docilely. (D) They went to court to ask for their freedom.

15.     How were the newly arriving immigrants treated during the late nineteenth
century? (A) They were welcomed with opened arms. (B) Immigration exceeded
expectations and was stopped. (C) They were abused at every turn. (D) They were forced
out of cities on the eastern seaboard and sent inland to populate the west.

16.      Many of the New Deal programs were considered temporary measures, but some
still exist today. Which of the following no longer exists? (A) Civil Works
Administration (B) Social Security (C) Federal Housing Authority (D) Federal Deposit
Insurance Corporation.

17.    Which New Deal legislation first addressed the problem of unemployment? (A)
Public housing (B) Free distribution of surplus farm products (C) Federal Emergency
Relief Act (D) Peace-time draft.

18.     What was the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850? (A) A federal law freeing the slaves
(B) A federal law requiring runaway slaves to be returned to their masters (C) A federal
law outlawing the Underground Railroad (D) A federal law giving slaves rights as
citizens in court proceedings.

19.     What New Deal legislation addressed civil rights, especially for African
Americans? (A) Fair Employment Practices Bill (B) National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People (C) Works Progress Administration (WP(A) (D)
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC).

20.    Which word best describes the actions of the early settlers in America? (A)
Tolerant (B) Mobile (C) Free (D) Educated.
21.     How did John L. Lewis help reform the labor movement? (A) He offered
representation only to skilled craftsmen. (B) He organized industrial unions. (C) He
worked with Roosevelt to bring about labor-management peace. (D) He advocated a no-
strike clause in labor contracts.

22.    What reform did early reformers in the United States seek? (A) Wages and hours
laws (B) Economic controls and governmental regulations (C) Establishment of an
American church (D) End to slavery.

23.     What tactic of the railroads turned the farmers against them? (A) Hiring
immigrant railroad workers (B) Price fixing (C) Monopolizing the lands in the West (D)
Selling land to new settlers at low prices.

24.    What was the major factor that contributed to Franklin D. Roosevelt's success as
president? (A) Communication skills (B) Business experience (C) Overcoming an
impoverished youth (D) Overcoming ill health.

25.    Cornelius Vanderbilt was president of the New York Central Railroad and
founder of the Vanderbilt family fortune. What did his son, William Vanderbilt, tell a
newspaper reporter who accused him of neglecting the public's well- being? (A) "From
each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs." (B) "Let them eat cake."
(C) "The public be damned." (D) "There's a sucker born every minute."

26.   Which of the following was not a form of abolitionist protest? (A) Violence (B)
Boycott (C) Forming a political party (D) Individual protest.

27.    How did factory workers fare in the great industrial growth of the late nineteenth
century? (A) Sweat shops were abolished. (B) They enjoyed job security. (C) Child labor
was outlawed. (D) They had low wages, long working hours, and no job security.

28.     Many abolitionists in the arly 1800s suggested that freed slaves (A) be sent back
to Africa. (B) be gradually integrated into U.S. society. (C) be given land by the federal
government. (D) be settled in the West.

29.      What improbable charge was leveled against the abolitionists? (A) They helped
start the Mexican War. (B) They were harmless nuisances. (C) They organized slave
revolts throughout the South. (D) They conspired with secessionists to destroy the Union.

30.     How did the government settle the question of admitting the territories of Kansas
and Nebraska as slave or free states? (A) Congress voted a compromise to settle the
dispute. (B) Southern slave owners brought their slaves to the territories in order to
establish slavery there. (C) New settlers were not allowed to come to the territories until
the matter was decided. (D) Settlers were allowed to vote on the matter.
31.    What was President Franklin D. Roosevelt's "hundred days." (A) A special
session of Congress (B) A labor "cooling off" period (C) The pocket veto (D) The bank

32.    What was Eleanor Roosevelt's pet project under the New Deal? (A) Arthurdale, a
planned community in West Virginia (B) Communism (C) Voting rights for black
Americans (D) Women's right to abortion.

33.     How did labor unions react to the increase in immigration during the late
nineteenth century? (A) Unions predicted increases in membership. (B) Union leaders
welcomed their own countrymen but not people from other countries. (C) Unions
recruited immigrant workers to swell the ranks of organized labor. (D) Unions fought
against immigration.

34.   How were Social Security benefits funded? (A) Through welfare payments (B)
Through payroll taxes (C) Through private insurance companies (D) By the states

35.    Which of the following enthusiastically supported President Roosevelt and the
New Deal? (A) Father Charles Coughlin (B) Labor leaders (C) Newspaper publishers (D)
Senator Huey Long.

36.    Which of the following was not a reason for English exploration and colonization
of America? (A) A new start in life (B) Self-government (C) Gold (D) Religious

37.     The general public in the northern states viewed abolitionists as... (A)
troublemakers and rabble-rousers. (B) unthreatening and amusing.(C) spokesmen for all
antislavery people in the North. (D) prophets of the future.

38.     What were the goals of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)? (A) The
IWW saw metropolitan sweat shops as a threat to workers and fought to outlaw poor
working conditions. (B) The IWW demanded anarchy. (C) The IWW demanded free
rides on freight trains in order to seek work throughout the United States. (D) The IWW
sought to overthrow the capitalistic system in the early 1900s.

39.     What did the abolitionists finally accomplish? (A) They focused attention on the
evil of slavery. (B) They started the Civil War. (C) They accomplished nothing. (D) They
brought about the end of slavery.

40.    What was Coxey's army? (A) A group of unemployed workers who marched on
Washington to protest low wages and unemployment (B) A secret group of miners who
used violence to meet their demands (C) A group of anarchists who incited the
Haymarket Riot in Chicago in 1886 (D) An army regiment that charged wildly up a hill
in Cuba during the Spanish-American War.
41.    What were typical wages for industrial workers in the late nineteenth century? (A)
People were paid whatever the wages and hours law dictated at the time. (B) Minimum
wages were set by law. (C) A factory worker earned about eighty cents for a twelve- to
fourteen-hour workday. (D) Workers and management negotiated pay scales.

42.     How did President Roosevelt propose to establish a stable economy? (A) By
creating long-term relief programs (B) By instituting price controls and rationing (C) By
closing the banks (D) By restricting output and controlling inflation

43.     What was the nation's response to Roosevelt's bank holiday? (A) The public
rushed to reinvest in the stock market after the banks reopened. (B) People demanded that
the nation's wealth be shared. (C) People turned their savings into gold and hoarded it.
(D) People rushed to return their savings to the banks when they reopened.

44.    What was the underlying philosophy of Roosevelt's New Deal? (A) He wanted to
curb the wealth and power of the elite few. (B) Happy days are here again. (C) There
should be a chicken in every pot. (D) Take from the rich and give to the poor.

45.     Who were the Puritans? (A) A Protestant sect from England (B) A political party
in early America (C) Believers in religious freedom for all (D) Missionaries.

46.     How did the railroads successfully evade the Interstate Commerce Commission
(ICC), established by Congress in 1877? (A) The railroads sued the federal government
and had the Interstate Commerce Commission declared unconstitutional. (B) The
railroads pretended to follow the rules of the commission. (C) The railroads gave back
lands granted to them by the federal government in exchange for immunity from the
laws. (D) The railroads controlled the courts.

