The Industrial Revolution
About ___________of the people of Europe lived in ______________ areas.
New innovations revolutionized ______________________________.
Advances in __________________, ____________________ and __________________________ improved
the quality and length of people’s lives.
_______________________________________ developed the seed drill to make sowing seeds faster and
more efficient than planting them by hand. The seed drill makes a small hole and drops the seed into it. It is
estimated that crop yields rose as much as eight times. Large motor-driven seed drills are used today.
Lord Charles Townshend helped develop the __________________________________________________
system using wheat, barley, turnips and clover.
Four-field crop rotation was a key development in the ___________________________________.
_____________________________ is when land that was traditionally held and used in common is fenced by
This resulted in ___________________, more efficient farms that required __________________ labor.
The population of England rose slowly, by less than _______________________ people, during the 100 years
from 1700 to 1800.
The population then increased sharply from 1801 to 1901, increasing by over ________________________.
Large supplies of ______________ and ____________.
A large number of people willing and able to work.
Many engineers and innovators.
Large amount of __________________from colonies.
A stable government supporting entrepreneurs.
Religious values emphasizing hard work and savings.
The "__________________" was a way for 18th-century businesses to contract workers from their homes; an
example of cottage industry.
Different parts of a product were made in the home, collected, and then assembled at a central
Children would sort the cotton fibers in a process called __________________.
__________________was an economic theory that argued that nations acquire wealth by exporting more
than they import.
Governments passed trade laws encouraging companies to export while limiting imports through
__________________ (import taxes).
The English __________________ were a result of mercantile policies.
The acts allowed only ships of the __________________to trade directly with __________________.
The Navigation Acts caused tension between the __________________and England.
The Navigation Acts fueled the ____________________________________________.
No goods could be shipped to America without passing through a port in England, including tea.
Parliament passed the ___________________________to raise money to keep the British East India Company
The __________________________________________involved all of the major European powers.
In the 1600s, imported __________________________ from India became popular in Europe.
Prior to 1600, __________________________ was the most common textile in Europe.
English wool manufacturers convinced Parliament to pass a law banning __________________________
imported from India.
They used the __________________________ to manufacture cotton cloth.
The __________________________ ______________________stopped all cotton cloth manufacturing in
A __________________________ is a means of converting the __________________________ energy of
flowing water into __________________________ energy to operate machines.
Water wheels were primarily used to power __________________________ for making flour.
During the Industrial Revolution, __________________________ used the water wheel to spin cotton thread.
The __________________________, invented __________________________ in 1733, increased the speed at
which cloth could be woven.
The __________________________ was developed by __________________________ and
__________________________ in 1748. It speeded up the process of brushing raw or washed fibers to
prepare them for spinning, called carding.
In 1764 __________________________ invented the __________________________.
It was hand-operated and could spin eight threads at a time.
__________________________ developed an improved spinning machine called a
In 1771 Arkwright built the world's first ________________________________________________at
Cromford, Derbyshire, England.
In 1779 __________________________ _____invented the __________________________, bringing water
power to large-scale factory production of thread. The spinning mule could spin large numbers of threads at a
The __________________________, invented by __________________________ in 1785, used mechanical
power from water wheels. It was designed so one person could operate many looms.
In 1793, __________________________ invented the __________________________, a mechanical device
used to remove the seeds from cotton fiber.
Prior to the cotton gin, seeds were removed by hand.
Not only did the cotton gin allow faster production of cotton, it was also capable of processing the short fiber
or "__________________________ " cotton, thereby increasing the amount and type of cotton available for
In 1778, __________________________ demonstrated that muskets could be built using
Eli Whitney is often credited with the development of interchangeable parts, which he used for
the muskets that he produced for the U.S. Army in 1798. Whitney was a strong promoter of the
In America, __________________________, the inventor of the M1819 Hall breech-loading rifle, perfected
the production of interchangeable parts, using specialized milling machines to produce his rifles in 1819.
__________________________, a 19th-century British machine tool maker, improved the accuracy of milling
machines used for making interchangeable precision parts. He is considered a founding father of machine tool
__________________________ built the first practical steam engine. It was used for pumping water out of
mines in the first decade of the 18th century.
__________________________ _______was a Scottish engineer who, in 1775, modified the steam engine and
made it practical for industrial use.
Richard Trevithick was a British inventor who built the first _________________________ steam engine in
His invention made steam engines smaller and useful for powering cotton mills and locomotives.
Trevithick also built the first working _____________________________________.
Greg used unpaid __________________________ from workhouses as his labor.
The introduction of _______________________________________________________ production led to
falling cotton thread prices.
From 1786 to 1832 the price of cotton yarn fell _____________.
Hand loom weavers making _______shillings a week in 1786 were only able to make _______shillings and
_____ pence by 1830.
During Medieval times, iron was produced in England using the "__________________________."
