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									Slide 1


          Study of life
Slide 2

          Chapter 1

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                          Biologist Study

             Study Diversity of Life (ex. Jane Goodall
              studies “ How chimpanzees behave in wild”)
             Research Disease
              –   What causes disease?
              –   How does body fight disease?
              –   Develop vaccines
              –   New medicines
             Develop technologies
              – “bionic” hand
              – Store and transport blood plasma for
                transfusions-saved countless soldiers life
             Improve Agriculture
             Preserve the environment
Slide 4

  Characteristics Of Living Things

          LIVING THINGS…..
           made of cells
           based on genetic code
           reproduce
           grow and develop
           adjust to their surroundings--respond
           adapt and evolve
           obtain and use energy
           maintain stable internal environment
Slide 5

          Living Things Are Organized

            Composed of one or more cells
             that are based genetic code.

            Organization: an arrangement of
            parts (cells) for the performance
            of the functions necessary to life
Slide 6

          Organisms Number of Cells

           Multicellular – Organisms made of many
          (ex. monkey and trees)

           Unicellular – One cells organisms
          ( ex. Amoeba)
Slide 7

                  Types of Cells
      Prokaryotes – an organism, characterized by
      the absence of a nuclear membrane and by
      DNA that is not organized into chromosomes.
      (ex. bacteria)

      Eukaryotes – an organism composed of one
      or more cells containing visibly evident nuclei
      and organelles (ex. plants and animals)
Slide 8

           Living Things Make More
                 Living Things
       Reproduction: Production of an offspring by
                     an organism.
      Species: Organisms that can interbreed and
           produce fertile offspring in nature.

          (Reproduction is not essential for an individual
           organism, but for continuation of a species)
Slide 9

             Types of Reproduction

          •Sexual – Requires two parents and
          offspring are not identical
          •Asexual – Requires one parent and
          offspring identical
Slide 10

           Living Things Change
             During Their Lives
        single cell     grows and takes on the
             characteristics of its species.
      Growth: Increase in the amount of material
         and formation of new structures in an
      Development: All of the changes that take
          place during the life of an organism.
Slide 11

             Living Things Adjust to
               Their Surroundings
      Environment: Living and nonliving surroundings to which
      an organism must constantly adjust
       (air, water, weather, temperature, other organisms, other factors)

      Stimulus: Any condition in the environment that requires
      an organism to adjust

      Response: A reaction to stimulus
Slide 12


              Organism’s regulation of its
           internal environment to maintain
            conditions suitable for survival.
Slide 13

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           Obtain and use materials
                 and energy
           •Used to grow, develop and reproduce
           •Metabolism-chemical reactions through
           which an organism builds up or breaks
           down materials.
Slide 15

           Living Things Adapt and
      Adaptation: Evolution of a structure, behavior, or
        internal process that enables an organism to
          respond to stimuli and better survive in an

       Evolution: Gradual accumulation of adaptations
                        over time.
Slide 16

           Do Now: Suppose you want to test
           phone cover/skins to decide which is
           best for protecting your cell phone.
           What materials would you need? What
           procedure would you follow? How
           would you determine which cover best
           protected your phone?
Slide 17

         A common misperception of
         science is that science defines
       "truth." Science does not define
       truth; rather, it defines a way of
       thought. It is a process in which
       experiments are used to answer
       questions. This process is called
             the scientific method.
Slide 18
                         The Advantages of Method
             Clarifies our thoughts     Uses human potential

           Ends aimless wandering     Aids in transfer of learning
               Guides us to new         Trains for change and
                  knowledge                   innovation
           Helps ideas gather shape   Is a repeatable procedure

            Organizes our thoughts       Encourages thinking

                     The Opposite of Method is Chance

                  Wasted time                 Quick fixes

                Wrong analysis              Wasted energy

              Haphazard guesses          Wandering aimlessly

                  No Solutions            Mistakes and errors

                   Confusion                  Misdirection
Slide 19

           Chapter 1

                 Scientific Method
Slide 20

                Scientific Method:
    Series of organized steps/procedures that scientist use to
              solve problems and answer questions.
                (A process for investigating nature)

    Observing and Stating the Problem
    Collecting Data/Gathering Information
    Form a Hypothesis
    Perform an Experiment
    Analyze Data
    Draw Conclusions based on your hypothesis
     and experiment.
    Report Results
Slide 21

           Observing /Observations
             Sees, hears, or in some way
             notice something no one has
                    noticed before.

