REPORT OF THE:
CROP AND FOOD
ASSESSMENT FOR DROUGHT
AFFECTED AREAS IN
BALOCHISTAN AND SINDH
Dr. Muhammad Yousaf Chaudhri
Dr. Sadaqat Hayat Hanjra
Mr. Faris Rahman Khan
REPORT OF THE FAO/WFP CROP AND FOOD
ASSESSMENT MISSION TO PAKISTAN-2002
DR. MUHAMMAD YOUSAF CHAUDHRI
DR. SADAQAT HAYAT HANJRA
MR. FARIS RAHMAN KHAN
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. BACKGROUND INFORMATION 3
2.1 Balochistan 3
2.2. Sindh 5
3. SITUATION ANALYSIS 5
3.1. Drought 5
3.2. Water Resources 9
3.3. Crop Production 10
3.4. Livestock Production 12
3.5. Effect on Households 14
4. LOCAL COPING MECHANISMS 17
5. GOVERNMENT RESPONSE MECHANISMS 18
6. ASSESSMENT OF NEEDS 21
6.1. Emergency Assistance 21
6.1.1. Agriculture 21
6.1.2. Food Aid 22
6.1.3. Vulnerability Survey 26
6.2. Need for Medium to Long-term Support to Mitigate Drought 26
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure 1. Intensity of Rainfall in Tharparkar 7
LIST OF MAPS AND TABLES
Table 1. Rainfall Data of Balochistan 6
Table 2. Rainfed Cropped Area in Balochistan 10
Table 3. Rainfed Area Under Selected Crops in Balochistan 10
Table 4. Area and Proudction of Major Crops in Sindh 12
Table 5. Relief Assistance in Balochistan 19
Table 6. Immediate Relief Extended 19
Table 7. Mid/Long Term Projects 20
Table 8. Drought Affected Area in Sindh 21
Table 9. Estimate of Beneficiaries of Food Aid 25
Map-1. Drought Affected Areas of Balochistan 3
Map-2. Drought Affected Areas of Sindh 8
LIST OF ANNEXURES
Annexure-1. Terms of Reference
Annexure-2. Missions Field Visits
Annexure-3. List of Villages Visited by the Mission
Annexure-4. List of Persons/Officials Met During Field Visits
Annexure-5. Schemes under taken out of Chief Executive grant Of Rs. 1000.00
Except for some rain in Tharparkar during 2001 and early November 2002 in parts of
Balochistan, the drought has continued in most parts of Balochistan and Sindh, further
accentuating the negative impact on water resources, crop and livestock production and
household food security.
A progressive reduction in the means of livelihood of the affected people continues to restrict
their access to cash resources and consequently, their food and non-food needs. This has
further increased the levels of poverty.
Forced change in food habits substituting cheaper and less nutritious food items and almost
total elimination of meat, milk and milk products has resulted in increased malnutrition and
vulnerability to diseases particularly among women and children. Incidence of anemia,
tuberculosis and hepatitis has considerably increased.
Both surface and groundwater resources have either totally dried or their discharge drastically
reduced severely affecting water availability for agriculture, human and livestock use.
Rainfed crop production in drought affected areas has either totally failed or reduced by 60 to
80%, with serious consequences for household income and sustenance and livestock
Almost 40% of the fruit orchards have dried, cut and sold as fuel wood causing financial ruin
to the orchard owners and reducing job opportunities. Small holders will need help in
adopting alternate crop production systems.
With more people searching for work, the wage rates have dropped drastically (from Rs. 100
to Rs. 20-50).
Reduced water supply in the Indus basin canal system has resulted in significant reduction in
crop acreages and production, reducing traditional support capacity of irrigated areas for
migrant labour and livestock from the Thar desert.
In many cases people have opted for earning through wage labour permanently abandoning
their traditional means of subsistence viz. crop and livestock production.
Death and distress sale of livestock has drastically cut down on the stock size of individual
owners and chances of any rapid stock build up in the near future are minimal due to loss of
breeding capacity, abortions and lamb and kid mortality. Assistance is needed in stock
replacement, supplementary feeding and preventive health cover.
The Mission noted a tendency to substitute low water delta crops for high water delta crops.
This needs to be encouraged and supported.
The Mission estimated a total number of 2.21 million people as affected by drought in both
the provinces. Of these, 173760, residing in the 5 most severely affected districts of
Balochistan and 98789, residing in the two severely affected districts of Sindh were in need
of emergency food aid for a period of 6 months upto the summer monsoon of 2003.
The persistent drought occurring in Pakistan since the last about five years has
severely affected crop and livestock production in the country, with serious
consequences for the food security and livelihood of a large segment of
population. The entire province of Balochistan, except for the part of Naseerabad
district irrigated by Pat Feeder and Kirther canals, has been hit by this drought and
notified by the provincial government as calamity hit area. In Sindh, the whole of
Tharparkar district and parts of Dadu (Johi and Thano Buley Khan Talukas),
Mirpur Khas (Umerkot Taluka), Sanghar (Khipro Taluka) and Thatta (5 Dehs in
Thatta Taluka), have been declared as the worst drought hit areas (Map-1). The
relief efforts undertaken by the Provincial governments, with assistance from
Federal government, international and bilateral donors and agencies and private
organizations from within the country have helped in mitigating the situation to a
considerable extent. However, the drought conditions persisting through 2001 and
2002 have increased the extent and severity of the problem raising humanitarian
concerns that require urgent attention.
Against this background the Economic Affairs Division, Government of Pakistan,
through their letter dated 24th October 2002, requested for assistance in assessing
the impact of continuing drought and identifying emergency needs of the affected
population. In response to this request FAO/WFP, with financial assistance from
the UNDP, fielded a mission from 3 November to 2 December, 2002, to identify
areas severely affected by drought, assess the impact of drought on crop and
livestock production and household food security and identify emergency needs of
the affected population. The Mission’s Terms of Reference are given at annex 1.
The Mission consisted of an Agronomist/Team Leader, a Livestock Specialist and
an expert in assessment of drought impact on household economy. A female
Social Mobilizer, capable of conversing in the local language/s, was hired in each
of the two provinces. They assisted the Mission by interviewing the womenfolk
during field visits to the affected areas.
The Mission visited Balochistan from 3 to 12 November and Sindh from 13 to 23
November 2002. After initial briefings by concerned government officials
(Secretaries/ Heads of Departments/Relief Commissionerate) the Mission
travelled through most of the drought affected areas visiting a total of 25 villages
in Balochistan and 30 in Sindh. The Mission’s findings are based on information
provided during initial briefings, subsequent discussions with the district
administration, representatives of relevant line departments, affected people (both
male and female), elected local government representatives (Union Council
Nazims and Councilors) and Mission’s own observations en-route. While
travelling the Mission critically reviewed the condition of agricultural crops
including fruit orchards, rangeland vegetation, water resource situation, household
income and nutritional status of human beings, particularly women and children,
and the state of grazing/migrating herds of both small and large ruminants. On the
last day of visit to each province the Mission findings were presented in a de-
briefing meeting at the provincial government level. The Mission’s travel itinerary
and lists of villages visited and persons met are given at annexes 2, 3 & 4.
2. BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Balochistan, with a geographic area of 3,47,190 sq. km, is the largest province of
Pakistan constituting 43% of the country’s total land mass. However, with a
population of 6.511 m (1998 census), it is the most sparsely populated province.
Approximately 78% population lives in the rural area. The climate ranges from
semi-arid to hyper-arid and temperature regimes vary widely from cool temperate
to tropical. The northern highland region is characterized by cold winters and mild
summers. Most winters receive snow, frost and rainfall ranging between 250 to
350 mm. In the south-western desert zone the annual rainfall ranges between 50 to
125 mm and the region experiences hottest summers, with the temperature
occasionally rising above 50°C. Annual evaporation rates are very high ranging
from 3200 mm to over 5000 mm.
Crop and livestock production are the two dominant economic sectors in
Balochistan, accounting for over 50% of the Province’s GDP and employing
roughly 67% of the work force, full or part time. The limited rainfall and water
availability drastically restricts the amount of land under cultivation and at present
only about 2.13 mha (5%) of the total land area is cultivated. Half of the cultivated
area is perennially irrigated, while the remaining half is under rainfed cultivation.
