Biodiversity Integrated Teaching and Learning Integrated Teaching Approach is advocated in the FBD project. This approach enables the project to penetrate the field of education in making the students and teachers aware of the need for the conservation of farmland biodiversity. Moreover, the approach could also be a vehicle to get the participation of teachers and students in assessing the impact of the application of different pesticides on the life of people and other living organisms in the environment. This provides information about the teaching approach in integrating FBD information in the different subject areas in the basic education curriculum. Socio Scientific Issues Socio Scientific Issues (SSI) is an active and innovative approach to learning, contextualizing science concept in the societal phenomenon. Global warming and climate change issues is closely associated to social issues. This is trans-disciplinary of science and non science learning areas. This is coupling of social dimension and scientific concept integration to create a phenomenon. This is interdisciplinary by nature thus teaching Socio Scientific issues must be integrated. Integrated Teaching Approach Integrated Teaching Approach is a way to teach students in a more meaningful way by breaking down barriers between subjects. It allows two or more concepts or skills within or across subject areas to be integrated in one lesson. In this approach, knowledge from all of the traditional subjects is accessed without labeling them as such. The concepts or skills are embedded in real- life situations where students are given problem solving tasks that necessitate connection of ideas already known to them with those they encounter for the first time. Integration of ideas is also possible through themes. This is the reason why some call Integrated Teaching as Thematic Approach. Themes are broad topics whose meaning could cut across areas. The idea is to teach around themes or organizing ideas that students can identify with. Examples of themes are environment, change, poverty, peace, and love. Specific concepts of a subject area are culled from these broad themes, and activities are planned to teach them. To illustrate integrated approach through thematic teaching, let’s take the unit on “The Environment”. In this topic, students learn about the concept of conservation through activities like starting their own recycling program, conducting a campaign for environmental awareness, and conducting a survey of how local businesses advocate conservation. In the FBD project, the themes are the biodiversity and cultural practices of pest management assessment concepts which should be integrated in the ideas taught in the different subject areas in the basic education curriculum. The concepts that could be integrated are as follows: 1. biodiversity 18. mapping 2. agro-biodiversity 19. ranking 3. habitat 20. ecological conservation 4. specie 21. uses of biodiversity 5. natural capital 22. life cycle 6. ecosystem 23. food chain 7. rainforest 24. decomposers 8. ecology 25. herbivores 9. ecological services 26. herbicides 10. predator 27. symptoms/signs 11. parasites 28. pesticides 12. pollinators 29. pesticide poisoning 13. soil builder (fungi,bacteria) 30. spraying precautions 14. micro-organisms 31. storage disposal 15. decomposers 32. classes of pesticides 16. environmental conservation 33. health impact 17. environmental degradation Integrative teaching also allows two or more individuals in different fields to be connected with each other to broaden perspectives in one’s field or area of interest. Thus, for FBD concepts to be possibly integrated in the basic education curriculum, agriculture specialists and workers serve as resource persons for teachers handling academic subject areas in the basic education curriculum. Integrated teaching adds problem-solving, real-world application and social consciousness through socio scientific issues learning process, making it a more comprehensive way of educating and of learning. It is done for the following purposes: • To promote collaboration • To reflect the real world interaction • To try an exciting socio scientific approach • To connect school subjects and social issues • To have fun and social interactions • To motivate self and promote understanding for its individual uniqueness • To involve the community in resolving the socio scientific issues • To respond to collegial and administrative support for the school and community The typical design of integration shows ideas taught in one subject area are embedded in one topic by making natural overt connections. A very good vehicle in integrating concepts learned in one subject area is by putting them in real situations so that the students will see their applications in real-life. Example: A Lesson in Math on Problem Solving Joe has 1000 fingerlings. He placed 2/5 of these fingerlings in a circular pond with a diameter of 8.5 meters. The remaining fingerlings were placed in a rectangular pond that is 5 meters wide and 8 meters long. Which pond is a better habitat and has a good ecosystem for the fingerlings to flourish? The Socio Scientific Issue (SSI) here is the shortage of fish supply in the locality. Justify your answer. Illustration: Contextualization Re-contextualization De-contextualization Fish Shortage (SSI) BD Concepts Fractions Geometrical Problem Solving Fish Rearing Concepts Skills Habitat and ecosystem In the example above, SSI is fish shortage in the locality, the FBD is concept habitat, which is the pond or the place for the fingerlings to grow, is used as the context for the integration of the ideas on fraction and geometry, which are learned in Mathematics. To answer the problem posed, one should know the visual image of circle and rectangle to know what formula applies in computing their area. Then the number of fingerlings placed in each pond should be computed by determining what is 2/5 of 1000, which is the number of fingerlings in the circular pond and the remaining number that is placed in the rectangular pond. Then to know which better habitat for the fingerlings is, one should divide the area of the pond by the number of fingerlings in it. To justify which pond is better, one should be able to state that the greater the allotted space for each fingerling, the better habitat and ecosystem the place is for the fingerlings. The students develop the problem solving skills in the context of real environment of habitat and ecosystem. So, the fish rearing is highly feasible when the students exactly know what the best habitat and ecosystem for fish is. The learning areas that are involved here are Math and Science, these disciplines provide skills to solve the Socio Scientific Issues (SSI) of fish shortage. The SSI framework: Contextualization is combining the sciences and social issues, de- contextualization is identifying the sciences underpinning the Socio-Scientific Issues and learned intensively its concepts and re-contextualization is the application of skills learned from science concepts.
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