   If the facts don't fit the theory, change the facts.
                   -- Albert Einstein
Slide 22

                     State the Problem
                A scientist can’t begin to solve a
                problem until it is clearly stated.

                For instance, when going to the
                doctor you tell the doctor what is
                 wrong. (e.g. you have a sore

           In lab the Problem is always stated in the form of a question.
Slide 23

              Gather Information

            After defining your problem you
               need to gather information

            For instance, a doctor would ask
             how long you have had a sore
           throat, take your temperature, and
                   examine your throat.
Slide 24

               Greek: hypo-”under”, thesis-”placing”

           A tentative explanation for a question or
             problem that can be formally tested.

   For instance, based on experience, the doctor
      theorizes that you have strep throat which
             can be tested in a laboratory.
Slide 25

           Perform an experiment
            A procedure/series of steps that
           test a hypothesis under controlled
Slide 26

            Chapter 1
           Controlled Experiment and

Slide 27

           Experiment Considerations
           Using Tools-Beakers, test tubes, hot plates,
           petri dishes, thermometers, dissecting
           instruments, balances, rulers, microscopes,
           centrifuges, radiation detectors, etc.

           Maintaining Safety
              •Minimize hazards
              •Know your safety symbols
              •Your responsibility to protect yourself as
              well as your classmates.
Slide 28

           Experimental Considerations

   Information obtained from experiment
           Quantitative: Numerical form (distance, height)
           Qualitative: Verbal Form (descriptions, behaviors)

   Sometimes referred to as experimental results.
Slide 29

             Experiment Factors
   Control group- group in which all conditions are kept the
   same (Standard used to compare with the outcome of a

   Experimental group-Test Group; receives the variable
Slide 30

              Controlled Experiments:
            Only one conditions changes
          Variable-The factor being tested in an experiment

          Independent Variable-Condition in an experiment
           that is changed. The only variable that affects the
           outcome of the experiment. (temperature,
           nutrients, light, soil)

          Dependent Variable-A condition that results from
           change. Depends on changes from independent
           variable. (height, color, etc)
Slide 31

           Independent              Dependent
          Presence of bacteria        Growth rate
          Soil nutrients              Plant height
          Vitamins                    Cholesterol Levels
          Play Wii Fit 30 m/d         Weight
          petri dish with growth      Growth on dish
Slide 32

                Analyze Data

              Data collected from the
              experiment is analyzed.

              For your sore throat, a lab
           technician identifies the growth
           and records data in your chart.
Slide 33

               Draw Conclusion

           Data is used to draw conclusions.

           A conclusion is a logical answer
           to a question based on data and
           observations of the test material.
Slide 34

           Does your data support or reject
              your original hypothesis?
  If the data shows that your sore throat was caused by
  another kind of bacterium, you don’t have strep throat
  and the original hypothesis is rejected. The doctor
  must now revise the hypothesis to include a different
  cause of sore throat.

  If the hypothesis was supported a scientist will
  sometimes perform additional experiments and
  gather more data to strengthen their conclusion.

  If the experiment supports the hypothesis that you
  have strep throat, and the doctor feels the data is
  sufficient to be statistically valid they may skip further
  experimentation and proceed to reporting results.
Slide 35

              Reporting Results

           The last step in solving a problem
            scientifically is to do something
            with the results. This includes
             sharing data and suggesting

             Your doctor may prescribe an
              antibiotic to kill the bacteria.
Slide 36

             Chapter 1

                   Conducting experiments

           • No experiment is a failure

           • The results of every experiment can be used
             to revise the hypothesis or plan tests of a
             different variable.
Slide 37

                 Scientific Theory
        Hypothesis successfully passes many test
       over a long period of time and proves useful
       in knitting together a large body of scientific
          work, it takes on the status of Theory.