Although irrigated crop production plays a dominant role in the agricultural
economy of Balochistan, dryland farming of the Sailaba (flood water) and
Khushkaba (rainfed) types have been important for the livelihood of a majority of
the people. Both these dryland farming systems are dependent on natural
precipitation and their performance fluctuates drastically with the fluctuation in
The agro-ecological diversity obtaining in Balochistan permits the cultivation of a
wide range of field and horticultural crops. Although the Province is a net
importer of basic food staple such as wheat, traditionally cereal production
including wheat, rice, barley, sorghum and millet, has remained important to its
agricultural economy, covering 70% of the cropped area and contributing 50% to
the gross value of crops sub-sector. Besides, it serves as important source of green
fodder and roughage for the livestock. High altitude and the aridity in the
atmosphere provides an ideal environment for the production of quality deciduous
fruits in Balochistan. The Province’s share of many deciduous fruits like apples,
plums, pears, apricots, peaches and pomegranates and non-deciduous fruits like
date, ranges between 35 to 85 percent in Pakistan’s total production. For the
production of quality grapes, almonds and cumin the Province has an exclusive
monopoly in Pakistan.
Irrigated agriculture is dependent both on surface and groundwater resource. The
major surface water resource is the canal water flowing in the Kirthar and Pat
Feeder canals of the Indus Basin System and Lasbella canal emanating from Hub
Dam. Another important source of surface water is the flood water that flows
through the inland and coastal streams. Part of this runoff water is harnessed for
agriculture through Sailaba Bandat, storage dams and small irrigation schemes.
The groundwater resource becomes available for agricultural purposes through
Karezes, natural springs, dug wells and tubewells. With the extension of
electricity in the areas suitable for crop production, particularly fruits and
vegetables, the number of tubewells has consistently increased during the last 25
years. Authorized and un-authorized installation of tubewells and pumping of
water in excess of recharge has caused a rapid drop in the aquifer resulting in the
drying of dug wells and a number of Karezes and springs. This emerging scenario
is causing a serious problem of longer term sustainability of irrigated agriculture
based on groundwater resource. The situation has been further aggravated by
persistent drought occurring during the last 5 years.
Livestock production is an important economic activity in Balochistan and is one
of the primary means of subsistence for 70 percent of the rural population. Ninety-
two percent of the total land area of Balochistan has been categorized as
rangelands which provide the feed resource for the production of small ruminants
(sheep and goats), which currently number over 20 million. Three livestock
production systems are in vogue in Balochistan: 1) A small percentage of
agropastoralists is sedentary. They grow crops and own livestock and often have
access to green fodder and crop residues, 2) A large proportion of flock owners
are transhumant who commute between winter and summer quarters to adjust the
seasonal feed requirements. They also grow rainfed crops, 3) about 50% of the
livestock owners are nomadic who constantly move between highlands and lower
parts and sometimes cross international borders. These nomads are entirely
dependent on livestock for their subsistence and the family food and non-food
needs are met through trading of livestock and livestock products. Livestock
marketing is often through middlemen and is highly exploitative. Livestock health
services are provided by the Livestock Department through hospitals, dispensaries
and mobile units but in several districts these are grossly inadequate.
The Sindh Province with a geographical area of 140, 914 sq. km has a population
of more than 30 million. Sixty one percent of the land mass is arid while 39% is
irrigated by perennial and seasonal canals of the Indus Basin. About half of the
irrigated area is affected by salinity and water logging. Slow movement of water
in the Indus river, due to low gradient towards the sea, encourages percolation and
causes water logging. Two-thirds of groundwater is brackish.
The Thar region of Sindh is a large desert with sub-saharan conditions and
measures 20,000 sq. Km. Rainfed agriculture and livestock are the primary means
of subsistence in this area. Rainfall in a good year ranges between 200-250 mm
and occurs mostly during monsoon season. Such a rainfall permits growing of
Bajra (millet) as the main food crop and guwar as the main cash crop and also
supports growth of seasonal and perennial grasses on the grazing lands providing
feed resource for the whole year. It also recharges the thin fresh water layer and
provides opportunities for collection of surface water flows in open ponds. If the
rainfall does not occur during monsoon season a drought like situation emerges
resulting in acute shortage of food and fodder. People search for alternative
sources for their livelihood usually migrating to barrage areas for wage labour and
taking loans on high interest-rate for subsistence.
Kohistan area extending along the west, north-west border of the province is sub-
mountainous to mountainous and is also dependent on rainfed crop production
(millet, sorghum, mungbean and guwar) and livestock (both large and small
ruminants). Rainfall in these areas is scanty (averages between 100 to 120 mm)
and is highly erratic. Kachho area lying between irrigated plains and Kohistan
belt, is also dependent on natural precipitation and failure of rainfall affects the
livelihood of people subsisting on rainfed agriculture and livestock production in
The vast arid rainfed semi-desert to desert like areas in Balochistan and Sindh
with no source of irrigation and low precipitation offer little scope for irrigated
agriculture. However, these areas are highly suitable for livestock production,
particularly small ruminants, cattle and camel. The animals are well adapted to the
harsh environmental conditions and utilize range biomass very efficiently.
3. SITUATION ANALYSIS
Drought in the provinces of Sindh and Balochistan has increased progressively
during the last 4 to 5 years. However, it aggravated in early year 2000 when the
effects became more telling. The initial reports were mainly from livestock
owners who faced a situation where very little grass was left in the ranges and
sustaining the existing number of livestock became impossible. Later on, the
effects of drought became more pronounced and engulfed human/livestock
population, crops and water resources.
In almost all affected areas of Sindh and Balochistan, drought has more or less
persisted throughout the years 2001 and 2002, with serious consequences for
agriculture, livestock, household income and food security. In most severely
affected areas not a single drop of water has been received during the last 3-5
years. In Balochistan the worst affected province, the winter rains are down by 60
to 73% (Table 1). The situation is particularly grave in areas where groundwater is
deep/brackish and no surface water resource is now available.
Table 1. Rainfall Data of Balochistan for the Period 1998-2002
Year/Season Normal/Aggregate Actual/Aggregate Difference Percentage
(mm) (mm) (mm) Deficient
Summer 1998 59.05 26.72 32.33 54.8%
Winter 1998-99 74.01 65.98 8.03 10.8%
Summer 1999 59.05 29.11 29.94 50.7%
Winter 99-2000 74.01 19.80 54.21 73.2%
Summer 2000 59.05 30.54 28.51 48.3%
Winter 2000-01 74.01 27.54 46.47 62.8%
Summer 2001 59.5 35.51 23.54 39.9%
Winter 2001-02 74.01 29.60 44.41 60.0%
Total: 532.24 264.80 267.44 50.2%
Source: Relief Commissionerate, Balochistan.
Due to scarcity of water and failure of traditional means of subsistence, large scale
migration has taken place out of the areas most severely and severely affected by
drought, in Balochistan. The Mission observed four types of situations in this
Total migration abandoning the whole village (e.g. villages, Rod
Mullazai in Pishin, Chashma Dat in Kharan, Rahi Nagur in Panjgur
and Kilkor in Kech).
Most families moving out, a few staying back.
Some male members migrating alongwith their livestock.
Only male members migrating in search of wage labour.
The Government of Balochistan has notified the entire province of Balochistan,
except part of Naseerabad district irrigated by Pat Feeder and Kirthar Canals, as
calamity hit area. However, considering precipitation during the last two years,
including the most recent rains occurring during the first half of November, 2002,
the current water resource situation, opportunities for alternate employment,
recent migration out of the area and availability of livestock feed resources, the
Mission assesses the situation as follows:
Most severely affected districts: Kharan, Panjgur, Awaran, Chaghi
Severely affected districts: Kech, Loralai, Killa Saifullah,
Killa Abdullah, Kachhi and
Moderately affected districts: Khuzdar and Sibi
These areas are depicted in Map-2.
Between 6-10 November 2002, while the Mission was travelling in Balochistan,
scattered rains ranging from a slight drizzle to a moderately heavy downpour were
received in several areas of the province. In parts of Khuzdar, Quetta, Mastung,
Kalat, Ziarat, Pishin and Loralai districts, the rains seemed enough to provide
moisture for Rabi 2002-2003 planting. Only a slight drizzle was received in
Panjgur, Awaran, Turbat, Lasbella and Killa Saifullah. All other districts went
The Thar region of Sindh received substantial rains in 1997 and 1998 (186 to 210
mm) and production of crops and range biomass was enough to secure sustenance
of an average household during those two years. Rains were, however, down to
only 30% (60 mm) and 12% (24 mm) of normal, during the years 1999 and 2000.
