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					     REPORT OF THE:



        FAO/WFP
     CROP AND FOOD
ASSESSMENT FOR DROUGHT
   AFFECTED AREAS IN
 BALOCHISTAN AND SINDH
         (2002)




  Dr. Muhammad Yousaf Chaudhri
      Dr. Sadaqat Hayat Hanjra
      Mr. Faris Rahman Khan
REPORT OF THE FAO/WFP CROP AND FOOD
ASSESSMENT MISSION TO PAKISTAN-2002




     DR. MUHAMMAD YOUSAF CHAUDHRI
        DR. SADAQAT HAYAT HANJRA
          MR. FARIS RAHMAN KHAN
                            TABLE OF CONTENTS

MISSION HIGHLIGHTS

1.     INTRODUCTION                                                    1
2.     BACKGROUND INFORMATION                                          3
       2.1  Balochistan                                                3
       2.2. Sindh                                                      5
3.   SITUATION ANALYSIS                                                5
       3.1. Drought                                                    5
       3.2. Water Resources                                            9
       3.3. Crop Production                                            10
       3.4. Livestock Production                                       12
       3.5. Effect on Households                                       14
4.   LOCAL COPING MECHANISMS                                           17
5.   GOVERNMENT RESPONSE MECHANISMS                                    18
6.   ASSESSMENT OF NEEDS                                               21
       6.1. Emergency Assistance                                       21
            6.1.1. Agriculture                                         21
            6.1.2. Food Aid                                            22
            6.1.3. Vulnerability Survey                                26
       6.2. Need for Medium to Long-term Support to Mitigate Drought   26

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure 1.    Intensity of Rainfall in Tharparkar                       7

LIST OF MAPS AND TABLES

Table 1.     Rainfall Data of Balochistan                              6
Table 2.     Rainfed Cropped Area in Balochistan                       10
Table 3.     Rainfed Area Under Selected Crops in Balochistan          10
Table 4.     Area and Proudction of Major Crops in Sindh               12
Table 5.     Relief Assistance in Balochistan                          19
Table 6.     Immediate Relief Extended                                 19
Table 7.     Mid/Long Term Projects                                    20
Table 8.     Drought Affected Area in Sindh                            21
Table 9.     Estimate of Beneficiaries of Food Aid                     25
Map-1.        Drought Affected Areas of Balochistan                              3
Map-2.        Drought Affected Areas of Sindh                                    8

LIST OF ANNEXURES

Annexure-1.    Terms of Reference
Annexure-2.    Missions Field Visits
Annexure-3.    List of Villages Visited by the Mission
Annexure-4.    List of Persons/Officials Met During Field Visits
Annexure-5.    Schemes under taken out of Chief Executive grant Of Rs. 1000.00
               million
                              MISSION HIGHLIGHTS

   Except for some rain in Tharparkar during 2001 and early November 2002 in parts of
    Balochistan, the drought has continued in most parts of Balochistan and Sindh, further
    accentuating the negative impact on water resources, crop and livestock production and
    household food security.
   A progressive reduction in the means of livelihood of the affected people continues to restrict
    their access to cash resources and consequently, their food and non-food needs. This has
    further increased the levels of poverty.
   Forced change in food habits substituting cheaper and less nutritious food items and almost
    total elimination of meat, milk and milk products has resulted in increased malnutrition and
    vulnerability to diseases particularly among women and children. Incidence of anemia,
    tuberculosis and hepatitis has considerably increased.
   Both surface and groundwater resources have either totally dried or their discharge drastically
    reduced severely affecting water availability for agriculture, human and livestock use.
   Rainfed crop production in drought affected areas has either totally failed or reduced by 60 to
    80%, with serious consequences for household income and sustenance and livestock
    population.
   Almost 40% of the fruit orchards have dried, cut and sold as fuel wood causing financial ruin
    to the orchard owners and reducing job opportunities. Small holders will need help in
    adopting alternate crop production systems.
   With more people searching for work, the wage rates have dropped drastically (from Rs. 100
    to Rs. 20-50).
   Reduced water supply in the Indus basin canal system has resulted in significant reduction in
    crop acreages and production, reducing traditional support capacity of irrigated areas for
    migrant labour and livestock from the Thar desert.
   In many cases people have opted for earning through wage labour permanently abandoning
    their traditional means of subsistence viz. crop and livestock production.
   Death and distress sale of livestock has drastically cut down on the stock size of individual
    owners and chances of any rapid stock build up in the near future are minimal due to loss of
    breeding capacity, abortions and lamb and kid mortality. Assistance is needed in stock
    replacement, supplementary feeding and preventive health cover.
   The Mission noted a tendency to substitute low water delta crops for high water delta crops.
    This needs to be encouraged and supported.
   The Mission estimated a total number of 2.21 million people as affected by drought in both
    the provinces. Of these, 173760, residing in the 5 most severely affected districts of
    Balochistan and 98789, residing in the two severely affected districts of Sindh were in need
    of emergency food aid for a period of 6 months upto the summer monsoon of 2003.
1.      INTRODUCTION

    The persistent drought occurring in Pakistan since the last about five years has
     severely affected crop and livestock production in the country, with serious
     consequences for the food security and livelihood of a large segment of
     population. The entire province of Balochistan, except for the part of Naseerabad
     district irrigated by Pat Feeder and Kirther canals, has been hit by this drought and
     notified by the provincial government as calamity hit area. In Sindh, the whole of
     Tharparkar district and parts of Dadu (Johi and Thano Buley Khan Talukas),
     Mirpur Khas (Umerkot Taluka), Sanghar (Khipro Taluka) and Thatta (5 Dehs in
     Thatta Taluka), have been declared as the worst drought hit areas (Map-1). The
     relief efforts undertaken by the Provincial governments, with assistance from
     Federal government, international and bilateral donors and agencies and private
     organizations from within the country have helped in mitigating the situation to a
     considerable extent. However, the drought conditions persisting through 2001 and
     2002 have increased the extent and severity of the problem raising humanitarian
     concerns that require urgent attention.
    Against this background the Economic Affairs Division, Government of Pakistan,
     through their letter dated 24th October 2002, requested for assistance in assessing
     the impact of continuing drought and identifying emergency needs of the affected
     population. In response to this request FAO/WFP, with financial assistance from
     the UNDP, fielded a mission from 3 November to 2 December, 2002, to identify
     areas severely affected by drought, assess the impact of drought on crop and
     livestock production and household food security and identify emergency needs of
     the affected population. The Mission’s Terms of Reference are given at annex 1.
    The Mission consisted of an Agronomist/Team Leader, a Livestock Specialist and
     an expert in assessment of drought impact on household economy. A female
     Social Mobilizer, capable of conversing in the local language/s, was hired in each
     of the two provinces. They assisted the Mission by interviewing the womenfolk
     during field visits to the affected areas.
    The Mission visited Balochistan from 3 to 12 November and Sindh from 13 to 23
     November 2002. After initial briefings by concerned government officials
     (Secretaries/ Heads of Departments/Relief Commissionerate) the Mission
     travelled through most of the drought affected areas visiting a total of 25 villages
     in Balochistan and 30 in Sindh. The Mission’s findings are based on information
     provided during initial briefings, subsequent discussions with the district
     administration, representatives of relevant line departments, affected people (both
     male and female), elected local government representatives (Union Council
     Nazims and Councilors) and Mission’s own observations en-route. While
     travelling the Mission critically reviewed the condition of agricultural crops
     including fruit orchards, rangeland vegetation, water resource situation, household
                                            1
2
     income and nutritional status of human beings, particularly women and children,
     and the state of grazing/migrating herds of both small and large ruminants. On the
     last day of visit to each province the Mission findings were presented in a de-
     briefing meeting at the provincial government level. The Mission’s travel itinerary
     and lists of villages visited and persons met are given at annexes 2, 3 & 4.

2.      BACKGROUND INFORMATION

2.1.    Balochistan

    Balochistan, with a geographic area of 3,47,190 sq. km, is the largest province of
     Pakistan constituting 43% of the country’s total land mass. However, with a
     population of 6.511 m (1998 census), it is the most sparsely populated province.
     Approximately 78% population lives in the rural area. The climate ranges from
     semi-arid to hyper-arid and temperature regimes vary widely from cool temperate
     to tropical. The northern highland region is characterized by cold winters and mild
     summers. Most winters receive snow, frost and rainfall ranging between 250 to
     350 mm. In the south-western desert zone the annual rainfall ranges between 50 to
     125 mm and the region experiences hottest summers, with the temperature
     occasionally rising above 50°C. Annual evaporation rates are very high ranging
     from 3200 mm to over 5000 mm.
    Crop and livestock production are the two dominant economic sectors in
     Balochistan, accounting for over 50% of the Province’s GDP and employing
     roughly 67% of the work force, full or part time. The limited rainfall and water
     availability drastically restricts the amount of land under cultivation and at present
     only about 2.13 mha (5%) of the total land area is cultivated. Half of the cultivated
     area is perennially irrigated, while the remaining half is under rainfed cultivation.
     Although irrigated crop production plays a dominant role in the agricultural
     economy of Balochistan, dryland farming of the Sailaba (flood water) and
     Khushkaba (rainfed) types have been important for the livelihood of a majority of
     the people. Both these dryland farming systems are dependent on natural
     precipitation and their performance fluctuates drastically with the fluctuation in
     rainfall.
    The agro-ecological diversity obtaining in Balochistan permits the cultivation of a
     wide range of field and horticultural crops. Although the Province is a net
     importer of basic food staple such as wheat, traditionally cereal production
     including wheat, rice, barley, sorghum and millet, has remained important to its
     agricultural economy, covering 70% of the cropped area and contributing 50% to
     the gross value of crops sub-sector. Besides, it serves as important source of green
     fodder and roughage for the livestock. High altitude and the aridity in the
     atmosphere provides an ideal environment for the production of quality deciduous

