SouthEast Diesel Collaborative Clean Diesel Initiatives Kirk Gavaghan 27-Jun-07 EPA Emissions Requirements Technical Solution to meet EPA07 emissions standard Optimized EGR to meet NOx emissions levels Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) aftertreatment system to meet PM emission levels DaimlerChrysler Truck Group 1 Several Key Vehicle Technologies are being introduced! New Exhaust Systems New Cooling Packages Modified Front Frames Aftertreatment Devices Various Engine Upgrades DaimlerChrysler Truck Group 2 2007 Series 60 Engine Changes Right Side View Cold Pipe VG Turbo Fan Bracket/ Radiator Mount Increased Flow HC Doser Water Pump Higher-Capacity Front EGR Cooler Engine/Radiator Mounting DaimlerChrysler Truck Group 3 2007 Series 60 Engine Changes Left Side View New Intake Manifold and EGR Valve EGR Mixer With Electric Actuator HC Doser Controls Intake Throttle Valve MCM All new electronics and software DaimlerChrysler Truck Group 4 DDEC VI Engine Electronics Receives input from temperature and pressure sensors on the Aftertreatment Device (ATD) Controls the intake throttle valve to raise exhaust temperatures as required Controls the doser to periodically add a small amount of fuel into the exhaust system to raise exhaust temperatures there by providing active regeneration DaimlerChrysler Truck Group 5 Aftertreatment System (ATS) Aftertreatment Device (ATD) • Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) • Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) Doser Intake throttle DDEC VI controls Intake Doser Throttle Valve Aftertreatment Device (ATD) T T P T Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) DaimlerChrysler Truck Group 6 Doser System The doser system is used to inject a small amount of diesel fuel into the exhaust stream Temperature is increased as the fuel passes through the oxidation catalyst exhaust to burn off soot in the DPF The system is controlled by DDEC VI and has two primary components 1. Doser block controls fuel flow based on input from DDEC VI 2. Doser valve injects a fine mist of fuel into exhaust steam which evaporates prior to reaching the filter Fuel pressure regulator Doser block assembly Doser coolant return line Doser fuel line Doser valve DaimlerChrysler Truck Group 7 Particulate Matter (PM) Filtration Engine exhaust passes through the porous walls of the particulate filter where soot is trapped Accumulated soot is periodically regenerated or “burnt-off” Ash is a residual non-combustible material (created by small amounts of lube oil in the exhaust) which remains in the filter cells that must periodically be removed DaimlerChrysler Truck Group 8 Aftertreatment Device Components Exhaust Gas Temperature Temperature Sensor From Engine Sensor Temperature Pressure Sensor Pressure Sensor Sensor Exhaust Out Coated Diesel Coated Diesel Particulate Oxidation Filter Catalyst DaimlerChrysler Truck Group 9 Aftertreatment Regeneration Animation Thermal Management Goal is to have only transient regeneration utilized to eliminate PM (soot) accumulation in almost all segment applications..…. DaimlerChrysler Truck Group EPA 2010 Requirements • Regulatory 83% reduction in NOx compared to EPA ’07 From ~1.20 to 0.20 g/hp-hr OBD* requirements NTE** enforced through in-use emissions test run by manufacturer • Customer Diesel Particulate Fuel economy, performance, heat rejection, durability / -90% Filter for EPA 2007 reliability and cost comparable or better relative to EPA ’07 • Other Increased EGR Dual Actuator Fuel System Minimize unregulated emissions Optimized Combustion e.g. Vanadium, NH3, N2O -83% Optimized Combustion * OBD – On-board Diagnostics NOx Aftertreatment ** NTE – Not-to-Exceed DaimlerChrysler Truck Group 11 Urea-SCR Remains the Lead NOx Aftertreatment Technology for 2010 Heavy-Duty • Mature Technology Durability and Reliability for End-Customer • Fuel Economy • Material Cost • Impact on Vehicle Cooling System • Requires Secondary Fluid Urea Infrastructure Required Compliance / Anti-Tampering Measures Required • Progress is being made on both the infrastructure and the compliance issue, in collaboration