All of it was received in one go and did not help much in crop production and
grass germination. In the year 2001, 80 mm of rain was received in three spells, in
most parts of Thar, which enabled people to plant millets, sorghum and guwar but
due to less than optimum moisture during crop growth only half the average yields
were harvested. Some palatable grasses and shrubs also became available for
sustaining the livestock. During 2002, only 8 mm of rain was received in the last
week of June. Hoping that some more rains will come later, people cultivated land
and planted summer crops. However, as it all went dry thereafter, investment on
cultivation and planting of crops was all wasted. The grass that germinated with
the first rain survived only for two weeks. With no support from the rangelands
for the livestock, people started to migrate to the Barrage area in August 2002.
Figure 1. Intensity of Rainfall in Tharparkar (1997-2002)
Rainfall (mm per annum)
1997 1997.5 1998 1998.5 1999 1999.5 2000 2000.5 2001 2001.5 2002
The drought affected areas of Mirpur Khas, Sanghar, Dadu and Thatta have
received no rains during the last 5 to 6 years, totally eliminating rainfed crop
production and livestock sustaining on rangeland vegetation, the two primary
means of subsistence in these areas. Household incomes have been severely
affected resulting in food insecurity. A serious problem of drinking water both for
human beings and livestock has emerged. People have migrated in search of
Considering the level of precipitation during the last 2-3 years, the current water
resource situation, concentration of government’s relief efforts, scale of
productive assets remaining with the affected people and the level of NGOs
operation in the affected areas, the Mission feels that in future relief and
rehabilitation efforts, Dadu (Johi & Thano Buley Khan Talukas) Mirpur Khas
(Umerkot Taluka) and Sanghar (Khipro Taluka) districts should receive due
3.2. Water Resources
In Balochistan over exploitation of groundwater resource, through tubewells, has
caused an alarming rate of depletion of water table in many natural aquifers. The
extended drought preventing any recharge of the aquifer has further aggravated
the situation. Drop in the groundwater level has resulted in the drying of almost all
surface wells, particularly in the uplands and 70 percent of the Karezes and natural
springs. Karezes and springs which are still alive are running at only 1/2 to 1/3
capacities, with a drastic reduction in their command areas. Drop in aquifer has
also caused drying of tubewells in several areas or reducing their discharge by
upto 50%. In areas with no electricity, the tubewells run on diesel engines have to
be abandoned because of their inability to extract water from beyond a certain
depth. Stream flows available for sailaba cultivation have either totally dried or
drastically reduced because of failure of rainfall.
In Sindh, failure of rainfall and reduced flow of water in rivers and canals have
both affected the groundwater recharge process resulting in the lowering of
groundwater level. The surface wells have dried and at some places the tubewells
have also gone out of commission. Earthquake that hit areas in Badin and
Tharparker district in the year 2000 has also resulted in the drop of aquifer from
about 150 ft to almost 500 ft. Reduced stream flows due to drought have
particularly affected the dug wells along their course, creating serious problems of
availability of drinking water for human beings, as well as, livestock. Less of
recharge has also increased the level of salinity in the groundwater. There is an
overall shortage of 30 to 40% in the water flows of Indus Basin canals further
multiplying the negative effects of drought. Reduced supply of canal water has
resulted in a substantial reduction in areas under most major crops and their per
3.3. Crop Production
In the most severely drought hit areas of Balochistan, rainfed cropping of
Khushkaba and Sailaba type has totally disappeared. In areas severely or
moderately affected by drought, rainfed crop acreages have reduced by 60 to 80%
with productivity going down by almost 50% due to moisture stress. Millet
(bajra), sorghum, mungbeans, guwar and castor beans have been the traditional
summer rainfed crops while barley and rape and mustard have been grown during
winter. In addition to producing grains for human consumption or sale, these crops
have been the primary source of stalks/crop residues for livestock feeding. Table 2
gives area under rainfed cropping in Balochistan for the years 1990-91 onwards.
As is evident a reduction to the extent of 87% has occurred in this area between
1995-96 and 2000-01. Data in Table 3 show the trend in reduction of area under
major rainfed crops. Area under wheat, barley and sorghum has registered drastic
reductions of 84%, 96% and 95%, respectively.
Table 2. Rainfed cropped area in Balochistan over the last decade
Year Cropped area (ha)
Source: Agricultural Statistics, Balochistan.
Table 3. Rainfed area under selected crops in Balochistan.
Area under major crops
Year Wheat Barley Rape & Mustard Sorghum
1995-96 133,090 21,105 10,723 44,675
1996-97 42,180 14,498 4,820 7,549
1998-99 46,835 8,197 3,908 4,350
1999-2000 17,908 1,318 588 4,300
2000-2001 23,000 824 1,080 3,623
2001-2002 21,306 775 4,489 2,280
Source: Agricultural Statistics, Balochistan.
Due to the drying up of a large number of karezes and natural springs and reduced
discharge from the tubewells, the cropped area served by groundwater resources
has also reduced by 15 to 20% and the yields have been negatively affected to the
tune of 25 to 30%.
According to a recent survey by the Department of Agriculture, about 40% apple,
peach and apricot orchards, in upland Balochistan, have dried and have been cut
and sold as fuel. Orchards that have survived are producing 30 to 40% less fruit of
low quality because of reduced availability of water for irrigation.
Rainfed and irrigated fodder production has reduced considerably. This coupled
with a drastic reduction in the availability of range biomass is creating problems
for the sustenance of livestock even in reduced numbers.
The Mission noted trends of substitution of low water delta crops like cotton and
cumin in place of high water delta crops like onion in Kharan, Chaghi, Lasbella
and Panjgur. The need for training of both the farmers and the extension staff of
the Agriculture Department, in production management of a new crop like cotton,
Increased aridity due to drought is increasing soil salinity in several areas because
of less of leaching and more of transpiration, resulting in increased salt
concentration in the upper soil layers. This increased salinity has already started
having adverse effects on crop yields.
Because of the continuous dry weather there is increased wind erosion of surface
Farm operation related jobs have reduced by almost 60% adding to
unemployment. Horticultural production has been providing jobs to thousands of
people engaged in orchard management, fruit picking, grading, packing and
transportation. These jobs are now available in much reduced numbers.
There is increased incidence of pests and disease. The Mission noted heavy attack
of insect pest with secondary fungal infestation in date plantations in Panjgur and
Kech districts. Drought, coupled with this pest infestation, is threatening the date
palm based economy of the entire region.
In Sindh, as in Balochistan, the rainfed cropping in worst drought affected areas of
Dadu, Thatta and Mirpur Khas districts, has been completely eroded as there have
been no rains during the past 4 to 5 years. In Tharparkar district moderate
monsoon rains in 2001 enabled planting of most rainfed crops, though yields were
much below normal. The year 2002 has gone almost dry in Tharparkar with no
crop production. Carry over stalks of sorghum and bajra from summer 2001
helped in sustaining the livestock during first half of the year 2002, but later the
flock owners had to migrate to the Barrage areas.
Reduced water supply in the Indus Basin canal system has caused major
reductions in area and production of almost all major crops. Data in Table 4
depicts the combined effect of drought and reduced irrigation water supply on
crop production. As is evident from these data, the reductions in area during 2000-
01 and 2001-02, in comparison with 1998-99, have ranged from 11.1 to 54.3%
and those in production from 12.8 to 55.0%. Reductions are particularly high in
rice, bajra and kharif fodders. This drop in crop production in the irrigated areas
has reduced their capacity to support the migrant stock owners from the Thar
desert by providing employment and crop residues to feed their livestock.
Table 4. Area* and Production** of Major Crops in Sindh
Crop 1998-99 2000-2001 2001-2002
Area Prod. Area Prod. % change Area Prod. % change over
over 98-99 98-99
Area Prod. Area Prod.
Wheat 1124 2675 811 2226 -27.8 -16.8 875 2101 -22.1 -21.5
Rice 704 1930 540 1682 -23.2 -12.8 461 1159 -34.5 -39.9
Sugarcane 271 17051 239 12050 -11.8 -29.3 241 11416 -11.1 -33.0
Cotton 630 2134 524 2141 -16.9 0.0 547 2443 -13.2 14.5
Jowar 110 64 87 52 -21.1 -18.7 89 57 -19.1 -10.8
Bajra 175 73 80 41 -54.3 -43.8 100 54 -42.7 -26.1
Fodder 196 3069 109 1382 -44.8 -55.0 145 1956 -22.0 -35.0
Fodder 205 6741 178 5878 -13.5 -12.8 153 5372 -25.41 -20.3
* Area is ‘000’ ha
** Production of cotton in ‘000’ bales, all others in ‘000’ m t.
Source: Directorate General of Agricultural Extension Sindh.
