Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
AMS-III.S. - Introduction of low-emission vehicles/technologies to commercial
Developed by Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the category of “Indicative
simplified baseline and monitoring methodologies for selected small-scale CDM project
This methodology is for project activities introducing low-emission vehicles for commercial
passenger (including public transportation), material and freight transport, operating on a
number of routes with comparable conditions. Types of low-emission vehicles include
compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, electric vehicles, liquid petroleum gas (LPG)
vehicles and hybrid vehicles with electrical and internal combustion motive systems.
Retrofitting of existing vehicles is also included in the methodology. This methodology is
applicable under these conditions:
The overall level of service provided on comparable routes before project
implementation shall remain the same and a modal shift in transport is not eligible;
There is no significant change in tariff discernible from their natural trend, which
could lead to change in patterns of vehicle use;
The frequency of operation of the vehicles is not decreased;
The characteristics of the travel route – distance, start and end points and the route
itself and/or the capacity introduced by the project is sufficient to service the level
of passenger/freight transportation previously provided.
The project boundary includes the following:
Fleet to which low emission vehicles are introduced;
The geographical area covering the physical routes along which these vehicles
Auxiliary facilities such as fuelling stations, workshops and service stations that are
visited by the vehicles in the feet.
The additionality1 should be demonstrated that the project activity would not have
occurred anyway due to at least one of these barriers: investment barrier, technological
barrier, barrier due to prevailing practice or other barriers2.
The baseline emissions can be calculated based on baseline emission factor and annual
average distance of transportation per passenger or tonne of goods by project vehicles and
total annual passengers or tons of goods transported by project vehicles.
Project emissions are determined by monitoring the consumption of fuel or energy
consumed by the vehicles introduced. It can be calculated based on CO2 emission factor of
fuel used by project vehicles and quantity of consumed fuel by these vehicles.
For electric vehicles, the emissions from the production of electricity used will constitute
the project emissions. This will be determined as per the ”Tool to calculate baseline, project
and/or leakage emissions from electricity consumption”3.
For hybrid vehicles that can run on fossil fuels and electricity, the emissions resulting from
the fossil fuel use should also be included in the direct emissions, in addition to the
emissions from the electricity used. The emissions from fossil fuel consumption shall be as
per the “Tool to calculate project or leakage CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion”4.
No leakage calculation is required. However, if the project activity involves fossil fuel
switching measures, leakage resulting from fuel extraction, processing, liquefaction,
transportation, re-gasification and distribution of fossil fuels outside of the project
boundary shall be considered. The guidance provided in the leakage section of “ACM0009-
Consolidated baseline and monitoring methodology for fuel switching from coal or
petroleum fuel to natural gas”5 shall be followed in this regard.
Baseline emission factor per passenger or ton of goods per kilometer for the
baseline vehicles (BEF)
1 The concept of “additionality” under the CDM refers to the project has to prove that the emission reductions are additional to any that
would occur in the absence of the certified project activity (CDM Rule book: http://cdmrulebook.org/84)
2 More information about additionality (attachment A to Appendix B) is available at:
3 More information is available at: http://cdm.unfccc.int/methodologies/PAmethodologies/tools/am-tool-03-v2.pdf
4 More information is available at: http://cdm.unfccc.int/methodologies/PAmethodologies/tools/am-tool-05-v1.pdf
5 More information is available at: http://cdm.unfccc.int/methodologies/DB/2CRBYLJO5JWC9YHBSWJQWYIH2LLGMJ/view.html
Total annual passengers or tons of goods transported by baseline vehicles (P)
The annual average distance of transportation per person or tonne of freight by
baseline vehicles (dp)
Total annual distance travelled by baseline vehicles (D)
Efficiency of baseline vehicles (BLV)
Net calorific value of fuel (NCV)
CO2 emission factor of fuel used by baseline vehicles (EFCO2)
The parameters below are required for monitoring the project activity progress.
Total distance travelled by vehicles (DTPJ)
Consumption of fuel (or electricity) by vehicles (FC, EC)
CO2 emission factor of fuel used by project vehicles (EFCO2)
CO2 emission factor of grid electricity used by project vehicle (EFelec)
Total annual passengers or goods transported by project vehicles (P)
Annual average distance of transportation per person or tonne of freight by project
Distance of routes (D)
Service level in terms of total passengers or volume of goods on routes (SL)
Service level in terms of total passengers or volume of goods carried on routes
before the beginning of project (SLBL)
No independent evaluation has been undertaken of this methodology. However as a CDM
based methodology the following strengths and weaknesses apply.
This methodology allows This methodology is considerably
estimating accurately the emission data-intensive due to the
reduction of biodiesel production requirement for verification of
and use for transport applications. progress during the lifetime of the
It does an ex-ante appraisal, which project and the need to undertake ex-
has to be validated in the future ante and ex-post analyses. These data
with ex-post estimation in order to may also not be readily available in
get the Certified Emissions developing countries.
Reductions (CER) (Emissions
Costly data collection which
reduction estimations may result
frequently exceeds what CDM credits
in the acquisition of CER). pay. (Punte, 2011)
Strict guidelines for data collection,
estimation of leakages and a clear
procedure make this methodology
Guidelines are available online.
CDM – Executive Board, Introduction of low-emission vehicles to commercial vehicle fleets,
AMS-III.S./ Version 03, Sectoral Scope: 07, EB 66.
Punte, S., Replogle, M., Mejia, A., 2011. Transport Emissions Evaluation Models for Projects
(TEEMP). Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions as Catalysts for Environmentally
Sustainable Transport. Seoul, South Korea.
Each CDM project has to be verified during the lifetime of the project comparing the real emissions with
the corresponding forecasted emissions.