           Theory- A tested explanation of a broad
            segment of basic natural phenomena.
                    e.g. Atomic Theory
               Be Valid: explain observations
                         be repeatable
                         be predictable
Slide 38

                    Scientific Law
              A concise statement in words or a
               mathematical equation, about a
           fundamental relationship or regularity of

             e.g. During a chemical reaction, no
           detectable gain or loss of mass occurs.

        Does not explain behavior of nature, it just
       states the generalized experimental finding.
Slide 39
Slide 40

             Chapter 1
        Comparing Theories and Laws

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Slide 41


           Create a chart that:
            Defines scientific law, theory and
            Provide qualities/characteristics that
           distinguish each of them (how do I know
           it’s a law, theory or hypothesis)
            Examples of each
Slide 42

Slide 43

      Quantitative—Controlled         experiments
           that results in counts or
           – Numerical data
           – Graphs and tables
Slide 44

                 Descriptive research

          Observational data;
           Written descriptions of
           what scientist
Slide 45

           Science and Society
Slide 46


           Moral principles and values held by

            -social, ethical moral concerns
            when planning an investigation.
Slide 47


               Application of scientific research

           Making    improvements in human life
           and world around us
           Increase production of food
           Reduced manual labor
           Reduction of waste and environmental
Slide 48

                Metric System

           A decimal system of weights and
            measurements based on meter
                   and kilogram.
Slide 49

           SI Units
Slide 50

           Brief Chronological History
              of the Metric System
   1670—Gabriel Moulton, a French mathematician, proposes a
   measurement system based on a physical quantity of nature and not on
   human anatomy.

   1790—The French Academy of Science recommends the adoption of a
   system with a unit of length equal to one ten-millionth of the distance
   on a meridian between Earth’s North Pole and equator.

   1870—A French conference is set up to work out standards for a
   unified metric system.
                     History continued…
Slide 51

     1875—The treaty of the Meter is signed by 17 nations, including
     the United States. This establishes a permanent body with the
     authority to set standards.

     1893—The United States officially adopts the metric system
     standards as bases for weights and measures (but continues to use
     British units).

     1975—The Metric Conversion Act is enacted by Congress. It
     states, “The policy of the United States shall be to coordinate and
     plan the increasing use of the metric system in the United States
     and to establish a voluntary conversion to metric system. (No
     mandatory requirements are made.
      History information from: Introduction to Physical Science: Shipman, Wilson, Todd, 2000
Slide 52

                         SI Units

       Consistency.
          Scientists use the International System
           of Units (SI) to make sharing data and
           results easier.
Slide 53

           SI (Le Système Internationale
Slide 54

  SI prefixes for large measurements
Slide 55

       SI Units for small measurements
Slide 56

     Conversions A roll of copper wire
    contains 15 m of wire. What is the
    length of the wire in centimeters?
    1. List the given and unknown values.

         Given: length in meters, l = 15 m
       Unknown: length in centimeters = ? cm
Slide 57

   2. Determine the relationship between units.

              Looking at the table of prefixes used for small
              measurements, you can find that:
                           1 cm = 0.01 m.
           Also means that 1 m = 100 cm.

   You will multiply because you are converting from a larger
   unit (meters) to a smaller unit (centimeters)

   3. Write the equation for the conversion.

               length in cm = m  100 cm
Slide 58

   4. Insert the known values into the equation,
   and solve.

   length in cm = 15 m          100 cm

              length in cm = 1500 cm
Slide 59

                        METRIC SYSTEM
                           Number of
       Unit   Abbreviation           Approximate U.S. Equivalent
    kilometer     km         1,000            0.62 mile
   hectometer     hm          100            328.08 feet
   dekameter     dam           10             32.81 feet
    meter          m             1            39.37 inches
  decimeter       dm            0.1            3.94 inches
  centimeter      cm           0.01             0.39 inch
  millimeter      mm          0.001            0.039 inch
  micrometer      µm        0.000001         0.000039 inch
Slide 60

                 Divide by 10 or move one decimal place for each box to the left

           Prefix        kilo       hecto        Deka        Meter    deci        centi        milli
                           k            h          Dk         m         d            c           m

                        kilometer   hectometer   dekameter   meter   decimeter   centimeter   millimeter

           Multiplier    1,000         100          10         1        0.1        0.01         0.001

            Multiply by 10 or move one decimal place for each box to the right
Slide 61
Slide 62

           Chapter 1             Data
     Interpret line graphs, bar graphs, and pie

     Use scientific notation and significant
      figures in problem solving.