Charcoal, made from __________________________, was used to smelt the iron from the ore.
__________________________ were used to provide oxygen to the coal, to produce a temperature of 1500°
The resulting product was the production of _____________"______________."
The need for wood resulted in large-scale __________________________.
Charcoal was made by slowly heating wood to remove the ________________ and leave only the
__________________________ was a Quaker living in Bristol.
Darby had the idea to smelt iron using __________________, a special form of coal.
Darby developed a way to produce high-grade iron using coke in a __________________________.
Coke is a form of coal produced in an __________________________. The volatile fumes, smoke, and tar are
burned away, leaving behind a nearly pure carbon for high-temperature burning.
Coke was used in malting kilns to produce _______________, as it did not leave a smell of sulfur and smoke.
Darby’s innovation allowed for the mass production of iron using coal instead of trees.
___________________ became a key material in the Industrial Revolution.
Iron was used to construct the frames of textile mills and other large buildings to help protect
them from fire.
Iron was also widely used for building machinery, including spinning and weaving machines in the
Iron was used to make rivets, chains, railway couplings, water and steam pipes, boilers for steam
engines, rails for trains and bridges.
__________________________ (1765– 1826) designed and built the first commercial steam locomotive, called
the __________________________, in 1812.
_____________________________________________ (1781–1848) was an English engineer. who built the
first fully locomotive rail line in 1819, to haul coal.
The ________________ (distance between rails) he used became the world-wide standard.
The ____________________________________________________ (L&MR), built by George Stephenson,
opened on September 15, 1830.
It was the world’s first city-to-city passenger railway.
The greatest railway accomplishment of the Industrial Revolution was the __________________________
_________in the United States, connecting the eastern seaboard of the US with California on the Pacific coast.
It was completed on May 10, 1869, at _______________________________________________.
The __________________________________________ was begun in 1891 under Tsar Alexander III.
_______________________________________ (1832–1891) was a German inventor who built the first
__________________________ became partners with Otto in 1872 and went on to found
Daimler built and patented the first __________________________ in 1885.
__________________________, using Otto’s engine, built and patented the first
__________________________ in 1886.
__________________________ (1765–1815) built the first ____________________________________, called
the Clermont, in 1807. It used James Watt’s steam engine.
Fulton also designed the first practical _____________________, the ________________, for
__________________________ were used by the United States Navy to open negotiations with Japan and
other Pacific countries.
The fleet was led by Commodore __________________________.
The impressive paddle fleet allowed Admiral Perry to negotiate a trade agreement, the
__________________________________________________, with the Japanese.
The treaty ended Japan’s __________________________ exclusive agreement with the ___________ and
The __________________________ is a method of manufacturing developed in England during the Industrial
In the factory system, each worker is responsible for a __________________________ of the manufacturing
process, rather than _____________________________.
Workers are paid by ______________________(rather than by the piece).
The machines are located at a _____________________.
Before the factory system, people worked ________________ in the __________________________
Workers were expected to do their jobs __________________________ a day.
Failure to do the job resulted in __________________________, __________________________, and
There were no laws regulating child labor.
Children were __________________________ than adults and made to work in small, dangerous places.
Factory owners preferred to use children because they __________________________ and could be
Boys and girls were hired by colliers to work in small, narrow mine shafts.
They were used as "___________________________" to pull tubs of coal through narrow shafts.
The children pushing the tub were called "_____________________________." They often had bald spots on
their heads from the tub.
They were given candles for light and worked __________________________ a day.
Boys and girls as young as _____________________ would work in teams.
Starting in 1802, Parliament began to pass __________________________ protecting adults and children.
The ____________________________________ made employers responsible for the cleanliness of their
factories, and stated that children were to be given __________________________,
__________________________, and could work no more than __________________________ a day.
The 1819 _____________________________________ made __________ years the legal minimum age of
The __________________________ stated that children ages _____________ could not work more than 12
hours a day, with a __________________________ lunch break.
• Children ages ____________ were not to work more than ____ hours, with a one-hour lunch break.
• Children ages 9-13 were also required to receive __________________________ of education per day.
The __________________________ limited the time children ages 9-13 could work to
__________________________ per day.
The Factory Act of 1850 stated that children and women could only work from
__________________________. in the summer and __________________________ in the winter, ending at 2
p.m. on Saturdays.
The Factory Act of 1874 reduced the workday in the textile industry to __________________________.
The Factory and Workshop Act of 1878 extended the law to all trades. No child anywhere under the age of
10 was to be employed. Education was made compulsory for children up to 10 years old. Children ages 10-
14 could only work half days.
The Factory Act of 1891 raised the minimum age for children’s employment to eleven.
__________________________ disease, also known as coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), is a serious
danger to coal miners.
It is caused by long-term exposure and inhalation of __________________________.