Reduced acquifer recharge and consequently drop in its level, has increased
salinity in the groundwater making it hazardous for human and livestock drinking.
At places the salt contents of groundwater were reported to have increased from
less than 1000 ppm to over 2000 ppm.
3.4. Livestock Production
The vast rangelands of Balochistan (91% of total land mass) have traditionally
supported over 20.0 million livestock population in the province. Over the years
these rangelands have degraded due to overgrazing and fuelwood extraction. The
influx of a large number of Afghan refugees, alongwith their livestock had put
added pressure on these grazing lands. The persistent drought occurring during the
last 5 years has further aggravated the situation doing severe damage to range
biomass, its yield (on dry matter basis) dropping from about 60 kg/ha in normal
years to 18 kg/ha. Vast areas have been denuded and the carrying capacity of
these rangelands has reduced considerably.
Due to drastically reduced availability of feed resource, under impact of persistent
drought, the flock owners were forced to sell their stock at very low prices (during
the year 2000 a mature sheep and goat was available for less than Rs. 300 as
compared to the 1998 prices of Rs. 1000 to 1500). Mortality due to hunger and
disease infestation of malnourished animals increased several times. Distress sale
and mortality together have resulted in an overall reduction of 35% in stock size,
with the individual owners in most severely affected areas losing 80-100% of their
The prevailing livestock production systems offered resilience and choices to shift
between summer and winter quarters. This coping mechanism has shrunk to a
large extent due to reduction in range feed resource because of drought. Kachhi
plains and canal irrigated areas of Naseerabad Division were traditionally home to
large nomadic/transhumant herds during winter. However, these areas have very
little to offer now.
Dropped leaves and fruits and weeds extracted out of orchards constituted an
important source of supplementing the feed available from grazing. With 40
percent orchards in upland Balochistan dried, cut and sold as fuel, this source of
supplementary feed has virtually disappeared in several areas. The livestock feed
resources have further reduced due to stoppage of fodder intercropping in
orchards because of water scarcity. This has particularly happened in Panjgoor
and Turbat where date and pomegranate orchards have been traditionally
intercropped with berseem and lucerne during winter.
In a fairly large population of small ruminants, two breeding seasons (2001 &
2002) have been completely lost because of much reduced conception due to poor
feed and consequently poor health of the mothers to be. In many cases pregnant
animals aborted and 10-15 percent lamb/kid mortality occurred due to shortage of
milk in the mothers. The stock build-up capacity has, thus, been drastically
reduced and flock replacements are not becoming available to many graziers.
Traditionally livestock has been used to generate ready cash whenever needed to
meet the household food and other needs. This is no longer available with most
farmers now. The situation has become particularly grave for those for whom
livestock production was the sole means of subsistence.
Majority of the small ruminant herds have been grazed by hired grazeirs which
was a source of employment in the rural setting. With reduced stocks fewer such
jobs are now available further adding to unemployment.
In most drought hit areas the availability of meat, milk and milk-products, as part
of the family diet, has either totally disappeared or drastically reduced adding to
malnutrition and poor health, particularly in children and nursing mothers.
Due to malnutrition and poor health of animals both quantitative and qualitative
reduction has occurred in the production of wool and hair. Poor quality product is
selling at 50% of the normal price. The cottage industry (particularly carpet
making) has been adversely affected.
Recently, due to reduced availability of stock, the small ruminants are now selling
at a higher price in Balochistan and the mutton prices have gone up by almost 60
In Sindh, drought affected areas in the five districts have a total livestock
population of 5.6 million heads, both small and large ruminants. In normal years
about 20% flock owners from these districts shift to canal irrigated areas taking
along 15-20 percent small ruminants and 80% cattle. On-farm jobs particularly
related to rice and sugarcane harvest are available in the irrigated areas to these
migrant flock owners. Sugarcane tops and rice straw constitute a major source of
feed for their livestock. If required, fodder is also purchased or traded against
wage labour. Drop in acreage of most major crops due to reduced availability of
irrigation water in the canals has reduced the quantity of these feed supplements
available for the migrating livestock and has also shrunk the job market. As the
availability of crop residues and range biomass in the drought affected areas has
continued to deteriorate further, there is larger migration of livestock out of those
areas increasing pressure on the feed resources available in the irrigated areas.
Over 50% of the livestock population in the drought affected areas of Sindh has
suffered from malnutrition with concomitant increase in disease infestation due to
reduced immunity. The mortality rate has increased by 10-15% in small
ruminants. Drastic reduction has occurred in their breeding efficiency with only
45-55% ewes/ goats breeding during 2001 and 2002 seasons. Almost 20 to 25%
lamb/kid crop succumbed due to low milk availability during the last two years.
The migrating herds of cattle presented an ugly look. Animals were weak, hide
bound and dragging. Carcasses of dead animals were found all along the
migratory route. The Mission observed severe damage to the range biomass in the
three most severely affected districts of Dadu, Thatta and Mirpur Khas. Large
areas presented a deserted look. The annual and perennial grasses and palatable
shrubs have disappeared and only non-palatable species dominated by prosopis,
Hide and skin prices decreased by almost 40% during 1996-2002 period. Wool
production has also dropped by 50% due to malnutrition and the product is of
inferior quality – brittle with short staple length.
High prices of green fodder and other feed supplements and roughages have
further reduced chances of any supplementary feeding by the flock owners.
Currently wheat bhoosa was available at Rs. 4/= per Kg and dried sorghum stalks
at Rs. 2.50 per kg.
3.5. Effect on Households
i) Changes In Diet
The normal diet of the people of Balochistan prior to the on-set of drought,
comprised wheat flour, tea, meat, milk, yogurt, vegetables and fruit. Seasonal
vegetables and fruits were a part of the normal diet of people living in the
agricultural zones of Sindh and Balochistan, while meat and milk products were
more in evidence in the diet of people living in the arid zones i.e., those who are
more dependent on livestock for their livelihood. Drought has restricted the access
of all affected people to most of their normal food items. Their present diet mostly
comprises wheat flour and tea in Balochistan and wheat flour, onion and chillies
Earlier, the people had at least two regular meals a day. Now, most drought
affected people subsist on one main meal. Meat, milk, and milk products have
almost completely disappeared from the family meal .Wheat flour is the principal
item of expenditure of the family income, followed by cooking oil and pulses.
Because of the severe depletion of their cash resources, affectees find it hard to
purchase oil, with the result that most meals are now uncooked, as they comprise
bread eaten with either tea, chillies or onions. There is also evidence of food
substitution in some areas of Sindh where people have taken to eating rice in place
of bread for their evening meal. In parts of Balochistan people cook and eat
“gorbusht”, a plant resembling spinach that grows wild near ponds. Because of the
lack of animals people have stopped making “laandi”, a form of dried meat, the
staple winter diet of the Pashtun tribes of Balochistan, and also “lassi”, the yogurt
drink, a favourite meal item in both provinces. Tea is now taken without milk, for
the same reason. People are no longer able to buy food and stock it. They buy it in
kilo quantities and at higher rates. No house that this Mission visited had food
beyond a day or twos supply in store. In areas where fodder is scarce, people have
been forced to share their bread with their animals, to save them from starvation.
The Governments free food distributions have, from the affectees point of view,
promised much but delivered little. Many affectees, particularly in Sindh, who
would otherwise have migrated to the Barrage region, stayed at their villages in
anticipation of receiving Government wheat. Those who did receive this aid,
mostly got it one time only, as a short-term relief. Without regular follow-up of
distributions, this wheat appears to have made no significant improvement in the
overall picture of food security. Families, however, consumed the wheat
themselves and did not sell or exchange it.
ii) Changes In Living Patterns
Since water is seen as the primary need by drought affectees, the search for its
regular supply has caused widespread migration out of areas where the water
sources have dried up to areas where they are still intact. This has converted a
large population of settled villagers into migrants or refugees. On the other hand, a
large number of traditional migrants or nomads have been forced to settle in and
around watering places which promise a regular supply of water. This double load
of settlers is causing undue pressure on host villages, by depleting their water
sources. The competition for local work adds to the pressure on job market, and
the relations between the existing population and drought affectees are often
marked by hostility and conflict.
