Education Policy

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History then Policy
Soc 240
   1600-1700's         1800's                1900's                Current
   Religious                                  Racial/Class           Issues
                        More formal,
    Instruction          Less under local       Equality Efforts      Religion and
   1700's State         control               Gvt-University-        Schools
    Constitutions       Socialize              Private               Inequalities
    Established          Children               Partnerships          School
    Sparse Schools      Land-Grant &          School Quality         Quality
   1787 Northwest       State College          Debate
    Ordinance            System
    Early Schools and
    Protestant founders of the early
     Colonies stressed the importance of all
     persons being able to read the bible.
    Early schools were established                                                            

     primarily to teach religion                                                                         The whole motto
    Church-State Partnerships were                                                                      translated into English
     common +                                                                                            read: “Truth . . . for
    This official motto, adopted by the university in 1692, was
     consistent with Harvard’s original vision for its educational                                       Christ and the church.”
     purpose. Among the “Rules and Precepts” of 1646 was the                                                           

    Let every Student be plainly instructed, and earnestly pressed to
     consider well, the maine end of his life and studies is, to know
     God and Jesus Christ which is eternal life (John 17:3) and
     therefore to lay Christ in the bottome, as the only foundation of all
     sound knowledge and Learning. And seeing the Lord only giveth
     wisedome, Let every one seriously set himself by prayer in secret
     to seeke it of him (Prov. 2:3).
                                                                                                                                                          (Source: Rahm 2004)
1787 Northwest Ordinance
   Federal Government Required that one
    section of land in each township be set
    aside for the support of education. +
                                    Made Education a Part of
                                    Westward Expansion

                                    - It also prohibited slavery in the
                                    expansion area setting a power
                                    balance dynamic up of the north
                                    vs south that would erupt in the

          (Source: Rahm 2004)
                                                                  (Source: Rahm 2004)

Immigrant Assimilation
   Schools: Seen as providing the necessary tools for personal
    achievement. Leveling Playing Fields
                               Socialization Messages in
Also Created a Unified          Primary Schools, 2001
American Citizenry
 spoke the same
 read the same
 knew the same
 honored the same
 respected the same
    Functionalist View
Compulsory Education Does 2
Transmitting Culture
   --transmits the dominant culture,
   exposing young people to the
   existing beliefs, norms, and values
   of their culture.
   Promoting Social and Political
   --Education transforms a diverse
   population into a society whose

   members share a common identity. +
                                                     Source: Schaefer 2004   Functionalist View
Land-Grant And State College System
       Morrill Acts (1862, 1890)
           federal lands given to each state for establishment of colleges
           Mission: teach agriculture and the mechanic arts
             emphasis on pragmatics, (not classics as taught at private
   1887 Hatch Act- funding
    based on # of farmers in state
       1914 Smith-Lever Act-
        Cooperative Extension Service
        - disseminate research to
        agricultural stations
       Also make higher education
        more widely available
                        (Source: Rahm 2004)
Post Standard Tuesday July 8, 2003 A-8

From Burtless 2006. Income supports for Workers. in Holzer and Nightengale
2006. Reshaping the American Workforce in a Changing Economy. P.239-271
                                                  Morrill’s Mission of Research,
                                                   Teaching, and Extension
                                                   (Service/fiduciary responsibility)
                                                  Farm population Dropped
                                                  Private Sector Shift from Farming to
                                                  R&D for military, international
                                                   industry competitiveness
                                                   (Commercialization of Research)
                                                  Fiduciary--> Financial incentive

                                                                              (Source: Rahm 2004)
   Who Is An ERISA Fiduciary?
   A fiduciary is an party who holds assets and
    can make decisions for another party with
    regards to financial matters. The fiduciary role
    is an extremely important one for any
    retirement plan and is well defined under
    ERISA .

Race and Class Inequality
   1896 Plessy v. Fergueson
       (separate but equal trains ~ schools is OK)
   1954 Brown v Board of Ed.
                                                                   Educational separation in the
       (separate but equal is unequal)                            US prior to Brown

   1971 Busing
   1960’s Affirmative Action,
       1978 Univ. Calif v. Bakke
       2003 Univ Michigan

                                                                                                 (Source: Rahm 2004)
Conflict Perspective
   Schools as a Contested Site
•Education as an instrument of elite
•Schools seen as reinforcing
existing social class inequality.
•Convincing subordinate
groups of their inferiority.+

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Source: Schaefer 2004
    Religion and Schools                                                                                                                ree-sp eech-14 -religio us-edu cation-in-public-schoo ls/

   1947 Everson v. Board of Ed (could use tax $ to
    bus to Parochial Schools)
   1962 Engle v. Vitale (non-denominational prayer
    violates separation of church & state)

   2002 Zelman v.
    (Vouchers to Parochial
    Schools constitutional)
   Creationism v

                                                                                                                                             (Source: Rahm 2004)
   Le Moyne has the Roper database through

   The library has a Feb & March trial version of
    the Gallup Brain: the Gallup Poll's online
   The direct URL is
School Quality Debate
   Baker Article
       US HS since inception in early 1900’s both
        a blessing a bane.