Suffrage: The Right to Vote in the UK and USA
Before 1832, only ____________________________________________ were allowed to vote in England.
Reform Act, 1832 – __________________________ to _________________________ who rented certain types
of land. One in seven men could now vote.
Representation of the __________________________ – Extended the vote to all men over 21, and to
Representation of the People Act, 1928 – All men and women over 21.
Representation of the People Act, 1969 – All men and women over 18.
Voting rights in America were initially determined by the individual states.
Constitutional amendments were later written to make voting fair.
15th Amendment (1870) – _____________________________________________________________
19th Amendment (1920) –______________________________________________________________.
23rd Amendment (1961) – Allows residents of the District of Columbia to vote for president and vice-
24th Amendment (1964) –______________________________________________________________.
26th Amendment (1971) – _______________________________________________________.
The Luddite movement began in 1811 as a __________________________ against the changes that the
factory system brought to England.
New machinery requiring __________________________ labor replaced many of the textile workers
employed in the putting-out system.
The Luddites protested by _________________________________ at textile mills.
Today the term Luddite is used to describe _______________________________________________________
The Rise of Trade Unions
The factory system led to the separation of ___________________from their _______________________.
The earlier __________________________ had encouraged a paternal relationship between apprentices and
Under the factory system, workers had __________________________ and would be fired if they protested or
Workers began to organize into __________________________. These are organizations of workers with
similar types of jobs.
Trade unions organize to obtain __________________________ _______________and fair wages for workers.
Unions and strikes were made illegal in England by the __________________________ and __________.
Trade unions were also illegal under __________________________, which condemned them as
"conspiracies" of workers trying to influence prices and wages.
Trade unions were made fully legal by ___________, and given the same rights as any other civil organization.
Deadly diseases such as ___________________and ____________________were common due to
contaminated water shared at public water supplies.
Cholera is an infectious disease caused by bacteria. It is generally spread through
__________________________. If untreated, death will occur from dehydration due to diarrhea.
Tuberculosis is a common but deadly infectious disease caused by bacteria. It is spread person-to-person from
__________________________. Tuberculosis most commonly infects the lungs. Death occurs due to the
destruction of lung tissue.
Type of Business Advantages Disadvantages
Sole proprietorship Easy to start; one person starts a Liability; owners can lose all their assets.
business and gets the profits or Hard to raise money, cannot sell stock.
Partnership Easy to start; partners invest in the Liability; owners can lose all their assets.
business and share the profits or Hard to raise money, cannot sell stock.
Corporation No personal liability; legal entity Harder to start; members cannot lose
with a separate legal personality their assets. Can raise money by selling
from its members. stock.
The Dutch East India Company
The Dutch East India Company was established in ____________, during the age of mercantilism.
The government of the Netherlands granted it a __________________________ to carry out colonial
activities in Asia.
It is considered to be the first ____________________________________ in the world, and also the first
company to issue stock.
In 1773, to improve the British government’s balance of trade with China, the Company increased its
illegal trade in ____________ from Bengal to China.
China responded with ____________________________________, but was defeated by the British.
England gained the port city of ____________________________________ and stepped up its trade in
By the middle of the 19th century, the Company ruled over _________________ of the world's
_____________________ (Indian soldiers in the Company’s army) revolted against the Company in
the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
The revolt forced England to send regular troops to suppress the rebels.
Because of the revolt, Parliament ____________________________________ the Company in 1858.
The Company continued in the tea trade until it was dissolved on
Industrialists and Magnates
John Marshall (1765–1845) was a British industrialist.
He built a ____________________________________ mill in Yorkshire, England, to make linen from
flax. Previously Yorkshire had produced linen by hand.
Marshall’s employees worked _________ hours a week.
_____________ percent of his workers were women aged _________________________.
__________________ percent of his workers were children ___________________.
Marshall was considered ____________________________________ for his time.
Corporal punishment of workers was not allowed, and children were provided with free education.
One of Germany’s first cartels was in _________________________ production for railroads in the
John Davison Rockefeller
John Davison Rockefeller, Sr. (1839–1937) was an American __________________________ and
Rockefeller founded the ______________________________________________________ in 1870.
Rockefeller became the richest man in the world and the first " _______________________________" in
Standard Oil grew to become the largest ____________________________________ company in
America, effectively controlling all ____________________________________ in the USA.
Rockefeller’s strategy was to ____________________________________ competing refiners, often by
unfairly selling his oil and oil products at prices ____________________________________ production
costs, forcing his competitors out of business.
He also demanded discounts from oil shipping companies who relied on Standard Oil’s large volume.
In the 19th century, interstate commerce was also controlled by state governments. This led
Standard Oil to operate as different companies in many states.
