CMNS 110 Introduction to Mass Communications by dfhdhdhdhjr


									            ‘Introduction to the Library
                 Research Process’

                                                Gilbert Bede, BA, MLIS
                                                Communication Liaison
                                              Okanagan College Library

"The Librarian", Giuseppe Arcimboldo, 1556”
     Today’s Outcomes
Developing, Executing and
Evaluating your Research
Recommended Materials
Library Services
Getting Additional Assistance
Bias is an inherent aspect of all information
You need to review all information that you try
and understand its bias
   Scholarly Communications Does One of the Best
    Jobs of Minimizing Bias
Remember that you to have your own personal
Reviewing, analyzing and citing the information
that you discover is important
                         “I’d like some information please.”
                         Your Department of Information
                         has the technology and solution to
                         meet this very need. Suddenly, you’re
                         dropped in the middle of a vast ocean of
                         information, thrashing to keep
                         your head above the waves. Information,
                         information everywhere … but after 3 -
                         hours of searching you discover that it is
                         doesn’t contain the information that you
                         need and you are quickly running out of time
                         to complete your assignment!

                                                              Adapted from
Simplicity: The New Competitive Advantage in a World of More, Better, Faster
                                                                Bill Jensen
                                            2000, Perseus Books, NY, p.21
                                                                         Retrieved January 8, 2007
Information, Information Everywhere
2004: It was estimated that 5 million Terabytes of Information Existed
          1 Terabyte = 10¹²
          5,000,000 x10¹²
          170 Terabytes are considered to be indexable
Library of Congress contains about 30 Million Books roughly equal to 30 Terabytes
2005: The Web was estimated at 11.5 billion pages – 40 terabytes of textual content
          1993 130 Websites
          2005 64,800,000 Websites
Ulrich’s estimates 300,000 periodicals of all types are in print — academic and
scholarly journals, Open Access publications, peer-reviewed titles, popular
magazines, newspapers, newsletters, etc.
Bowker’s estimates that there are currently 9,000,000 titles in print
          81,000 Publishers
          195,000 New Titles In 2004
          79% Of All New Books Sold In North America in 2004 Sold Fewer Than 99
          Copies, With 16.91% Of All Books Selling Between 100 – 999 Copies
          95.91% Sold Under 1,000 Copies
          $40 Billion Worth Of Books were sold in North America in 2004
Developing, Executing and
Evaluating your Research
"Knowing the right question to
      ask is half the answer."

                ~ Lord Byron
Designing Your Search

    Time Management
     Identify Your Research Topic
Understand the requirements of your research assignment
    Speak to your instructor
    Read your assignment carefully
    Create a written research plan
When is your assignment due?
Do not take on more than can be accomplished within your identified
research timeframe
Dangers of a Broad Focus
        Too Much Information to Process
Pearls of a Narrow Focus
        Too little Information to Process
Challenge of emerging issues
        The Subject so recent that it is not yet appearing in the literature
Limitations of Local issues
        Rare in the literature
             Private vs. Public companies
   Things to Do and Think About
         Before You Start
What do you already know about this       Do I want Citations or Full Text
topic                                         OC Library doesn’t have the full
   Consult your textbook, lecture             text of all journals published
    notes, etc.
                                              Inter Library used to borrow or
   Speak to your instructor                   obtain copies of material not
   Speak to your liaison librarian            owned by OC Library
   Discuss it with your classmates                 Typically takes less than a
State your topic idea as a question                 week to get an article that we
   Identify the main concepts ,                    don’t have
    keywords and keyword phrases              What if the material that I want is
What format(s) of information are you          at another campus
looking for i.e. Book, Article,                     Request function in Library
Multimedia, etc.                                    Catalogue
Scholarly vs. Non-Scholarly vs.           Typical Research Cycle
                                              Test your Research Strategy
Establish a coverage timeframe for
your research i.e., date of publication       Refine your Research Strategy
Decide on your geographical focus             Retest your Research Strategy
                                              Repeat or Select a new Topic
   Local
                                              Learn as you Search
   Regional
   National
   International
   Combination of some or all of the
    Opportunity is missed by
   most people because it is
dressed in overalls and looks
                    like work.