                                             3
    fruits in Balochistan. The Province’s share of many deciduous fruits like apples,
    plums, pears, apricots, peaches and pomegranates and non-deciduous fruits like
    date, ranges between 35 to 85 percent in Pakistan’s total production. For the
    production of quality grapes, almonds and cumin the Province has an exclusive
    monopoly in Pakistan.
   Irrigated agriculture is dependent both on surface and groundwater resource. The
    major surface water resource is the canal water flowing in the Kirthar and Pat
    Feeder canals of the Indus Basin System and Lasbella canal emanating from Hub
    Dam. Another important source of surface water is the flood water that flows
    through the inland and coastal streams. Part of this runoff water is harnessed for
    agriculture through Sailaba Bandat, storage dams and small irrigation schemes.
    The groundwater resource becomes available for agricultural purposes through
    Karezes, natural springs, dug wells and tubewells. With the extension of
    electricity in the areas suitable for crop production, particularly fruits and
    vegetables, the number of tubewells has consistently increased during the last 25
    years. Authorized and un-authorized installation of tubewells and pumping of
    water in excess of recharge has caused a rapid drop in the aquifer resulting in the
    drying of dug wells and a number of Karezes and springs. This emerging scenario
    is causing a serious problem of longer term sustainability of irrigated agriculture
    based on groundwater resource. The situation has been further aggravated by
    persistent drought occurring during the last 5 years.
   Livestock production is an important economic activity in Balochistan and is one
    of the primary means of subsistence for 70 percent of the rural population. Ninety-
    two percent of the total land area of Balochistan has been categorized as
    rangelands which provide the feed resource for the production of small ruminants
    (sheep and goats), which currently number over 20 million. Three livestock
    production systems are in vogue in Balochistan: 1) A small percentage of
    agropastoralists is sedentary. They grow crops and own livestock and often have
    access to green fodder and crop residues, 2) A large proportion of flock owners
    are transhumant who commute between winter and summer quarters to adjust the
    seasonal feed requirements. They also grow rainfed crops, 3) about 50% of the
    livestock owners are nomadic who constantly move between highlands and lower
    parts and sometimes cross international borders. These nomads are entirely
    dependent on livestock for their subsistence and the family food and non-food
    needs are met through trading of livestock and livestock products. Livestock
    marketing is often through middlemen and is highly exploitative. Livestock health
    services are provided by the Livestock Department through hospitals, dispensaries
    and mobile units but in several districts these are grossly inadequate.




                                          4
2.2.    Sindh

    The Sindh Province with a geographical area of 140, 914 sq. km has a population
     of more than 30 million. Sixty one percent of the land mass is arid while 39% is
     irrigated by perennial and seasonal canals of the Indus Basin. About half of the
     irrigated area is affected by salinity and water logging. Slow movement of water
     in the Indus river, due to low gradient towards the sea, encourages percolation and
     causes water logging. Two-thirds of groundwater is brackish.
    The Thar region of Sindh is a large desert with sub-saharan conditions and
     measures 20,000 sq. Km. Rainfed agriculture and livestock are the primary means
     of subsistence in this area. Rainfall in a good year ranges between 200-250 mm
     and occurs mostly during monsoon season. Such a rainfall permits growing of
     Bajra (millet) as the main food crop and guwar as the main cash crop and also
     supports growth of seasonal and perennial grasses on the grazing lands providing
     feed resource for the whole year. It also recharges the thin fresh water layer and
     provides opportunities for collection of surface water flows in open ponds. If the
     rainfall does not occur during monsoon season a drought like situation emerges
     resulting in acute shortage of food and fodder. People search for alternative
     sources for their livelihood usually migrating to barrage areas for wage labour and
     taking loans on high interest-rate for subsistence.
    Kohistan area extending along the west, north-west border of the province is sub-
     mountainous to mountainous and is also dependent on rainfed crop production
     (millet, sorghum, mungbean and guwar) and livestock (both large and small
     ruminants). Rainfall in these areas is scanty (averages between 100 to 120 mm)
     and is highly erratic. Kachho area lying between irrigated plains and Kohistan
     belt, is also dependent on natural precipitation and failure of rainfall affects the
     livelihood of people subsisting on rainfed agriculture and livestock production in
     these areas.
    The vast arid rainfed semi-desert to desert like areas in Balochistan and Sindh
     with no source of irrigation and low precipitation offer little scope for irrigated
     agriculture. However, these areas are highly suitable for livestock production,
     particularly small ruminants, cattle and camel. The animals are well adapted to the
     harsh environmental conditions and utilize range biomass very efficiently.

3.      SITUATION ANALYSIS

3.1.    Drought:
    Drought in the provinces of Sindh and Balochistan has increased progressively
     during the last 4 to 5 years. However, it aggravated in early year 2000 when the
     effects became more telling. The initial reports were mainly from livestock
     owners who faced a situation where very little grass was left in the ranges and
     sustaining the existing number of livestock became impossible. Later on, the
                                            5
    effects of drought became more pronounced and engulfed human/livestock
    population, crops and water resources.
   In almost all affected areas of Sindh and Balochistan, drought has more or less
    persisted throughout the years 2001 and 2002, with serious consequences for
    agriculture, livestock, household income and food security. In most severely
    affected areas not a single drop of water has been received during the last 3-5
    years. In Balochistan the worst affected province, the winter rains are down by 60
    to 73% (Table 1). The situation is particularly grave in areas where groundwater is
    deep/brackish and no surface water resource is now available.
Table 1. Rainfall Data of Balochistan for the Period 1998-2002
    Year/Season     Normal/Aggregate      Actual/Aggregate     Difference   Percentage
                         (mm)                  (mm)              (mm)        Deficient
Summer 1998                59.05                26.72            32.33        54.8%
Winter 1998-99             74.01                65.98             8.03        10.8%
Summer 1999                59.05                29.11            29.94        50.7%
Winter 99-2000             74.01                19.80            54.21        73.2%
Summer 2000                59.05                30.54            28.51        48.3%
Winter 2000-01             74.01                27.54            46.47        62.8%
Summer 2001                 59.5                35.51            23.54        39.9%
Winter 2001-02             74.01                29.60            44.41        60.0%
          Total:         532.24                264.80           267.44       50.2%
Source: Relief Commissionerate, Balochistan.
   Due to scarcity of water and failure of traditional means of subsistence, large scale
    migration has taken place out of the areas most severely and severely affected by
    drought, in Balochistan. The Mission observed four types of situations in this
    regard:
             Total migration abandoning the whole village (e.g. villages, Rod
               Mullazai in Pishin, Chashma Dat in Kharan, Rahi Nagur in Panjgur
               and Kilkor in Kech).
             Most families moving out, a few staying back.
             Some male members migrating alongwith their livestock.
             Only male members migrating in search of wage labour.

   The Government of Balochistan has notified the entire province of Balochistan,
    except part of Naseerabad district irrigated by Pat Feeder and Kirthar Canals, as
    calamity hit area. However, considering precipitation during the last two years,
    including the most recent rains occurring during the first half of November, 2002,
    the current water resource situation, opportunities for alternate employment,
    recent migration out of the area and availability of livestock feed resources, the
    Mission assesses the situation as follows:

                                           6
                               Most severely affected districts:                       Kharan, Panjgur, Awaran, Chaghi
                                                                                       and Lasbella.
                               Severely affected districts:                            Kech, Loralai, Killa Saifullah,
                                                                                       Killa Abdullah, Kachhi and
                                                                                       Pishin
                               Moderately affected districts:                          Khuzdar and Sibi

      These areas are depicted in Map-2.

     Between 6-10 November 2002, while the Mission was travelling in Balochistan,
      scattered rains ranging from a slight drizzle to a moderately heavy downpour were
      received in several areas of the province. In parts of Khuzdar, Quetta, Mastung,
      Kalat, Ziarat, Pishin and Loralai districts, the rains seemed enough to provide
      moisture for Rabi 2002-2003 planting. Only a slight drizzle was received in
      Panjgur, Awaran, Turbat, Lasbella and Killa Saifullah. All other districts went
      almost dry.
     The Thar region of Sindh received substantial rains in 1997 and 1998 (186 to 210
      mm) and production of crops and range biomass was enough to secure sustenance
      of an average household during those two years. Rains were, however, down to
      only 30% (60 mm) and 12% (24 mm) of normal, during the years 1999 and 2000.
      All of it was received in one go and did not help much in crop production and
      grass germination. In the year 2001, 80 mm of rain was received in three spells, in
      most parts of Thar, which enabled people to plant millets, sorghum and guwar but
      due to less than optimum moisture during crop growth only half the average yields
      were harvested. Some palatable grasses and shrubs also became available for
      sustaining the livestock. During 2002, only 8 mm of rain was received in the last
      week of June. Hoping that some more rains will come later, people cultivated land
      and planted summer crops. However, as it all went dry thereafter, investment on
      cultivation and planting of crops was all wasted. The grass that germinated with
      the first rain survived only for two weeks. With no support from the rangelands
      for the livestock, people started to migrate to the Barrage area in August 2002.