47.     What was the Underground Railroad? (A) The New York subway system (B) A
railroad tunnel (C) An escape route for slaves (D) A ride at an amusement park

48.     For what achievement did Jane Addams receive a Nobel Peace Prize? (A) She
was a leader of the antisaloon league and carried a hatchet to smash drinking
establishments. (B) She was a women's rights leader who campaigned for less
constricting clothes for women. (C) She was a nurse who advocated birth control
methods. (D) She established a settlement house to aid poor immigrants.

49.     Who was Jane Addams? (A) Fictional character (B) Social reformer (C) African
naturalist (D) Wife of President John Adams.

50.    What is the American economic system called? (A) Fascism (B) Communism (C)
Capitalism (D) Socialism.

51.   What was the major reform of the National Labor Relations Act? (A) The closed
shop was eliminated. (B) Collective bargaining was outlawed. (C) Employers were
prevented from interfering with union organizing. (D) Craft and industry unions were
forced to merge.

52.    How did Eleanor Roosevelt change the traditional role of the first lady? (A) She
was the "brains" behind the president. (B) She ran the White House as an open house. (C)
She took an active part in government. (D) She maintained a low profile and kept her
opinions to herself.

53.     What group effectively controlled economic growth in the United States during
the late nineteenth century? (A) Government (B) Labor (C) The public (D) Financiers.

54.    What natural disasters added to the woes of United States farmers during the
1930s? (A) Tornadoes (B) Hurricanes (C) Floods (D) Prolonged drought and dust storms

55.     How did the Tennessee Valley Authority (TV(A) help farmers in the South? (A)
It put people to work building dams and other facilities. (B) It provided cheap electric
power to rural areas. (C) It built dams throughout the country. (D) It generated electric
power for private utilities to distribute.

56.     Why is a high value placed on education in America? (A) Americans believe that
all individuals are equal and capable of self-improvement. (B) Education provides jobs
for teachers. (C) Children are indoctrinated into capitalist dogma in school. (D) Education
leads to research and new discoveries in science, medicine, and other fields.

57.     How did English Puritans in the seventeenth century react to what they considered
the injustices of the English monarchy? (A) They disbanded and meekly followed the
orders of the king. (B) They demanded free elections. (C) They broke away from the
Roman Catholic Church to found the Church of England. (D) They started a revolution
and overthrew the king.

58.    How were reforms favoring the working class finally implemented? (A)
Government support of labor brought about a peaceful solution to labor-management
disputes. (B) Workers disrupted production through strikes. (C) "Company unions" were
recognized by management. (D) Unions forced management to recognize the need for
reforms through bitter fights and strikes.

59.    The ideas of the early Puritans were described as... (A) the golden rule. (B) devil
worship. (C) religious tolerance. (D) a "hard theological conscience."

60.    How did Andrew Carnegie, the wealthy steel magnate, handle his huge fortune?
(A) He paid higher wages than other steel makers. (B) He used it to foment revolution in
backward countries. (C) He used it to take over the steel industry as the U.S. Steel trust.
(D) He gave most of it away.
61.     How did businessmen justify the concentration of wealth in their hands? (A)
Intelligence (B) Hard work (C) Social Darwinism (D) Smart investments.

62.    During the post-Civil War reforms, large factories meant massive production of
goods, bringing into action the economic laws of supply and demand. What are those
laws? (A) Equality of supply and demand (B) Government intervention in the
marketplace to stabilize prices (C) Economic theory of pricing (D) Price controls.

63.     What slogan was prominent in African Americans' fight against discrimination in
hiring during the1930s? (A) I Have a Dream (B) You Have Nothing To Lose But Your
Chains (C) Don't Buy Where You Can't Work (D) The Only Thing We Have To Fear Is
Fear Itself

64.   How did abolitionists view John Brown after the Harpers Ferry raid? (A) They
abandoned the cause of freeing slaves because of Brown's violent measures. (B) They
condemned him. (C) They considered him a martyr to their cause. (D) They forgot him
and moved ahead on their own.

65.     What did John Brown hope to accomplish with his raid on Harpers Ferry,
Virginia, in 1859? (A) He was attempting to start a slave rebellion. (B) He wished only to
frighten slave owners. (C) He wanted to legitimize his antislavery efforts. (D) He wanted
to overthrow the U.S. government.

66.    What were Hoovervilles? (A) Shantytowns occupied by the homeless during the
Great Depression (B) Housing for workers at Hoover Dam (C) Federally funded public
housing (D) Housing for veterans during the bonus march of 1932.

67.    How did President Roosevelt relate his ideas to the public? (A) Radio broadcasts
(B) Leaks from high-placed officials (C) Press conferences (D) Television speeches.

68.    Who was Frederick Douglass? (A) John Brown's deputy in the raid on Harpers
Ferry (B) An Illinois senator who participated in a famous series of debates with
Abraham Lincoln (C) An abolitionist who was a former slave (D) The leader of a slave

69.    What was Uncle Tom's Cabin? (A) A story of life on the frontier (B) A series of
children's stories (C) A station on the Underground Railroad (D) An antislavery novel.

70.    What group did abolitionists seek to help in the early part of the nineteenth
century? (A) Women (B) Native Americans (C) Slaves (D) Child workers.

71.     How did the United States Senate deal with big business and the trusts during the
late nineteenth century? (A) The Senate forced controls on businesses and acted in the
public interest. (B) The senators ignored their constituents and represented the interests of
businesses. (C) The Senate outlawed trusts. (D) Senators maintained a hands-off policy to
encourage competition.
72.     How did Progressives accomplish the reforms they advocated? (A) They were
elected to public office and passed reform laws. (B) They caused civil disturbances and
unrest to draw attention to their goals. (C) They refused to obey laws they felt were
oppressive, causing the laws to be thrown out. (D) They sued sitting governments and
forced them to change the laws.

73.    How did Southerners react to the antislavery charges of the abolitionists? (A)
They arrested and imprisoned abolitionists for no reason. (B) They ignored abolitionists.
(C) They forbade abolitionists to enter the South. (D) They passed laws making it illegal
to express antislavery views.

75.    How did reform movements in America differ from those in Europe? (A) More
people were involved. (B) Reformers demanded land for all. (C) Army officers led
reform movements. (D) Reforms were a form of economic revolution.

76.    Who were the Populists? (A) Journalists who investigated the evils of big
business (B) Middle-class reformers who advocated home rule for cities (C) Rural
reformers at the forefront of the reform movement (D) Urban reformers who campaigned
for municipal ownership of utilities and street railways.

77.     How did abolitionists view the Mexican War of 1846-1848? (A) They felt it was a
proslavery plot. (B) They felt the war protected U.S. interests in Mexico. (C) They felt
parts of Mexico rightfully belonged to the United States. (D) They welcomed it as a
chance to avenge the Mexican defeat of Texans at the Alamo.

78.    To the Social Darwinists, poor people were considered a natural phenomenon.
Which of the following was not advanced as a reason the poor could not escape poverty?
(A) Lack of opportunity (B) Laziness (C) Ignorance (D) Lack of virtue.

79.    What political changes resulted from the New Deal's efforts to aid African
Americans? (A) African Americans boycotted most major parties and formed their own.
(B) African Americans were denied the right to vote and could not give real support to
any party. (C) The Democratic Party gained great numbers of African American voters.
(D) African Americans joined the Communist Party.

