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					     Technologies for
adaptation to climate change
 under the UNFCCC process


                    Iulian Florin Vladu
                Technology Sub-programme
            Sustainable Development Programme
                        UNFCCC




June 2005      Tobago, Trinidad and Tobago      1
                            OUTLINE

   Technologies for adaptation under the technology
    agenda item

   Some reflections based on the work done (technical
    papers, scoping paper, regional workshop)
     What are technologies for adaptation to climate change?

     What technologies are reasonable for climate change?

     Analysis of needs and setting priorities

     Integration with sustainable development


   Examples of technologies by sectors
                                             Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   2
       TECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION
     UNDER THE TECHNOLOGY AGENDA ITEM
   Article 4.5 of the Convention: The developed country
    Parties and other developed Parties included in Annex
    II shall take all practicable steps to promote, facilitate
    and finance, as appropriate, the transfer of, or access
    to, environmentally sound technologies and knowhow
    to other Parties, particularly developing country
    Parties, to enable them to implement the provisions of
    the Convention

   Environmentally sound technologies (ESTs) under
    Article 4.5 of the Convention, includes both
    technologies conducive to mitigation of and adapting
    to climate change

                                         Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   3
      TECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION
    UNDER THE TECHNOLOGY AGENDA ITEM
   Examples of requests from COP and SBSTA:
     Prepare an inventory and assessment of environmentally
      sound and economically viable technologies and know-how
      conducive to mitigating and adapting to climate change
     Prepare progress reports on activities of Annex I Parties
      relating to the introduction of adaptation technologies
     Compile a catalogue of adaptation technologies and know-
      how
     Survey technology needs
     Provide support to Parties to assess their technology needs
     Synthesize and disseminate information on adaptation
      technologies
     Prepare technical papers and organize this seminar
   EGTT included also activities on technologies for
    adaptation in its work programme for 2004 and 2005
                                           Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   4
       TECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION
     UNDER THE TECHNOLOGY AGENDA ITEM
   Prepared a number of reports and technical papers
    which are directly or partially relevant to adaptation:
     Initial report on technology inventory and assessment
     Technical paper on Adaptation to climate change: options
      and technologies
     Technology and technology information needs arising from
      the survey of developing country Parties
     Technical paper on Coastal adaptation technologies
     Technical paper on Enabling environments for technology
      transfer
     Compilation and synthesis of Annex II National
      Communications, with specific reference to adaptation
      technologies
     EGTT scoping paper on Basic concepts of adaptation relevant
      technologies
     Background paper on Technology to understand and manage
      climate risks (prepared for this seminar)
                                          Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   5
        TECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION
      UNDER THE TECHNOLOGY AGENDA ITEM
   Access to information - the secretariat has established a
    technology information clearing house (TT:CLEAR) which includes
    following elements relating to adaptation:
     Inventory of existing adaptation centres. Experts and organizations

     Cooperation projects on technology for adaptation (mainly from
      national communications of both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties,
      technology needs assessments and NAPAs)

     Case studies


   Access to information - a pilot network of technology information
    centres was established. The pilot network will be extended this
    year to include three centres from developing country Parties, one
    for each geographical region


                                                Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   6
       TECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION
     UNDER THE TECHNOLOGY AGENDA ITEM
   Provided support to non-Annex I Parties to conduct
    technology needs assessments (TNAs)
     Some 80 TNAs conducted with support from UNDP
     Some 15 TNAs conducted with support from UNEP


   UNDP prepared a guidebook on Conducting
    technology needs assessments for climate change

   Started to work on summarizing the results of the
    TNAs completed so far




                                       Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   7
     WHAT ARE ADAPTATION TECHNOLOGIES?

   Many technologies have been used to adapt to
    contemporary climate variability and extremes.
    Examples of existing a technologies for adaptation
    include air conditioning, flood-defence systems and
    irrigation, but also monitoring, forecasting and early-
    warning systems for natural hazards

   These technologies can also be used to adapt to
    climate change, although they may need to be
    improved and new technologies may need to be
    developed because climate change is likely to impose
    new and higher standards of reliability and
    performance

                                        Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   8
     WHAT ARE ADAPTATION TECHNOLOGIES?

