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Coordinating a Response to Tomato Bacterial Disease Outbreaks in

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Coordinating a Response to Tomato Bacterial Disease Outbreaks in Powered By Docstoc
					Coordinating a Response to Tomato Bacterial
       Disease Outbreaks in Ontario

                   Janice LeBoeuf
              Vegetable Crop Specialist
       Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food
                       The Ontario Tomato Industry
                                          20,000



                                          15,000



                                  Acres   10,000



                                           5,000



        300,000                                0
        250,000
                                                        IN   MI         OH      Other states    ON
        200,000
Acres




        150,000

        100,000                                                   Processing tomatoes
         50,000
                                                                         Area harvested
                                                                    3-year average: 2002-2004
             0
                  CA    IN   MI           OH   Other    ON
                                               states
The Ontario Tomato Industry
        45000

        40000

        35000

        30000

        25000
Acres




        20000

        15000

        10000

        5000

           0
                FL CA OH VA GA PA TN NJ SC NC NY MI ON


                                     Fresh market tomatoes
                                              Area harvested
                                         3-year average: 2001-2003
   Issue: Bacterial Disease Outbreaks
• Bacterial spot and speck - primarily
• Bacterial canker - scattered, but severe in
  2000 after storms left standing water
              Impacts to Industry
• light spotting of the foliage vs. almost complete
  defoliation of the plant
• sunscald, poor colour development, rots due to early
  senescence of the foliage and lesions on the fruit
• fruit lesions reduce the quality of both fresh market
  and processing fruit (especially serious in whole pack
  or diced product) and interfere with peeling
• higher sorting costs on farm and in factory
• increased tare penalties and possibility of not
  meeting contracted tonnage
• lower solids, increased costs, slower factory
  operations, reduced peeled recovery for processors
• processors also risk falling short of packing goals
• Outbreaks usually associated with heavy
  rain, high wind storm events
• Sometimes impacts widespread, sometimes
  localized (2000 vs. 2003)
                           Ontario Processing Tomato Average Yields

            45.0




                                                                                                .6
                                                                                             39
                                                .0




                                                                                        .4
                                                                                .2
            40.0




                                             37




                                                                                     36
                                                                             36
                                        .3




                                                        .0
                                     33




                                                                        .6
            35.0
                                .2
                      .0




                                                     32




                                                                     31
                             31
                   31




                                                                .4
                                                             28
            30.0
  Tons/ac




            25.0
            20.0
            15.0
            10.0
             5.0
             0.0
                   1995      1996    1997    1998    1999    2000    2001    2002    2003    2004

                                                         Tons/ac
 Bacterial disease is a problem we struggle
      with in tomatoes year after year.

"Insanity: doing the same thing over and over
     again and expecting different results.”
                - Albert Einstein

      So, what can we do differently?
          What were we doing?
• Seed treatment - chlorine or acid - most processors - most
  seed lots - always done right??
• Two to four year crop rotation
• Spray copper in greenhouse or in field when symptoms
  appear
• Some growers using preventative sprays of copper - but
  often just a few applications at long intervals
• Adding Bravo with copper as a sticker
• Speck resistant cultivars
• Minimize leaf wetness in greenhouse transplant production
• Increase in drip irrigation
• Good drainage
• Burying residue
• Research, extension efforts
             The Tour:
             Bacteria-palooza 2003
• Arranged an informal bacterial disease tour
  with researchers, extension, processor
  agricultural staff, crop consultants, Ontario
  Processing Vegetable Growers directors
• Why did the outbreak occur?
• How could we have prevented it?
• How can we prevent future outbreaks?
• What are the critical gaps in our
  knowledge?
  Follow-up Meeting:
• On the tour, the group requested that I arrange a meeting
  after tomato harvest to discuss the issue further
• At the meeting: researchers, extension, processor
  agricultural staff, crop consultants, tomato breeders,
  Ontario Tomato Seedling Growers’ Marketing Board rep,
  Ontario Processing Vegetable Growers reps, Pest
  Diagnostic Clinic (U of G), agribusiness
• Dr. Diane Cuppels reviewed what we know about the
  biology of the bacterial spot pathogen
• Dr. Ron Pitblado discussed management strategies for
  tomato bacterial diseases
• Then discussion...
What do we need to know to manage
 these diseases more effectively?
• Does the Group D bacterial spot overwinter in Ontario?
• Is bacterial canker an issue, or mainly spot and speck?
• Is the spot population in Ontario developing resistance to
  copper? Is it likely to?
• Are bacteria being introduced on peppers, fresh market
  cultivars, small lots of specialized processing cultivars
  being grown in the same transplant greenhouses?
• How can we minimize spread while handling and wetting-
  up the transplants?
• Can “properly” treated seed still harbour bacteria?
• How can we be sure that purchased seed lots have been
  treated?
What do we need to know to manage
 these diseases more effectively?
• What is the threshold of infected seed required to cause an
  outbreak?
• Is copper effective? Are we using it correctly? How is it
  best used?
• Where did the inoculum come from? Infected seed?
  Infected crop residue? Contaminated greenhouse or field
  equipment? Weed hosts?
• How is it being spread? Infected transplants planted in the
  field? Wind driven rain and mists? Processor staff, crop
  scouts, critters moving through fields? Equipment?
• How far can it spread on wind driven rain?
• Do stressful growing conditions increase disease infection,
  spread?
What do we need to know to manage
 these diseases more effectively?
• Can we test for infected seed, non-symptomatic infected
  transplants reliably and economically?
• How many seeds or transplants do we need to test to get
  meaningful results?
• Is group D more virulent, more destructive?
• Is there a lab in Ontario that will do PCR diagnosis on
  these diseases? Can we test seeds, seedlings, plants?
• What are they doing in other tomato-growing areas?



