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					The Kalama Sutra: Trusting in one’s own
experience is appealing to the venturesome
consciousness…some want to make up their
own minds….
PRINCIPAL BUDDHIST SCHOOLS OF
THOUGHT
           Theravada
              Theravada: Thera - an
               "elder" (someone there
               from the beginning with
               the Buddha); vada -
               "doctrine,” literally the
               "speaking” of the Elders
               there with the Buddha
              Location: south and
               southeast Asia
PRINCIPAL BUDDHIST SCHOOLS OF
THOUGHT
   Mahayana
     Maha- "Great,” cognate or related to " magna" and yana-
      "vehicle"
THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF BUDDHIST
SCHOOLS
    THE FIRST BUDDHIST COUNCIL 499/8 BCE
                                         Elder Mahakassapa heard Subhadda say:
   Five hundred arhants                 "Enough your Reverences, do not grieve,
    participated.                        do not lament. We are well rid of this great
    Elder Mahakassapa called this        recluse (the Buddha). We were tormented
    meeting was his hearing a            when he said, 'this is allowable to you, this
    disparaging remark about the
                                         is not allowable to you' but now we will be
    strict rule of life for monks.
                                         able to do as we like and we will not have
   The doctrines and rules were
                                         to do what we do not like."
    memorized and then passed
    down for some centuries
   New schools emerged: some
    held only two baskets: vinaya
    and sutta, but others added a
    third, the abhidharma.
       This was a fateful event – the
        beginnings of Buddhist
        philosophy per se.
THE FIRST BUDDHIST COUNCIL CONT.

   At the first council, Ananda
    recited the each of the
    nikayas in the sutra pitaka.
   Four of these “bodies” or
    nikayas were recognized:
    the Long, medium
    connected and numerical
    nikayas.
   One, the shorter body is
    found only in the pali.
EARLY BUDDHIST LITERATURE:
VIMANA-VATTHU
 Watch Aly Konkol’s
  past documentary
  on this topic here
 Imagine! Buddha
  and others on flying
  mansions or as
  some (odd ones
  assert) flying
  saucers!)
WHAT IS MEANT BY THESE TERMS?

                    They refer to the length of
                     the discourse of the
                     Buddha on particular
                     subjects.



                    The sutras are the
                     principal basis upon which
                     the Buddha’s formal
                     teachings may be known.
                                       Venerable Upali (formerly Jain) spoke with

     THE VINAYA
                                       Buddha on particulars of the monastic rule.
                                       This monk was well qualified for the task
                                       as the Buddha had taught him the whole of
                                       the Vinaya himself (or Buddha borrowed
   The Vinaya, of course, forms the   from Jain tradition!).
    rules for monastic discipline.
   In keeping with the Buddha’s
    own democratic ideals, he
    stated that minor rules could be
    broken.
      Disputes broke out
        concerning which elements
        of the discipline are minor
        and which major.
      So all were kept in the
        formulation of the formal
        monastic code the Buddha
        set out for monks.
THE VINAYA CONT.
   The Theravadin Vinaya: more
    strict in maintaining “precisely
    what the Buddha taught.”
   Two sections of vinaya:
      skandhaka – miscellaneous
       details, information on
       government of the order.
      The sutravibhanga contains
       the pratimoksa – “towards
       liberation” vow
    THE SUTRAVIBHANGA
   This is the fundamental principle
    vows taken by a monk and which
    propel a monk more rapidly to the
    cutting off of desire and attainment
    of awakening.
   The sutra vibhanga encourages
    monks to be mindful of all their
    actions and to analyze them.
       The code is meant to enable thus as
        well, samatha and vipasyana the
        calming and analytical elements of
        meditational practice.
   The distinctions among the Vinaya
    practices are relatively minor for all
    sects. Example: Tibetan meat-eating
    and Zen sake drinking.
THE ABHIDHARMA
 This is he distilled essence of the Basket of
  discourses.
 This dates back to approximately the 3rd
  century BCE.
 One hundred years after the Buddha’s
  awakening, splits in the monastic community
  occurred.
 The Therigatha nun poems.
THE SECTIONS OF THE ABHIDHARMA
   The Kathavatthu (Debates) section
    sets out a number of philosophical
    issues over which Buddhist sects
    disagreed.
   The vibhanga (Analysis) discusses
    the skandhas, pratitya samutpada
    and so forth.
   Also found are many lists; concerning
    types of causation, experience,
    karma notions of time, and
    worldview. Aly Konkol’s Kathavatthu
    may be viewed here
     THE LISTS OF ABHIDHARMA