Figure 1.                                 Intensity of Rainfall in Tharparkar (1997-2002)
    Rainfall (mm per annum)




                              250
                              200                     210
                                    186
                              150
                              100
                                                                                                          80
                              50                                        60
                                                                                         24
                               0                                                                                           8
                               1997       1997.5   1998     1998.5   1999    1999.5   2000    2000.5   2001    2001.5   2002

                                                                             Year


                                                                             7
8
   The drought affected areas of Mirpur Khas, Sanghar, Dadu and Thatta have
    received no rains during the last 5 to 6 years, totally eliminating rainfed crop
    production and livestock sustaining on rangeland vegetation, the two primary
    means of subsistence in these areas. Household incomes have been severely
    affected resulting in food insecurity. A serious problem of drinking water both for
    human beings and livestock has emerged. People have migrated in search of
    alternate employment.
   Considering the level of precipitation during the last 2-3 years, the current water
    resource situation, concentration of government’s relief efforts, scale of
    productive assets remaining with the affected people and the level of NGOs
    operation in the affected areas, the Mission feels that in future relief and
    rehabilitation efforts, Dadu (Johi & Thano Buley Khan Talukas) Mirpur Khas
    (Umerkot Taluka) and Sanghar (Khipro Taluka) districts should receive due
    consideration.

3.2.   Water Resources
   In Balochistan over exploitation of groundwater resource, through tubewells, has
    caused an alarming rate of depletion of water table in many natural aquifers. The
    extended drought preventing any recharge of the aquifer has further aggravated
    the situation. Drop in the groundwater level has resulted in the drying of almost all
    surface wells, particularly in the uplands and 70 percent of the Karezes and natural
    springs. Karezes and springs which are still alive are running at only 1/2 to 1/3
    capacities, with a drastic reduction in their command areas. Drop in aquifer has
    also caused drying of tubewells in several areas or reducing their discharge by
    upto 50%. In areas with no electricity, the tubewells run on diesel engines have to
    be abandoned because of their inability to extract water from beyond a certain
    depth. Stream flows available for sailaba cultivation have either totally dried or
    drastically reduced because of failure of rainfall.
   In Sindh, failure of rainfall and reduced flow of water in rivers and canals have
    both affected the groundwater recharge process resulting in the lowering of
    groundwater level. The surface wells have dried and at some places the tubewells
    have also gone out of commission. Earthquake that hit areas in Badin and
    Tharparker district in the year 2000 has also resulted in the drop of aquifer from
    about 150 ft to almost 500 ft. Reduced stream flows due to drought have
    particularly affected the dug wells along their course, creating serious problems of
    availability of drinking water for human beings, as well as, livestock. Less of
    recharge has also increased the level of salinity in the groundwater. There is an
    overall shortage of 30 to 40% in the water flows of Indus Basin canals further
    multiplying the negative effects of drought. Reduced supply of canal water has
    resulted in a substantial reduction in areas under most major crops and their per
    acre yields.
                                           9
3.3.   Crop Production

   In the most severely drought hit areas of Balochistan, rainfed cropping of
    Khushkaba and Sailaba type has totally disappeared. In areas severely or
    moderately affected by drought, rainfed crop acreages have reduced by 60 to 80%
    with productivity going down by almost 50% due to moisture stress. Millet
    (bajra), sorghum, mungbeans, guwar and castor beans have been the traditional
    summer rainfed crops while barley and rape and mustard have been grown during
    winter. In addition to producing grains for human consumption or sale, these crops
    have been the primary source of stalks/crop residues for livestock feeding. Table 2
    gives area under rainfed cropping in Balochistan for the years 1990-91 onwards.
    As is evident a reduction to the extent of 87% has occurred in this area between
    1995-96 and 2000-01. Data in Table 3 show the trend in reduction of area under
    major rainfed crops. Area under wheat, barley and sorghum has registered drastic
    reductions of 84%, 96% and 95%, respectively.

Table 2. Rainfed cropped area in Balochistan over the last decade
             Year                               Cropped area (ha)
1990-91                                                 147,999
1995-96                                                 257,110
1996-97                                                  99,593
1997-98                                                     -
1998-99                                                  90,759
1999-2000                                                35,934
2000-2001                                                33,529
2001-2002                                                32,743
Source: Agricultural Statistics, Balochistan.

Table 3. Rainfed area under selected crops in Balochistan.
                            Area under major crops
    Year             Wheat            Barley         Rape & Mustard        Sorghum
1995-96                133,090             21,105            10,723            44,675
1996-97                 42,180             14,498              4,820            7,549
1998-99                 46,835               8,197             3,908            4,350
1999-2000               17,908               1,318               588            4,300
2000-2001               23,000                 824             1,080            3,623
2001-2002               21,306                 775             4,489            2,280
Source: Agricultural Statistics, Balochistan.

   Due to the drying up of a large number of karezes and natural springs and reduced
    discharge from the tubewells, the cropped area served by groundwater resources

                                           10
    has also reduced by 15 to 20% and the yields have been negatively affected to the
    tune of 25 to 30%.
   According to a recent survey by the Department of Agriculture, about 40% apple,
    peach and apricot orchards, in upland Balochistan, have dried and have been cut
    and sold as fuel. Orchards that have survived are producing 30 to 40% less fruit of
    low quality because of reduced availability of water for irrigation.
   Rainfed and irrigated fodder production has reduced considerably. This coupled
    with a drastic reduction in the availability of range biomass is creating problems
    for the sustenance of livestock even in reduced numbers.
   The Mission noted trends of substitution of low water delta crops like cotton and
    cumin in place of high water delta crops like onion in Kharan, Chaghi, Lasbella
    and Panjgur. The need for training of both the farmers and the extension staff of
    the Agriculture Department, in production management of a new crop like cotton,
    was evident.
   Increased aridity due to drought is increasing soil salinity in several areas because
    of less of leaching and more of transpiration, resulting in increased salt
    concentration in the upper soil layers. This increased salinity has already started
    having adverse effects on crop yields.
   Because of the continuous dry weather there is increased wind erosion of surface
    soil.
   Farm operation related jobs have reduced by almost 60% adding to
    unemployment. Horticultural production has been providing jobs to thousands of
    people engaged in orchard management, fruit picking, grading, packing and
    transportation. These jobs are now available in much reduced numbers.
   There is increased incidence of pests and disease. The Mission noted heavy attack
    of insect pest with secondary fungal infestation in date plantations in Panjgur and
    Kech districts. Drought, coupled with this pest infestation, is threatening the date
    palm based economy of the entire region.
   In Sindh, as in Balochistan, the rainfed cropping in worst drought affected areas of
    Dadu, Thatta and Mirpur Khas districts, has been completely eroded as there have
    been no rains during the past 4 to 5 years. In Tharparkar district moderate
    monsoon rains in 2001 enabled planting of most rainfed crops, though yields were
    much below normal. The year 2002 has gone almost dry in Tharparkar with no
    crop production. Carry over stalks of sorghum and bajra from summer 2001
    helped in sustaining the livestock during first half of the year 2002, but later the
    flock owners had to migrate to the Barrage areas.
   Reduced water supply in the Indus Basin canal system has caused major
    reductions in area and production of almost all major crops. Data in Table 4
    depicts the combined effect of drought and reduced irrigation water supply on
    crop production. As is evident from these data, the reductions in area during 2000-
    01 and 2001-02, in comparison with 1998-99, have ranged from 11.1 to 54.3%

                                           11
     and those in production from 12.8 to 55.0%. Reductions are particularly high in
     rice, bajra and kharif fodders. This drop in crop production in the irrigated areas
     has reduced their capacity to support the migrant stock owners from the Thar
     desert by providing employment and crop residues to feed their livestock.

