Chemistry is Everywhere
Chemistry in Our World
Chemistry is the branch of science that deals with
the characteristics and composition of all materials
and with the changes they can undergo.
Chemicals are present in food, medicine, vitamins,
paint, glue, cleaning products, building materials,
automobiles, electronic and sporting equipment, and
everything else you can buy.
A Scientific Approach to Solving
The Steps of the Scientific Method:
1. Identify and state the problem
2. Collect data
3. Analyze data and search for natural laws (a statement that
summarizes experimental facts about nature where behavior is
consistent and has no known exceptions)
4. Form a hypothesis (a tentative, reasonable explanation of the facts
or the law)
5. Design an experiment to test the hypothesis
6. Evaluate the results (accept or reject the hypothesis)
7. Develop a Theory (a well-established explanation that has
withstood extensive testing)
8. Conduct more research
9. Modify the Theory (theories must be modified to account for new
The Phlogiston Theory
1667 – “All materials that burn contain a substance
called phlogiston.”A candle burning gives off
phlogiston. If the candle is covered with a glass dome,
the container fills with phlogiston and it can no longer
burn in air.
Modern Theory – the candle burning requires oxygen
for combustion and can’t burn once the oxygen has all
Searching for Answers
Basic Research - chemists investigate the properties,
composition, and structure of matter. They also
experiment with the laws that govern the combination of
elements and reactions of substances to each other. This is
basically the search for knowledge for its own sake.
Applied Research – chemists create new products and
processes or improve existing ones, often using knowledge
gained from basic research. Chemistry research has led to
the discovery and development of new and improved
drugs, plastics, cleaners, and thousands of other products.
Information obtained from basic research is often applied
at some point.
Read Chapter 1
Answer questions # 1.2, 1.4, 1.10, 1.12, 1.16, 1.19,
1.26, & 1.28 on pages 10 & 11.