   Attempting a definition of technologies for adaptation
    to climate change poses significant challenges:

     Adaptation is a very broad term alluding to many diverse
      sectors and systems, including human and natural systems
      and their interrelationships, on which climate change impacts
      are dependent on other considerations such as vulnerability,
      sensitivity, resilience etc.

     In contrast, for mitigation, greenhouse gases are emitted
      largely as a result of the application of technology itself, so
      possible solutions already have a teological baseline

     A definition of technology for adaptation that can adequately
      capture the multitude of situations to which it can, or ought, to
      apply would be difficult. Such a definition would need to
      incorporate the concepts of “adaptation” and “technology”

                                              Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   9
     WHAT ARE ADAPTATION TECHNOLOGIES?

   In the climate change context, adaptation has been
    defined as the “adjustment in natural or human
    systems in response to actual or expected climatic
    stimuli or their effects, that moderates harm or exploits
    beneficial opportunities”

   Technology has been defined as “a piece of
    equipment, technique, practical knowledge or skills for
    performing a particular activity”




                                        Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   10
     WHAT ARE ADAPTATION TECHNOLOGIES?

   An operational definition of technology for adaptation
    could therefore be:

     “Any application of equipment, techniques, practical
      knowledge or skills that would allow natural or human
      systems to adjust to actual or expected climatic stimuli or
      their effects, by moderating harm or exploiting beneficial
      opportunities” or in simpler language

     “The application of technology in order to reduce the
      vulnerability, or enhance the resilience, of a natural or human
      system to the impacts of climate change”.




                                             Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   11
     WHAT ARE ADAPTATION TECHNOLOGIES?

   This definition would also incorporate the use,
    development or adoption of innovative approaches to
    achieve the same end, such as the management of
    natural and human systems, or components thereof

   It also implies human intervention in the adaptation
    process, contrasted to autonomous adaptation
     Most adaptations will be done in reaction to climate change
      (e.g., farmer switches crops - “autonomous” adaptation). We
      are focusing on “anticipatory” or “purposeful” adaptation -
      deliberately done to anticipate effects of climate change (may
      also be to address current needs)


   See also next presentation..
                                            Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   12
    WHAT ARE ADAPTATION TECHNOLOGIES?

   Technological approaches to anticipatory and planned
    adaptation may include both “soft” technology and
    “hard” technology
     Hard technology —also called capital goods, hardware or
      embodied technology— refers to tools, machinery, equipment
      and entire production systems (what we traditionally think of
      as technologies, e.g., equipment, structures)




                                           Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   13
    WHAT ARE ADAPTATION TECHNOLOGIES?
   Soft technologies —also called software or
    disembodied technology— concerns the knowledge of
    methods and techniques for the production of goods
    and services, or for choosing optimal courses of
    action
       Soft technologies enable hard technologies to be applied
       Analogous to “adaptive capacity”
       Includes such elements as education, training
       Can also include approaches to overcome barriers to adoption
        of technologies (e.g., market, economic, institutional,
        cultural)?




                                            Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   14
     WHAT TECHNOLOGIES ARE REASONABLE
     FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE?
   The development and deployment of either type of
    technology requires the right economic, legal and
    institutional contexts. Therefore, an effective
    adaptation strategy will comprise a mix of various
    adaptation approaches

   Do we invest now in technologies to anticipate climate
    change? Does it make sense to deploy them now?
     Benefits are too far in future to justify large investment solely
      for climate change..

     Too many uncertainties about local climate change. However,
      R&D may make sense..


                                              Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   15
     WHAT TECHNOLOGIES ARE REASONABLE
     FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE?
   What technologies for adaptation do we invest in?
     Basically, ones that are needed for today’s needs and are
      further justified by consideration of climate change..
     Means that technologies do not address climate change
      alone?