            ~Thomas Edison
How Do I Know When I am Done my
Set a benchmark of how many
information sources you want
to read based on the time you
have available
Your assignment provides
You have to position yourself
somewhere between a
minimalist approach of
‘satisficing’ and falling into the’
‘paradox of choice’s’ black
hole’ of too much information
that results in analysis
You need to find the balance

                            Image retrieved January 11, 2008 from
     My Kingdom for the Correct
Research is predominately carried out by
searching using keywords and keyword phrases
The English language changes overtime,
sometimes very quickly
The subject analysis performed by indexers and
abstracters doesn’t always keep pace
Controlled vocabularies
   Each discipline has its own lexicon
Developing a Realistic Search Strategy

 State your topic idea as a question:
    ‘How has media ownership changed in
 Identify the main concepts or keywords
    Mass Media
    Ownership
    Canada
Mass media        Publishing
                  Motion Pictures
                  Recording Industry
                  Music Industry
                  Arts and Cultural Industries
                  Popular Culture
Ownership        Control
Canada        Board of Broadcast
              Royal Commission
              Canadian Radio-
              Television and
              Heritage Canada
              Industry Canada
              {Other Jurisdictions}
                         Now What?

Image retrieved January 11, 2008 from
    Where to Start Searching
Identify where to Search
Do I want a
   Book?
   Encyclopaedia, Handbook, Directory, Almanac etc.?
   Periodical
       Scholarly Journal
       Trade Journal / Industry Publication
   Video/DVD
   Sound Recording
Scholarly (academic)                   General (trade)
   domain based                          profit driven
        scale, purpose and ideology       author may not be an
   specialized press                      acknowledged domain expert
   peer reviewed by subject              focused at a broader general
    experts                                audience
   structured                                 widely available
        language                          written in lay persons
        citations                          language
        references                        good starting point if you are
        bibliography                       unfamiliar with the subject
   often only available through           area
    academic libraries
   can be an intimidating place to
    start if you are unfamiliar with
    the subject area
       Encyclopaedia, Handbook,
        Directory, Almanac etc.?
Very useful when you don’t have much insight into the
subject you are investigating
Historic background, brief articles, concise in depth
information, good source for keywords, related topics,
Source for Quick Facts and Statistics
Check the imprint information
   Timeliness can be an issue
   Lacks Authority
   You will have to verify and validate any information that you use
    from this source
Newspapers, Newsletters, Digest and Magazines
    Not Created Equal
    Editorial Point of View
    Content is there in order to sell advertising
              Trade
              Industry
              Professional
              Edited versions of the original article
              Often lack citations
              The are exceptions i.e., Congressional Record is the Daily Digest
Journals (Print)
    Predominately Scholar in Nature
Journals (Electronic aka ‘E-Journals’)
    Online, Internet based versions of print journals
    E-Journal only publications
  Scholarly Communications
Scholarly Journals
Annotated Bibliographies
Databases / Web Sites
Data Sets
Conference Proceedings
Technical Reports
          Scholarly Literature
Highly structure
   Each discipline has its own language
Peer Reviewed
   Subject Experts
   Editorial Boards
   Properly Documented
Publishing it submits to the scholarly community
for critical scrutiny
It is collected and access to it is facilitated by
   Government Publications
Government is major information producer
Over the past 10-years they have shifted
the majority of the material to the Internet
Can be time consuming to locate
Good source of statistical information and
Information on virtually everything
           Online Databases
Aggregate content from multiple sources
into a single searchable database
   Thousands of journal titles
   Both scholarly and non-scholarly articles
   Other types of content, case studies,
    videos/audio clips, statistical tables and data
    sets, etc.
   Complex but powerful native search engines
Audio Recordings
Micro Fiche
The Internet is a growing sources of this material
Citation of such material can be problematic
especially if discovered on the Internet
The Library has an growing collection of this
type of material
Surface Web vs. Deep Web
   Surface Web (search engines)
   Deep Web (database driven web sites)
   The Deep Web is roughly 600x the size of the Surface Web
User friendly search engine
Quantity vs. Quality
Validation of information
   Good for Government Publications
   Google's Scholarly Content Search Engine
   Caveat Emptor – Let the buyer beware
          Library Web Page
Recommended Staring Points
Search Engines & Multitasking
Don't assume you know what you want to
find. Look at search results and see what
you might use in addition to what you've
already identified in your search strategies
Switch from Internet search engines,
Online Databases, E-Journals, etc.
Don't bog down in any strategy that
doesn't work
You Know Little or Nothing
About the Research Topic
Book Reviews - Book Review Index Plus
Canadian Encyclopedia
 Encyclopedia of British Columbia
        Canada Info Desk
Oxford Reference Online
World Almanac (FirstSearch - OCLC);fsip?dbname=worldalmanac
  Encyclopedia of International
   Media and Communications
Encyclopedia of Information Systems
Encyclopaedia of Social Measurement
Librarians’ Index
   Over 16,000 web sites.
    Compiled by librarians in information supply
    business. Highest quality sites only. Great,
    reliable annotations.