       How do you personally think of US high
       Continue from here….

                                              (Source: Rahm 2004)
  Baker                                                                             /wp-co ntent/up loads/2 008/03/burma-refuge e_childr en.jpg&imgrefurl=http://theblogprof. blogsp /scorch ed-earth-strate gy -in-pontiac-
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• Blessing (1900’s-50): •                                                     Bane (post 1950s):
• Exemplary World         •                                                   Broken Institution in
  Model                                                                       Need of Reform
   • Rational
                                                                              • Social Decline
   • Bureaucratic                                                             • Persistent Poverty
   • Robust
 Is this your experience?
   • Progressive and
                                                                              • Racial Disparities
                                                                              • Educational Failure in
     modern                                                                     urban communities
• Met demands of          •                                                   Looks Weak in Int’l
  industrial-urban society                                                    Comparison
performance in
comparison to other
nations and
domestically, as
measured by
standardized tests.
Where an “Average” School gets its

    Local funds raised via property taxes --> inequalities.

    Many localities unable to fund solutions.

    Suggests need for national involvement in policy
     response.                                                 (Source: Rahm 2004)
                         As a Result
       Shift from end of 1970’s great
      opposition to Federal involvement in K-12                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  

                                                                                 Reagan attempted to eliminate the Federal
                                                                                  Department of Education and return control to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Bush re-invigorated Federal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             involvement (though he didn’t
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             necessarily provide funding for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             his mandates)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         (Source: Rahm 2004)
Quality of Schools I
   Bush: No Child Left Behind Act 2002

     promised stronger federal

    government role in k-12 (increased funding)
     mandates yearly testing in grades 3-8
     provides mechanism for students to transfer out of
      failing schools
     recruitment of more math, science, and special ed
      teachers (via forgiving loans for 5-year teaching
      commitment to poor schools)
     (Drastic Shift from Reagan)
                                                                                                                                                                      (Source: Rahm 2004)
Ideas in Quality of Schools Debate
1.   Pay increases for teachers
2.   National Qualifications and
     Testing for Teachers
3.   Testing Student        School test Trouble
                             Digital Video Clip
4.   Charter Schools
5.   Mechanisms to allow
     parents to move children
                                       Voucher Video Clip – a
     out of failing schools              direct implication for
     (vouchers) – see reading              Catholic schools

                                                                  (Source: Rahm 2004)
Film clip, vouchers and schools.

 1.   How do Vouchers work?

 2.   How might they impact Catholic Schools?
      According to video, what would happen to their

 3.   What do you see as pros and cons of
      vouchers? To political cartoon…
    Supreme Court and vouchers

    Quality of Schools II
   School Choice
   Pro:
       current inequality and
       economically disadvantaged
   Con:
       collapse of free universal
        public school system,
        especially if vouchers used
        for private schools…
        and state?                     (Source: Rahm 2004)
   From here on not on exam.

   On to video of suburban creation and service
Politically Correct Cartoons

   http://www.conse
   Left off here 10-7-04
                                                                The Gallup Poll 1971                                                 Return
   Following cartoon (introduces all the main
    players for today) as well as Helps us review
    Jansson’s 6 aspects of policy strategy for the
    exam. (Question 13)

   What can you identify? All 7 are here though
    some less visible (i.e. in the background).
Jansson’s 6 Aspects of Policy Strategy

     1. Constitutions
     2. Public policies
     3. Budget and spending programs
     4. Court decisions
     5. Stated or implied objectives
     6. Rules, Procedures, and Regulations
     7. (Evaluation)?
Jansson’s 6 Aspects of Policy Strategy
     1. Constitutions
         education is not a federal constitutional right,
          though many state constitutions guarantee it.
     2. Public policies
         states and localities hold primary responsibility
          for Elementary and Secondary ed policies.
         run by School Districts, separate gvt units
             14,000 in the US
         some Federal Involvement
             1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act, Title
              1--Federal aid to low income/SES schools
Jansson’s 6 Aspects of Policy Strategy

     3. Budget and spending programs
         not a large expense for the federal government
         the single largest area of expenditures for the
             (~1/3+ of state expenditure goes to elementary and
              higher ed)
(Source: Rahm 2004)
Where would you place Federal Contributions?

                                               (Source: Rahm 2004)
Jansson’s 6 Aspects of Policy Strategy
     4. Court decisions
         Cleveland Schools, Supreme Court Case (big man)
         Public $ for Private Religious Schools

     5. Stated or implied objectives
         campaign issues Winerip etc.
         No Child Left Behind “School Choice”

     6. Rules, Procedures, and Regulations
         the specifics of how districts can and cannot run schools. At the
          center of the cartoon.

     7. (Evaluation)?
         Baker and Winerip readings
    Supreme Court and vouchers

   Winerip on Vouchers?

   The Evaluation Component.

   The Importance of Following Scientific
    Method. Replication of research.

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