                                            Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   16
     WHAT TECHNOLOGIES ARE REASONABLE
     FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE?
   Timing
     Should consider these technologies when adaptations will be
      needed?
     Because of barriers or length of investments, some
      adaptations could take many years to implement. Therefore it
      may make sense to address barriers for long-term adaptations
      now so implementation is shortened

   Agriculture vs. water
      Many agriculture investments take 5 to
       30 years
      Water investments such as supply can
       take 50 to 100 years
      Different timing of investments may be
       justified

                                           Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   17
     WHAT TECHNOLOGIES ARE REASONABLE
     FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE?
   Technologies which help reduce the impacts of climate
    change can themselves cause other problems
     Coastal zone adaptation technologies are a good example.
      Many of the technologies incorporated within, or needed to
      implement, managed retreat from, accommodation of, or
      protection against, rising sea levels can have adverse social,
      economic or environmental consequences, often even when
      diligently executed (e.g., most hard structures such as sea
      walls have deleterious effects upon local ecosystems,
      including, in the case of many small islands, for example,
      fisheries and coral reefs)
     Few, if any, coastal adaptation technologies have no negative
      side-effects. Under certain circumstances these unintended
      side-effects can outweigh the benefits of a particular coastal
      adaptation technology


                                            Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   18
      WHAT TECHNOLOGIES ARE REASONABLE
      FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE?
   Analyze vulnerability and adaptation needs
      Need to understand vulnerability to current climate and
       climate change
      Need to address climate change adaptation needs

   Challenges of assessing vulnerability
      Difficulty in comparing across sectors because of differences
       in impacts: human life, income, well being, ecological impacts
       (adaptation does not have equivalent of $/TC)
      Uncertainties about climate change
      Time frame

   UNDP Adaptation Policy
    Framework
    (scope project; assess current vulnerability;
    characterize future, climate-related risks;
    develop adaptation strategy;
    continue adaptation process)

                                                    Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   19
        ANALYSIS OF NEEDS AND SETTING
                  PRIORITIES
   Vulnerability assessment is a natural prelude to
    technology assessment in the context of adaptation.
    An assessment primarily involves an analysis of the
    vulnerability of sectors and systems and the
    approaches (technologies) that can be applied to
    reduce the identified vulnerability or enhance
    resilience

   The actual on-the-ground implementation of any
    technology would have to be a decision based on the
    TNA process, involving inter alia, technology
    assessments, stakeholder consultations, analysis and
    removal of implementation barriers, enabling
    environments, implementation plans, etc.
                                     Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   20
         ANALYSIS OF NEEDS AND SETTING
                   PRIORITIES
   A complete assessment of adaptation options would
    include an analysis of adaptive capacity, cost-benefit
    analyses, effectiveness, and efficiency etc. that may or
    may not fall within the purview of “technology” per se

   Technology itself can have adverse impacts of its own
    and technology as applied to adaptation may also need
    to be assessed for these adverse impacts, either on
    natural or human systems (see above example on
    coastal zone technologies)




                                       Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   21
         ANALYSIS OF NEEDS AND SETTING
                   PRIORITIES
   Identify broad adaptation needs first. What is really
    needed?
     Set priorities
     Policy reforms may be most important
   Do not assume technology is the answer; use it as
    needed
   Recognize that many adaptations are on an ad hoc
    basis. Do not ignore these opportunities




                                         Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   22
          ANALYSIS OF NEEDS AND SETTING
                    PRIORITIES
   It is important to rank technologies in terms of priorities. No right
    or wrong way to do it: be consistent and transparent

   TNA process suggests priority setting involve stakeholders and
    be comprehensive

   Can consider criteria such as most cost-effectively reducing
    current risks or addressing urgent climate change needs (e.g.,
    where vulnerability or costs of response could increase if not
    addressed)

   The TNA process is country driven and include national priorities.
    Nevertheless, common grounds can be defined that might be
    useful to other countries in dealing with adaptation issues

   Information generated by other processes such as National
    Communications, NAPAs, UNDP APF etc. should also be taken
    into consideration
                                               Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   23
                                          ANALYSIS OF NEEDS AND SETTING
                                                    PRIORITIES
                   TNA example - Mauritius
    Coastal Zones                                                                                                                                                                     Coastal Zones (technologies in use)   Coastal Zones (projects)