Since other sources of income have dried up, members of the affected families are
now involved in the search for supplementing family income through occasional
work. Women who traditionally stitched and embroidered clothes for family use
are now trying to do so for commercial purposes. However, women are not
receiving adequate compensation for this work because of the absence of a proper
system of marketing their products and there is also a reduced demand. Child
labour has increased, older boys are now being sent to towns and larger villages in
search of employment. Farmers are undertaking town jobs of the kind they have
no training or aptitude for, and are being paid less than normal wages. For stone
breaking jobs around Mithi, Tharparker, villagers were found working for a wage
as low as Rs.20.00 per day.
Since most of the family income is spent on the purchase of food, there is usually
no cash surplus for buying the other essentials of life, such as clothing, bedding,
soap, etc. This, together with the lack of water for cleaning purposes, has led to
very unsanitary and unhygienic conditions prevailing in the houses and shelters of
drought affected people.
iii) Impact On Nutrition And Health
The drinking of brackish water, found in the arid zones of both the provinces, with
its high salt content, is an underlying cause for the poor state of health of these
people. But even where there is clean water, the method of its transportation,
storage in ponds, tanks and plastic containers, expose it to various forms of
contamination. This is why the most common health complaint relates to diarrhea,
vomiting and fever among children. This together with a diet poor in protein and
other nutrients, has caused the widespread malnutrition that the Mission witnessed
among women and children in both the provinces. In a nutritional survey of
women and children carried out by Oxfam in Chaghi District in August 2002, the
incidence of Global Acute malnutrition in children under 5 years, was found to be
16% in the district. It was highest in Dalbandin at 20% and lowest in Taftan at
12.5%. Diarrhea and enteric disorders were found in 30% of the children. Women
were seen as affected by malnutrition as children. Statistics of the civil hospital at
Mithi, Tharparkar, show that of all the women who visited its MCH center in
September 1999, 53.84% were found suffering from severe anemia (Hemoglobin
count less than 10 gms %). The impact of malnutrition is particularly severe on
pregnant and nursing women, who have a greater demand for food energy.
Because of their ill health and frailness, many of them complained of having no
breast milk for feeding their babies. Since there is no adequate alternative to
mother’s milk in the villages, nor do they have any proper weaning foods, the life
of the infants appears to be at considerable risk.
Malnutrition has increased the vulnerability of affectees to catastrophic diseases.
In Sindh, TB was seen to be rampant, particularly among women. Hepatitis was
also widely evident among women and children in both the provinces. These are
contagious diseases, and because of the close-knit communal living of rural
families, there is every danger of these diseases spreading out of control.
Incidence of these diseases among women is particularly dangerous because an
affected mother can communicate her disease to all other members of her
household through the food she cooks.
iv) Vulnerable Groups
Women and children have been affected more by drought. While men have the
option to go to work in towns where they have a wider choice in food and access
to clean drinking water—which is reflected in their visibly better state of health—
the women remain tied to the house. Their burden increases when the men are
away because they have to take care of all the household needs, even those that
are normally taken care of by men, such as collecting fire-wood and fodder and
the sale of animals in emergencies. Women are at the tail end of the family meal.
They eat whatever is left after the men and children have eaten. The Mission
heard frequent complaints from the women of rarely having enough to eat at
mealtimes. Women also bear the burden of anguish when their children do not get
enough to eat or when children’s essential needs remain unmet.
Children’s food needs are also more varied because of their growing age. Devoid
as it is of most essential nutrients, their diet invariably leads to malnutrition, and
other deficiency deceases. Night blindness, scurvy and anaemia’s are common
among children and are caused by the lack of vitamins A, C and B12 in the body.
Further, children do not discriminate in food when they are hungry. They often eat
stale or contaminated food, which causes the high incidence of gastric and
4. LOCAL COPING MECHANISMS
i. With the reduced level of income at the household level, due to failure of crops
and decimation of livestock, people resorted to internal (interest free from
relatives) and external (with interest from money lenders) borrowing for
productive activities as well as subsistence. Although taking such loans has helped
in meeting their immediate needs it has definitely added to their level of
indebtedness. These sources of borrowing however, have gradually disappeared
due to resource constraint of the internal lenders and inability of the loanees to pay
back the borrowed money to the external money lenders.
ii. Both productive (livestock, land) and non productive (jewellery, watches, etc.)
assets have been sold to meet the households urgent needs.
iii. People have migrated out of the drought-affected areas in search of water, feed for
livestock and alternate employment. Migration has been permanent in some cases
while in others a few of the family members have stayed back, hoping that with
the return to normal conditions the migrating members of the family would come
iv. People have opted for earning by working as labourers, permanently abandoning
livestock rearing or rainfed crop production as a means of subsistence.
Consequently dependence on agriculture as a main source of livelihood has
decreased while the percentage of people depending on labour as their main
economic activity has increased. With more people out in search of work the wage
rates have come down considerably (from Rs. 100/day down to Rs. 20-50/day).
v. Fruit orchardists in drought affected areas of upland Balochistan have cut part of
their orchards and used the available water supply to sustain the remaining area
vi. Due to non-availability of adequate feed resource livestock, both small and large
ruminants, have been sold at throw away prices resulting in a forced destocking.
Under pressure of this distress sale the prices of small ruminant in 2000 and 2001
dropped by upto 90% and those of large ruminants upto 60%. Whereas the low
level of prices still continues in Sindh, in Balochistan the prices have recovered
almost fully due to much reduced number of stock available for sale.
vii. Circumstances have forced people to change their food habits, substituting
cheaper and often less nutritious food items in their diet. Meat, milk and milk
products and vegetables have almost totally disappeared from their diet adding to
malnutrition and increasing vulnerability to disease infestation particularly in
women and children. In most drought affected areas people reported subsisting on
chapatti eaten with chilies or onion. Tea is invariably taken without milk.
viii. Due to lack of resources medical treatment has either been avoided or postponed
resulting in increased disease incidence and mortality. In some cases people have
started relying on cheaper, traditional herbal medicines.
ix. Children have been withdrawn from schools either to work and earn or assist in
bringing water and collecting firewood. The school enrolment has dropped by
x. Traditionally orchards had been intercropped with vegetables and winter fodders
(Berseem & Lucerne). However, due to scarcity of water this practice has been
stopped to save water for irrigating fruit plants.
xi. At some places, people reported sharing their own staple food with the livestock
(Feeding chapaties to sheep and goat)
5. GOVERNMENT RESPONSE MECHANISMS
The drought in Balochistan increased progressively over the last 4 to 5 years
because of low rainfall but in early 2000 it aggravated and the effects became
more pronounced. To combat drought, the Government of Balochistan established
a Relief Commissionerate and the Pakistan Army set up a Drought Crisis Control
Center in the Log Area essentially to provide logistical support to the
commissionerate’s relief operations. Later the Provincial Government set up a
Drought Emergency Relief Assistance (DERA) under a high level steering
committee comprising heads of departments and headed by the Additional Chief
Secretary (Dev.) to coordinate relief efforts and plan on longer term mitigation
According to the figures released by the Relief Commissionerate the total funds
allocated and spent upto 30th June, 2002 on drought relief are as given in Table 5
Table 5. Relief Assistance in Balochistan.
Source Allocation Expenditure Balance
(Rs. In million)
Federal Govt. 915.00 828.33 86.67
Govt. of Balochistan 245.00 213.80 31.20
Governor’s RF 26.60 3.10 23.50
Cont. Zakat Fund 100.00 - 100.00
Total: 1286.60 1045.23 241.37
Source: Relief Commissionerate, Balochistan
Table 6. Immediate Relief Extended
Ration Provided (Wheat, Atta, Rice, 1,09,392 M. Tons approx.
Ghee, Dall, Tea and various edible items
Animal Feed provided 21,750 M. Tons for over (1.24 Mn animals)
Animals Vaccinated/treated Over 3.5 Mn
Molasses Blocks provided 3,79,900
Medicines Worth Rs. 10.00 Mn
Mobile & Static Camps/Visit 192
Patients/Children Treated Over 0.3 Mn
Revival of Small Water Schemes/Hand 138
Water Tanks (assorted) 112
Water Trains arranged 13
Artificial Rainfall (18 flights) Over 8 hrs
Fire Wood 377 M. Tons
Tents/Thatched Huts 1326
Source: Relief Commissionerate, Balochistan
In addition donations towards relief assistance have been received from people of
Pakistan, Pakistan Red Crescent Society, Pakistan Medical Association, friendly
countries, Turkey, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE, Saudi Arabia and Government of Japan. UN
agencies providing assistance for drought relief included WFP (food ration), FAO
(Livestock feed & vaccines), UNCHR (Ration package) and UNICEF (water cans and
supplement food). Emergency relief assistance to the drought affectees included.