80.    The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AA(A) helped which group of farmers? (A)
Tenant farmers (B) Migrant farm workers (C) Land owners (D) Black Americans.

81.    What did Franklin D. Roosevelt promise the United States people in accepting the
Democratic nomination for president in 1932? (A) Blood, toil, tears, and sweat (B) A
dream (C) Four freedoms (D) A New Deal.

82.     How were consumers affected by the lack of controls over industry during the last
half of the nineteenth century? (A) Industry installed money-saving modern equipment
and passed along their savings to consumers. (B) Lower costs made possible by lack of
controls saved the buying public large sums of money. (C) Products were often
misrepresented. (D) Competition among manufacturers brought the best products to
market at reasonable prices.

83.     Which one of the following benefits was not included in the New Deal's original
plan for Social Security? (A) Aid to widows and dependent children (B) Old-age
pensions (C) Hospitalization and health care (D) Benefits for disabled workers

84.    Why was the Social Security Act considered so revolutionary by its critics? (A) It
provided government pensions for retired workers. (B) It was the first step towards a
national health care program. (C) It paid workers not to work. (D) It was a voluntary

85.    Which of the following reforms was not mentioned in the Declaration of
Independence? (A) Taxation without representation (B) Trial by jury (C) Redress of
grievances (D) Freedom for slaves.

86.     What famous novel brought the plight of the farmers during the New Deal to the
attention of the American public? (A) The Jungle by Upton Sinclair (B) Gone With the
Wind by Margaret Mitchell (C) Little House on the Prairie by Laura Ingalls Wilder (D)
The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck.

87.    How did the enormous industrial growth in the United States following the Civil
War affect the country and the people? (A) Wages rose with the demand for more
workers. (B) Labor unions organized for better wages and working conditions. (C)
Industry dominated the economics of the country. (D) Small businesses flourished.

88.    How did the Supreme Court view Roosevelt's New Deal legislation? (A) It ruled
much of it to be unconstitutional. (B) It ruled against certain parts of some acts but
allowed others to stand. (C) It upheld reform legislation if more of it was constitutional
than not. (D) It ordered the president to rewrite the laws if the Court did not agree with

89.    Which group benefited from government aid under the Hoover administration?
(A) Foreign nations (B) Business and industry (C) Farmers (D) Unemployed workers.

90.    Which of the following was a compliment to reformers during the eighteenth and
nineteenth centuries? (A) Troublemakers (B) Self-indulgent (C) Avenging angels (D)

91.     Where did many Americans turn for reform in the face of worsening economic
conditions in the 1920s and 1930s? (A) Congress (B) President Hoover (C) Radical
politics (D) Sports and recreation.
92.    How did the abolitionists finally enter the national political arena in the 1850s?
(A) They took over existing parties. (B) They advocated overthrow of the government.
(C) They boycotted elections and told their supporters not to vote. (D) They formed the
Republican Party.

93.      How was the political world affected by monopolistic practices in the late 1800s?
(A) Local officials swore to uphold the law in their oaths of office. (B) Franchises for
utility companies and local transportation were sold to the highest bidders. (C) Business
owners controlled local politicians. (D) Elected officials became more responsive to the
wishes of the voters.

94.     What was the most important reform movement in the United States in the first
half of the nineteenth century? (A) Abolition of slavery (B) Sensible women's clothing
(C) Woman suffrage (D) Prohibition of alcohol.

95.    How did New Deal reform efforts differ from those of all previous
administrations? (A) The Roosevelt administration outlawed labor unions.
(B) The government intervened in private business to protect the public well-being. (C)
The New Deal encouraged farm workers to organize into unions. (D) The government
took over ailing businesses and ran them under federal supervision.

96.    What famous statement did President Roosevelt make in his 1933 inaugural
address? (A) "The only thing we have to fear is fear itself." (B) "Ask not what your
country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country." (C) "You have nothing to
lose but your chains." (D) "I am not a crook."

97.    How did Roosevelt's opponents characterize New Deal policies aimed at ending
the Great Depression? (A) Socialistic (B) Irresponsible (C) Communistic (D) Dictatorial.

98.   What public figure of the 1930s championed the cause of African Americans? (A)
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. (B) Eleanor Roosevelt (C) Father Charles Coughlin (D) Jesse

99.    What was the principal cause of bank failures prior to the New Deal? (A) Foreign
investments (B) The bank holiday of 1933 (C) Loss of depositors' confidence (D)
Speculating in the stock market by bankers.

100. The Roaring Twenties was a time of prosperity. What segment of the American
population did not benefit from the economic boom? (A) Athletes (B) African Americans
(C) Bootleggers (D) Stockbrokers.

101. How did Roosevelt get the reform legislation of the New Deal past Supreme
Court opposition? (A) By creating a larger Supreme Court (B) By developing new
wording of legislation and laws (C) By ordering a review of pending legislation by the
Supreme Court (D) By appointing justices more supportive of the administration.
102. Which of the following was not helped by the Works Progress Administration
(WPA)? (A) Students (B) Tenant farmers (C) Artists (D) Electric utility companies.

103. What reforms aimed at helping struggling farmers were instituted during the New
Deal? (A) Production quotas (B) Government purchase of farm surpluses (C) Food
stamps for the needy (D) Increased production.

104. What did President Hoover believe would solve the problems of the nation
following the stock market crash of 1929? (A) Government intervention (B) The business
cycle (C) Foreign trade (D) Direct relief payments.

105. Which of the following was not required in modern industrial technology? (A)
Large inventories (B) Increased financing (C) Skilled workers (D) Large factories

106. Who was Eugene V. Debs? (A) An elected representative (B) A Socialist labor
leader (C) Songwriter and propagandist for the IWW (D) One of the founders of the
American Federation of Labor.

107. How high did corruption in government reach in the late nineteenth century? (A)
It reached as high as the state legislatures. (B) It existed only in the Congress of the
United States. (C) It was limited to city and local governments. (D) It went as high as the
office of vice president of the United States.

108. How did the early colonists view the New World? (A) As the land of opportunity
(B) Streets paved with gold (C) A land of freedom for all (D) Expansion of European

109. When were the civil rights guaranteed to African Americans by the Constitution
finally realized? (A) In the last half of the twentieth century (B) During the New Deal era
(C) With the Emancipation Proclamation of 1862 (D) With the Thirteenth, Fourteenth,
and Fifteenth amendments to the Constitution.

110. What did President Roosevelt do to rescue the banking industry immediately
following his inauguration in 1933? (A) Banks were nationalized under federal control.
(B) Banks were closed temporarily. (C) Gold in the hands of private investors was
confiscated. (D) Roosevelt kept his agreements secret, so that public confidence in the
banks would not dwindle.

111. What is manumission? (A) Religious missions to convert slaves to Christianity
(B) Government decree ending slavery (C) Free trading of slaves (D) Voluntary release
of slaves by their owners

112. How did the new industrialism after the Civil War contribute to working and
living conditions? (A) Factory workers demanded better conditions by voting for reform
candidates. (B) Industrialists did not spend money to keep factories clean and safe. (C)
Labor unions insisted on safe working conditions. (D) Local governments inspected
factories and homes regularly to make sure they were safe and clean.