   Over 120,000 web sites.
    Great, reliable annotations.
    Cooperatively compiled by university &
    college-level, academic librarians of the UC
OC Library Catalogue
   Searching the Catalogue
Basic Search
Search Builder
Truncation ?
Patron Login
Subscription Databases
              Business Source Premier
         Academic Search Premier
                    Recommended Databases
Academic Search Premier
CBCA Complete – Canadian Content
Business Source Premier
CPI.Q (Canadian Periodicals Index)
Canadian Reference Centre
Canadian Social Investment Database
Hoover's Company Capsules & Profiles
Hospitality & Tourism Complete
Canadian Newstand
America: History and Life
Where can I get this article?
Seamless Connection
            Data & Statistics
           Statistics Canada
StatsCan Summary Tables
        Resources Information On A

Canadian Company Histories

Financial Post Survey of Industrials
,1&Search_Arg=survey of
                Annual Reports
Canadian Company Annual Reports

    Sedar is a site that provides access annual reports
    and also to documents released to stock holders and
    the general public. These are extremely useful
    resources that tell you what organizational activity is
    going on within a company.
                  Industry Profiles
Industry Canada Profile Search

Industry Canada Webster
        Government of Canada –
             Mass Media
Canadian Radio-Television and
Telecommunications Commission (CRTC)

Canadian Heritage
Google Books
Open Content Alliance
Evaluating Your Search Results
Corroborate Your Information
To strengthen or support with other evidence; make
more certain
Make sure that the source has a good reputation
   Does it have a web page
   Editorial Board
   Peer Review Process
Are other authors citing the article
Date of Publication matters (sometimes)
   Information is ephemeral in nature i.e., is valid for a brief time
   Scholarly Literature is constantly changing
If in doubt, ask librarian and/or your instructor
   Always make sure that you include a proper citation
      Read the ABSTRACT
An abstract summarizes, in one paragraph
(usually), the major aspects of the entire paper
in the following prescribed sequence:
Articulates the question being investigated (or
Identifies the research methodology employed
Report on major findings including key
quantitative results, or trends
Summaries the findings of the research process
Saved you from reading the entire article
Some Journals also include a listing of keywords
and/or subject headings applied to the article
Not Sure About the Source?
        Who is the Author(s)
Review who the author(s) of the article is
   Have you seen or heard them referenced in
    lectures, required textbooks, other articles or
    books that you have found
   Check out their personal and institutional web
   Look them up in “Canadian who’s who”
      Kelowna Reference Collection Call Number
      FC25 .C37

Subject Expert vs. the Noble
     References and Bibliographies

Built in Research Assistance
   Review the Cited References found typically
    at the end of the article
   If there is a Bibliography (sometimes referred
    to as “Further Reading”)
                           MLA Style
                   APA Style Guide
Citing Statistic Canada
Library Services
Remote Access
                      Library Services
In Person Reference Service
Inter-Library Loan

Research Guides by course & subject


   My Contact Information

Gilbert Bede
Room L101
Telephone 250-762-5445
           Local 4751
Fortune favors the bold!
 Keep your mind open!
Learn while you search!

 Thank You

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