     Identify the significant figures in

     Understand the difference between
      precision and accuracy.
Slide 63

           Chapter 1
  Imagine your teacher asked you to study how
  providing different amounts of fertilizer affected
  the heights of plants. You perform a study and
  collect the data shown in the table below. Use
  this data to answer the items that follow.
Slide 64

            Bellringer, continued
  1. Which amount of fertilizer produced the tallest
  2. Which amount of fertilizer produced the smallest
  3. Plot the data on a grid like the one below.
  4. Describe the overall trend as more fertilizer is
  added to the plants.
Slide 65

             Chapter 1
              Presenting Scientific Data

   Line graphs are best for continuous change.
           • Line graphs are usually made with the x-axis
             showing the independent variable and the y-axis
             showing the dependent variable.

           • The values of the dependent variable depend on
             what happens in the experiment.

           • The values of the independent variable are set
             before the experiment takes place.
Slide 66

           Chapter 1

                       Line Graph
Slide 67

              Chapter 1
             Presenting Scientific Data,
  Bar graphs compare items.
           • A bar graph is useful for comparing similar data
             for several individual items or events.

           • A bar graph can make clearer how large or small
             the differences in individual values are.
Slide 68

           Chapter 1

                       Bar Graph
Slide 69

           Presenting Scientific Data,
                        Pie charts show
                         parts of a whole.
                          • A pie chart is ideal
                            for displaying data
                            that are parts of a

                          • Data in a pie chart
                            is presented as a
Slide 70

           Graphing Activity
Slide 71

           Significant Figures and
             Scientific Notations
Slide 72

           Using Significant Figures
  Precision and accuracy

  Precision the exactness of a measurement

  Accuracy a description of how close a
   measurement is to the true value of the
   quantity measured

  Significant figure a prescribed decimal
   place that determines the amount of
   rounding off to be done based on the
   precision of the measurement
Slide 73

             Significant Figures

           The significant figures (also called
           significant digits) of a number are
             those digits that carry meaning
               contributing to its accuracy.
Slide 74

            Rules for identifying
             significant digits
           1.All non-zero digits are considered
           Example: 123.45 has five significant
                  figures: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.
Slide 75

            Zeros appearing anywhere
           between two non-zero digits
                 are significant.

                 Example: 101.12 has five
            significant figures: 1, 0, 1, 1 and 2.
Slide 76

           Leading (space holding)
           zeros are not significant
            For example, 0.00012 has two
             significant figures: 1 and 2.
Slide 77

            Trailing zeros in a whole
           number are NOT significant.

                    For example
                   200        1
                   25000      2
                   10,100     3
Slide 78

           When decimal point are present
           at end of whole number, trailing
                zeros ARE significant
                       200. > 3
                      25,000. > 5
                      10100. > 5
Slide 79

             Trailing zeros in a number
           containing a decimal point are
                     0.0500 > 3
                     0.03040 > 4
                     0.0230 > 3
Slide 80

           Addition and Subtraction:
           least number of digits to
             right of decimal place

             Example: 24.46     2 digits
                     + 4.123    3 digits
             Rounds to: 30.58
Slide 81

             Multiplication and Division:
           Quantity which has the smaller
            number of significant figures
                 Example: 2.61 x 1.2 = 3.13
                     Rounds off to: 3.1
                 12.34 x 1.23 = 15.1782
                    Rounds off to: 15.2
Slide 82


           Start  with the leftmost non-zero digit (e.g.
           the '1' in 1 200, or the '2' in 0.0256).
           Keep n digits. Replace the rest with zeros.
           Round up by one if appropriate. For
           example, if rounding 0.039 to 1 significant
           figure, the result would be 0.04.
Slide 83