113. What act finally gave reformers the legal mechanism to break up the business
trusts of the nineteenth century? (A) Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 (B) Sherman
Antitrust Act of 1890 (C) Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 (D) The Hepburn Act of

114. How did labor unions attempt to achieve reforms for workers? (A) Labor leaders
encouraged new legislation to give workers more rights. (B) Labor leaders organized
strikes and boycotts to reinforce their demands. (C) Labor leaders used the news media to
relate their ideas to the general public. (D) Labor leaders encouraged violence to enforce
their demands.

115. Who were the muckrakers of the early twentieth century? (A) Crooked politicians
who accepted bribes from big business (B) Corrupt industrialists and financiers (C)
Crusading journalists and authors who exposed government corruption and business
excesses (D) Newspaper owners who fought big business.

116. What happened during the period between Franklin D. Roosevelt's election in
November 1932 and his inauguration in March 1933? (A) People rushed to buy goods at
low prices. (B) The voters who had elected Roosevelt waited patiently to see what action
he would take. (C) Congress rushed to pass Hoover's proposals before he left office. (D)
Many banks failed.

117. What was the name given to American colonists who opposed the American
Revolution and remained loyal to the king of England? (A) Know-Nothings (B)
Abolitionists (C) Whigs (D) Tories.

118. How did abolitionists and other Northerners react to the fugitive slave law? (A)
They shut down the Underground Railroad. (B) They refused to obey it. (C) They obeyed
it as the law of the land. (D) They fought it in Congress.

119. Which program under the New Deal proposed to aid farmers? (A) Agricultural
Adjustment Act (B) Civilian Conservation Corps (C) National Recovery Administration
(D) Tennessee Valley Authority.

120.   What was one of the earliest and most constant influences on the national
       conscience in America? (A) The law (B) The Declaration of Independence (C)
       Religion (D) The Bible.

1.     African culture was: (A) backward and had no technical or mechanical
innovations (B) characterized by great empires and formidable military capability (C)
characterized by great innovations in art and architecture (D) both B and C.

(D) Africa's culture is derived not only from its accomplishments in art and architecture,
but also from its extraordinary empires of the past.

2.     In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, Sankore was a center for: (A)
commercial trade (B) education in the areas of law, theology, history, and medicine (C)
the universities of Oxford and Paris (D) All of these.

(B) Students traveled from all over the world to study at Sankore; it was here that
anesthesia and various techniques for eye surgery were developed.

3.      The “middle passage” was: (A) the section of the Atlantic where many slaves
jumped overboard (B) the voyage from Africa to the colonies during which thousands of
slaves died (C) the name given to Blacks and Indians because of their common injustices
(D) None of these.

(B) The “middle passage,” was the horrible journey endured by the Africans as they
crossed the Atlantic in the hulls of the slave ships. Some of the deaths were attributed to
diseases like smallpox; most deaths, though, resulted from mistreatment by the ship’s

4.      As the “middle passage” neared its end, many slaves experienced: (A) comfort
and relief (B) curious interest (C) fear and dread (D) joy.

(C) Not only were most Africans fearful after having been taken from their homeland, but
they also dreaded their futures in a strange and brutal place.

5.      Indentured servants: (A) were treated worse than African slaves (B) had no
rights as human beings (C) were often criminals who gained freedom after a period of
servitude (D) were for the most part female.

(C) Many of the indentured servants were former prisoners who agreed to serve in order
to get out of jail. By contract, indentured servants would eventually earn their freedom.

6.      Laws during the colonial period: (A) were fair in the treatment of slaves (B)
were fair for half of the slaves (C) were hard on those who owned slaves (D) stated
that slavery was legal

(D) Colonial laws supported the institution of slavery.

7.    Whites in the South feared slave revolts, which still occurred despite their
_______ of the insurrectionists. (A) kind treatment (B) harsh punishment (C)
knowledge (D) exile.
(B) Penalties for rebellion included beating, burning, and hanging.

8.       Slavery only benefited the South. (A) true (B) false

(B) The North’s shipbuilding industry depended greatly on the slave trade and the big
business of supplying slave ships.

9.     People like Abigail Adams, Thomas Paine, and James Otis observed the
following contradiction in colonial American society. Many colonists: (A) supported
King George III and slavery (B) professed a desire to promote freedom and yet still
supported slavery (C) abolished the Fugitive Slave Laws and fought to be free of King
George III (D) supported the Missouri Compromise.

(B) Many writers of the time pointed out the irony of trumpeting freedom and liberty
while remaining a slave holding nation.

10.     Blacks like ________ played a major role in the Revolutionary War. (A) Crispus
Attucks, who was the first casualty of the war (B) those at Concord Bridge who fired
many of the “shots heard ’round the world” (C) Peter Salem, who killed British Major
Pitcairn (D) all of the above

(D) All of these Blacks and many others played significant roles in the Revolutionary

11.    Against tremendous odds, some Blacks: (A) advocated for a return to slavery
(B) achieved individual success, as Benjamin Banneker and Phillis Wheatley did (C)
both A and B

(B) Despite great difficulties, some Blacks like Banneker and Wheatley managed to
attain individual success.

12.      Despite gaining freedom from Britain with the help of slaves, America:
         (A) allowed slaves the right to move about the colonies
         (B) only gave freedom to Black men and not to Black women
         (C) still viewed Blacks as property

(D) Blacks were still not given equal standing in any part of the nation.

Part Two: The Abolitionists

1. The abolitionist period lasted from 1800 to 1861 and was characterized by:

      (A) people dedicated to moral ideas who had strong convictions against slavery
      (B) the abolition of alcohol production and consumption
      (C) men like Robert Kennedy, Malcolm X, and Dr. Martin Luther King
(A) During the abolitionist period, the clash over slavery sparked strong passions and
heated debate.

2. By which of the following methods did slaves rebel?

   (A) singing of songs
   (B) escape via the “Underground Railroad”
   (C) uprisings like those led by Denmark Vesey and Nat Turner
    (D) all of the above

(D) Slaves did not accept their servitude and struggled to escape it in many different

3. The most famous “conductor” of the Underground Railroad was:

   (A) Harriet Beecher Stowe
   (B) Mary Cassatt
   (C) Frederick Douglass
    (D) Harriet Tubman

(D) Harriet Tubman, also known as “the Black Moses,” led many slaves to freedom via
the Underground Railroad.

4. After the invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney:

   (A) Northern manufacturers no longer benefited from slavery
   (B) slaves did less work on the Southern plantations
   (C) the cotton industry in America died out
    (D) all of the above
   (E) none of the above

(E) With the invention of the cotton gin, cotton became an even more important crop,
and slaves worked even harder to produce more cotton. Since Northern manufacturers
benefited from the extra cotton, they indirectly benefited from slavery.

5. The legislation of 1808 decreed that:

   (A) importing slaves remained legal
   (B) all slaves were free
   (C) importing slaves was illegal

(C) The importation of slaves was illegal. This resulted in the breeding of slaves for
trading purposes.

6. Abolitionists were against:
   (A) slave laws
   (B) antislavery activity
   (C) Whites working against slavery

(A) Abolitionists opposed both slavery and the slave laws that defined slaves as property,
not people.

7. Which of the following statements can be used to support the argument that in the pre-
Civil War Southern slaves had no rights?