    Retreat                                                                                                                                                                           Hard engineering                      River Management Project
      Replacement Casements (alternative casements such as coastal access roads may need to be rearranged far in advance of their erosion / submergence)                                Sea walls
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Marine Parks
4     Setback Building Distance (a buffer zone between the shoreline and permanent structures, which protect properties in the event of sea level rise and more frequent                Groynes
      flooding. It should not be uniform and will depend on coastal type.                                                                                                                                                   Islets
    Accommodate                                                                                                                                                                         Gabions                             Monitoring
      Inland flood defences (essentially the creation of a new coastal strip to reduce vulnerability to more frequent flooding)                                                         Breakwaters                         Mangrove Re-plantation
      Flood warning systems (systems to provide real-time forecasts of high tides, surges and wave overtopping)                                                                       Soft Engineering                      Integrated Resort Scheme
      Better management of rain / waste water (various technologies related to drainage and sewer schemeswill need to be introduced to improve management of rain and                   Beach nourishment,
      wastewater. This will reduce potential geo-technical erosion and recession problems)                                                                                                                                  Awareness Programme
    Protect                                                                                                                                                                             Building with nature techniques
2     Building with 'nature' techniques (building with nature techniques includes the creation, maintenance or restoration of wetlands, marshlands and dune systems)                    Artificial reefs


3     Stimulate growth of coral reefs naturally or artificially (it involves the creation of appropriate media for corals to                                                          Integrated Coastal Zone Management
      grow upon)
      Hand-placed rock sea walls (hand placed rocks to form sea walls are a common line of protection used. Placed correctly and maintained, they have been demonstrated
      to be an effective technology)
      Gabions (They are low-cost wire or plastic baskets filled with local materials. The baskets are placed together as building blocks to form structures that act as a last line
      of defence against high waves associated with storms)
      Groynes (They are structures placed perpendicularly to the shore to trap sediments often in direct response to an acute erosion problem)
      Revertments (It is a slope consisting of loose or inter-locking nature, which provides protection to banks or cliffs made up of erodable material)
      Bulkheads and seawalls (They are retaining walls made of concrete or interlocking rocks, whose primary purpose is to hold or prevent sliding of terrain while providing
      protection from light to moderate wave action)
      Breakwaters (they are double-sided structures with water on both sides, used to dissipate wave and current energy. They are made with large amount of rocks and other
      special construction material)
      Storm surge barriers (They are sophisticated coastal defence structures that can protect tidal inlets, rivers and estuaries from occasional surge events)


      Flooding and storm drains (They are technologies to manage the run-off of rainwater and can prevent serious erosion during storms)
1     Beach nourishment




                                                                                                                                                                  Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme                                 24
          INTEGRATION WITH SUSTAINABLE
                 DEVELOPMENT
   Address current problems that can be made worse by
    climate change

   Consider future development paths

     Identify where these paths:
       » Exacerbates existing problems
       » Eases existing problems
       » Creates new problems


     Identify linkages with climate change




                                              Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   25
          EXAMPLES – WATER RESOURCES

   Options can involve actions on both the demand and
    supply sides
     Supply side adaptations: increasing flood defences, building
      weirs and locks to manage water levels and modifying or
      extending infrastructure to collect and distribute water to
      consumers
     Demand-side adaptive techniques: water-efficient irrigation
      such as drip-irrigation technology, water conservation
      techniques, land use management technology
   Water conservation for potable use would be of high
    importance for countries projected to have a decrease
    in annual rainfall
   Protection of surface and ground water reserves can
    employ pollution prevention technology in sectors that
    give rise to water pollutants such as industry and
    agriculture
                                           Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   26
          EXAMPLES – WATER RESOURCES

   Limited water supply
     Already a problem because of overuse, pollution
     Higher population, economic growth could exacerbate
      problem by increasing demand
     Climate change risks reducing supply:
       » Salt water intrusion from sea level rise
       » Reduced runoff/infiltration
   Identify technologies that address water supply needs
    e.g.,
     Increase efficiency of use
     Reduce losses
     Increase supply




                                                    Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   27
                                 EXAMPLES - AGRICULTURE
Examples of adaptation opportunities to climate-change impacts on agricultural systems