For distribution of food ration the Union Council (UC) Nazims prepare lists of
individual beneficiaries within their respective UCs and forward these lists to the
Tehsil Nazims. The Tehsil Nazims consolidate and forward these lists to the
commissionerate and the Army’s Log Unit. These lists are sent to the District
Monitoring Teams of the Army for verification after which the food is released for
distribution either at the district or tehsil level by the concerned Nazims. In a
number of remote areas the affectees said that so far they have not received any
relief assistance from anywhere.
As a matter of policy Govt. of Balochistan decided to allocate bulk of the Federal
Government grant of Rs. 915 million to projects identified as part of the medium
to long term drought mitigation strategies. These have included:
Table 7. Mid/Long Term Projects
Livestock Sector Expansion of veterinary facilities
Irrigation Sector Construction of 11 dams, 250 windmills,
uplift of 100 Karezes
PHE Sector Development of 28 Tubewells
50 low cost water supply schemes
Forests Sector Development of range lands/revival of state forests
Road Sector Construction of 25 roads in severely drought affected districts
Agriculture Sector Distribution of 4,000 metric tons of wheat-seed
Soft Loan to Agriculture Farmers for Electricity Bills
Most of these projects are currently in progress.
In the Sindh province Government’s drought relief operations are planned,
coordinated and monitored by the Relief Commissionerate. The Steering
Committee of the Drought Emergency Relief Assistance (DERA) chaired by the
Additional Chief Secretary (Dev.) provides overall guidelines and plays a
supervisory role. The drought situation in arid zones of the province is continually
monitored and areas requiring emergency assistance are periodically notified. As
of 14 June 2002 the following areas covering Thar, Kohistan and Kaccho regions
of Sindh have been notified as calamity hit areas:
Table 8. Drought Affected Areas in Sindh.
District Dehs Villages Population Families Livestock
(million) Affected (million)
Tharparkar 159 1895 0.90 138203 3.00
Mirpur Khas 25 316 0.15 24789 1.00
Sanghar 2 18 0.04 7008 0.25
Dadu 65 453 0.26 18798 1.15
Thatta 5 181 0.03 6000 0.20
G.Ttotal: 256 2863 1.38 194798 5.60
As part of the relief assistance to drought affectees in these areas Sindh Government
has taken the following steps:
Remission of land revenues
Postponement of recovery of past years dues
Establishment of medical teams for medical aid in affected areas
Activating veterinary teams to provide health cover to livestock
Free distribution of 25000 m.t of wheat at 100 kg per family at a cost of Rs. 250
million using funds provided by the Federal Government out of Zakat Fund and
by the Sindh Government.
As part of Government’s policy of permanent relief for drought a number of
development schemes in the following sectors have been undertaken in the
drought affected areas out of the Federal Government’s grant of Rs. 1.00 billion.
Construction of Roads
Pipeline water supply schemes
Installation of hand pumps/water tanks
Electrification of Tharparkar.
Details of these schemes are given in annex 5. These projects, besides upgrading
communication infrastructure and providing social sector services in the hitherto
neglected Thar region, have helped in creating jobs for the people affected by
6. ASSESSMENT OF NEEDS
6.1. Emergency Assistance Needs
i. Seeds of drought resistant varieties of cereals (wheat, barley, sorghum and
millet (Bajra) and pulses (mungbeans)) are needed for planting during kharif
2003 and rabi 2003-04 subject to occurrence of rains.
ii. Farm inputs including Urea and DAP fertilizer is required to optimize crop
iii. In Balochistan, karezes with reduced water discharge need to be urgently
upgraded in most severely drought affected areas.
iv. Lift pumps and windmills need to be installed for provision of water for
human and livestock drinking and small vegetable production for household
v. In order to salvage the core breeding stock, immediate supplementary feeding
will be required to tide over the severe winter months or till the palatable
range biomass regenerates. This will be required in 12 worst drought affected
districts of Panjgur, Kech, Kharan, Chaghi, Killa Abdullah, Killa Saifullah and
Awaran in Balochistan and Tharparkar, Mirpur Khas, Sanghar, Dadu and
Thatta in Sindh.
vi. Stock water points, based on exploiting the available groundwater resource
and/or harvesting of rainwater need to be built at suitable places.
vii. Mobile veterinary health cover facilities should be urgently provided to cater
to the needs of stock owners in remote areas. For the initial period provision
should also be made for operational expenses.
viii. Where livestock has been decimated, farmers should be helped to restart their
business, by providing small loans on soft terms.
ix. Six million doses of vaccine (enterotoxaemia, pleuropneumonia and anthrax)
are needed for preventive vaccination.
x. Assistance for income generation for vulnerable groups, particularly women,
is required in the following areas:
Training in Mazri product making, carpet weaving, embroidery, lamb
fattening and poultry farming.
Soft loan for purchase of inputs
Facilitation of marketing
Development of rural/backyard poultry farming
6.1.2. Food Aid
The strategy adopted to assess the present level of food deprivation in different zones
of the two provinces was based on five key factors. These were:
i) Livelihoods: There are a variety of livelihoods in Balochistan and Sindh
which depend on the agro-ecological zones in which the people live and
conditions like land and/or livestock ownership, access to irrigation, access
to markets, employment and other earning opportunities. The economic
status of households can be gauged through their original livelihood or one
they have now adopted.
ii) Ability to cope: The level of distress of communities is also determined
through the coping methodology they adopt. This can be as simple as
borrowing or the sale of animals. Or this can be as serious as the sale of
productive assets, including land.
iii) Population movements: The Mission paid particular attention to shifts in
population from different zones. The shifts ranged from the relatively
common migration for work by male members of the community to the
more complex shift of men and animals together, or to the distress
migration of entire families and communities.
iv) Nutritional status: The ultimate impact of drought invariably falls on the
level of nutrition of the affected people. This is particularly so for children.
Malnutrition is the most common face of food and nutritional deprivation
and is easy to detect for a trained observer.
v) The daily meal: Information on the types of food and the eating habits of
households was invariably obtained by this Mission when visiting villages.
This proved to be the most reliable indicator of household food security.
It was estimated in earlier studies that in areas severely hit by drought, people had lost
as much as 70% of their purchasing power , which put their levels of food insecurity
in the critical zone. This level of deprivation however was seen only in small pockets
such as a few villages around Manchar Lake and in the Kacho area and some Dehs in
theThano Bulleh Khan Taluka of Dadu district. There is no doubt however that the
levels of food deprivation are increasing as drought enters its fourth year in the most
affected districts. The ability of villagers to cope is being continuously eroded as the
cost of food rises and the wages of occasional labour fall. The food gap thus created
can only be met through food aid as a supplement to their present diet.
a) Identification of Beneficiaries
The Mission strongly felt that while it was necessary to meet the urgent need for food
assistance, through free distribution of food aid, it was equally necessary to ensure
that the food reaches those in need, especially women and children. The objectives of
this emergency food assistance are therefore seen as twofold:
One, to maintain the desired nutritional status of the affected populations of
Sindh and Balochistan provinces through the ensuing 6-month period upto
the summer monsoons 2003.
Two, to target the bulk of this food aid to the two most vulnerable groups namely,
women and children, for meeting their special health and nutritional needs.
Since the effects of drought have intensified in most of the affected districts, it was
felt that the criteria of identification of beneficiaries suggested by CFSAM 2001 may
need to be reconsidered, for two reasons. The first is that in view of the emaciated
state of the animals, possession of 10 sheep or goats does not provide the family the
economic support required to meet any significant part of their living expenses. The
second is that it is very difficult to determine the number of animals owned by
individual households, especially during the daytime when the animals are away for
grazing. Here, the information given by the womenfolk is usually closer to reality, but
it is still not reliable enough for the inclusion or exclusion of beneficiaries. The truth
is that most pastoralists and herders are experiencing severe financial distress and,
except for the few who still own large herds, most qualify to receive food aid.
Similarly, the condition under which all drought affected people, who had access to
migrant labour, were to be excluded from receiving food aid, also needs
reconsideration in the light of present circumstances. Nearly all drought affected
people have lost their former means of livelihood. Migrant labour by young or old
members of the household now remains the single means of family support.
Occasional work does not alleviate but reduces the impact of drought, making it
possible to survive. However, the quality of such life is marginal since the wages have
also declined steeply because of the availability of surplus labour.
In the circumstances, the Mission proposes amending the two criteria for
identification of food aid beneficiaries, as follows:-
1. Smallholders in the upland areas of Northern Balochistan with
less than half an acre of fruit trees, who have lost more than
60% of fruit trees and have no livestock.