 Many lists that were meant to categorize all
  conceivable relations and experiential
  possibilities.
 The terms were considered a phenomenon
  in the cosmos.
     Each term was seen to have its own identity,
     intrinsic existence svabhava .
THE SEVEN BOOKS OF THE
ABHIDHARMAPITAKA
 1. Dhammasangini – “The Enumeration of Phenomena”
       States of “Consciousness"
            Wholesome, unwholesome and indeterminate.
            21 types of consciousness
       "On Forms"
       "The Summary"
       "Synopsis"
 2. Vibhanga - "Book of Analysis"
       18 chapters dealing with aggregates, sense bases, elements, truths
        faculties, dependent arising, foundations of mindfulness, supreme
        efforts, means to accomplishment factors of enlightenment, the
        eightfold path, and meditative states.
       Includes the "Heart of the doctrine" - a psycho-cosmic topography of
        the Buddhist universe.
  THE SEVEN BOOKS OF THE
  ABHIDHARMAPITAKA CONT.

3. Dhatukatha - the "Discourse on Elements"
      All phenomena understood with reference to three categories of the
       aggregates, sense bases and elements.
4. Puggalapannatti - "Concepts of Individuals"
      Definitions of different types of individuals.
5. Kathavatthu - "Points of Controversy"
      Polemical treatise ascribed to the son of Emperor Asoka.
6. Yamaka - "Book of Pairs"
      Definitions and precise usage of technical terms.
7. Patthana - "The Book of Conditional Relations"
      most important of all works - also known as "The Great Treatise" is 2500
       pages in length.
      Applies 24 conditional relations to all phenomena.
    DEVELOPMENT OF THE EARLY SCHOOLS.
    We mentioned the Buddha’s unwillingness
    to answer Malunkyaputta’s questions,
    abstract questions about whether the
    universe has a beginning or an end.


   For example: In the Majjhima
    nikaya – the middle length
    teachings - the Buddha
    criticizes those wishing to
    make a system out of his
    thought. His job was, again,
    that of a doctor: he tells
    beings how to pull the arrow
    out without stating the nature
    of the arrow.
THERIGATHA: HYMNS OF THE EARLIEST
BUDDHIST BHIKSUNIS (NUNS)

   To watch Ms.
    Schroeder’s past
    documentary on this
    topic, click here
DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY SCHOOLS
                                               Watch the student
                                               documentary on
                                               the Disputes Texts
                                               – Kathavatthu



   The meeting with more advanced and
    sophisticated philosophical traditions of Vedic
    culture may have propelled these early Buddhists
    to formulate answers to specific philosophical
    questions.
       How does one become reborn, for example, if there is no
        self?
   The Abhidharma answers this kind of question.
     EARLY SCHOOLS


   How does one deal with inconsistencies in the Sutras
    or discourses of the Buddha?
   The analogy of a doctor may describe ways in which
    one patient is prescribed one type of practice to calm
    his or her mind and another, may be given a doctrine
    that enables discernment of the real analytically.
   This gives rise to the pivotal Buddhist notional of the
    conventional and ultimate levels of truth.
      Conventionally, the Buddha may have stated
       something that goes against what he said in other
       arenas to address different topics.
THE PROHIBITION AGAINST SCHISM.



   While splits and schism occurred, these monks
    tended often to live together relatively peaceably in
    the same monasteries.
   There are reports however of physical violence a the
    Buddhist monastic university at Nalanda.
      According to Fa Xian, at some point he witnessed
       "Hinayana" monks beating Madhyamaka monks for
       their nihilism.
      This group went too far in its anatman doctrine.
               CONTROVERSIES THAT AROSE.
   Can a monk use salt? Can a monk use gold?
   The Monks of the east of India are thought to have been
    more liberal in this period.
   These, in conflict with their more conservative Western
    brother and sisters, broke off to form a major splinter
    group – the Mahasamghikas.
   The difference is not unlike controversies one finds in
    other religious traditions.
       Examples: For Jews, turning on a light switch – is it lighting a
        fire on Sabbath or not?
       For Christians, if organ playing is not prohibited in the New
        Testament, then are they permissible or not?
THE SIX PERFECTIONS (PARAMITA)

1.   generosity (dana)
2.   morality (sila)
3.   patience (ksanti)
4.   diligence (viryam)
5.   concentration (dhyana)
6.   wisdom (jnana)
12 AYATANAS