                    ???
       Action Plan
• Use what we know to try to manage
  bacterial disease more effectively
• Agree on priorities for research to answer
  some of our questions
• Focus on three aspects of production: seed,
  transplant greenhouse, field
Seed
           OTSGMB
• Recommend transplant growers test
  questionable seed lots for the presence of
  acid or chlorine residue
  • discuss at OTSGMB annual meeting
  • communicate to transplant growers through
    OTSGMB newsletter
  • identify lab(s) that can perform this service to
    OTSGMB members
           Processors
• Recommend processors test seed lots for
  bacterial disease
  • individual processors will test
  • one processor rep will ensure protocols in place
    with lab(s) and let other processors know the
    procedure
  • processors will share information
Transplant Production
 Transplant Production
     - OTSGMB
• Recommend fixed copper bactericide
  starting 2 1/2 weeks after seeding, then at 5-
  day intervals
  • apply to wet the foliage but not to excessive
    runoff
  • if possible, last application should be 1 day
    prior to shipping
      Transplant Production
- Researchers/OPVG/OFPA/OTRI
 • Research project to develop a transplant
   screening protocol
        Transplant Production
         - OMAF Extension
• Educate field growers about the importance
  of the greenhouse copper program,
  discussing it with their transplant suppliers
Field Production
      Field Production
    - OMAF Extension
• Recommend field growers apply a copper
  bactericide within 7 days after transplanting
  • apply at least 3 applications at 7-day intervals
• Educate growers, industry
• When disease appears, make observations,
  share information
       Field Production -
Researchers/OPVG/OFPA/OTRI
   • Research field copper applications to
     determine effectiveness (yield, quality,
     bacterial populations), end point
   • Research on overwintering of the bacterial
     spot Group D pathogen
   • Continue screening alternatives for bacterial
     disease control, including SAR products,
     growth regulators, conventional chemistries,
     biological controls, improving seed
     treatments
            Other Activities
• Meeting programs include lots of bacterial
  disease information
• Discussion groups held with research,
  extension, processor staff, crop consultants,
  agribusiness, chemical company reps
• Newsletter articles and updates about
  bacterial disease management
• Tomato bacterial disease factsheet should
  be out this spring - in-depth look at current
  knowledge in biology and management
            Other Activities
• Ridgetown College/OMAF staff visited
  many transplant producers in the spring of
  2004 to test the concentration of copper in
  their spray solution and the amount of
  copper being deposited on the leaves
• Also checked leaves in field for copper
  residue
• Feedback given immediately so grower
  could correct any problems
            Other Activities
• Convincing chemical companies to fund
  research to screen products for bacterial
  activity
What has changed? What have we learned?
   • All transplant growers trying to follow the
     new recommendations - not perfect, but
     improved
   • Many field growers following the “early
     and often” copper recommendations - BIG
     CHANGE!
   • More growers mixing mancozeb with early
     copper sprays to get boost in activity
What has changed? What have we learned?
   • OPVG/OFPA/OTRI increased funding to
     “Ecological/Epidemiological Studies of the
     Highly Virulant Group C and D Forms of
     the Bacterial Spot Pathogen” (Cuppels,
     Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada) and
     “Pest Management Studies in Processing
     Tomatoes” (Pitblado, Ridgetown College)
   • Research has shown that X. c. pv. v. Group
     B, C, and D strains overwinter under
     Ontario conditions (Cuppels, AAFC)
What has changed? What have we learned?
   • Progress towards a procedure for detecting
     and quantifying bacterial spot populations
     on transplant seedlings in the greenhouse
     (Cuppels, AAFC)
   • Groups A, B, C, and D strains continue to
     be studied: presence and persistence on plug
     plants, greenhouse equipment, etc.; survival
     on weeds; aggressiveness on tomato,
     pepper; susceptibility to Kocide + Bravo;
     ability to cause lesions on fruit (Cuppels,
     AAFC)
What has changed? What have we learned?
   • A number of potential bacterial disease
     control products tested, including various
     copper formulations (and range of spray
     solution pH), Agriphage, Chitosan Plus,
     ionized water, Tanos, combinations of
     Actigard, Bonzi, Sumagic, Apogee,
     Ammonium sulphate, Heads-up, Tilt
     (Pitblado, Ridgetown College)
What has changed? What have we learned?
   • Pest Diagnostic Lab (University of Guelph)
     began to work closely with Dr. Cuppels to
     implement a commercial PCR diagnostic
     service for tomato bacterial diseases. Lab
     has been testing procedure on seeds,
     transplants, field plants. Protocol is
     evolving as the lab learns the PCR process
     and as Dr. Cuppels lab develops improved
     procedures.
                                              Results
                            Ontario Processing Tomato Average Yields