2. Pastoralists (nomadic and transhumant) who do not own large
flocks, who have lost more than 50% of their livestock and
now own no more than a few animals.
b) Estimation of Beneficiaries
Table 9 shows the estimated number of people affected by drought in the 18 districts
of the two provinces. Emergency food aid needs to be provided to the most severely
affected districts and people in each of the two provinces. As shown in Table 9, in the
five most severely affected districts in Balochistan viz: Kharan, Panjgur, Awaran,
Chaghi and Lasbella, the number of people assessed for emergency food assistance
are 1,73,760 (29,000 families). In the two most severely affected districts in Sindh
viz: Tharparkar and Dadu, the total number of people assessed for emergency food
assistance are 98,789 (16,600 families). This Emergency Operation would, therefore,
target about 2,80,000 beneficiaries or 45,500 households in the two provinces, of
whom 1,37,200 are women.
Table 9. Estimate of the Total Number of Persons and Households Affected by Drought
S.No. Balochistan Total Rural % of Population of % of Targeted Number of
Population Population Severely Affected People in Population Households
Most Severely Affected Areas Need (Rounded
Affected Districts Areas Off)
1. Kharan 212760 185069 80% 148055 30% 44416 7500
2. Panjgur 245160 224135 70% 156894 30% 47068 8000
3. Awaran 123120 120581 65% 78377 30% 23513 4000
4. Chaghi 219240 180168 50% 90084 30% 27025 4500
5. Lasbela 338040 211588 50% 105794 30% 31738 5000
Severely Sub 921541 - 579204 - 173760 29000
Affected Districts Totals
6. Kech 442800 369331 65% 240065 20% 48018 8000
7. Loralai 302400 253026 40% 101210 20% 20242 3500
8. Killa Abdullah 422280 351281 40% 140512 20% 28102 4500
9. Pishin 395456 373338 30% 112001 20% 22400 4000
10. Killa Saifullah 204120 203827 30% 61148 20% 12229 2000
11. Kacchi 423360 380936 40% 152374 20% 30474 5000
Moderately Sub 1931739 - 807310 - 161465 27000
Affected Districts Totals
12. Khuzdar 441720 315188 25% 78797 15% 11819 2000
13. Sibi 193320 130772 30% 39231 15% 5884 1000
Sindh Sub 445960 - 118028 - 17703 3000
Most Severely Totals
14. Tharparker 9,87120 779824 30% 233947 20% 46789 8000
15. Dadu 1723040 957420 27% 260000 20% 52000 8600
Severely Sub 1737244 - 493947 - 98789 16600
Affected Districts Totals
16. Mirpurkhas 978480 105310 14% 150000 20% 30000 5000
17. Sanghar 1666440 1033560 4% 40000 20% 8000 1400
18. Thatta 1202040 940680 3% 30000 20% 6000 1000
Sub 2079550 - 220000 - 44000 7400
Grand 7116034 - 2218489 - 495717 83000
c) Targeting and Distribution of Food Aid
It is fortunate that the World Food Programme has on-going food distribution
programmes in both these provinces. Under EMOP 10171.0 a WFP family package
of food, which includes cooking oil, pulses and a small quantity of wheat flour is
currently being distributed in Pishin and Chaghi districts of Balochistan as well as in
Dadu, Thatta and Badin districts of Sindh. The methodology of distribution is
different in both these provinces. In Balochistan WFP operates through a NGO, the
UNDP supported Area Development Programme of the Government of Balochistan
while in Sindh, WFP’s implementing partner would be the provincial government.
Since this operation is still in its preliminary stages in both the provinces, it would be
interesting to see which arrangement proves more effective in food distribution.
However, the main stumbling block in affecting accurate food distributions by
governments has remained the absence of the function of survey and identification of
the beneficiary households, before delivering food aid to them.
This Mission had occasion to observe a government food distribution of wheat in
village Kacholi, Taluka Umerkot, in the province of Sindh. Here the people of the
village had gathered and were being identified as residents by the local Relief
Committee. This was being done on an individual rather than a household basis.
Incidentally, this practice is also being followed in government food distributions in
the province of Balochistan. It was however evident that the number of bags supplied
for distribution at Kacholi were less than the number of people present to receive
them and that many would return empty handed. What seemed more important was
whether those who would not receive the wheat were indeed less deserving than those
who did. The Mission later learnt that this shortage occurred in almost every
distribution that was made. When food supplies are limited, food can only be
distributed equitably if deserving households are identified beforehand and
arrangements made to ensure that the food packages reach them. The experience
gained through the current EMOP would be very helpful in devising a simple,
economical and effective system of food distribution for this emergency.
6.1.3. Vulnerability Survey
The Mission strongly felt that there is an urgent need for undertaking an integrated
sample survey, covering the water, agriculture, livestock, food, health and nutrition
sectors in all drought affected areas. Composite information is required to assess the
life risks to which the most vulnerable segments of the population, namely, women
and children, are exposed and ways in which to counter those risks.
6.2. Need for Medium to Long-term Support to Mitigate Drought
Survey of aquifer reserves for detection of potable underground water in hitherto
un-surveyed areas of Balochistan and Thar Desert in Sindh.
Construction of small dams for rainwater storage in the Kohistan and Kachho
areas of Dadu and Thatta.
Research and development for the use of brackish groundwater for agricultural
purposes, particularly for growing salt tolerant species for livestock feeding.
Upgrading infra-structure of livestock marketing to prevent exploitation by middle
Provision of small mobile units for desalination of brackish water.
Construction of water tanks and lining of channels to prevent water losses during
storage and transmission.
Support for installation of high efficiency irrigation systems like drip and bubbler.
Provision of hardware
Farmer and staff training
Support for substitution of low water delta field and horticultural crops in place of
high water delta crops.
Provision of seed and plant material
Training of farmers and extension staff
Provision of laboratory facilities for olive oil extraction and testing (for
TERMS OF REFERENCE
FAO/WFP CROP AND FOOD ASSESSMENT MISSION TO PAKISTAN
During the last four years, Pakistan in general and Balochistan and parts of Sindh
Provinces in particular have received below average rainfall, which has progressively
turned into a drought. These persistent drought conditions are now affecting several
other parts of Pakistan. In order to determine the impact of the drought on crop and
food supply, and households and communities, the Food and Agriculture Organization
(FAO) and the World Food Programme (WFP) will conducted a joint mission starting
1 November, 2002 for a duration of one month, focusing primarily on Balochistan and
Sindh Provinces. The mission will consist of two FAO national consultants, an
agronomist, and a livestock specialist; and one WFP consultant with expertise in
assessment of drought impact on household economy. The mission will be jointly
funded by UNDP, FAO and WFP.
Under the overall supervision of the FAO and WFP Country Representative and in
consultation with Government officials, UN and bilateral donor agencies, and NGOs,
the Mission will:
1. identify the areas severely affected by the drought in Balochistan and Sindh
2. assess impact of the drought on crop and livestock production
3. assess the impact of drought on households and communities with special
attention to the following:
- population groups that are most affected
- local coping mechanisms
4. review the response already carried out at various government levels
5. identify food and non-food needs of the affected population
- number of people most affected
- quantity of food need
- duration of Assistance
6. identify priority drought preparedness and mitigation measures
7. prior to completion brief/debrief dealing Government officials and donor
representatives on the work and findings of the Mission.
Following the above, the Mission will finalise its findings and prepare a report.
