Chapter 11: The Nation Grows and Prospers, 1790–1825
Section 1: The Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution—a long, slow process, begun in Britain, that completely changed
the way goods were produced
– Gradually machines replaced hand tools.
– New sources of power such as steam replaced human and animal power.
– The economy began a gradual shift toward manufacturing.
New technology transformed the textile industry. For example, the spinning jenny, which
could spin several threads at once, replaced the spinning wheel, which spun one thread at
a time. A water-powered loom that could weave cloth faster replaced older, hand-
How did the Industrial Revolution depend largely on the development of the factory
– Instead of working alone in their homes, many workers went to work
where the machinery was—in large mills near rivers. This new system of
work is called the factory system.
What was the first thing factory owners needed to finance their businesses?
– Large amounts of capital, or money, were needed to set up and operate
large mills. Capitalists—people who invest in a business in order to make
a profit—supplied the money.
What did the first successful factory of the Industrial Revolution make?
How the Industrial Revolution Came to the United States:
The First American Mill
• Samuel Slater, a skilled mechanic in a British textile mill, heard that Americans
were offering rewards for British factory plans.
• Slater memorized the design of machines in the mill. Then he boarded a ship
bound for New York City.
• In Pawtucket, Rhode Island, he built the first successful textile mill in the United
States powered by water.
• Skilled workers made goods by hand. Each item was slightly different than every
• Eli Whitney had the idea of having machines manufacture each part. All parts
would be alike, or interchangeable. Interchangeable parts would save time and
money. Whitney demonstrated his idea with muskets, but the idea of
interchangeable parts also applied to clocks and many other goods.
Why was Lowell, Massachusetts called a model factory town?
Lowell, Massachusetts: A Model Factory Town
• In Britain, one factory spun thread and another wove it into cloth. Francis Cabot
Lowell had the idea of combining spinning and weaving under one roof.
• After Lowell’s death, his partners built an entire factory town, with streets of
small, neat, white houses.
• The company hired young women from nearby farms. They came to be called the
Lowell girls. The company built boardinghouses for them and made rules to
What was daily life like in a factory in the early 1800s?
Daily Life during the Industrial Revolution
Child Labor - Boys and girls as young as seven worked in factories. Often, their wages
were needed to help support their family.
Long Hours - Working hours were typically long—12 hours a day, 6 days a week year
Changes in home life - Now, many family members left the home to earn a living. In
poorer families, women often had to go out to work, but in middle-class families, women
usually stayed home.
Section 2: Americans Moves Westward
How Early Settlers Traveled
Great Wagon Road - across Pennsylvania
Wilderness Road - opened by Daniel Boone; through the Cumberland Gap into Kentucky
Flatboats down the Ohio River - into Indiana, Kentucky, and Illinois
Southern trails - westward from Georgia and South Carolina to Alabama, Mississippi,
Northern trails - from New England, New York, and Pennsylvania into the Northwest
What is one way in which Americans improved their roads in the early 1800s?
Improving American Roads
Turnpikes - Private companies built gravel and stone roads.
How did private companies finance turnpikes?
The companies collected tolls from travelers. At points along the road, a pike, or pole,
blocked the road. After the wagon driver paid a toll, the pike keeper turned the pole aside.
The best road in the United States was the Lancaster Turnpike, linking Philadelphia and
Corduroy roads - Roads made of logs. Looked like corduroy cloth. It made for a very
noisy and bumpy ride.
The National Road - Ran from Cumberland, Maryland, to Wheeling, in western Virginia.
The first time Congress approved funds for a national road-building project.
What allowed farmers to ship goods more quickly and cheaply?
Steamboats Improved Transportation
Development of the Steamboat
• John Fitch showed how a steam engine could power a boat. He opened a ferry
service on the Delaware River, but few people used it, and he went out of
• Robert Fulton launched his own steamboat, the Clermont, on the Hudson River. It
carried passengers from New York City to Albany in record time.
• Soon, steamboats were carrying passengers up and down the Atlantic coast.
Steamboats carried passengers and goods on the Mississippi, Ohio, and Missouri
• Henry Shreve designed a flat-bottomed steamboat for shallow western rivers.
What was a result of the development of canals in the early 1800s?
Canals Improved Transportation
The Erie Canal
• Some New Yorkers had the idea of building a canal linking the Great Lakes with
the Mohawk and Hudson rivers. The Erie Canal would let western farmers ship
their goods to New York.
• New York governor DeWitt Clinton persuaded the state legislature to put up
money for the Erie Canal.
• Work began in 1817 and was finished in 1825. The cost of shipping goods
dropped to about one tenth of what it had been and helped make New York City a
• The success of the Erie Canal led other states to build canals, too.
Section 3: Unity and Division
The Era of Good Feelings
• A Republican; defeated the Federalist candidate for President in the election of
• A popular, easygoing President, he hoped to create a new sense of national unity.
One newspaper wrote that the United States was entering an “era of good
• When he ran for a second term, no candidate opposed him.
What effect did sectionalism have on the Era of Good Feelings?
