CRITICAL THINKING by kj70nVM0

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									CRITICAL THINKING
OBJECTIVES

   1. Discuss critical thinking and problem
    solving.
   2. Describe importance of critical
    thinking for nurses.
PRETEST

   1. Define the word critical.
   2. Identify one way in which nurses use
    critical thinking in their practice.
   3. How many problem-solving methods
    exist?
   4. What is at least 1 characteristic of
    critical thinking?
   5. Define decision making.
Con’t

   4. Rational & reflective, involves
    healthy, constructive skepticism, is
    autonomous, includes creative thinking,
    is fair thinking, focuses on what to
    believe & do.
   5. The process of establishing criteria
    by which alternative courses of action
    are developed & selected.
ANSWERS

   1. Requiring careful judgement.
   2. To problem solve & make decisions, to
    make reliable observations, draw sound
    conclusions, create new information & ideas,
    evaluate lines of reasoning & improve their
    self-knowledge.
   3. Five.
   .
WHY IS CRITICAL THINKING
IMPORTANT?
   1.Critical thinking is the key to resolving
    problems.
   2. Nurses must make complex
    decisions, adapt to new situations &
    continuously update their knowledge &
    skills. Critical thinking is integral to all of
    these
   3. Critical thinking will be essential to
    pass the NCLEX.
(Con’t)

   4. National League for Nursing (NLN)
    accredited programs must include
    content designed to develop critical
    thinking skills.
WHAT IS CRITICAL
THINKING?
   Critical thinking is the rational
    examination of ideas, inferences,
    assumptions, principles, arguments,
    conclusions, issues, statements, beliefs
    & actions.
WHAT IS CRITICAL
THINKING IN NURSING?
   Purposeful, goal-directed thinking
    aiming to make judgments based on
    evidence rather than conjecture. It is
    based on principles of science & the
    scientific method & develops strategies
    that maximize human potential &
    compensates for problems caused by
    human nature
WHAT WOULD BE A
SYNONYM FOR CRITICAL
THINKING?
   Reasoning which is a highly
    individualized, complex activity that
    involves distinct ideas, emotions &
    perceptions.
WHAT ARE THE (2)TYPES OF
REASONING?
   Inductive reasoning= generalizations
    are formed from a set of facts or
    observations.
   Deductive reasoning= reasoning from
    the general to the specific.
WHAT DOES CRITICAL
MEAN?
   Critical means requiring careful
    judgment.
   Thinking means to have an opinion, to
    reflect on or ponder, to call to mind or
    remember to devise a plan, to form a
    mental picture of (image), to reason
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN THINKING &
CRITICAL THINKING?
                   CONTROL
   Critical thinking is controlled, purposeful
    & more likely to lead to obvious
    beneficial results
   Thinking is basically any mental
    activity;can be aimless & uncontrolled; it
    may serve a purpose, but we often
    aren’t aware of its benefits;we might not
    even remember our thoughts at all
WHAT ARE THE
CHARACTERISTICS OF
CRITICAL THINKING?
   1. It is rational & reflective.
   2. It involves healthy, constructive
    skepticism.
   3. It is autonomous.
   4. It includes creative thinking.
   5. It is fair thinking.
   6. It focuses on what to believe & do.
WHAT ARE ATTITUDES OF
CRITICAL THINKERS?
   They are:
   1. Active thinkers.
   2. Knowledgeable of their biases &
    limitations.
   3. Fair-minded.
   4. Willing to exert a conscious effort to
    work in a planful manner.
(Con’t)

   5. Good communicators.
   6. Empathetic.
   7. Open-minded.
   8. Independent thinkers.
   9. Curious & insightful.
   10. Humble.
   11. Proactive.
(Con’t)

   12. Honest with themselves & others,
    admitting when their thinking may be
    flawed or requires more thought.
   13. Organized & systematic in their
    approach.
   14. Flexible.
   15. Cognizant of rules of logic
   16. Realistic
(Con’t)

   17. Team players.
   18. Creative & committed to
    excellence.
DOES CRITICAL THINKING
INVOLVE CRITICAL
ANALYSIS?
   YES! Critical analysis is a set of
    questions one can apply to a particular
    situation or idea to determine essential
    information & ideas & discard
    superfluous information & ideas. Apply
    questions only prn.
ARE CRITICAL THINKING &
PROBLEM SOLVING THE
SAME?
   NO! They are sometimes used
    interchangeably but are separate
    processes that are related in some
    situations. Not all decisions we make
    involve solving a problem; creativity is a
    form of critical thinking itself.
WHAT IS PROBLEM
SOLVING?
   Process used when        Nurse obtains info.
    a gap is perceived        that clarifies nature
    between an existing       of the problem &
    state (what is            suggests possible
    occurring)& a             solutions, evaluates
    desired state of          the slns. & chooses
    what should be            best,implement;situa
    occurring.                tion is carefully
                              monitored
(Con’t)