             45.0




                                                                                                 .6
                                                                                              39
                                                 .0




                                                                                         .4
                                                                                 .2
             40.0




                                              37




                                                                                      36
                                                                              36
                                         .3




                                                         .0
                                      33




                                                                         .6
             35.0



                                 .2
                       .0




                                                      32




                                                                      31
                              31
                    31




                                                                 .4
                                                              28
             30.0
   Tons/ac




             25.0
             20.0
             15.0
             10.0
              5.0
              0.0
                    1995      1996    1997     1998   1999    2000    2001    2002    2003    2004

                                                          Tons/ac



• Record Ontario yield in 2004!!
• But I can’t take credit for that.
                  Results
• High level of awareness of bacterial disease
  impacts, management practices
• Industry did not become complacent after a
  successful 2004 season without major
  outbreaks
• The industry saw the benefits of the
  improved management practices in 2004
• We can probably avert some outbreaks, but
  some may not be preventable with current
  technology
IPM Training for Tomato and
     Pepper Industry
            Janice LeBoeuf
      OMAF Vegetable Crop Specialist
            Ridgetown, ON
     IPM Training Objectives
• Understand the pests and their impacts
• Identify the pests
• Understand and identify other factors that
  impact crop health
• Up-to-date on new products/ techniques and
  the latest applied research
• Aware of the strengths/limitations of
  products/techniques
• Know where/who to turn to for answers
         Variety of Methods
• 1-day tomato and pepper IPM training
• 1-day introduction to IPM training can be
  taken ahead of time
• IPM training sessions co-ordinated by our
  IPM Systems Specialist Margaret Appleby
• “Summer student” crop scouts, agribusiness
  and private crop advisors, growers and farm
  staff, research technicians, processor staff
         Variety of Methods
• In-field IPM training
• Offer in a couple of locations each season
• Meet at a farm, discuss what we see, have
  seen through the season
• Out of field - may look at samples of
  problems, too
• Informal
         Variety of Methods
• Tomato and pepper discussion groups
• Informal format
• Topic chosen and special guest experts
  invited
• Weed management, insect and disease
  management, transplant production…
• “Pick the brains” of the guest experts and
  each other
           Variety of Methods
• Discussion groups, cont’d.
• Research, extension, processor staff, agribusiness
  and private crop advisors, chemical company
  representatives, tomato breeders
• Haven’t invited growers - allows more open
  discussion
• Participants learn from the experts and each other.
  Experts learn a lot from the participants, too!
• In-season conference calls - lot of interest, but not
  a lot of participation - busy time
           Variety of Methods
• Processing Crop Updates - initiated by Elaine
  Roddy a few years ago
• Mine is on tomatoes and peppers
• Sent out by e-mail (and a few faxes)
• Covers all kinds of topics - pest ID, pest alerts,
  herbicide injury symptoms, new products, coming
  events, pest counts, weather summaries (OWN),
  nutrient management, pest control information,
  disorders, new publications, …
• approx. 70 on e-mail/fax list, 145 subscribe from
  OMAF web-site
             Variety of Methods
• IPM Technical Update Meeting for Consultants
  (Margaret Appleby)
• OMAF Publications - Vegetable Production
  Recommendations (Elaine Roddy, Editor)
• HortMatters Newsletter (Hannah Fraser, Donna
  Speranzini, Editors) - agribusiness, consultants
• Veg Viewpoint Newsletter (Elaine Roddy, Editor)
  - growers
• OMAF Web-site - Vegetable index page at
  http://www.gov.on.ca/OMAFRA/english/crops/hort/vegetable.html

				
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