                   Rounding to 2 significant figures:
                        12 300 becomes 12 000
                             13 stays as 13
                       0.00123 becomes 0.0012
           0.1 becomes 0.10 (the trailing zero indicates that
                we are rounding to 2 significant figures).
                        0.02084 becomes 0.021
             0.0125 becomes 0.012 in unbiased rounding,
                       while it is 0.013 in biased.
                        19 800 becomes 20 000
Slide 84

                 Scientific Notation
           (standard form or exponential notation)

                Way of writing numbers that
             accommodates values too large or
             small to be conveniently written in
                standard decimal notation.
Slide 85

                Ordinary decimal   Scientific
                    notation       notation
           1                       1 × 10
           30                      3 × 10
           5 720 000 000           5.72 × 10
           −0.000 000 006 1        −6.1 × 10
Slide 86

            Using scientific notation,300,000,000
                m/sec can also be written as
                       3 x 100,000,000
                    or in the shorter form,
                            3 x 108,
           where 8, the exponent, is the number of
Slide 87

           Positive exponents/Large Numbers
                    Written in scientific notation by
                 moving the decimal point to the left.
              e.g. Avogadro's number is approximately
                   Scientific notation : 6.022 x 1023

1. The decimal point is moved left to just after the first number
2. First number must be at least 1, but less than 10
3. In the example above, the decimal point has been moved
   back by 23 places. That number is now the positive
   exponent of the base 10.
Slide 88

           Negative exponents/Small Numbers
     Numbers less than 1 can be expressed in scientific
        notation by moving the decimal point to the right.
                       e.g. 0.0006022
                Standard Notation: 6.022 x 10-4
     1. First number must be a least 1, but less than 10.
        2. For our e.g., decimal point needs to move
         forward by 4 digits to the first non-zero number
     3. For every place we move the decimal to the right
              we decrease the power of ten by one.
Slide 89

                     Rule for Multiplication –
           1. Multiply the coefficients
           2. Add the exponents.
           3. The base will remain 10.

                        Rule for Division –
           1. Divide the coefficients
           2. Subtract the exponents.
           3. The base will remain 10.
Slide 90

             RULE #1: Standard Scientific Notation is a number
            from 1 to 9 followed by a decimal and the remaining
           significant figures and an exponent of 10 to hold place

                   5.43 x 102 = 5.43 x 100 = 543
                  8.65 x 10 – 3 = 8.65 x .001 = 0.00865
                  ****54.3 x 101 is not Standard Scientific
Slide 91

                RULE #2: When the decimal is moved to the Left the
            exponent gets Larger, but the value of the number stays
             the same. Each place the decimal moves Changes the
           exponent by one (1). If you move the decimal to the Right
           it makes the exponent smaller by one (1) for each place it
                                    is moved.

                6000. x 100 = 600.0 x 101 = 60.00 x 102 =
                           6.000 x 103 = 6000
                               (Note: 100 = 1)

               All the previous numbers are equal, but only 6.000 x
                       103 is in proper Scientific Notation.
Slide 92

           RULE #3: To add/subtract in scientific notation, the exponents must
                                 first be the same.

           (3.0   x 102) + (6.4 x 103); since 6.4 x 103 is equal to 64. x 102.
                                        Now add.

                                          (3.0 x 102)
                                       + (64. x 102)
                                          67.0 x 102 =               Not in scientific
                                6.70 x 103 = 6.7 x 10 3

             67.0 x 102 is mathematically correct/standard scientific notation
                  can only have one number to the left of the decimal
Slide 93

           RULE #4: To multiply, find the product
              of the numbers, then add the

                    (2.4 x 102) (5.5 x 10 –4) =
             [2.4 x 5.5 = 13.2] and [2 + -4 = -2]
                           = 13.2 x 10 –2
           Correct scientific notation: 1.3 x 10 – 1
Slide 94

    RULE #5: To divide, find the quotient of the number
              and subtract the exponents.

                (3.3 x 10 – 6) / (9.1 x 10 – 8) = ?
             [3.3 / 9.1 = .36] and [-6 – (-8) = 2]
           (3.3 x 10 – 6) / (9.1 x 10 – 8) = .36 x 102
                          3.6 x 10 1
Slide 95

             Scientific Notation
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Slide 96

              Chapter 1
           Writing Numbers in Scientific
  Using scientific notation
           • When you use scientific notation in calculations,
             you follow the math rules for powers of 10.