Table 4. Area* and Production** of Major Crops in Sindh
    Crop         1998-99                  2000-2001                        2001-2002
              Area    Prod.      Area   Prod.     % change      Area    Prod. % change over
                                                  over 98-99                          98-99
                                                 Area Prod.                      Area      Prod.
Wheat         1124     2675      811    2226    -27.8   -16.8   875     2101    -22.1     -21.5
Rice          704      1930      540    1682    -23.2   -12.8   461     1159    -34.5     -39.9
Sugarcane     271      17051     239    12050 -11.8     -29.3   241     11416 -11.1       -33.0
Cotton        630      2134      524    2141    -16.9   0.0     547     2443    -13.2     14.5
Jowar         110      64        87     52      -21.1   -18.7   89      57      -19.1     -10.8
Bajra         175      73        80     41      -54.3   -43.8   100     54      -42.7     -26.1
Fodder        196      3069      109    1382    -44.8   -55.0   145     1956    -22.0     -35.0
(Rabi)
Fodder        205      6741      178    5878    -13.5   -12.8   153     5372    -25.41    -20.3
Kharif
*                   Area is ‘000’ ha
**                  Production of cotton in ‘000’ bales, all others in ‘000’ m t.
Source:             Directorate General of Agricultural Extension Sindh.
    Reduced acquifer recharge and consequently drop in its level, has increased
     salinity in the groundwater making it hazardous for human and livestock drinking.
     At places the salt contents of groundwater were reported to have increased from
     less than 1000 ppm to over 2000 ppm.
3.4.       Livestock Production
    The vast rangelands of Balochistan (91% of total land mass) have traditionally
     supported over 20.0 million livestock population in the province. Over the years
     these rangelands have degraded due to overgrazing and fuelwood extraction. The
     influx of a large number of Afghan refugees, alongwith their livestock had put
     added pressure on these grazing lands. The persistent drought occurring during the
     last 5 years has further aggravated the situation doing severe damage to range
     biomass, its yield (on dry matter basis) dropping from about 60 kg/ha in normal
     years to 18 kg/ha. Vast areas have been denuded and the carrying capacity of
     these rangelands has reduced considerably.
    Due to drastically reduced availability of feed resource, under impact of persistent
     drought, the flock owners were forced to sell their stock at very low prices (during
     the year 2000 a mature sheep and goat was available for less than Rs. 300 as
     compared to the 1998 prices of Rs. 1000 to 1500). Mortality due to hunger and
     disease infestation of malnourished animals increased several times. Distress sale
     and mortality together have resulted in an overall reduction of 35% in stock size,
     with the individual owners in most severely affected areas losing 80-100% of their
     animals.
                                                12
   The prevailing livestock production systems offered resilience and choices to shift
    between summer and winter quarters. This coping mechanism has shrunk to a
    large extent due to reduction in range feed resource because of drought. Kachhi
    plains and canal irrigated areas of Naseerabad Division were traditionally home to
    large nomadic/transhumant herds during winter. However, these areas have very
    little to offer now.
   Dropped leaves and fruits and weeds extracted out of orchards constituted an
    important source of supplementing the feed available from grazing. With 40
    percent orchards in upland Balochistan dried, cut and sold as fuel, this source of
    supplementary feed has virtually disappeared in several areas. The livestock feed
    resources have further reduced due to stoppage of fodder intercropping in
    orchards because of water scarcity. This has particularly happened in Panjgoor
    and Turbat where date and pomegranate orchards have been traditionally
    intercropped with berseem and lucerne during winter.
   In a fairly large population of small ruminants, two breeding seasons (2001 &
    2002) have been completely lost because of much reduced conception due to poor
    feed and consequently poor health of the mothers to be. In many cases pregnant
    animals aborted and 10-15 percent lamb/kid mortality occurred due to shortage of
    milk in the mothers. The stock build-up capacity has, thus, been drastically
    reduced and flock replacements are not becoming available to many graziers.
   Traditionally livestock has been used to generate ready cash whenever needed to
    meet the household food and other needs. This is no longer available with most
    farmers now. The situation has become particularly grave for those for whom
    livestock production was the sole means of subsistence.
   Majority of the small ruminant herds have been grazed by hired grazeirs which
    was a source of employment in the rural setting. With reduced stocks fewer such
    jobs are now available further adding to unemployment.
   In most drought hit areas the availability of meat, milk and milk-products, as part
    of the family diet, has either totally disappeared or drastically reduced adding to
    malnutrition and poor health, particularly in children and nursing mothers.
   Due to malnutrition and poor health of animals both quantitative and qualitative
    reduction has occurred in the production of wool and hair. Poor quality product is
    selling at 50% of the normal price. The cottage industry (particularly carpet
    making) has been adversely affected.
   Recently, due to reduced availability of stock, the small ruminants are now selling
    at a higher price in Balochistan and the mutton prices have gone up by almost 60
    percent.
   In Sindh, drought affected areas in the five districts have a total livestock
    population of 5.6 million heads, both small and large ruminants. In normal years
    about 20% flock owners from these districts shift to canal irrigated areas taking
    along 15-20 percent small ruminants and 80% cattle. On-farm jobs particularly

                                          13
     related to rice and sugarcane harvest are available in the irrigated areas to these
     migrant flock owners. Sugarcane tops and rice straw constitute a major source of
     feed for their livestock. If required, fodder is also purchased or traded against
     wage labour. Drop in acreage of most major crops due to reduced availability of
     irrigation water in the canals has reduced the quantity of these feed supplements
     available for the migrating livestock and has also shrunk the job market. As the
     availability of crop residues and range biomass in the drought affected areas has
     continued to deteriorate further, there is larger migration of livestock out of those
     areas increasing pressure on the feed resources available in the irrigated areas.
    Over 50% of the livestock population in the drought affected areas of Sindh has
     suffered from malnutrition with concomitant increase in disease infestation due to
     reduced immunity. The mortality rate has increased by 10-15% in small
     ruminants. Drastic reduction has occurred in their breeding efficiency with only
     45-55% ewes/ goats breeding during 2001 and 2002 seasons. Almost 20 to 25%
     lamb/kid crop succumbed due to low milk availability during the last two years.
     The migrating herds of cattle presented an ugly look. Animals were weak, hide
     bound and dragging. Carcasses of dead animals were found all along the
     migratory route. The Mission observed severe damage to the range biomass in the
     three most severely affected districts of Dadu, Thatta and Mirpur Khas. Large
     areas presented a deserted look. The annual and perennial grasses and palatable
     shrubs have disappeared and only non-palatable species dominated by prosopis,
     now exist.
    Hide and skin prices decreased by almost 40% during 1996-2002 period. Wool
     production has also dropped by 50% due to malnutrition and the product is of
     inferior quality – brittle with short staple length.
    High prices of green fodder and other feed supplements and roughages have
     further reduced chances of any supplementary feeding by the flock owners.
     Currently wheat bhoosa was available at Rs. 4/= per Kg and dried sorghum stalks
     at Rs. 2.50 per kg.


3.5.    Effect on Households
i)      Changes In Diet


    The normal diet of the people of Balochistan prior to the on-set of drought,
     comprised wheat flour, tea, meat, milk, yogurt, vegetables and fruit. Seasonal
     vegetables and fruits were a part of the normal diet of people living in the
     agricultural zones of Sindh and Balochistan, while meat and milk products were
     more in evidence in the diet of people living in the arid zones i.e., those who are
     more dependent on livestock for their livelihood. Drought has restricted the access
     of all affected people to most of their normal food items. Their present diet mostly

                                            14
      comprises wheat flour and tea in Balochistan and wheat flour, onion and chillies
      in Sindh.
     Earlier, the people had at least two regular meals a day. Now, most drought
      affected people subsist on one main meal. Meat, milk, and milk products have
      almost completely disappeared from the family meal .Wheat flour is the principal
      item of expenditure of the family income, followed by cooking oil and pulses.
      Because of the severe depletion of their cash resources, affectees find it hard to
      purchase oil, with the result that most meals are now uncooked, as they comprise
      bread eaten with either tea, chillies or onions. There is also evidence of food
      substitution in some areas of Sindh where people have taken to eating rice in place
      of bread for their evening meal. In parts of Balochistan people cook and eat
      “gorbusht”, a plant resembling spinach that grows wild near ponds. Because of the
      lack of animals people have stopped making “laandi”, a form of dried meat, the
      staple winter diet of the Pashtun tribes of Balochistan, and also “lassi”, the yogurt
      drink, a favourite meal item in both provinces. Tea is now taken without milk, for
      the same reason. People are no longer able to buy food and stock it. They buy it in
      kilo quantities and at higher rates. No house that this Mission visited had food
      beyond a day or twos supply in store. In areas where fodder is scarce, people have
      been forced to share their bread with their animals, to save them from starvation.
     The Governments free food distributions have, from the affectees point of view,
      promised much but delivered little. Many affectees, particularly in Sindh, who
      would otherwise have migrated to the Barrage region, stayed at their villages in
      anticipation of receiving Government wheat. Those who did receive this aid,
      mostly got it one time only, as a short-term relief. Without regular follow-up of
      distributions, this wheat appears to have made no significant improvement in the
      overall picture of food security. Families, however, consumed the wheat
      themselves and did not sell or exchange it.

ii)      Changes In Living Patterns
     Since water is seen as the primary need by drought affectees, the search for its
      regular supply has caused widespread migration out of areas where the water
      sources have dried up to areas where they are still intact. This has converted a
      large population of settled villagers into migrants or refugees. On the other hand, a
      large number of traditional migrants or nomads have been forced to settle in and
      around watering places which promise a regular supply of water. This double load
      of settlers is causing undue pressure on host villages, by depleting their water
      sources. The competition for local work adds to the pressure on job market, and
      the relations between the existing population and drought affectees are often
      marked by hostility and conflict.