  (A) Slaves could be punished for leaving the plantation after dark.
  (B) Abolitionists protested the use of whippings and head frames as means of
  (C) Slaves were not permitted to learn to read or write.
   (D) both A and C
  (E) all of the above

(D) Slaves were prevented from coming and going as they pleased and were denied even
a basic education. Both of these rights were granted to Southern Whites but denied to
slaves because of their race and status.
8. People like William Lloyd Garrison and John Greenleaf Whittier began to:

    (A) question the desire of the slave to work
    (B) wonder if Blacks were human
    (C) question whether words were the only effective measure in the war against

(C) Many searched for different ways to bring change more rapidly.

9. Paradoxically, many White abolitionists:

   (A) believed in the social inequality of Blacks
   (B) believed that Blacks did not possess intelligence
   (C) believed that they were better than Blacks
    (D) all of the above

(D) The belief in Black inferiority was so ingrained that it was shared even by many

10. Black Americans like Dr. James McCune, Martin Delany, and David Walker:

   (A) were important religious leaders of the time
   (B) called for more pressure against Blacks
   (C) called for Blacks to fight for their freedom
(C) People like McCune, Delany, and Walker were thorns in the side of slavery, inciting
Blacks to rise up against their oppressors.

11. With rising strength from the abolitionists, pro-slavery groups resorted to:

     (A) violence
     (B) sympathy for Blacks
     (C) indifference

(A) In the fight against the abolitionists, pro-slavery groups used violence to champion
their cause.

12. The Fugitive Slave Law:

   (A) endangered the lives of many free Blacks because of the many fugitive slave
   (B) made slaves more comfortable in slavery
   (C) helped to end slavery

(A) Many free Blacks were thrust into slavery because of this law and therefore lost their

13. The Dred Scott decision of 1857 demonstrated that:

    (A) Blacks had no legal status in this country
    (B) slaves had freedom to go wherever they wanted
    (C) slavery actually benefited the slave

(A) This decision demonstrated that regardless of the laws passed by the individual states,
slaves had no rights anywhere in the United States.

14. By 1860, the nation had fallen apart over the issue of slavery and the stage was set

    (A) the Compromise of 1850
    (B) the secession of eleven states and the American Civil War
    (C) the creation of the Black Voters’ League

(B) The Civil War began in 1861 after years of division in politics and ideology.

1. Although there were several tensions between North and South which led to the Civil
War, one issue underlying them all was:

   (A) economics
   (B) politics
   (C) slavery
    (D) violence

(C) Despite Abraham Lincoln’s overall goal of preserving the Union, the country was at
odds, in large part because of slavery.

2. Abraham Lincoln’s main objective in the Civil War was:

   (A) to avenge the attack on Fort Sumter
   (B) to preserve the Union
   (C) to unconditionally end slavery

(B) Lincoln’s initial aim was to preserve the Union.

3. At the start of the Civil War, Blacks who wished to fight in the war were:

   (A) allowed to fight in the ranks of the South
   (B) denied access into the Union Army
   (C) allowed to work only on Northern plantations
    (D) both B and C

(B) Initially, Blacks were not allowed to join the Union army.

4. All Union generals supported the abolition of slavery.

   (A) true
   (B) false

(B) Union generals like George McClellan did not share the abolitionists’ views.

5. Why could slaves be considered “contraband of war”?

   (A) They were willing to smuggle secrets across enemy lines.
   (B) They were considered property and their presence in the South helped the
   (C) They helped General Butler tend horses.

(B) “Contraband of war” was defined as any asset which aided the enemy cause.
General Butler extended this definition to slaves because they were considered property,
and they kept Southern plantations running while White men fought in the army.

Robert Smalls was such a daring man. One night in 1862, he and three other slaves
commandeered a Confederate gunboat . . .

6. The commandeering of the Confederate ship the Planter demonstrated that:

   (A) Blacks could, and did, perform daring and risky missions for the Union army
   (B) the slave was much better off staying in servitude
   (C) plantations were acceptable places for Blacks

(A) The taking of the Planter proved that Blacks could contribute significantly to the
Union cause.

7. On January 1, 1863 President Lincoln decreed that:

   (A) all men are created equal
   (B) the slaves were rebels against the Union
   (C) slaves of the Rebel Southern states were freed

(C) On January 1, 1863, Lincoln declared Blacks held in Rebel territory were free.

8. When Lincoln enacted the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, many Whites in the

   (A) feared job competition
   (B) resorted to violence against Blacks
   (C) accepted the roles of Blacks
    (D) both A and B

(D) Much of the White violence against Blacks in the North was spurred by Whites’
fears that Blacks would take their jobs.

9. Who charged Fort Wagner?

   (A) 54th Massachusetts Colored Regiment
   (B) Doby River Rebels
   (C) General Milliken

(A) Black regiments like the 54th Massachusetts Colored Regiment, which charged Fort
Wagner, demonstrated unbelievable courage during the Civil War.

10. What happened at Fort Pillow under the leadership of General Nathan Forrest?

    (A) Black soldiers marched through the fort killing women and children.
    (B) Black troops surrendered and were subsequently massacred.
    (C) The Ku Klux Klan was formed.

(B) Despite having surrendered, more than 300 Black soldiers, as well as women and
children, were massacred by Confederate troops.

11. After the surrender at Appomattox Court House, the country looked back and saw:

   (A) more death in war, Black or White, than at any prior time
   (B) that slavery was illegal and Blacks were “free”
   (C) both A and B

(C) At the cost of hundreds of thousands of lives, slavery had been declaredillegal and
Blacks were declared “free.”
Part Four: Reconstruction

1. Despite the Thirteenth Amendment, the South’s resistance to positive change became
evident through acts like:

   (A) the assassination of Abraham Lincoln by John Wilkes Booth
   (B) the adoption of “Black codes”
   (C) the assassination of Andrew Johnson
    (D) both A and B

(D) The South still sought to perpetuate the conditions that existed with slavery. These
examples demonstrate a Southern ideology that refused to accept the changes brought
about by the Civil War.

2. Congress took measures to fight the South’s resistance of government declarations by

   (A) three constitutional amendments
   (B) the Slave Freedom Exemption Act
   (C) the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments

(C) The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments were created by determined congressmen
who wanted to regulate the actions of the South.

3. With freedom backed by law, Blacks made great strides in many areas including
establishing families and:

   (A) gaining the right to vote
   (B) gaining the right for women to vote
   (C) both A and B

(A) Finally, Blacks could marry and have families. Men were given the right to vote.
4. The fact that many Blacks had been denied the right to ________ made it of primary

   (A) pursue an education
   (B) follow the Black codes
   (C) work on plantations
(A) Because Blacks had been denied education, they sought it with even greater

5. What agency helped Blacks in the transition from slavery to freedom?

   (A) the Urban League
   (B) the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
   (C) the Freedmen’s Bureau
    (D) both A and C

(C) The Freedmen’s Bureau did many things to make the transition from slavery easier,
such as providing shelter and food.

6. During Reconstruction, legislatures were more democratic because:

   (A) landless Whites participated in the elections
   (B) Blacks participated in the elections
   (C) both A and B

(C) During Reconstruction, the electorate was more representative of the population than
ever before because race and property were no longer used to restrict voting privileges.