   Ayatanas - sense fields,
    realms or spheres =
    senses/sense objects
       The eye/The visible
       The ear/The audible
       The nose/odors
       The tongue/tastes
       The body/The tactile-
        “touchable”
       The Mind/Mental Objects
DHATUS AND DHARMAS
   18 Dhatus-"element" or "place" for existence
   There are 18 dhatu-s "places" for, existence.
       6 senses (Skt. indriya) = Five senses + mental picture
       6 consciousnesses (vijnana) = Five organs + brain
   Dhamma-s / Dharma-s- The "building blocks" of the
    caused world
       Conditioned/Caused-For example, the 5 aggregates
       Unconditioned/Uncaused-For example, nirvana and
        space
THE COUNCILS
1. The First Council (after Buddha’s death)
      First Recitation by Ananda, et. al., of the tripitaka - The Three Baskets.
2. The Second Council (ca. One hundred years after the second council)
      Signaled split of Mahasamghikas - "The Great Samgha Guys" from
       Sthaviravada, "The Old Guys."
3. The Third Council (ca. 250 BCE)
      Convened by Buddhist Emperor Asoka,
       signaled the Sarvastivada/Vibhajyavada split.
       Buddhist          Western                                          Major Events                                                World Figures and Events




                                                                                                                         • Persian Empire founded by Cyrus the Great (550
                                         • Life of Siddhartha Guatama, the historical Buddha: conventional dates: 566-   B.C.E.)
- 120*            6th Century B.C.E. *   486 B.C.E. (According to more recent research, revised dates are: 490-410       • Confucius (551-479)
                                         BCE).                                                                           • Zarathustra (630-553)
                                                                                                                         • Birth of Mahavira (550)




                                                                                                                          • Socrates (469-399)
                                         • First Buddhist Council at Rajagaha (486) after the Parinirvana*, under the
                                                                                                                          • Plato (427-347)
                                         patronage of King Ajatasattu.
- 20              5th Century                                                                                             • Battle of Marathon (490)
                                         • The Buddhist Canon as it exist today was settled at this Council and preserved
                                                                                                                          • Greek-Persian Wars (490-479)
                                         as an oral tradition.
                                                                                                                          • Partheon Built (438)




                                         • Second Buddhist Council at Vesali (386)about 100 year after the Parinirvana.
                                                                                                                        • Aristotle (384-322)
                                         • First schism of the Sangha occurs in which the Mahasanghika school parts
144               4th Century                                                                                           • Alexander the Great (356-323)
                                         ways with the Sthaviravadins and the Theravadins.
                                                                                                                        invaded India (327)
                                         • Non-canonical Buddhist Council at Pataliputra (367)
THE MANY SCHOOLS OF BUDDHISM
   Sravakayana Schools (a.k.a. Hinayana) Schools v. Mahayana Schools.
   The Sravakayana Schools are split into 3 divisions

1. Vibhajjavada
        Theravada (a.k.a. Sthaviravada)
        Mahishasaka
        Dharmaguptaka, and so on..

2. Sarvastivada
        Sautrantika

3. Pudgalavada
        Vatsiputriya

   The fourth division is under the Mahayana Schools

4. Mahasamghikas
        Madhyamaka
        Yogacara
VIBHAJJAVĀDA SCHOOL: LET’S THINK ABOUT THAT
BUDDHISM IS ABOUT REASON, WISDOM MORE
THAN MEDITATION, THOUGH BOTH ARE REQUIRED
    is an umbrella classification
    for Buddhist denominations
    that promote analysis as a
    primary tool for developing
    'insight' (Sanskrit: prajñā). This
    doctrine holds that the first step
    to insight is to be achieved by
    the aspirant's experience,
    critical investigation and
    reasoning; instead of by blind
    faith.
   Past, Present and Future are
    distinct – subject to analysis or
    breakdown by moments.
    SARVASTIVADA SCHOOL –
    “ALL EXISTS”
Kosha: 25c-d. “He who
 affirms the existence of the
 dharmas of the three time
 periods [past, present and
 future] is held to be a
 Sarvastivadin”
 the most influential school in
 the northwestern part of
 India. I first century BC, in
 Gandhara (click for more art).
    THE FORMATION OF THE MAHASAMGHIKAS
    AND THE OPPOSING SCHOOLS.