                                             15
      Since other sources of income have dried up, members of the affected families are
       now involved in the search for supplementing family income through occasional
       work. Women who traditionally stitched and embroidered clothes for family use
       are now trying to do so for commercial purposes. However, women are not
       receiving adequate compensation for this work because of the absence of a proper
       system of marketing their products and there is also a reduced demand. Child
       labour has increased, older boys are now being sent to towns and larger villages in
       search of employment. Farmers are undertaking town jobs of the kind they have
       no training or aptitude for, and are being paid less than normal wages. For stone
       breaking jobs around Mithi, Tharparker, villagers were found working for a wage
       as low as Rs.20.00 per day.
      Since most of the family income is spent on the purchase of food, there is usually
       no cash surplus for buying the other essentials of life, such as clothing, bedding,
       soap, etc. This, together with the lack of water for cleaning purposes, has led to
       very unsanitary and unhygienic conditions prevailing in the houses and shelters of
       drought affected people.

iii)      Impact On Nutrition And Health

      The drinking of brackish water, found in the arid zones of both the provinces, with
       its high salt content, is an underlying cause for the poor state of health of these
       people. But even where there is clean water, the method of its transportation,
       storage in ponds, tanks and plastic containers, expose it to various forms of
       contamination. This is why the most common health complaint relates to diarrhea,
       vomiting and fever among children. This together with a diet poor in protein and
       other nutrients, has caused the widespread malnutrition that the Mission witnessed
       among women and children in both the provinces. In a nutritional survey of
       women and children carried out by Oxfam in Chaghi District in August 2002, the
       incidence of Global Acute malnutrition in children under 5 years, was found to be
       16% in the district. It was highest in Dalbandin at 20% and lowest in Taftan at
       12.5%. Diarrhea and enteric disorders were found in 30% of the children. Women
       were seen as affected by malnutrition as children. Statistics of the civil hospital at
       Mithi, Tharparkar, show that of all the women who visited its MCH center in
       September 1999, 53.84% were found suffering from severe anemia (Hemoglobin
       count less than 10 gms %). The impact of malnutrition is particularly severe on
       pregnant and nursing women, who have a greater demand for food energy.
       Because of their ill health and frailness, many of them complained of having no
       breast milk for feeding their babies. Since there is no adequate alternative to
       mother’s milk in the villages, nor do they have any proper weaning foods, the life
       of the infants appears to be at considerable risk.



                                              16
        Malnutrition has increased the vulnerability of affectees to catastrophic diseases.
         In Sindh, TB was seen to be rampant, particularly among women. Hepatitis was
         also widely evident among women and children in both the provinces. These are
         contagious diseases, and because of the close-knit communal living of rural
         families, there is every danger of these diseases spreading out of control.
         Incidence of these diseases among women is particularly dangerous because an
         affected mother can communicate her disease to all other members of her
         household through the food she cooks.

   iv)      Vulnerable Groups

        Women and children have been affected more by drought. While men have the
         option to go to work in towns where they have a wider choice in food and access
         to clean drinking water—which is reflected in their visibly better state of health—
         the women remain tied to the house. Their burden increases when the men are
         away because they have to take care of all the household needs, even those that
         are normally taken care of by men, such as collecting fire-wood and fodder and
         the sale of animals in emergencies. Women are at the tail end of the family meal.
         They eat whatever is left after the men and children have eaten. The Mission
         heard frequent complaints from the women of rarely having enough to eat at
         mealtimes. Women also bear the burden of anguish when their children do not get
         enough to eat or when children’s essential needs remain unmet.

        Children’s food needs are also more varied because of their growing age. Devoid
         as it is of most essential nutrients, their diet invariably leads to malnutrition, and
         other deficiency deceases. Night blindness, scurvy and anaemia’s are common
         among children and are caused by the lack of vitamins A, C and B12 in the body.
         Further, children do not discriminate in food when they are hungry. They often eat
         stale or contaminated food, which causes the high incidence of gastric and
         intestinal disorders.

   4. LOCAL COPING MECHANISMS
 i.      With the reduced level of income at the household level, due to failure of crops
         and decimation of livestock, people resorted to internal (interest free from
         relatives) and external (with interest from money lenders) borrowing for
         productive activities as well as subsistence. Although taking such loans has helped
         in meeting their immediate needs it has definitely added to their level of
         indebtedness. These sources of borrowing however, have gradually disappeared
         due to resource constraint of the internal lenders and inability of the loanees to pay
         back the borrowed money to the external money lenders.
ii.      Both productive (livestock, land) and non productive (jewellery, watches, etc.)
         assets have been sold to meet the households urgent needs.

                                                17
 iii.       People have migrated out of the drought-affected areas in search of water, feed for
            livestock and alternate employment. Migration has been permanent in some cases
            while in others a few of the family members have stayed back, hoping that with
            the return to normal conditions the migrating members of the family would come
            back.
 iv.        People have opted for earning by working as labourers, permanently abandoning
            livestock rearing or rainfed crop production as a means of subsistence.
            Consequently dependence on agriculture as a main source of livelihood has
            decreased while the percentage of people depending on labour as their main
            economic activity has increased. With more people out in search of work the wage
            rates have come down considerably (from Rs. 100/day down to Rs. 20-50/day).
  v.        Fruit orchardists in drought affected areas of upland Balochistan have cut part of
            their orchards and used the available water supply to sustain the remaining area
            under orchard.
 vi.        Due to non-availability of adequate feed resource livestock, both small and large
            ruminants, have been sold at throw away prices resulting in a forced destocking.
            Under pressure of this distress sale the prices of small ruminant in 2000 and 2001
            dropped by upto 90% and those of large ruminants upto 60%. Whereas the low
            level of prices still continues in Sindh, in Balochistan the prices have recovered
            almost fully due to much reduced number of stock available for sale.
vii.        Circumstances have forced people to change their food habits, substituting
            cheaper and often less nutritious food items in their diet. Meat, milk and milk
            products and vegetables have almost totally disappeared from their diet adding to
            malnutrition and increasing vulnerability to disease infestation particularly in
            women and children. In most drought affected areas people reported subsisting on
            chapatti eaten with chilies or onion. Tea is invariably taken without milk.
viii.       Due to lack of resources medical treatment has either been avoided or postponed
            resulting in increased disease incidence and mortality. In some cases people have
            started relying on cheaper, traditional herbal medicines.
 ix.        Children have been withdrawn from schools either to work and earn or assist in
            bringing water and collecting firewood. The school enrolment has dropped by
            almost 50%.
  x.        Traditionally orchards had been intercropped with vegetables and winter fodders
            (Berseem & Lucerne). However, due to scarcity of water this practice has been
            stopped to save water for irrigating fruit plants.
 xi.        At some places, people reported sharing their own staple food with the livestock
            (Feeding chapaties to sheep and goat)

       5.      GOVERNMENT RESPONSE MECHANISMS

           The drought in Balochistan increased progressively over the last 4 to 5 years
            because of low rainfall but in early 2000 it aggravated and the effects became
                                                  18
    more pronounced. To combat drought, the Government of Balochistan established
    a Relief Commissionerate and the Pakistan Army set up a Drought Crisis Control
    Center in the Log Area essentially to provide logistical support to the
    commissionerate’s relief operations. Later the Provincial Government set up a
    Drought Emergency Relief Assistance (DERA) under a high level steering
    committee comprising heads of departments and headed by the Additional Chief
    Secretary (Dev.) to coordinate relief efforts and plan on longer term mitigation
    strategies.
   According to the figures released by the Relief Commissionerate the total funds
    allocated and spent upto 30th June, 2002 on drought relief are as given in Table 5
    & 6.
Table 5. Relief Assistance in Balochistan.
       Source                Allocation            Expenditure               Balance
                                                  (Rs. In million)
Federal Govt.              915.00                        828.33               86.67
Govt. of Balochistan       245.00                        213.80               31.20
Governor’s RF               26.60                         3.10                23.50
Cont. Zakat Fund           100.00                           -                100.00
                Total:    1286.60                       1045.23              241.37
Source: Relief Commissionerate, Balochistan

Table 6. Immediate Relief Extended
RATION
Ration Provided (Wheat, Atta, Rice,               1,09,392 M. Tons approx.
Ghee, Dall, Tea and various edible items
LIVESTOCK
Animal Feed provided                              21,750 M. Tons for over (1.24 Mn animals)
Animals Vaccinated/treated                        Over 3.5 Mn
Molasses Blocks provided                          3,79,900
HEALTH
Medicines                                         Worth Rs. 10.00 Mn
Mobile & Static Camps/Visit                       192
Patients/Children Treated                         Over 0.3 Mn
WATER
Revival of Small Water Schemes/Hand               138
Pumps/Wells Improved
Water Tanks (assorted)                            112
Water Trains arranged                             13
Artificial Rainfall (18 flights)                  Over 8 hrs
WINTER SUPPORT
Blankets                                          4504
Fire Wood                                         377 M. Tons
SHELTERS
Tents/Thatched Huts                       1326
Source: Relief Commissionerate, Balochistan

                                             19
In addition donations towards relief assistance have been received from people of
Pakistan, Pakistan Red Crescent Society, Pakistan Medical Association, friendly
countries, Turkey, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE, Saudi Arabia and Government of Japan. UN
agencies providing assistance for drought relief included WFP (food ration), FAO
(Livestock feed & vaccines), UNCHR (Ration package) and UNICEF (water cans and
supplement food). Emergency relief assistance to the drought affectees included.