7. The plan for giving Blacks economic opportunities proposed to:

   (A) break up Southern plantations
   (B) repeal the Jim Crow laws
   (C) give Black men forty acres and a mule
    (D) both A and C
   (E) all of the above

(D) If the plan had been passed, it would have broken up the plantations and distributed
the land among Blacks.

8. The White Leaguers of the South were determined to:

   (A) prevent lawlessness and violence
   (B) preserve the “Southern way of life”
   (C) keep Blacks from voting
    (D) both A and B
   (E) both B and C

(E) The group of Southerners called the White Leaguers believed that keeping Blacks
from voting would preserve their “Southern way of life.”

9. The Ku Klux Klan was formed to ________ Blacks who wanted equality and Whites
who supported the Black cause.
   (A) terrorize and intimidate
   (B) build housing for
   (C) raise money for

(A) The Ku Klux Klan was formed to promote White supremacy through the use of
intimidation and terror.

10. During Reconstruction, Northern officials took strong action against the harsh
treatment of Blacks in the South.

   (A) true
   (B) false

(B) Northern officials took relatively ineffective measures in their attempts to deal with
the violent treatment of Blacks in the South.

11. The majority of Southern Whites viewed Blacks as:

   (A) a nuisance to be gotten rid of
   (B) a valuable source of cheap labor
   (C) a race of equal and free peers

(B) The South relied on Blacks as a source of cheap labor.

12. Facing hostility in the South, many Black men moved to the West and became:

   (A) known as leaders of the exodus
   (B) cowboys and ranchers
   (C) slaves for ranchers

(B) Many Blacks were cowboys or ranchers.

13. Robert Brown Elliott was one of twenty Blacks elected to:

    (A) the Senate
    (B) the House of Representatives
    (C) the the governorship of Louisiana

(B) With men like Robert Brown Elliott in the House of Representatives, Blacks had a
voice in the government.

14. During the 1876 election, Rutherford B. Hayes persuaded Southern Democrats to
vote for him by agreeing to:

     (A) pull federal troops out of the South
    (B) pull Blacks out of the House of Representatives
    (C) give the South a White man’s government

(A) By pulling troops out of the South, Hayes pleased Southern Democrats and increased
Southern support for himself.

15. With the removal of Federal troops in the South, many Blacks were:

   (A) removed from their legislative positions
   (B) allowed to work at night in the South
   (C) completely at the mercy of racist Whites
    (D) both A and C
   (E) none of the above

(D) The removal of Federal troops in the South left Blacks at the mercy of White
supremacists and commenced the ejection of Blacks from their legislative positions.

1. As Black people moved away from the South, they ________ met with discrimination.

   (A) nevertheless
   (B) no longer

(A) Although opportunities for Blacks were more plentiful outside the South, Blacks still
faced discrimination wherever they went.

2. In 1919, eighty-three Black men, including soldiers who fought in World War I, were
________ in the United States.

   (A) awarded medals
   (B) murdered
   (C) thrown out of the army

(B) Eighty-three Black men, including soldiers, were lynched, or hanged, in 1919 in the
United States.

3. ________ was one of the great jazz musicians of the Harlem Renaissance.

   (A) George Walker
   (B) Will Marion Cook
   (C) Louis Armstrong
    (D) none of the above

(C) Louis Armstrong became famous for playing jazz on his trumpet.

4. By the 1920s, Harlem had become a center of:
   (A) gang violence
   (B) artistic creativity
   (C) wealth and power
    (D) all of the above

(B) Harlem’s artistic community grew and exploded with literary, political, and
intellectual creativity during the 1920s.

5. Which of the following has been described as the largest and most powerful Black
movement in U.S. history?

   (A) the Harlem Renaissance
   (B) the African American Association
   (C) the NAACP magazine, The Crisis
    (D) the Universal Negro Improvement Association
   (E) none of the above

(D) The UNIA was, at that time, the most powerful American Black movement ever.

6. McKay and Dunbar were two Black poets who represented what change in Black

    (A) For the first time Black poetry could be described as passionate.
    (B) Black literature began to ignore the problems Blacks faced living in American
    (C) All Black poetry was now based on current events.
     (D) Some Black literature was developing a more militant tone.

(D) During the Harlem Renaissance, a new militancy appeared in some aspects of Black
literature. McKay and Dunbar were two poets whose work reflected this change.

7. Black writers and poets of this era became more:

   (A) fearful of oppression
   (B) assertive of their individuality
   (C) hopeless about their individual futures

(B) According to Langston Hughes, young Black writers were determined to express
their “individual dark-skinned selves without fear or shame.”

The poet Countee Cullen was a central figure of the Harlem Renaissance. In one of his
poems, he pondered the problems of being a talented Black in a racist society.

I doubt not God is good, well-meaning,
. . . . . . . . . .
8. ________ was one of the most significant poets of the Harlem Renaissance.

   (A) Jean Toomer
   (B) Countee Cullen
   (C) Zora Neale Hurston

(B) Countee Cullen gained a significant following for his poetry during the Harlem

9. In the previous poem by Langston Hughes, what is the purpose of “dancin’”?

   (A) to create art
   (B) to earn a living in the North
   (C) to escape the burden of everyday life

(C) In Hughes’s poem, “dancin’” is a means of finding a moment of happiness and of
temporarily escaping the problems of daily life.

10. The two previous poems represent a society in which Black women:

   (A) make significant contributions to art
   (B) fare better than Black men
   (C) occupy a low position in society
    (D) none of the above

(C) The first poem examines Black women’s unflattering self-image, while the second
deals with the dishonorable means by which some Black women must survive.

11. Where did Black writers begin to turn for inspiration?

   (A) new jazz compositions
   (B) their African ancestry
   (C) poets of eighteenth century England
    (D) the work of their fellow poets
   (E) none of the above

(B) Poets like Countee Cullen and Langston Hughes, among others, began to uncover
their African heritage and use it to create deeper meaning in their poems.

12. The Harlem Renaissance writers remain important because they:

    (A) initiated Black creativity in literature
    (B) encouraged Black pride
    (C) enhanced an era’s understanding of Black people
     (D) all of the above
(D) The writers of the Harlem Rennaisance took part in an explosion of Black creativity
which bolstered Black pride and enhanced understanding of Black lives and culture.
Part Six: The Depression

1. ________, which was always important in Black communities, became even
________ during the depression.

   (A) Living in the South . . . more important
   (B) Religion . . . less important
   (C) Migration . . . more important
    (D) Religion . . . more important
   (E) none of the above

(D) During the depression, many were left with little more than their faith to go on.

2. During the depression, Black church leaders:

   (A) gained esteem in the Black community
   (B) were all members of Congress
   (C) preached only on street corners
    (D) all of the above

(A) In large numbers, the Black community looked to their church leaders for spiritual
guidance and wisdom.

3. Father Divine’s ________ made him a ________ to his followers.

   (A) miracles . . . savior
   (B) dedication to service . . . hero
   (C) paranoia . . . threat

(B) Because Father Divine committed himself to helping those less fortunate, he was
admired by many.

4. In 1930 and 1931, most Black men and women were unemployed and needed
________ from the government to keep from starving.

   (A) subscriptions
   (B) substitutes
   (C) subsidies

(C) During these years, many Blacks were given subsidies (money from the government)
so that they could buy life’s basic necessities.