Response strategy                                                                  Adaptation options
Use different crops or varieties to match changing water supply and temperature       Conduct research to develop new crop varieties
conditions                                                                            Improve distribution networks
Change land topography to reduce runoff, improve water uptake and reduce wind         Subdivide large fields
erosion                                                                               Grass waterways
                                                                                      Land leveling
                                                                                      Waterway-leveled pans
                                                                                      Bench terracing
                                                                                      Tied ridges
                                                                                      Deep plowing
                                                                                      Roughen land surface
                                                                                      Use windbreaks
Introduce systems to improve water use and availability and control soil erosion      Low-cost pumps and water supplies
                                                                                      Dormant season irrigation
                                                                                      Line canals or install pipes
                                                                                      Use brackish water where possible
                                                                                      Concentrate irrigation water during peak-growth period
                                                                                      Level fields, recycle tailwater, irrigate alternate furrows
                                                                                      Drip-irrigation systems
                                                                                      Diversions
Change farming practices to conserve soil moisture and                                Conventional bare fallow
nutrients, reduce runoff and control soil erosion                                     Stubble/straw mulching
                                                                                      Minimum tillage
                                                                                      Crop rotation
                                                                                      Contour cropping to slope
                                                                                      Avoid monocropping -
                                                                                      Chisel up soil clods
                                                                                      Use lower planting densities
Change timing of farm operations to better fit new climatic conditions                Advance sowing dates to offset moisture stress during warm
                                                                                        period
                                                                                                  Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme       28
               EXAMPLES - AGRICULTURE

   Chemical pollution from agriculture. Agricultural
    activity can affect water quality through run off from
    fertilizers, pesticides and soils into surface and
    groundwater. A logical approach would be to
    prevent/reduce the amount of chemicals used. Two
    such approaches can be:
     Integrated Pest Management (IPM): involves pest control
      methods including growing pest-resistant cultivars, crop
      rotation and tillage techniques. Efficient and proper
      application of pesticides can reduce chemical loads
     Integrated Plant Nutrition Systems (IPNS): involves the
      efficient use of nutrient supply to crops; helps to improve
      productive capacity of soils; timely and sufficient use of on-
      and off-farm nutrient supply can reduce run-off to surface-,
      and leaching to, groundwater

                                             Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   29
                             EXAMPLES – HUMAN HEALTH
Health impact                     Population level                                        Individual level

Heat stress                       - Air conditioning                                      - Protective clothing (hats, sunglasses, light fabrics)
                                  - Adjustment of building designs (insulation, blinds,   - Domestic cooling
                                  ventilation)
                                  - Tree planting in urban areas

High-wind extremes                - Strengthening of buildings and other structures
                                  - Early-warning systems
                                  - Disaster-preparedness programmes

High-water extremes               - Flood-defence systems                                 - Domestic protection
(see also sections 3.3 and 3.5)   - Increased mobility
                                  - Set-backs
                                  - Improved run-off facilities

Vector-borne diseases             - Vector-control approaches (e.g., fumigation)          - Mosquito nets and repellents
                                  - Primary health care, including vaccinations and       - Wire gauze (door and window screens)
                                  medicines
                                  - Public health surveillance and control
                                  programmes
                                  - Environmental management

Water/food-borne diseases         - Improved water-supply systems                         - Personal hygiene
                                  - Water purification
                                  - Improved sanitation
                                  - Primary health care, including vaccinations and
                                  medicines
                                  - Public health surveillance and control
                                  programmes
                                  - Environmental management

Plant aero-allergens              - Allergy warning systems                               - Anti-allergens and other drugs
                                                                                          Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme             30
                    FINAL THOUGHTS

   Knowledge of adaptation technologies and practices is
    limited and the work of the EGTT on this topic just
    started. Nevertheless, a wide range of sector-specific
    ESTs that can function as adaptation technologies are
    available depending on the vulnerability of a particular
    sector
   A main challenge remains to identify these
    technologies, assess them, adapt them to local
    conditions and deploy them
   Need to begin with present-day needs and to consider
    development paths. What problems are made worse,
    eased or introduced and add in climate change as a
    consideration
   Technology can be an answer but is not always the
    answer
                                       Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   31
Thank you!




         Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   32

				
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