   For distribution of food ration the Union Council (UC) Nazims prepare lists of
    individual beneficiaries within their respective UCs and forward these lists to the
    Tehsil Nazims. The Tehsil Nazims consolidate and forward these lists to the
    commissionerate and the Army’s Log Unit. These lists are sent to the District
    Monitoring Teams of the Army for verification after which the food is released for
    distribution either at the district or tehsil level by the concerned Nazims. In a
    number of remote areas the affectees said that so far they have not received any
    relief assistance from anywhere.
   As a matter of policy Govt. of Balochistan decided to allocate bulk of the Federal
    Government grant of Rs. 915 million to projects identified as part of the medium
    to long term drought mitigation strategies. These have included:

Table 7. Mid/Long Term Projects
     SECTORS                                    PROJECTS
Livestock Sector       Expansion of veterinary facilities
Irrigation Sector         Construction of 11 dams, 250 windmills,
                          uplift of 100 Karezes
PHE Sector                Development of 28 Tubewells
                          50 low cost water supply schemes
Forests Sector            Development of range lands/revival of state forests
Road Sector               Construction of 25 roads in severely drought affected districts
Agriculture Sector        Distribution of 4,000 metric tons of wheat-seed
                          Soft Loan to Agriculture Farmers for Electricity Bills

    Most of these projects are currently in progress.

   In the Sindh province Government’s drought relief operations are planned,
    coordinated and monitored by the Relief Commissionerate. The Steering
    Committee of the Drought Emergency Relief Assistance (DERA) chaired by the
    Additional Chief Secretary (Dev.) provides overall guidelines and plays a
    supervisory role. The drought situation in arid zones of the province is continually
    monitored and areas requiring emergency assistance are periodically notified. As
    of 14 June 2002 the following areas covering Thar, Kohistan and Kaccho regions
    of Sindh have been notified as calamity hit areas:

                                           20
Table 8. Drought Affected Areas in Sindh.
District         Dehs      Villages       Population         Families    Livestock
                                          (million)          Affected    (million)
Tharparkar            159          1895       0.90               138203      3.00
Mirpur Khas            25           316       0.15                 24789     1.00
Sanghar                 2            18       0.04                  7008     0.25
Dadu                   65           453       0.26                 18798     1.15
Thatta                  5           181       0.03                  6000     0.20
      G.Ttotal:       256          2863       1.38               194798      5.60

As part of the relief assistance to drought affectees in these areas Sindh Government
has taken the following steps:
      Remission of land revenues
      Postponement of recovery of past years dues
      Establishment of medical teams for medical aid in affected areas
      Activating veterinary teams to provide health cover to livestock
      Free distribution of 25000 m.t of wheat at 100 kg per family at a cost of Rs. 250
       million using funds provided by the Federal Government out of Zakat Fund and
       by the Sindh Government.
      As part of Government’s policy of permanent relief for drought a number of
       development schemes in the following sectors have been undertaken in the
       drought affected areas out of the Federal Government’s grant of Rs. 1.00 billion.
        Construction of Roads
        Pipeline water supply schemes
        Installation of hand pumps/water tanks
        Electrification of Tharparkar.

Details of these schemes are given in annex 5. These projects, besides upgrading
communication infrastructure and providing social sector services in the hitherto
neglected Thar region, have helped in creating jobs for the people affected by
drought.

6.        ASSESSMENT OF NEEDS
6.1.      Emergency Assistance Needs
6.1.1. Agriculture
     i.   Seeds of drought resistant varieties of cereals (wheat, barley, sorghum and
          millet (Bajra) and pulses (mungbeans)) are needed for planting during kharif
          2003 and rabi 2003-04 subject to occurrence of rains.
    ii.   Farm inputs including Urea and DAP fertilizer is required to optimize crop
          yields.
                                            21
 iii.        In Balochistan, karezes with reduced water discharge need to be urgently
             upgraded in most severely drought affected areas.
 iv.         Lift pumps and windmills need to be installed for provision of water for
             human and livestock drinking and small vegetable production for household
             use.
  v.         In order to salvage the core breeding stock, immediate supplementary feeding
             will be required to tide over the severe winter months or till the palatable
             range biomass regenerates. This will be required in 12 worst drought affected
             districts of Panjgur, Kech, Kharan, Chaghi, Killa Abdullah, Killa Saifullah and
             Awaran in Balochistan and Tharparkar, Mirpur Khas, Sanghar, Dadu and
             Thatta in Sindh.
 vi.         Stock water points, based on exploiting the available groundwater resource
             and/or harvesting of rainwater need to be built at suitable places.
vii.         Mobile veterinary health cover facilities should be urgently provided to cater
             to the needs of stock owners in remote areas. For the initial period provision
             should also be made for operational expenses.
viii.        Where livestock has been decimated, farmers should be helped to restart their
             business, by providing small loans on soft terms.
 ix.         Six million doses of vaccine (enterotoxaemia, pleuropneumonia and anthrax)
             are needed for preventive vaccination.
  x.         Assistance for income generation for vulnerable groups, particularly women,
             is required in the following areas:
              Training in Mazri product making, carpet weaving, embroidery, lamb
                  fattening and poultry farming.
              Soft loan for purchase of inputs
              Facilitation of marketing
              Development of rural/backyard poultry farming

6.1.2. Food Aid
The strategy adopted to assess the present level of food deprivation in different zones
of the two provinces was based on five key factors. These were:
       i)       Livelihoods: There are a variety of livelihoods in Balochistan and Sindh
                which depend on the agro-ecological zones in which the people live and
                conditions like land and/or livestock ownership, access to irrigation, access
                to markets, employment and other earning opportunities. The economic
                status of households can be gauged through their original livelihood or one
                they have now adopted.
       ii)      Ability to cope: The level of distress of communities is also determined
                through the coping methodology they adopt. This can be as simple as
                borrowing or the sale of animals. Or this can be as serious as the sale of
                productive assets, including land.
                                               22
     iii)      Population movements: The Mission paid particular attention to shifts in
               population from different zones. The shifts ranged from the relatively
               common migration for work by male members of the community to the
               more complex shift of men and animals together, or to the distress
               migration of entire families and communities.
     iv)       Nutritional status: The ultimate impact of drought invariably falls on the
               level of nutrition of the affected people. This is particularly so for children.
               Malnutrition is the most common face of food and nutritional deprivation
               and is easy to detect for a trained observer.
     v)        The daily meal: Information on the types of food and the eating habits of
               households was invariably obtained by this Mission when visiting villages.
               This proved to be the most reliable indicator of household food security.

It was estimated in earlier studies that in areas severely hit by drought, people had lost
as much as 70% of their purchasing power , which put their levels of food insecurity
in the critical zone. This level of deprivation however was seen only in small pockets
such as a few villages around Manchar Lake and in the Kacho area and some Dehs in
theThano Bulleh Khan Taluka of Dadu district. There is no doubt however that the
levels of food deprivation are increasing as drought enters its fourth year in the most
affected districts. The ability of villagers to cope is being continuously eroded as the
cost of food rises and the wages of occasional labour fall. The food gap thus created
can only be met through food aid as a supplement to their present diet.

a)          Identification of Beneficiaries

The Mission strongly felt that while it was necessary to meet the urgent need for food
assistance, through free distribution of food aid, it was equally necessary to ensure
that the food reaches those in need, especially women and children. The objectives of
this emergency food assistance are therefore seen as twofold:

            One, to maintain the desired nutritional status of the affected populations of
            Sindh and Balochistan provinces through the ensuing 6-month period upto
            the summer monsoons 2003.

            Two, to target the bulk of this food aid to the two most vulnerable groups namely,
            women and children, for meeting their special health and nutritional needs.

Since the effects of drought have intensified in most of the affected districts, it was
felt that the criteria of identification of beneficiaries suggested by CFSAM 2001 may
need to be reconsidered, for two reasons. The first is that in view of the emaciated
state of the animals, possession of 10 sheep or goats does not provide the family the
economic support required to meet any significant part of their living expenses. The
second is that it is very difficult to determine the number of animals owned by
individual households, especially during the daytime when the animals are away for
                                              23
grazing. Here, the information given by the womenfolk is usually closer to reality, but
it is still not reliable enough for the inclusion or exclusion of beneficiaries. The truth
is that most pastoralists and herders are experiencing severe financial distress and,
except for the few who still own large herds, most qualify to receive food aid.
Similarly, the condition under which all drought affected people, who had access to
migrant labour, were to be excluded from receiving food aid, also needs
reconsideration in the light of present circumstances. Nearly all drought affected
people have lost their former means of livelihood. Migrant labour by young or old
members of the household now remains the single means of family support.
Occasional work does not alleviate but reduces the impact of drought, making it
possible to survive. However, the quality of such life is marginal since the wages have
also declined steeply because of the availability of surplus labour.
In the circumstances, the Mission proposes amending the two criteria for
identification of food aid beneficiaries, as follows:-
               1.      Smallholders in the upland areas of Northern Balochistan with
                       less than half an acre of fruit trees, who have lost more than
                       60% of fruit trees and have no livestock.
               2.      Pastoralists (nomadic and transhumant) who do not own large
                       flocks, who have lost more than 50% of their livestock and
                       now own no more than a few animals.


b)     Estimation of Beneficiaries
Table 9 shows the estimated number of people affected by drought in the 18 districts
of the two provinces. Emergency food aid needs to be provided to the most severely
affected districts and people in each of the two provinces. As shown in Table 9, in the
five most severely affected districts in Balochistan viz: Kharan, Panjgur, Awaran,
Chaghi and Lasbella, the number of people assessed for emergency food assistance
are 1,73,760 (29,000 families). In the two most severely affected districts in Sindh
viz: Tharparkar and Dadu, the total number of people assessed for emergency food
assistance are 98,789 (16,600 families). This Emergency Operation would, therefore,
target about 2,80,000 beneficiaries or 45,500 households in the two provinces, of
whom 1,37,200 are women.