with other engine and vehicle OEMs, the EPA and the Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA) Certification Procedure Guidance Document Issued March, 2007 DaimlerChrysler Truck Group 12 Low Emissions Combustion, DPF and Urea SCR Integrated on a Vehicle Test-bed Example System Integration 2010 Technology Vehicle at Installation for Long Sleeper Cabs the DEER 2006 Vehicle Display DaimlerChrysler Truck Group 13 Urea Infrastructure (Through DC Network) Freightliner, Sterling & Western Star Brands, DDC Distributors & TA Service Point Locations DaimlerChrysler Truck Group 14 Biodiesel Position Statement Detroit Diesel supports the development of alternative and renewable fuels because: It helps to reduce America’s dependence on foreign oil It helps to reduce environmental contaminant concerns Lifecycle reduction in carbon dioxide Reduction in particulate matter Reduction in carbon monoxide Reduction in volatile organic compounds Reduction in sulfur dioxide It supports local economies DaimlerChrysler Truck Group 15 Biodiesel Position Statement, Cont Excerpt from 7SE270 Publication, “Lubricating Oil, Fuel and Filters” 5.1.3 BIODIESEL FUELS Biodiesel fuels are alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable resources. Detroit Diesel highly recommends biodiesel fuels made from soybean or rapeseed oil through the proper transesterification reaction process. Other feedstock source of biodiesel fuels such as animal fat and used cooking oils are not recommended by Detroit Diesel. Biodiesel fuels meeting ASTM D 6751 specification and from a BQ-9000 accredited producer, prior to blending can be mixed up to 5% maximum by volume in petroleum diesel fuel. The resulting mixture must meet the fuel properties listed in Table 5-1 and ASTM D 975 specification. Failures attributed to the use of biodiesel fuel will not be covered by Detroit Diesel product warranty. Also, any engine performance problem related to the use of biodiesel fuel would not be recognized nor considered Detroit Diesel's responsibility. DaimlerChrysler Truck Group 16 Biodiesel Specifications Inconsistent quality across the nation is a significant concern Promote the use of BQ-9000 or similar programs intended to provide consistent product Greater enforcement of standards nationwide B5 and B20 Specifications DD supports the inclusion of B5 into ASTM D 975 Collaborate with biodiesel community, FIE and fuel filter manufacturers to develop needed specifications Industry Specification for Final B20 Blend Support B20 EMA test specification Develop stand alone ASTM B20 specification ASTM D 6751 for biodiesel (B100) is nearly complete but lacks: Density Cold soak filtration requirement Desirable to harmonize ASTM D 6751 and EN14214 European spec for B100 and blends for all testing parameters DaimlerChrysler Truck Group 17 Testing Plans with B20 In 2007 Engines Detroit Diesel continues to actively investigate the impact of B20 on current 2007 hardware including: Overall engine durability High pressure fuel injection systems Aftertreatment devices Seal compatibility with ULSD blends Performance and emissions evaluation Testing is focused on the MBE900 medium duty engine B20 is popular in bus fleet applications All DD engines are being evaluated with B20 blends DaimlerChrysler Truck Group 18 Biodiesel Effect and Concerns On 2007 Engines Engine Emissions Engines are certified with petroleum ULSD Fuel Potential NOx effect must be resolved EPA willingness to support biodiesel Concerns about recommendations without sufficient data on emissions effect Long-term field experience Engine seal compatibility with the reduction of aromatics in the ULSD fuel and biodiesel DPF contamination and regeneration process Fuel system performance & risk (deposits, corrosion, oxidation stability) Potential decrease in oil drain interval Sludge formation, viscosity increase/decrease, TBN depletion Reduced cold flow properties Fuel filter plugging: B20 solvency effect Microbial and water contaminations Oxidation and storage stability DaimlerChrysler Truck Group 19 THANK YOU!
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