   To ensure initial & continued
    effectiveness
   The nurse does not discard the other
    slns. But holds them in reserve in the
    event that the first sln. is not effective.
WHAT ARE THE 5 MOST
COMMON APPROACHES TO
PROBLEM SOLVING?
   1.   Trial and Error
   2.   Intuition
   3.   Nursing Process
   4.   Scientific method/Research process
   5.   Modified Scientific Method
WHAT IS INTUITION?

   Intuition can be viewed as a form of
    guessing & therefore inappropriate
    basis for nursing decisions
   In clinical judgment it is acquired
    through knowledge and experience with
    similar types of situations
   It is not valid for novices or students due
    to their lack of knowledge & clinical
    expertise
WHAT IS THE NURSING
PROCESS?
   It is the systematic method of
    assessing, diagnosing (nsg), planning,
    implementing & evaluating nursing care
   It is the method used by nurses to solve
    clients’ problems
WHAT IS THE SCIENTIFIC
METHOD?
   Formalized, logical, systematic
    approach to solving problems
   Classic scientific method is most useful
    when the researcher is working in a
    controlled situation
WHAT ARE THE STEPS (10)of
the Scientific Method?
   1. State a research question or problem
   2. Define purpose of or rationale for
    study
   3. Review the related literature
   4. Formulate hypotheses & define
    variables
   5. Select plan or method to test
    hypothesis
(Con’t)

   6. Select population, sample & setting
   7. Conduct a pilot study
   8. Collect the data
   9. Analyze the data
   10.Communicate conclusions &
    implications
WHAT ARE THE
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN
CONTROLLED SETTING vs
CLINICAL PROBLEM
SETTING?
DIFFERENCES

   1. The nurse’s time frame is often
    shorter than the researcher’s
   2. The nurse’s environment makes
    complete scientific control impossible
   3. The nurse deals with multiple,
    complex problems
WHAT IS THE MODIFIED
SCIENTIFIC METHOD?
   A scientific method that is changed or
    adjusted to solve health problems
   This method is used in nursing and
    medicine
WHAT ARE THE STEPS OF
THE MODIFIED SCIENTIFIC
METHOD?
   1.   Define the problem
   2.   Gather the information
   3.   Analyze the information
   4.   Develop solutions
   5.   Make a decision
   6.   Implement the decision
   7.   Evaluate the solution
WHAT IS DECISION
MAKING?
   It is the process of establishing criteria
    by which alternative courses of action
    are developed and selected
WHAT ARE THE 3
CONDITIONS IN DECISION
MAKING?
   1. Freedom
   2. Rationality
   3. Voluntarity
WHAT IS CLINICAL
DECISION MAKING
COMPOSED OF?
   1.   Cue
   2.   Hypothesis
   3.   Knowledge base
   4.   Nursing intervention
   5.   Search
   6.   Assumption
WHAT IS THE 7-STEP
DECISION MAKING
PROCESS?
   1.   Identify the purpose
   2.   Set the criteria
   3.   Weight the criteria
   4.   Seek alternatives
   5.   Test alternatives
   6.   Troubleshoot
   7.   Evaluate the action
WHAT IS CREATIVITY?

   It is original thinking
   It is a major component of critical
    thinking
   It is thinking that results in the
    development of new ideas & products
   Creativity in decision making is the
    ability to develop & implement new &
    better solutions
WHAT ARE THE 4 STAGES
OF THE CREATIVE
PROCESS?
   1.   Preparation
   2.   Incubation
   3.   Insight
   4.   Verification
WHAT ARE
CHARACTERISTICS OF
CREATIVE THINKERS?
   1. Able to generate ideas rapidly
   2. Flexible and spontaneous
   3. Able to provide original solutions to
    problems
   4. Preferring complex thought
    processes
   5. Independent & self-confident
   6. Exhibiting distinct individualism
WHAT IS BRAINSTORMING?

   It is a creative thinking technique used
    by groups for eliciting ideas, decisions,
    or solutions to problems
DOES NURSING
NECESSARILY REQUIRE USE
OF ALL POSSIBILE CRITICAL
THINKING SKILLS?

NO!
HOW DO NURSING PROCESS
& CT INTERFACE?
   Nurses use a variety of critical thinking
    skills to carry out the nursing process

								
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