Mind and Brain by Vus6Owj


									Mind and Brain
Presented by: Sarah C. Bradshaw
 Contributing Sciences
• “The fields of neuroscience and cognitive
  science are helping to satisfy this
  fundamental curiosity about how people
  think and learn.”
• is the study of all aspects of nerves and the
  nervous system, in health and in disease. It
  includes the anatomy, physiology, chemistry,
  pharmacology, and pathology of nerve cells;
• the behavioral and psychological features that
  depend on the function of the nervous system;
• and the clinical disciplines that deal with them,
  such as neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry.

   Neuroscientist Questions
• “ How does the brain develop?
• Are there stages of brain development?
• Are there critical periods when certain
  things must happen for the brain to develop
• How is the information encoded in the
  developing and the adult nervous systems?
• How does experience affect the brain?”
             Cognitive Science
• Cognitive science is the study of the mind.
• It is an interdisciplinary science that draws upon
  many fields including neuroscience, psychology,
  philosophy, computer science, artificial
  intelligence, and linguistics.
• The purpose of cognitive science is to develop
  models that help explain human cognition --
  perception, thinking, and learning.

• “…one must be careful to avoid adopting
  faddish concepts that have not been
  demonstrated to be of value in classroom
  – “…concept that the left and right hemispheres
    of the brain should be taught separately to
    maximize the effectiveness of learning.”
• Also, “ the notion that the brain grows in
  holistic “spurts” within or around which
  specific educational objectives should be
  – “…there is significant evidence that brain
    regions develop asynchronously.”
    Three Main Points
• “1) Learning changes the physical structure
  of the brain.
• 2) These structural changes alter the
  functional organization of the brain; in other
  words, learning organizes and reorganizes
  the brain.
• 3) Different parts of the brain may be ready
  to learn at different times.”
           Some Basics
• “ A nerve cell, or neuron, is a cell that
  receives information from other nerve cells
  or from the sensory organs
• then projects it back to the part of the body
  that interacts with the environment.”
         Some Basics
• “Information comes into the cell from
  projections called axons.”
• “The junctions through which information
  passes from one neuron to another are
  called synapses.”
• “Synaptic connections are added to the
  brain in two basic ways:
  – The synapses are overproduced, then
    selectively lost
  – Synapses addition
  Synapses Overproduction
• “…a fundamental mechanism that the brain
  uses to incorporate information from
       Synapse Addition
• “….the process of synapse addition operates
  throughout the entire human life span…”
• “…this process is not only sensitive to
  experience, it is actually driven by
Experiences and Environment for
      Brain Development
• “Alterations in the brain that occur during
  learning seem to make the nerve cells more
  efficient or powerful.”
  – Studies conducted on “complex-environment”
    and caged animals show:
     • That the “complex-environment” animals were
       smarter because they had an “increased capacity in
       the brain that depended on experience.”
Experiences and Environment for
      Brain Development
• Also, rats that are caged, but provided with
  a changing environment that encouraged
  “play and exploration” were better problem
• “…the interactive presence of a social
  group and direct physical contact with the
  environment are important factors…”
    • Can the Brain Change
       Without Learning?
•   Page 119
  Role of Instruction in Brain
• Language and Brain Development
  – “Language provides a particularly striking
    example of how instructional processes may
    contribute to organizing brain functions.”
• “Very young children discriminate many
  more phonemic boundaries, than adults, but
  they lose their discriminatory powers when
  certain boundaries are not supported by
  experience with spoken language.”
• “ Native Japanese speakers, for example, do
  not discriminate the “r” from the “l” sounds
  that are evident to English speakers, and
  this ability is lost in early childhood because
  it is not in the speech they hear.”

• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fcb8nT0
 Memory and Brain Processes
• “Memory is neither a single entity nor a
  phenomenon that occurs in a single area of
  the brain.”
      Memory Process
• Declarative memory
  – “... memory for facts and events…”
• Procedural or nondeclarative
  – “…memory for skills and other cognitive
• The book states that “when a series of
  events are presented in a random sequence,
  people reorder them into sequences that
  make sense when they try to recall them.”
• I am going to give you a list of words
• Then, I am going to ask you a question
  about the list
• (this was a study discussed in the book)
• “Sour, candy, sugar, bitter, good,
  taste, tooth, knife, honey, photo,
  chocolate, heart, cake, tart, pie”
• Was the word sweet in the
• Ever discussed a shared event with a friend
  and one of you remembers something and
  the other argues that it never happened?
  – This is due to the brain “using inferencing
    processes to relate events.”
• Page 125
• “… classes of words, pictures, and other
  categories of information that involve
  complex cognitive processing on a repeated
  basis activate the brain.”
• “ Memory processes treat both true and
  false memory events similarly and, activate
  the same brain regions, regardless of the
  validity of what is being remembered.”
• “1) The functional organization of the brain
  and the mind depends on and benefits
  positively from experience.”
• 2) Development is not merely a biologically
  driven unfolding process, but also an active
  process that derives essential information
  from experience.”
• 3) Research has shown that some experiences
  have the most powerful effects during specific
  sensitive periods, while others can affect the brain
  over a much longer time span
• 4) An important issue that needs to be determined
  in relation to education is which things are tied to
  critical periods and for which things is the time
  exposure less critical.”

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