What is the difference between
sensation and perception?
•Sensation is gathering
info from the
environment via your
understanding what is
What do we call it when there is a
mismatch between sensation and
perception – when we misinterpret
What are geometric illusions?
• Our perception of size is
• E.g. the top yellow line appears
longer than the bottom yellow
What are Ambiguous figures?
• When an object
can be seen in
more than one
way. Do you
see a man
saxophone or a
What are fictions?
• When you see
something that is not
there. E.g. the white
What is shape constancy?
• The ability to perceive
the shape of an object
even if it’s seen from
Rectangle Still a
What is colour constancy?
Red lighting Green lighting
• We can still tell what colours are in different
lighting, e.g. you can see the blue squares even
when under red or green lighting.
What is depth perception?
• The ability to perceive the world in 3D.
What are the 5 depth cues that
your brain uses to perceive in 3D?
Height in the
What do you need to say if the
exam question asks you about
How do your expectations
influence your perception here?
Limitations with constructivist
INDIVIDUAL EXPERIENCES – rarely
do we disagree with people about
what we see but we all have different
Newborn babies – no past experience but
can still perceive, e.g. imaginary cliff
Learning – if past experience causes
perception then after learning how an
illusion works it should cease to fool us but
this is not the case!
The Nativist theory
• Bottom up processing
• Immediate or direct – no past
See it first then the
brain registers it.
What are these?
Haber & Levin (2001)
Haben & Levin’s conclusion
• They could tell the distance and size of the
real world fixed size objects because they
relied on their PAST EXPERIENCE of
• The other objects could vary in size so
they couldn’t rely on their past experiences
in the same way.
• Supports CONSTRUCTIVIST theory.
•9 sample size too small
•Male gender bias
Other forms of subliminal
1/3000th second image, sales of
coca cola increase at cinema
When Italian music was played
over tanoy in supermarkets, sales
of Italian wine increased.