FAO/WFP MISSION FIELD VISITS
S.No. Date District
1. 03-11-2002 Islamabad - Quetta
2. 05-11-2002 Quetta – Mastung
3. 06-11-2002 Loralai – Ziarat - Pishin
4. 07-11-2002 Kalat
5. 08-11-2002 Kharan
6. 13-11-2002 Quetta - Karachi
7. 15-11-2002 Hyderabad
8. 16-11-2002 Tharparkar
9. 17-11-2002 Mirpur Khas
10. 18-11-2002 Dadu
11. 20-11-2002 Thatta
12. 23-11-2002 Karachi - Islamabad
LIST OF VILLAGES VISITED BY THE MISSION
1. Rod Mullazai Distt. Pishin
2. Killi Shah Naz Distt. Pishin
3. Killi Shiak Distt. Pishin
4. Hadi Islam Distt. Kalat
5. Zaik (Basima) Distt.Kalat
6. Rahi Nagoor Distt. Punjgor
7. Balgatar Distt. Punjgor
8. Hoshab Distt. Punjgor
9. Kil Kore Distt. Punjgor
10. Walapat Distt. Lasbella
11. Kanoji Distt. Khuzdar
12. Bhag & adjoining five settlements Distt. Sibi
13. Killi Ahmedan Distt. Sibi
14. Talli Distt. Sibi
15. Khajak Distt. Sibi
16. Killi Haji Khan Distt. Ziarat
17. Killi Tur Gul Distt. Ziarat
18. Killi Ghother Distt. Ziarat
19. Killi Kwas Distt. Ziarat
20. Killi Zindra Distt. Ziarat
21. Killi Haji Ismail & three settlements Distt. Loralai
22. Killi Saifullah Distt. Lorali
23. Killi Urak Distt. Quetta
24. Killi Hanna Distt. Quetta
25. Spin Karez & five settlements Distt. Quetta
26. Garsiar, Mithi Distt. Tharparkar
27. Bar Mithio Distt. Tharparkar
28. Maliyas Distt. Tharparkar
29. Bhadoor, Diplo Distt. Tharparkar
30. Lundhar, Mithi Distt. Tharparkar
31. Juglar, Mithi Distt. Tharparkar
32. Arniaro, Mithi Distt. Tharparkar
33. Vagidar, Chahro Distt. Tharparkar
34. Dhandoo, Chahro Distt. Tharparkar
35. Rohararo, Chahro Distt. Tharparkar
36. Arbab Hale Poto, Umerkot Distt. Mirpur Khas
37. Kacholi, Umerkot Distt. Mirpur Khas
38. Ali Murad Shahani, Johi Distt. Dadu
39. Hot Khan Shahani, Johi Distt. Dadu
40. Goth Kund Pir Sumar, Johi Distt. Dadu
41. Shah Hassan, Johi Distt. Dadu
42. Kun Manchar lake, Johi Distt. Dadu
43. Rasul Bux Gabol, Johi Distt. Dadu
44. Desvi, Thana Buley Khan Distt. Dadu
45. Kanjero, Thana Buley Khan Distt. Dadu
46. Din Muhammad Lalani, TBK Distt. Dadu
47. Salar Aqlani, TBK Distt. Dadu
48. Khuda Bux Aqlani, TBK Distt. Dadu
49. Pandy Khan Aqlani, TBK Distt. Dadu
50. Ali Bux Laliani, TBK Distt. Dadu
51. Ghazi Khashkeli, TBK Distt. Dadu
52. Arbab Khashkeli, K 7/III Distt. Thatta
53. Ghazi Khan Jokhio, J. Shah Distt. Thatta
54. Haji Darya Khan, Kohistan 7/IV Distt. Thatta
55. Haji Ali Muhammad Jokhio
Kohistan 7/IV Distt. Thatta
LIST OF PERSONS/OFFICIALS MET DURING FIELD VISITS
1. Mr. Naseer Baloch Secretary P&D, Govt. of Balochistan
2. Mr. A. Salam Baloch Secretary Agriculture & Food,
Govt. of Balochistan
3. Mr. Anwar Haider Secretary, Livestock & Forest,
Govt. of Balochistan
4. Mr. Abdul Salam Khan Secretary PHE, Govt. of Balochistan
5. Mr. Muhammad Sharif Relief Commissioner, Govt. of
6. Mr. Zahoor Ahmad Depty Relief Commissioner,
Govt. of Balochistan
7. Dr. Rashid Javid Programme Coordinator, Area Dev.
8. Dr. Suleman Qureshi GIS Specialist, ADPB, Quetta
9. Mr. M. Ali Bhatti EDO, Deptt. Of Agriculture, Kalat
10. Mr. Abdul Salam Agriculture Officer, Deptt. Of
11. Mr. Muhammad Amin EDO, Agriculture, Panjgur
12. Mr. Abdul Hayee Raisani EDO, Uthal Coconut Farm
13. Mr. Munir Ahmad Haleemi DDO, Agricultural Ext. Govt, of
14. Arbab Wali Mohammad Nazim, Bagh
15. Takri Muhammad Khan Nazim, UC (Bagh)
16. Mr. Maqbool Ahmed DDO Agricultural, Panjgor
17. Mr. Mohammad Amin Baloch EDO, Agri. Ext. Turbat
18. Mr. Abdul Razak Baloch Asstt. Director Agri. Uthal
19. Mr. Mohammad Akhtar DDO, Agricultural Bela
20. Mr. Gul Hassan Marri EDO, Agri. Khuzdar
21. Mr. Yar Muhammad Pandrani EDO, Agri. Kacchi
22. Mr. Shahzado Sheikh ACS (Dev.) Govt. of Sindh
23. Mr. Manzoor Ahmad Bhutto Relief Commissioner, Govt. of Sindh
24. Mr. Ali Nawaz Mallah Add. Relief Commissioner, Govt. of
25. Mr. Aftab Qureshi Secretary Agri. Govt. of Sindh
26. Mr. Hasim Lughari Secretary, Irrigation, Govt. of Sindh
27. Mr. A.G. Pirzada Joint Chief Economist, Govt. of Sindh
28. Mr. Baz Muhammad Junejo DG, Livestock, Govt. of Sindh
29. Dr. Ghulam Hussain Memon Add. Secretary, Livestock, Govt. of
30. Dr. Qazi Suleman Memon DG, Agri. Govt. of Sindh
31. Mr. Siraj-ud-Din Khand Dy. Director, Livestock, Hyderabad
32. Mr. Ibrar Mirza Forestry & Wildlife, Govt. of Sindh
33. Mr. Agha Zaffarullah EDO, Mithi, Govt. of Sinch
34. Dr. Jhaman Livestock Department, Mithi
35. Mr. Mal Livestock Department, Mithi
36. Mr. Khalique Soomro Agric. Officer, Mithi
37. Mr. Teekam Das DDO, Agri., Mithi
38. Mr. Barkat Ali Livestock Deptt.
39. Mr. Nand Lal Veterinary Officer, Mithi
40. Mr. Aftab Ahmad Memon EDO, Mithi
41. Mr. Riaz Ahmad Massan DDO, Revenue, Dadu
42. Mr. Rashid Ahmad DDO, Agri., Dadu
43. Dr. Allah Bukhsh DDO, Livestock, Dadu
44. Mr. Shakeel Ahmad Hashmi EDO, Thatta
45. Mr. Muhammad Mubeen Sahto EDO, Agri., Thatta
46. Mr. Ghulam Abbas Kalar Agri. Officer, Thatta
47. Dr. Haji Khan Keerio Director, NSRI, PARC, Thatta
48. Miss Mah Jabeen Social Mobilizer, Bahn Belly, NGO,
49. Miss Alia Social Mobilizer, Bahn Belly, NGO,
50. Miss Sadia Atta CDO (NGO), Karachi
SCHEMES UNDER TAKEN OUT OF CHIEF EXECUTIVE GRANT
OF RS. 1000.00 MILLION
SCHEME COMPLETED (1)
S.No. Name of Scheme Estimated Physical
1. Meghar Akwando Road (30 Kms) 96.870 Completed
2. Mangtore Goth Meghar Road (36 Km) 118.805 Completed
3. Chachhro Islamkot Road (55 Km) 153.538 Completed
PUBLIC HEALTH ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
4. Naukot-Mithi Pipeline Water Supply Scheme in 199.405 Completed
Tharparkar (45 Kms)
5. Water Supply Scheme Fazal Jamli District 8.356 Completed
HEADQUARTERS 18 DIVISION
6. Pipeline Water Supply Extension Scheme 96.00 Completed
7. Installation of hand pumps/Water Tonkas and 25.00 Completed
upgradation of Water Supply Schemes (a)
Umerkot to Bagal (b) Kunri to Chachro
8. Installation of 230-handpumps/construction of 15.00 Completed
36 Tonkas upgradation of water supply schemes
(a) Umerkot to Bagal (b) Kunari to Chachhro
9. Construction of Mithi Islamkot Road 25.00 Completed
(Remaining 11 Kms) through SAZDA.
10. Mithi – Islamkot (32 Kms) short of 11 Kms 35.00 Completed
11. Johi Chinni Road (Phase-1) Dadu (14.88 Kms) 23.837 Incomplete
12. Electrification in Tharparkar 122.368 Incomplete
13. Road from FP Bund to Chinni Village Dadu 26.200 Incomplete
(4.8 Kms) 2 Phase
14. Road From Chinni Village to Tando Rahim 27.600 Incomplete
(10.86 Kms) Dadu
15. Electrification Wirwah Qasbo in Thar 30.021 Incomplete