Everything�s An Argument by HC120831233826


An Argument

Despite the graphic on the
previous slide, argument is
not just a contest of
opposing forces or a
contentious quarrel.

A better way to think of
argument is that a process
of reasoned inquiry or
rational discourse seeking
mutual ground.

We engage in argument
whenever we think clearly
about our world.
   3 Types of Argument

       Arguments of Fact

State that something is or is not the case.
  These arguments include claims of
  definition and claims of cause.
 Examples:
   AP students do better in college.
   Computers enhance learning in the classroom.
   The media is responsible for short attention
   Mercury in the food chain causes cancer.
      Arguments of Value

State that something is or is not desirable.
  They involve evaluations of quality or
  worth according to some accepted criteria.
 Examples:
   Ernest Hemingway’s novel Farewell to Arms is of
    significant literary merit.
   Preemptive war is or is not a justifiable practice.
   Bill Clinton was or was not a good president.
          Arguments of Policy

State that something should or should not be
  done. These types of arguments make
  recommendations for practice or
     Examples:
     The minimum wage should be increased.
     Stem cell research should be funded.
     The designated hitter should be eliminated from
    An Effective Argument

 Engages the audience.
 Encourages the reader to consider the
  positions as reasonable and valuable.
 Voice is reasoned, trustworthy, honorable.
 Uses classic appeals to logos, pathos,
      A Reasonable Voice

 Sees not two sides to an issue but
  multiple perspectives.
 Anticipates objections to its position.
 Recognizes and respects complexity.
 Presents the argument as the
  conclusion to a logical process.
   A Qualified Argument

 The most
effective arguments are
          qualified ones.
     The Toulmin Model

 Stephen Toulmin, (1922-2009) British
  philosopher, scientist, ethicist.
 The Uses of Argument, 1958
 He created a model for understanding
  rhetoric and argument.
  Some Terms of Argument

 A claim is an assertion. It’s “the conclusion
  you reach after testing the evidence that
  supports your belief.” — Kathleen Bell in
  Developing Arguments.
 The support consists of the data used as
  evidence, reasons, or grounds for the claim.
 The warrant expresses the underlying
  assumption that links the data and the claim.
         The Toulmin Model

(2) Given data                  (1) Therefore claim
                                follows (5) qualifiedly

            (3) Since warrant       (6) Unless

            (4) Because (backing)
    Data – Claim - Because

 In reading research you learn that ....
 So you can claim that … _____________
 Then ask: What are some warrants that
  support the claim? ______________
 What are less obvious warrants — ones of
  value, belief, ideology? _________________
   Data – Claim - Because

 How will audience react? Do I need more
 What is the strength of my claim?
 Who will disagree? Why? Why is my
  claim stronger? ___________________

 Claim: [Conclusion of argument] Where
  are we going?

 Grounds: [Facts, data] What do we have
  to go on?

 Warrant: [Authorizes how to move from
  the grounds to the claim] Is this trip
  legit? What road will get us there?

 Backing: [If the move from grounds to claim
  isn’t obvious] Why is this road safer?

 Qualifier: [Strength of step from data to
  warrant] How certain are we at arriving at
  our destination?

 Rebuttal: [When is move from data to claim
  NOT legit?] When should we decide not to
  take the trip?

Grimes, William. Stephen Toulmin, A Philosopher and
  Educator, Dies at 87. New York Times. December 22,

Scanlon, Lawrence. Writing Persuasively. 2006-2007 AP
  English Language and Composition Workshop
  Materials. The College Board, 2006.

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