5. In 1933, what President offered hope to the desperate people of the country?
   (A) Franklin Roosevelt
   (B) Douglas MacArthur
   (C) Herbert Hoover
    (D) none of the above

(A) Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the new President, addressed the unemployed and the
hungry and promised great change.

6. Some new laws and programs of the New Deal actually caused some Black workers

   (A) become rich
   (B) lose their jobs
   (C) accept wages that were lower than Whites’
    (D) both A and B
   (E) both B and C

(E) The unintended effect of some New Deal programs was that some Black farm
workers lost their jobs, and some Black workers were forced to accept sub-standard
wages by local labor boards.

7. The Wagner Act seemed the most promising of the New Deal measures for Blacks
because it allowed workers:

   (A) to run the industries themselves
   (B) to organize into labor unions
   (C) to bargain as a group for better wages and working conditions
    (D) both B and C
   (E) both A and B

(D) The Wagner Act was the first law to allow unions, which give workers more power
to change both existing wages and conditions in their industries.

8. The American Federation of Labor began a new movement to ________ skilled and
unskilled workers in unions.

   (A) separate
   (B) identify
   (C) bring together
    (D) none of the above

(C) The AFL began to unite both skilled and unskilled workers at the same factory or

9. ________ progress was made for Black workers due to the developments of the New
   (A) Temporary
   (B) Limited
   (C) No

(B) Most New Deal acts primarily benefited White workers, but some laws did make
positive changes in working conditions for Blacks.

10. Among the heroes and heroines of Black Americans at this time were:

   (A) Eleanor Roosevelt, Jim Crow, Kennesaw Landis
   (B) Theodore Roosevelt, Thurgood Marshall, Thomas P. Cook
   (C) Eleanor Roosevelt, Mary McLeod Bethune, Thurgood Marshall

(C) Eleanor Roosevelt, Mary McLeod Bethune, and Thurgood Marshall were all fighters
for the cause of social justice.

11. The projects created by the Works Progress Administration allowed Black ________
to develop their talents.

    (A) painters
    (B) sculptors
    (C) actors
     (D) all of the above

(D) The Federal Arts Project and the Federal Theater Project encouraged many types of
Black artists to develop their skills.

12. During this period, Blacks began to make their mark in:

   (A) theater, music, and writing
   (B) writing, music, and dance
   (C) music and theater
    (D) all of the above

(D) All of these artistic avenues began to open up for Blacks in the 1930s.

13. Some Black baseball players, though they were banned from the major leagues, were
considered to be players on a par with the great Babe Ruth.

    (A) true
    (B) false

(A) Black ballplayers like Satchel Paige and Josh Gibson were excellent players,
surpassing some of the best White players in the major leagues.
14. Blacks who pursued careers in science and medicine ________ racism.

    (A) were protected from
    (B) still suffered from
    (C) were not affected by

(B) Despite their elevated status, professional Blacks were no more immune to racism
than those in the rest of their community.

15. By 1941, the situation for Blacks in America had:

    (A) greatly improved
    (B) worsened
    (C) changed little

(C) Though some progress was made, life for most Blacks in America had changed little
throughout the 1930s.

16. Many Black men served with great valor in the armed forces and were rewarded with
promotions in rank.

   (A) true
   (B) false

(B) Though men like Dorie Miller were awarded medals of honor, they were still unable
to advance in rank because of the color of their skin.

1. The Kerner Commission was formed in order to address the:

   (A) causes of several social eruptions
   (B) need for several social eruptions
   (C) need for a mayor and a congressman

(A) Though many Whites at that time had no idea that racial tension had escalated to such
a critical point, the Kerner Commision was formed to study the underlying tension of
social upheavals—racism.

2. The Kerner Commission found that the social upheaval was due in large part to:

   (A) the disintegration of the family unit
   (B) increased Ku Klux Klan activities
   (C) the culmination of 300 years of racial prejudice

(C) A nation that thought it was progressing was shocked to discover that the social
upheaval stemmed from centuries of racial prejudice.
3. The Commission found that to make slavery seem acceptable, myths were created that
portrayed Blacks as:

   (A) genetically inferior
   (B) darker-skinned because of a sickly disease and therefore contagious
   (C) incapable of understanding Christianity

(A) In order to justify slavery and racism in this country, myths about genetic inferiority
of Blacks were created.

4. Unlike other immigrants, Blacks were:

   (A) often unable to buy their way out of ghettos
   (B) able to escape the confines of the ghettos
   (C) unable to live together because of disease

(A) Many Blacks were prevented from earning enough money to be able to afford to
leave the ghetto. Those who were able to achieve economic status often found
themselves systematically blocked from White residential areas.

5. Among other things, Blacks were blatantly excluded from:

   (A) white-collar jobs
   (B) aircraft engineering
   (C) construction
    (D) all of the above

(D) Many Blacks were repeatedly denied economic opportunities in many areas,
including white-collar jobs, aircraft engineering, and construction, solely because of their

6. The Commission found that, in education, Blacks:

   (A) were not educated in a manner that would prepare them for “decent jobs”
   (B) received ten times less money than White children
   (C) both A and B

(C) The Commission noted that, as compared to White children, Black children were
attending schools that were more poorly funded and which provided inadequate career

7. The Kerner Commission stated that Blacks, unlike European immigrants, have not
been able to leave the ghetto because they:

   (A) are slow and don’t want success
   (B) have been prevented from participating in mainstream American life
   (C) have actually escaped poverty and the ghettos

(B) The information that Blacks had been denied equal opportunity in America refuted
the myth that failure was based on laziness.

8. Movies, television, and books often carried an indirect and subconscious message of:

   (A) typical Black Americans
   (B) White superiority
   (C) racial unity

(B) Movies, television, and books often created racial myths and stereotypes by
portraying White characters in heroic roles and Black characters in lesser roles.

9. In the world of entertainment, Blacks were perceived as:

   (A) lazy
   (B) childlike
   (C) less than human
    (D) all of the above

(D) Portrayal of Blacks in popular entertainment reinforced the myths that Blacks were
lazy, unintelligent, and inhuman.

10. Based on the last passage, which of the following statements can be made and

   (A) History is usually a record of fact.
   (B) Historians have all conspired to create a racial myth.
   (C) Sometimes historians allow myths and biases to influence their view of history.

(C) The previous passage is an example of how popular views and myths can influence
how a historian records history.

11. Men and women like Harriet Tubman, James Beckwourth, W. E. B. Du Bois, and
Matthew Henson proved that:

   (A) the myths about Blacks were not true
   (B) the Underground Railroad was a myth
   (C) suppression of Black history was a myth

(A) The accomplishments of many Black Americans proved that the racial myths were
wrong, but because Black history was often suppressed the racial stereotypes persisted.

12. At the time the Kerner Commission report was issued:
   (A) no integration had occured in public schools
   (B) most schools were integrated
   (C) few schools were integrated
    (D) most public schools in regions of diverse populations were integrated

(C) When the Kerner Commission report was released in 1968, fewer than twenty
percent of American schools had been integrated.

13. The Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1964:

   (A) enabled Blacks to exercise their right to vote
   (B) enraged Whites who believed Blacks should not be able to vote
   (C) resulted in violent attempts to prevent their implementation
    (D) all of the above

(D) The Civil Rights Acts, which protected the right to vote regardless of race, sparked
anger and violence in Whites who believed Blacks should be denied the right to vote.

