Autism Spectrum Disorder- ASD by YOr6LK


									Autism Spectrum
Disorder- ASD

  Karyn Anspach
 Lutheran Special
Education Ministries
What is ASD??
Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder have an impairment in
   their ability to:

• Understand and use non-verbal and verbal communication
• Understand social behavior
• Think and behave flexibly

   – Made-up of subgroups
   – Well-known subgroups include
       • Autism
       • Aspergers

   – Many have a mixture of features from different subgroups
Although these features may be common in ASD, not every child will demonstrate
    these features:

•   Generally, well developed gross and fine motor skills
•   Unique mechanical ability
•   Special or unusual interests
•   Rote Memory skills - detailed lists, dates, schedules, scenes from movies, songs, etc.
•   Cognitive Impairment
•   Unusual response to sensory stimuli
•   Distractible or high activity level
•   Unusual mood swings
•   Self-injurious behaviors
•   Insistence on sameness
•   Limited food preference
•   Sleep disturbances
•   Lack of danger awareness
•   Depression
•   Seizures
•   Various levels of anxiety
Current Facts About ASD
•   Incidence / prevalence is 1:150         •   Poor short term and working memory
    children are being identified
                                            •   50-80% have a co-existing disability
•   Michigan is  4th
                  in the nation with the
    highest number of students              •   There is no known cure
    diagnosed with ASD                      •   May or may not have a cognitive
•   ASD is a lifelong developmental             impairment
    disability                              •   Atypical functioning in various parts
•   Occurs in more males than females           of the brain
    (approximately 8/10)                    •   Speech-language delays
•   It is hereditary with a genetic link    •   Socialization delays
•   May appear within the first 2-3 years   •   May have fine and gross motor
    of life                                     delays
•   May have sensory delays
Three Areas of Development Affected by
Autism Spectrum Disorder

      Socialization                         Behavior

                      Sensory Integration
• Delay, loss or lack of verbal language
• Difficulties initiating and sustaining conversations
• Stereotyped / repetitive language (echolalia, pronoun reversal,
  jargon, commercials, books, movies)
• Poor or limited expressive, receptive and pragmatic language
• Monotone or limited variability in vocal inflection
• Poor, limited or lack of nonverbal communication (point,
• Difficulty with humor, figurative language or metaphors
• Pronoun reversal or speaking in the third person sense
•   Difficulty with non-verbal social cues (eye contact, facial expressions, body space,
    body posture, gestures)
•   Difficulties or lack of social and emotional reciprocity (taking in consideration of
    the other person’s feelings, may not notice / respond person is losing interest)
•   Impaired perspective taking (considering another person’s point of view, assume
    people are interested in what they have to say i.e. “Intricate parts of a space ship
    or engine”)
•   Difficulty or lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment or interests with
    other people
•   Difficulty initiating and maintaining relationships with peers and sometimes adults.
    (Better relationships with adults than peers)
•   Lack of pretend or imaginative play
•   Limited in the ability to use toys symbolically (baton as a magic wand)
•   Difficulty with play and games - rote pattern, repetitive, rigid, inflexible
•   Difficulty with sensory input that interferes with the ability to respond and
    participate with social interactions (sight, tactile, auditory)
•   All encompassing preoccupation with stereotyped patterns of interest that are
    intense in focus (color interests, cartoon characters, Sega)
•   Inflexible adherence to routines or rituals (distress at change, dressing routine,
    driving rituals, specific path to walk)
•   Self stimulating behaviors - hand flapping, finger flicking, tapping, whole body
    movements, repeating phrases
•   Persistent preoccupation with objects (pipes under a sink, wheels on a toy car, TV
    Guide books)
•   Difficulty with play skills - rigid, routine, understanding the rules, not being a
•   Self aggression - picking at skin or hair, causing harm to own body
•   Aggression towards others - related to sensory and social difficulties
•   Lack of varied, developmentally appropriate, spontaneous, make believe play or
    social imitative play (lining up blocks, spinning tires, fixated on certain games,
    videos, build same Lego structure over and over)
•   Their strong willfulness may appear to be “lack of compliance” but is not
•   High anxiety and stress especially when change occurs, unpredictable, new
    situation, or not enough time to process
The Goals of Educational Programming
for Students with ASD

       • Independent Functioning
    • Socialization Skill Development

      How do we put it all together?
Integrate academic, behavior, social, and
 communication into the educational plan.
Behavior Is Communication Don’t
Take it Personally!
                •   Behavior is communication and
                    serves a function!
                •   Watch for times when student
                    appears stressed and anxious
                •   Avoid verbal overload
                •   Use visuals supports/strategies
                •   Avoid Sarcasm
                •   Problem behaviors are not the same
                    as behavior problems
                •   Monitor your own reactions, as your
                    anxiety increases so will theirs
                •   Be direct, tell them what needs to be
                    done and what they need to do
                •   Ultimate goal is to improve
                    independent functioning and
                    socialization skills
Anxiety Indicators
May include, but not limited to:

• Inappropriate laughing              •Excessive itching or scratching
• Flush appearance                    •Withdrawal or daydreaming
• Changes in breathing patterns       •Unusual posturing
• Body Language                       •Unusual hand / finger movements
• Clearing of the throat
• Repetitive Language topic
  focus/litany                        •Chewing motion or sucking on lip
• Retreating to a fantasy world       •Sweating
  (character’s, movie, plots, etc.)   •Aggression towards self / others
• Covering face, eyes, ears
Visual Supports:
• pictures
• written words
• choices
• classroom schedule
• personal schedule
• mini schedules
• checklists
• rules
• prompts
• labeling of objects, containers,
  signs, lists, charts, and messages
Visual Schedule
Visual Rules and Story
Visual Schedule
Visual Schedule and Rules
Strategies cont.~
Visual Modalities:
• planners
• visuals for transitions
• organizers for a specific task
• visual structure for less
  structured time
• material and desk top
• visual display of classroom
• file cards with directions for
  specific tasks and activities or
  pictographs and written
  instructions for learning new
Visual Organizer
Strategies cont.~
Social-Type Stories:
• describes a situation, skill, or concept of relevant
  social cues
• perspectives
• social scripts
• rules
• social coaching
• common responses
Strategies cont.~
• Pre-warn the
  student of change:
  use a visual timer,
  you have 5 minutes
  until we go to gym,
  verbal cue
Strategies cont.~
Written Choices:

• use a choice
• offer choices in
  the form of
  pictures, words,
  post-it notes, etc.
Strategies cont.~
• break down oral instructions into small steps
• reduce or warn student of external sounds fans,
  loudspeakers, fire alarms, several people talking at
  once, air conditioners, bells, etc.

Sensory Activities:
• use fidgets, koosh balls, bean bags, etc
Strategies cont.~
• Structure unstructured events: provide a clear
  beginning and end, (Now we will have snack Next we
  will play a game) including on the playground
• Fine Motor: graphic organizers, dictate to scribe, take
  notes, highlight notes, tape recorder, alpha smart,
  other low or high tech devices
• Break System: allow the student to take a break in
  order to prevent a melt down or to de-escalate anxiety,
  protects dignity, let others use area as well
What about Peers?
• explain what you student with Autism is going through
• encourage peer mentoring
• involving the student in shared learning arrangements
• pairing the student with buddies for walking down the
  hall, on the playground, and during other unstructured
• varying peer buddies across time and activities, to
  prevent dependence on one child
• arranging cross-age peer supports/buddies by
  assigning an older student to assist the student with
• pairing students while attending special school events
  such as assemblies and clubs

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