                                           24
        Table 9. Estimate of the Total Number of Persons and Households Affected by Drought
S.No.        Balochistan        Total        Rural        % of     Population of     % of       Targeted     Number of
                              Population   Population   Severely     Affected      People in   Population   Households
          Most Severely                                 Affected      Areas          Need                    (Rounded
         Affected Districts                              Areas                                                  Off)
1.       Kharan                212760       185069       80%         148055         30%         44416         7500
2.       Panjgur               245160       224135       70%         156894         30%         47068         8000
3.       Awaran                123120       120581       65%          78377         30%         23513         4000
4.       Chaghi                219240       180168       50%          90084         30%         27025         4500
5.       Lasbela               338040       211588       50%         105794         30%         31738         5000
             Severely         Sub           921541         -         579204            -        173760        29000
         Affected Districts   Totals
6.       Kech                  442800       369331       65%         240065         20%         48018         8000
7.       Loralai               302400       253026       40%         101210         20%         20242         3500
8.       Killa Abdullah        422280       351281       40%         140512         20%         28102         4500
9.       Pishin                395456       373338       30%         112001         20%         22400         4000
10.      Killa Saifullah       204120       203827       30%          61148         20%         12229         2000
11.      Kacchi                423360       380936       40%         152374         20%         30474         5000
            Moderately        Sub          1931739         -         807310            -        161465        27000
         Affected Districts   Totals
12.      Khuzdar               441720       315188       25%          78797         15%         11819         2000
13.      Sibi                  193320       130772       30%          39231         15%          5884         1000
                Sindh            Sub        445960         -         118028            -        17703         3000
          Most Severely         Totals
         Affected Districts
14.      Tharparker            9,87120      779824       30%         233947         20%         46789         8000
15.      Dadu                  1723040      957420       27%         260000         20%         52000         8600
         Severely             Sub          1737244         -         493947            -        98789         16600
         Affected Districts   Totals
16.      Mirpurkhas            978480       105310       14%         150000         20%         30000         5000
17.      Sanghar               1666440     1033560        4%          40000         20%          8000         1400
18.      Thatta                1202040      940680        3%          30000         20%          6000         1000
                              Sub          2079550         -         220000            -        44000         7400
                              Totals
                              Grand        7116034         -        2218489            -        495717        83000
                              Totals


        c)         Targeting and Distribution of Food Aid

        It is fortunate that the World Food Programme has on-going food distribution
        programmes in both these provinces. Under EMOP 10171.0 a WFP family package
        of food, which includes cooking oil, pulses and a small quantity of wheat flour is
        currently being distributed in Pishin and Chaghi districts of Balochistan as well as in
        Dadu, Thatta and Badin districts of Sindh. The methodology of distribution is
        different in both these provinces. In Balochistan WFP operates through a NGO, the
        UNDP supported Area Development Programme of the Government of Balochistan
        while in Sindh, WFP’s implementing partner would be the provincial government.

                                                        25
Since this operation is still in its preliminary stages in both the provinces, it would be
interesting to see which arrangement proves more effective in food distribution.
However, the main stumbling block in affecting accurate food distributions by
governments has remained the absence of the function of survey and identification of
the beneficiary households, before delivering food aid to them.

This Mission had occasion to observe a government food distribution of wheat in
village Kacholi, Taluka Umerkot, in the province of Sindh. Here the people of the
village had gathered and were being identified as residents by the local Relief
Committee. This was being done on an individual rather than a household basis.
Incidentally, this practice is also being followed in government food distributions in
the province of Balochistan. It was however evident that the number of bags supplied
for distribution at Kacholi were less than the number of people present to receive
them and that many would return empty handed. What seemed more important was
whether those who would not receive the wheat were indeed less deserving than those
who did. The Mission later learnt that this shortage occurred in almost every
distribution that was made. When food supplies are limited, food can only be
distributed equitably if deserving households are identified beforehand and
arrangements made to ensure that the food packages reach them. The experience
gained through the current EMOP would be very helpful in devising a simple,
economical and effective system of food distribution for this emergency.

6.1.3. Vulnerability Survey

The Mission strongly felt that there is an urgent need for undertaking an integrated
sample survey, covering the water, agriculture, livestock, food, health and nutrition
sectors in all drought affected areas. Composite information is required to assess the
life risks to which the most vulnerable segments of the population, namely, women
and children, are exposed and ways in which to counter those risks.

6.2.   Need for Medium to Long-term Support to Mitigate Drought

   Survey of aquifer reserves for detection of potable underground water in hitherto
    un-surveyed areas of Balochistan and Thar Desert in Sindh.
   Construction of small dams for rainwater storage in the Kohistan and Kachho
    areas of Dadu and Thatta.
   Research and development for the use of brackish groundwater for agricultural
    purposes, particularly for growing salt tolerant species for livestock feeding.
   Upgrading infra-structure of livestock marketing to prevent exploitation by middle
    men.
   Provision of small mobile units for desalination of brackish water.

                                           26
   Construction of water tanks and lining of channels to prevent water losses during
    storage and transmission.
   Support for installation of high efficiency irrigation systems like drip and bubbler.
         Provision of hardware
         Field demonstration
         Farmer and staff training

   Support for substitution of low water delta field and horticultural crops in place of
    high water delta crops.

          Provision of seed and plant material
          Field demonstrations
          Training of farmers and extension staff
          Provision of laboratory facilities for olive oil extraction and testing (for
           Balochistan).




                                           27
                                                                           Annexure 1

                             TERMS OF REFERENCE

     FAO/WFP CROP AND FOOD ASSESSMENT MISSION TO PAKISTAN

During the last four years, Pakistan in general and Balochistan and parts of Sindh
Provinces in particular have received below average rainfall, which has progressively
turned into a drought. These persistent drought conditions are now affecting several
other parts of Pakistan. In order to determine the impact of the drought on crop and
food supply, and households and communities, the Food and Agriculture Organization
(FAO) and the World Food Programme (WFP) will conducted a joint mission starting
1 November, 2002 for a duration of one month, focusing primarily on Balochistan and
Sindh Provinces. The mission will consist of two FAO national consultants, an
agronomist, and a livestock specialist; and one WFP consultant with expertise in
assessment of drought impact on household economy. The mission will be jointly
funded by UNDP, FAO and WFP.

Under the overall supervision of the FAO and WFP Country Representative and in
consultation with Government officials, UN and bilateral donor agencies, and NGOs,
the Mission will:

1.     identify the areas severely affected by the drought in Balochistan and Sindh
2.     assess impact of the drought on crop and livestock production
3.     assess the impact of drought on households and communities with special
       attention to the following:

       - population groups that are most affected
       - local coping mechanisms

4.     review the response already carried out at various government levels
5.     identify food and non-food needs of the affected population
       - number of people most affected
       - quantity of food need
       - duration of Assistance

6.     identify priority drought preparedness and mitigation measures
7.     prior to completion brief/debrief dealing Government officials and donor
       representatives on the work and findings of the Mission.

Following the above, the Mission will finalise its findings and prepare a report.
                                                          Annexure-2

               FAO/WFP MISSION FIELD VISITS

S.No.   Date                  District

1.      03-11-2002            Islamabad - Quetta
2.      05-11-2002            Quetta – Mastung
3.      06-11-2002            Loralai – Ziarat - Pishin
4.      07-11-2002            Kalat
5.      08-11-2002            Kharan
6.      13-11-2002            Quetta - Karachi
7.      15-11-2002            Hyderabad
8.      16-11-2002            Tharparkar
9.      17-11-2002            Mirpur Khas
10.     18-11-2002            Dadu
11.     20-11-2002            Thatta
12.     23-11-2002            Karachi - Islamabad
                                                                    Annexure-3

                LIST OF VILLAGES VISITED BY THE MISSION

Balochistan

1.      Rod Mullazai                            Distt. Pishin
2.      Killi Shah Naz                          Distt. Pishin
3.      Killi Shiak                             Distt. Pishin
4.      Hadi Islam                              Distt. Kalat
5.      Zaik (Basima)                           Distt.Kalat
6.      Rahi Nagoor                             Distt. Punjgor
7.      Balgatar                                Distt. Punjgor
8.      Hoshab                                  Distt. Punjgor
9.      Kil Kore                                Distt. Punjgor
10.     Walapat                                 Distt. Lasbella
11.     Kanoji                                  Distt. Khuzdar
12.     Bhag & adjoining five settlements       Distt. Sibi
13.     Killi Ahmedan                           Distt. Sibi
14.     Talli                                   Distt. Sibi
15.     Khajak                                  Distt. Sibi
16.     Killi Haji Khan                         Distt. Ziarat
17.     Killi Tur Gul                           Distt. Ziarat
18.     Killi Ghother                           Distt. Ziarat
19.     Killi Kwas                              Distt. Ziarat
20.     Killi Zindra                            Distt. Ziarat
21.     Killi Haji Ismail & three settlements   Distt. Loralai
22.     Killi Saifullah                         Distt. Lorali
23.     Killi Urak                              Distt. Quetta
24.     Killi Hanna                             Distt. Quetta
25.     Spin Karez & five settlements           Distt. Quetta