Rise of Sectional Interests- Leading Voices for Different Sections of the Country:
John C. Calhoun—the South
• Supported the War of 1812
• Defended slavery
• Opposed strengthening the power of the federal government
Daniel Webster—the North
• Opposed the War of 1812 and refused to vote for taxes to pay for the war.
• Wanted the federal government to take a larger role in building the nation’s
• Thought that slavery was evil
Henry Clay—the West
• A War Hawk who promoted the War of 1812
• Favored a more active role for the central government in promoting the country’s
How did Congress protected American manufacturers after the War of 1812?
Congress Helps American Businesses
The charter of the first Bank of the United States ran out. Individual states issued money.
They put too much money in circulation. Prices rose.
Congress chartered a second Bank of the United States.
What it did:
The bank lent money and regulated the nation’s money supply.
How did Congress help American industry after the War of 1812?
After the War of 1812, American businesses faced British competition. Because the
British had a head start in industrializing, they could make and sell goods more cheaply
than Americans could.
The Tariff of 1816
A protective tariff—the Tariff of 1816
What it did:
The Tariff of 1816 greatly raised tariffs on imports. This made imported goods
more expensive than American-made goods.
What was an unintended result of Henry Clay’s American System?
Henry Clay’s American System
• Sectionalism—loyalty to one’s state or section rather than to the nation as a
whole. Clashes over the tariff were an example of sectionalism.
Henry Clay’s plan
• With his American System, Henry Clay wanted to promote economic growth for
• High tariffs on imports would help northern factories. Northerners could then buy
farm products from the West and the South.
• Use the money from tariffs for internal improvements—roads, bridges, and
canals. Improved transportation would help western and southern farmers ship
goods to market.
• Southerners already had many rivers so they opposed paying for roads and canals.
Why did Henry Clay’s American System fail?
The Supreme Court ruled that the American System was unconstitutional.
How would you interpret the Supreme Court decision in McCullough v. Maryland?
The Supreme Court under John Marshall Strengthens the Power of the Federal
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819):
Maryland tried to tax the Bank of the United States. The Bank cashier refused to pay. The
Court ruled that states had no right to interfere with federal institutions within their
How would you interpret the meaning of the Supreme Court decision in Gibbons v. Ogden?
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824):
A New York law tried to control steamboat travel between New York and New Jersey.
The Court ruled that a state could regulate trade only within its borders, but only the
federal government had the power to regulate interstate commerce, or trade between
Section 4: New Nations in the Americas
How did Spanish colonies generally win independence?
Latin American Nations Win Independence
Mexico –Father Miguel Hidalgo and Father José Morelos led peasent movements for
independence from Spain. Both were captured and executed by the Spanish.
Creoles—people born in Latin America to Spanish parents—began to join the
revolutionary movement. In 1821, revolutionary forces won control of Mexico.
Why was Simón Bolívar known as “The Liberator”?
Republic of Great Colombia—made up of present-day Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador,
and Panama - In 1819, Simón Bolívar led an army from Venezuela into Colombia and
defeated Spanish forces there. He became president of the Republic of Great Colombia.
Argentina - José de San Martín led Argentina to freedom in 1816, then helped Chile,
Peru, and Ecuador win independence.
United Provinces of Central America—made up of present-day Nicaragua, Costa Rica, El
Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala - In 1821, peoples of Central America declared
independence from Spain. Two years later, they formed the United Provinces.
Brazil - Brazilian revolutionaries demanded independence. Prince Pedro, son of the
Portuguese king, supported them. He became emperor of the independent Brazil.
How did the United States gain Florida from Spain?
The United States Gains Florida
Many Americans wanted Florida.
• Southerners worried about the Creek and Seminole Indians of Florida raiding
• Many enslaved African Americans escaped to Florida. About 1,000 African
Americans lived in settlement on the Apalachicola River known as Negro Fort.
• In 1818 Andrew Jackson led American troops into Florida. Spain protested but
was busy with revolutions in Latin America.
What agreement resulted in the United States taking possession of Florida?
• In the Adams-Onís Treaty, Spain agreed to give Florida to the United States for
What led to the creation of the Monroe Doctrine?
The Monroe Doctrine
• In 1815, Prussia, France, Russia, and Austria formed an alliance aimed at
crushing any revolution in Europe. They seemed ready to help Spain take back its
colonies in Latin America.
• Russia claimed lands on the Pacific coast of North America.
• The British feared their trade would be hurt if Spain regained control of its former
colonies. Thus, Britain suggested the United States and Britain issue a joint
statement guaranteeing the freedom of the new nations.
Why did President Monroe announced the Monroe Doctrine?
Monroe’s Foreign Policy
• President Monroe acted independently of Britain. He issued a foreign policy
statement known as the Monroe Doctrine.
• The United States would not interfere in the affairs of European nations or their
• At the same time, European nations should not try to regain control of the newly
independent nations of Latin America.
• The United States would oppose any attempt to build new colonies in the
• Several Presidents have called on the Monroe Doctrine to challenge European
intervention, or direct involvement, in Latin America.