In 1882 Standard Oil developed a new form of partnership called the
____________________________________, to manage the shares of stock of all of Standard Oil’s
Newspapers and politicians attacked the ____________________________________ practices of
In 1899, Rockefeller placed all of Standard Oil under a ____________________________________.
At that time Standard Oil controlled ________ of the production of kerosene in America.
Ida Minerva Tarbell (1857–1944)
An investigative reporter.
Called a ____________________________________, a term used to describe reporters who expose
corruption and other social problems.
____________________________________ were passed in Congress that prohibited single companies
from becoming a ____________________________________, that is, controlling all of the production of
The US Supreme Court convicted Standard Oil of monopolistic practices in 1911 and ordered that it
be divided into _____________________________________________________________.
Today these companies are known as ________________________________________________________
Discoveries and Inventions
Louis Pasteur (1822–1895) was a French ____________________________and
He pioneered the field of ____________________________________.
He created a vaccine for ____________________________________.
He developed the process of "____________________________________ " which prevents milk and
wine from spoiling.
Florence Nightingale and Nursing
Florence Nightingale (1820–1910) is known as the __________________________________________.
She became famous during the ____________________________________, when a Times article
described her as a "ministering angel" in the British war hospital: "she may be observed alone, with a
little lamp in her hand, making her solitary rounds."
Her techniques became the basis of ____________________________________.
Her use of hospital statistics demonstrated the benefits of ____________________________________ in
saving patient’s lives.
The Sewing Machine
They increasing production and ____________________________________ for the manufacturer.
____________________________________ developed the first sewing machine in 1834, but it was
neither patented nor commercially successful. Hunt was also the inventor of many other useful
devices, such as the fountain pen and the safety pin.
____________________________________ is recognized for patenting the first commercially successful
sewing machine in 1845.
Having lost a patent claim to Elias Howe, Singer developed the
"____________________________________," in which competing companies share their patented
Clark developed the idea of ____________________________________, making the sewing machine
affordable for everyone.
Electricity: Volta and Edison
____________________________________ (1847–1931) was an American inventor and businessman.
He invented the ____________________________________ in 1877.
Edison was not the first to invent the ____________________________________ (_________________).
However, in 1879 he designed and patented a light bulb capable of safe and practical use, using a
____________________________________ and near-vacuum tube.
The Telegraph and Communication
____________________________________ independently invented and patented his telegraph in the
United States in 1837.
He and his assistant, Alfred Vail, developed ____________________________________
The first ____________________________________ to deliver telegraphic messages was completed in
1866 between Ireland and Newfoundland, Canada.
Radio and Telephone
____________________________________ (1847–1922) was an American scientist credited with the
invention of the ____________________________________ in 1876.
Bell is also credited with the invention of the ____________________________________ in 1881.
____________________________________ (1874–1937) was an Italian inventor who developed
_______________communication in England in 1897.
Around the same time, ____________________________________ was also transmitting radio
communication in the United States.
Alfred Bernhard Nobel (1833–1896) was a Swedish chemist who invented ________________________.
Nobel became wealthy from his patents on dynamite and other explosives, as well as from the sales
He left his fortune to the establishment of the ____________________________________, including a
____________________________________ to honor individuals for their contributions to
Adam Smith and Laissez-Faire
____________________________________ (1723–1790) was a Scottish philosopher and economist.
His book An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations help to end mercantilist
policies and began the age of ____________________________________.
Smith promoted policies of ____________________________________, in which markets are left to
Market self-regulation is also called ____________________________________, meaning "let do."
____________________________________ (1809–1882) was an English naturalist who developed the
____________________________________ _____________of species, commonly known as evolution.
In 1859 Darwin published ____________________________________, proposing ___________________
as the primary cause of natural diversity.
____________________________________ is the belief that competition between individuals and
groups leads to evolution in human societies.
____________________________________, influenced by the ideas of
____________________________________, was the leading advocate of Social Darwinism.
He coined the phrase "____________________________________," and suggested that people and
nations evolved in accordance with their morality and character.
____________________________________ (1818–1883) was philosopher and political economist.
Marx introduced the world to the ideas of ____________________________________.
He believed that ____________________________________, filled with social turmoil and injustice,
would naturally fail, and would be replaced by a classless society called communism.
In 1848 he and ____________________________________ wrote the
____________________________________, stating, "The history of all hitherto existing society is the
history of class struggles."
The Invention of Photography
____________________________________ (1765–1833), French, was the inventor of
____________________________________. Around 1826 he made the first permanent photographs. He
collaborated with ____________________________________ until his death in 1833.
____________________________________ (1787–1851) was a French chemist who invented the
daguerreotype process of photography. In this process, ____________________________________ is
exposed to light, creating a black and white mirror image.
In 1884, ____________________________________ patented a photographic photo-emulsion coated on
In 1888, he patented an easy-to-use camera using ____________________________________.
He founded ___________________________________________________________________ in 1892.