Sindh

26.     Garsiar, Mithi                          Distt. Tharparkar
27.     Bar Mithio                              Distt. Tharparkar
28.     Maliyas                                 Distt. Tharparkar
29.     Bhadoor, Diplo                          Distt. Tharparkar
30.     Lundhar, Mithi                          Distt. Tharparkar
31.     Juglar, Mithi                           Distt. Tharparkar
32.     Arniaro, Mithi                          Distt. Tharparkar
33.   Vagidar, Chahro                  Distt. Tharparkar
34.   Dhandoo, Chahro                  Distt. Tharparkar
35.   Rohararo, Chahro                 Distt. Tharparkar
36.   Arbab Hale Poto, Umerkot         Distt. Mirpur Khas
37.   Kacholi, Umerkot                 Distt. Mirpur Khas
38.   Ali Murad Shahani, Johi          Distt. Dadu
39.   Hot Khan Shahani, Johi           Distt. Dadu
40.   Goth Kund Pir Sumar, Johi        Distt. Dadu
41.   Shah Hassan, Johi                Distt. Dadu
42.   Kun Manchar lake, Johi           Distt. Dadu
43.   Rasul Bux Gabol, Johi            Distt. Dadu
44.   Desvi, Thana Buley Khan          Distt. Dadu
45.   Kanjero, Thana Buley Khan        Distt. Dadu
46.   Din Muhammad Lalani, TBK         Distt. Dadu
47.   Salar Aqlani, TBK                Distt. Dadu
48.   Khuda Bux Aqlani, TBK            Distt. Dadu
49.   Pandy Khan Aqlani, TBK           Distt. Dadu
50.   Ali Bux Laliani, TBK             Distt. Dadu
51.   Ghazi Khashkeli, TBK             Distt. Dadu
52.   Arbab Khashkeli, K 7/III         Distt. Thatta
53.   Ghazi Khan Jokhio, J. Shah       Distt. Thatta
54.   Haji Darya Khan, Kohistan 7/IV   Distt. Thatta
55.   Haji Ali Muhammad Jokhio
      Kohistan 7/IV                    Distt. Thatta
                                                             Annexure-4

      LIST OF PERSONS/OFFICIALS MET DURING FIELD VISITS

1.    Mr. Naseer Baloch           Secretary P&D, Govt. of Balochistan
2.    Mr. A. Salam Baloch         Secretary Agriculture & Food,
                                  Govt. of Balochistan
3.    Mr. Anwar Haider            Secretary, Livestock & Forest,
                                  Govt. of Balochistan
4.    Mr. Abdul Salam Khan        Secretary PHE, Govt. of Balochistan
5.    Mr. Muhammad Sharif         Relief Commissioner, Govt. of
                                  Balochistan
6.    Mr. Zahoor Ahmad            Depty Relief Commissioner,
                                  Govt. of Balochistan
7.    Dr. Rashid Javid            Programme Coordinator, Area Dev.
                                  Programme, Balochistan
8.    Dr. Suleman Qureshi         GIS Specialist, ADPB, Quetta
9.    Mr. M. Ali Bhatti           EDO, Deptt. Of Agriculture, Kalat
10.   Mr. Abdul Salam             Agriculture Officer, Deptt. Of
                                  Agriculture, Basima
11.   Mr. Muhammad Amin           EDO, Agriculture, Panjgur
12.   Mr. Abdul Hayee Raisani     EDO, Uthal Coconut Farm
13.   Mr. Munir Ahmad Haleemi     DDO, Agricultural Ext. Govt, of
                                  Balochistan
14.   Arbab Wali Mohammad         Nazim, Bagh
15.   Takri Muhammad Khan         Nazim, UC (Bagh)
16.   Mr. Maqbool Ahmed           DDO Agricultural, Panjgor
17.   Mr. Mohammad Amin Baloch    EDO, Agri. Ext. Turbat
18.   Mr. Abdul Razak Baloch      Asstt. Director Agri. Uthal
19.   Mr. Mohammad Akhtar         DDO, Agricultural Bela
20.   Mr. Gul Hassan Marri        EDO, Agri. Khuzdar
21.   Mr. Yar Muhammad Pandrani   EDO, Agri. Kacchi
22.   Mr. Shahzado Sheikh         ACS (Dev.) Govt. of Sindh
23.   Mr. Manzoor Ahmad Bhutto    Relief Commissioner, Govt. of Sindh
24.   Mr. Ali Nawaz Mallah        Add. Relief Commissioner, Govt. of
                                  Sindh
25.   Mr. Aftab Qureshi           Secretary Agri. Govt. of Sindh
26.   Mr. Hasim Lughari           Secretary, Irrigation, Govt. of Sindh
27.   Mr. A.G. Pirzada            Joint Chief Economist, Govt. of Sindh
28.   Mr. Baz Muhammad Junejo     DG, Livestock, Govt. of Sindh
29.   Dr. Ghulam Hussain Memon    Add. Secretary, Livestock, Govt. of
                                  Sindh
30.   Dr. Qazi Suleman Memon      DG, Agri. Govt. of Sindh
31.   Mr. Siraj-ud-Din Khand      Dy. Director, Livestock, Hyderabad
32.   Mr. Ibrar Mirza             Forestry & Wildlife, Govt. of Sindh
33.   Mr. Agha Zaffarullah        EDO, Mithi, Govt. of Sinch
34.   Dr. Jhaman                  Livestock Department, Mithi
35.   Mr. Mal                     Livestock Department, Mithi
36.   Mr. Khalique Soomro         Agric. Officer, Mithi
37.   Mr. Teekam Das              DDO, Agri., Mithi
38.   Mr. Barkat Ali              Livestock Deptt.
39.   Mr. Nand Lal                Veterinary Officer, Mithi
40.   Mr. Aftab Ahmad Memon       EDO, Mithi
41.   Mr. Riaz Ahmad Massan       DDO, Revenue, Dadu
42.   Mr. Rashid Ahmad            DDO, Agri., Dadu
43.   Dr. Allah Bukhsh            DDO, Livestock, Dadu
44.   Mr. Shakeel Ahmad Hashmi    EDO, Thatta
45.   Mr. Muhammad Mubeen Sahto   EDO, Agri., Thatta
46.   Mr. Ghulam Abbas Kalar      Agri. Officer, Thatta
47.   Dr. Haji Khan Keerio        Director, NSRI, PARC, Thatta
48.   Miss Mah Jabeen             Social Mobilizer, Bahn Belly, NGO,
                                  Sindh
49.   Miss Alia                   Social Mobilizer, Bahn Belly, NGO,
                                  Sindh
50.   Miss Sadia Atta             CDO (NGO), Karachi
                                                                     Annexure-5

      SCHEMES UNDER TAKEN OUT OF CHIEF EXECUTIVE GRANT
                     OF RS. 1000.00 MILLION
                            30-09-2002

                            SCHEME COMPLETED (1)
S.No.                    Name of Scheme                Estimated      Physical
                                                          Cost        Progress
                                                      (In million)
1.      Meghar Akwando Road (30 Kms)                        96.870    Completed
2.      Mangtore Goth Meghar Road (36 Km)                  118.805    Completed
3.      Chachhro Islamkot Road (55 Km)                     153.538    Completed
              PUBLIC HEALTH ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
4.      Naukot-Mithi Pipeline Water Supply Scheme in       199.405    Completed
        Tharparkar (45 Kms)
5.      Water Supply Scheme Fazal Jamli District             8.356    Completed
        Dadu
                          HEADQUARTERS 18 DIVISION
6.      Pipeline Water Supply Extension Scheme               96.00    Completed
7.      Installation of hand pumps/Water Tonkas and          25.00    Completed
        upgradation of Water Supply Schemes (a)
        Umerkot to Bagal (b) Kunri to Chachro
8.      Installation of 230-handpumps/construction of        15.00    Completed
        36 Tonkas upgradation of water supply schemes
        (a) Umerkot to Bagal (b) Kunari to Chachhro
9.      Construction of Mithi Islamkot Road                  25.00    Completed
        (Remaining 11 Kms) through SAZDA.
10.     Mithi – Islamkot (32 Kms) short of 11 Kms            35.00    Completed
11.     Johi Chinni Road (Phase-1) Dadu (14.88 Kms)         23.837    Incomplete
12.     Electrification in Tharparkar                      122.368    Incomplete
13.     Road from FP Bund to Chinni Village Dadu            26.200    Incomplete
                     nd
        (4.8 Kms) 2 Phase
14.     Road From Chinni Village to Tando Rahim             27.600    Incomplete
        (10.86 Kms) Dadu
15.     Electrification Wirwah Qasbo in Thar                30.021    Incomplete
                                                         444.026

				
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