14. The Kerner Commission found that the main trend for Blacks was toward increased
________ in poor urban areas.

    (A) employment
    (B) concentration
    (C) segregation
     (D) both B and C
    (E) both A and B

(D) The Commission found that instead of becoming integrated into the greater society,
Blacks were often concentrated in poor areas of cities.

15. Despite the accomplishments of people like Thurgood Marshall, the Commission
found that Blacks:

   (A) were content with their present condition
   (B) had achieved great success easily
   (C) had encountered more setbacks than progress

(C) While some Blacks, like Thurgood Marshall, had achieved great success, the
Commission found that on the whole Blacks were judged to be no closer to achieving the
“American Dream” than ever before.

16. The Kerner Commission found that if trends continued in American society:

   (A) democracy would ultimately be destroyed
   (B) desegregation would be achieved
   (C) Blacks and Whites would become polarized
    (D) both A and B
   (E) both A and C

(E) The Kerner Commission determined that if society at that time did not change
course, Blacks and Whites would eventually become polarized and democracy would be

1. The Declaration of Independence decrees that:

   (A) slavery is illegal
   (B) every individual has certain rights that may not be taken away
   (C) Whites and Blacks should remain independent of one another

(B) The Declaration of Independence states that every person has inalienable rights;
however, it was almost a century before this was guaranteed for Blacks.

2. The myth created during the period of slavery that Blacks are not human:

   (A) has been universally rejected
   (B) continues to influence race relations to some extent
   (C) remains unquestioned

(B) The myth that Blacks are not human is still causing repercussions in American

3. Frederick Douglass was an escaped slave who:

   (A) became a hero to Blacks all over the country
   (B) said, “Who would be free, themselves must strike the first blow.”
   (C) dedicated his life to abolishing slavery
    (D) all of the above

(D) After his escape from slavery, Frederick Douglass became a hero to Blacks
throughout America for his devotion to fighting oppression and speaking out against

4. Booker T. Washington felt most strongly that building ________ was the key to Black

   (A) immediate social equality
   (B) Black economic strength
   (C) psychological tools

(B) Washington believed that building economic strength was the most effective way for
Blacks to attain equality and success.
5. With great numbers of Blacks moving to the North and West, White workers:

   (A) reacted with violence against Blacks
   (B) welcomed Blacks
   (C) worked well with Blacks

(A) White workers who feared that Blacks would take their jobs reacted with riots and
lynchings of Blacks in the North and West.

6. As people like Marcus Garvey and groups like the NAACP became more insistent in
their demands for equality:

   (A) lynchings went unpunished
   (B) lynchings increased
   (C) Whites became more sympathetic toward Blacks
    (D) both A and B
   (E) both A and C

(D) Garvey and the NAACP were determined to win equal rights for Blacks despite
increased intimidation from Whites.

7. Even though the march did not materialize, A. Philip Randolph’s determination
persuaded President Roosevelt to:

   (A) ban racial discrimination in defense industries and government offices
   (B) create the Committee on Fair Employment Practices
   (C) march one hundred thousand people out of Washington
    (D) both A and B
   (E) all of the above

(D) Because of Randolph’s efforts, Roosevelt was compelled to create provisions against

8. With African states and India gaining independence, Blacks felt _________ about the
chances for improved conditions.

   (A) depressed
   (B) pessimistic
   (C) optimistic
    (D) confused

(C) Blacks were inspired by events overseas.

9. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People’s petition was a
plea to the United Nations:
   (A) to fight injustice in Bosnia
   (B) to help establish equality in America
   (C) to further segregate schools

(B) The NAACP’s petition pointed out the continued disenfranchisement of African
Americans and called for change.

10. A 1954 Supreme Court decision concerning race relations:

   (A) stated that the “separate but equal” doctrine was unconstitutional
   (B) required the integration of public schools
   (C) set a precedent for the desegregation of public facilities
    (D) all of the above
   (E) none of the above

(D) This legislation called the “separate but equal” ruling unjust and required the
integration of public schools. By doing so, it set a precedent which could be used to fight
segregation in other public facilities.

11. The Montgomery bus boycott:

    (A) meant that only Blacks could ride buses
    (B) united Blacks in their fight against injustice
    (C) economically crippled the bus company
     (D) both B and C
    (E) both A and C

(D) The Black boycott of Montgomery buses hurt the bus company financially and
strengthened Black unity.

12. Dr. Martin Luther King taught Blacks that it was best to:

   (A) use violence against police officers
   (B) escape from jail repeatedly
   (C) demonstrate nonviolently

(C) Dr. King and his followers refused to meet violence with violence.

13. In 1957, Federal troops were brought into Little Rock, Arkansas:

    (A) to protect the rights of nine Black students
    (B) to take away the constitutional rights of Whites
    (C) to implement the Montgomery bus boycott

(A) For the first time since Reconstruction, troops were sent to the South to protect the
constitutional rights of African Americans.
14. The ________ was an influential organization that grew out of Dr. King’s
nonviolence movement.

    (A) Congress of Radical Equality
    (B) Congress of Racial Equity
    (C) Congress of Racial Equality

(C) This group, along with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and others,
stemmed from Dr. King’s movement.

15. During the centennial of the Emancipation Proclamation, violence increased and:

    (A) four girls died when a bomb exploded in their church
    (B) Medgar Evers was shot to death at his home
    (C) a bomb exploded in Martin Luther King’s brother’s home
     (D) all of the above

(D) Violence was widespread and became a dominant feature of reactions to the civil
rights movement.

16. The Black Muslims embodied a changing mentality among Blacks which preached:

   (A) a nonviolent approach
   (B) violent self-defense
   (C) segregation of Blacks and Whites
    (D) both A and C
   (E) both B and C

(E) The Black Muslims believed Blacks should not interact with Whites and should use
all means possible, including violence, to protect themselves from abuse.

17. Organized Black protest groups demonstrated against ________ in the ’60s.

    (A) school segregation
    (B) menial jobs
    (C) lower wages for Blacks
     (D) substandard housing
    (E) all of the above

(E) Campaigns were held by African American organizations to demand better housing,
jobs, wages, and integration.

18. The fact that protest demonstrations accomplished little caused mounting Black
frustration and eventually:
    (A) greater government respect towards Blacks
    (B) the Black Muslim Revolution
    (C) riots in places like Harlem and Watts

(C) The increased frustration Blacks felt in the 1960s led to riots in Watts, Detroit,
Newark, and Harlem.

19. The “Black power” movement was ____________ than the established civil rights

    (A) more cautious
    (B) less cautious
    (C) more confrontational
     (D) all of the above
    (E) both B and C

(E) The “Black power” movement was both less cautious and more confrontational than
the older factions of the civil rights movement.

20. Groups like the Black Panthers were determined to protect the Black community:

   (A) from police brutality
   (B) from White exploitation
   (C) with weapons if necessary
    (D) all of the above
   (E) none of the above

(D) With the death of Dr. King, the nonviolent movement faded and militant groups like
the Black Panthers gained influence. They employed several means, including weapons,
to fight racial discrimination.

21. As long as there is racism, there will be _________ .

    (A) Black Panther attacks
    (B) Black protest
    (C) peace and harmony

(B) Protests are now an established part of the American poltical scene.

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