   The Mahasamghika seemed to have come to embody the
    liberal attitude expressed in the Buddha’s advice to the
    Kalamas:
       Trust your own experience, not just my words alone.
   This gives rise to at least 18 minor schools all grouped as
    Hinayana, Sravakayana among which only the Theravada
    remains today.
       This was perhaps the most conservative of the 18
        schools – Rahula.
   All these emerge in opposition to the Mahasamghika.
   Here we have a significant development in the history of
    Buddhism.
    THE BUDDHIST WORLDVIEW

   Common terminology
    and concepts emerge
    from the bubbling
    broth of Buddhism –
    with an agreement
    again that the
    experienced world is
    the locus of reality.
THE FURTHER DIVISION
OF THE MAHAYANA :


  The Middle Way and
  Yoga-praxis Schools
THE PERFECTION OF WISDOM
EXCERPTS FROM THE HEART SUTRA
AVALOKITA, THE HOLY LORD AND BODHISATTVA, WAS MOVING IN THE DEEP COURSE OF
THE WISDOM WHICH HAS GONE BEYOND.
HE LOOKED DOWN FROM ON HIGH, HE BEHELD BUT FIVE HEAPS, AND HE SAW THAT IN
THEIR OWN-BEING THEY WERE EMPTY.
FORM IS EMPTINESS AND THE VERY EMPTINESS IS FORM ;
EMPTINESS DOES NOT DIFFER FROM FORM, FORM DOES NOT DIFFER FROM EMPTINESS,
WHATEVER IS EMPTINESS, THAT IS FORM,
ALL DHARMAS ARE MARKED WITH EMPTINESS ;
THEY ARE NOT PRODUCED OR STOPPED, NOT DEFILED OR IMMACULATE, NOT DEFICIENT OR
COMPLETE.
NO EYE, EAR, NOSE, TONGUE, BODY, MIND ; NO FORMS, SOUNDS, SMELLS, TASTES,
TOUCHABLES OR OBJECTS OF MIND ; NO SIGHT-ORGAN ELEMENT, AND SO FORTH, UNTIL WE
COME TO :
NO MIND-CONSCIOUSNESS ELEMENT ; THERE IS NO IGNORANCE, NO EXTINCTION OF
IGNORANCE, AND SO FORTH, UNTIL WE COME TO : THERE IS NO DECAY AND DEATH, NO
EXTINCTION OF DECAY AND DEATH. THERE IS NO SUFFERING, NO ORIGINATION, NO
STOPPING, NO PATH.
THERE IS NO COGNITION, NO ATTAINMENT AND NO NON-ATTAINMENT.

OM GATE GATE PARAGATE PARASAMGATE BODHI SVAHA
THE MAHAYANA THREE CYCLES OF
DOCTRINE

1.  Theravada: the Elder’s
                                     The doctrine of no
    Doctrine a.k.a. he               individual self. Read: 5
    Hinayana – the “Inferior         skandhas
    Vehicle” in Mahayana
    conception.
Two Mahayana Schools:            The doctrine of no self for
                                     external phenomena, no
1.  The Madhyamaka – the             self-existence for
    “Middle Way School.”             subject/object or
                                     consciousness.
2.   The Yogacara/Cittamatra
     – the “Yoga-praxis”/Mind-   The doctrine of the ultimate
     only school                     nature of consciousness .
  THE TWO TRUTHS
  IN MADHYAMAKA
  1.   Samvrti (Concealing or
       masking truth )
The world of linguistic or verbal
     expression
  2.   Paramartha (Ultimate
       Truth )
The inconceivable truth known by       Spiderman: unmasked
    Buddhas and Aryan bodhisattvas
    in meditative equipoise
Watch Paul Kacynski’s documentary on
    the great Nagarjuna, here
THE THREE NATURES IN YOGACARA
TRADITION
 1.   Parikalpitasvabhava
The “conceptualized nature”
    of reality
 2.   paratantrasvabhava
The “interwoven with other
    nature” of reality
 3.   parinispannasvabhava
The “completed” or
    “perfected nature” –
    known by a Buddha or
    Aryan bodhisattva in      Cale Bakken explains this
    meditative equipoise      nicely in his documentary here
     THE EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES OF
     YOGACARA “YOGA-PRAXIS”
1- 5. The Five Sense
    consciousnesses

6.    The Mental
   consciousness
   Manovijnana
7.    The Ego
   consciousness - Manas
8.    The Repository or
   Basal foundation
      consciousness -
   Alayavijnana

				
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