           • When you multiply two values in scientific
             notation, you add the powers of 10. When you
             divide, you subtract the powers of 10.
Slide 97

             Chapter 1
                         Math Skills
   Writing Scientific Notation The adult human
    heart pumps about 18 000 L of blood each
    day. Write this value in scientific notation.

   1. List the given and unknown values.
           Given: volume, V = 18 000 L
           Unknown: volume, V = ? x 10? L
Slide 98

             Chapter 1
                           Math Skills

   2. Write the form for scientific notation.
           V = ? x 10? L

   3. Insert the known values into the form,
     and solve.
           First find the largest power of 10 that will divide
             into the known value and leave one digit before
             the decimal point. You get 1.8 if you divide 10
             000 into 18 000 L.
           So, 18 000 L can be written as (1.8 x 10 000) L
Slide 99

              Chapter 1

                           Math Skills
           Then write 10 000 as a power of 10.
           Because 10 000 = 104, you can write 18 000 L as
            1.8 x 104 L.

                 V = 1.8 x 104 L
Slide 100

            Chapter 1
                        Math Skills

   Using Scientific Notation Your state plans to
    buy a rectangular tract of land measuring
    5.36 x 103 m by 1.38 x 104 m to establish a
    nature preserve. What is the area of this
    tract in square meters?

   1. List the given and unknown values.
        Given:    length, l = 1.38 x 104 m
                 width, w = 5.36 x 103 m
        Unknown: area, A = ? m2
Slide 101

                Math Skills, continued
 2. Write the equation for area.

 3. Insert the known values into the equation,
   and solve.
      A = (1.38  104 m) (5.36  103 m)
      Regroup the values and units as follows.
      A = (1.38  5.36) (104  103) (m  m)

      When multiplying, add the powers of 10.
      A = (1.38  5.35) (104+3) (m  m)
      A = 7.3968  107 m2

            A = 7.40  107 m2
Slide 102

     Precision and accuracy

     Precision the exactness of a

     Accuracy a description of how
     close a measurement is to the
     true value of the quantity
Slide 103

             Chapter 1   Section 3 Organizing Data

            Accuracy and Precision, part
Slide 104

             Chapter 1   Section 3 Organizing Data

            Accuracy and Precision, part
Slide 105

            Chapter 1   Section 3 Organizing Data

             Accuracy and Precision
Slide 106

            Chapter 1

            Using Significant Figures
      When you use measurements in
       calculations, the answer is only as precise as
       the least precise measurement used in the

      The measurement with the fewest significant
       figures determines the number of significant
       figures that can be used in the answer.
Slide 107

            Chapter 1

                         Math Skills
   Significant Figures Calculate the volume of a
     room that is 3.125 m high, 4.25 m wide, and
     5.75 m long. Write the answer with the
     correct number of significant figures.

   1. List the given and unknown values.
        Given:    length, l = 5.75 m
                 width, w = 4.25 m
                 height, h = 3.125 m
        Unknown: Volume, V = ? m3
Slide 108

            Chapter 1
               Math Skills, continued
  2. Write the equation for volume.

  3. Insert the known values into the
    equation, and solve.
       V = 5.75 m  4.25 m  3.125 m
       V = 76.367 1875 m3
       The answer should have three significant figures,
         because the value with the smallest number of
         significant figures has three significant figures.
              V = 76.4 m3
Slide 109

               Understanding Concepts
   1. During a storm, rainwater depth is measured
      every 15 minutes. Which of these terms
      describes the depth of the water?

            A. controlled variable
            B. dependent variable
            C. independent variable
            D. significant variable
Slide 110

             Chapter 1
               Understanding Concepts
      2. Why were scientists unable to form a theory that
         diseases are caused by bacteria before the late
         fifteenth century?

            F. No on tried to understand the cause of disease until
            G. Earlier scientists were not intelligent enough to
               understand the existence of bacteria.
            H. The existence of microbes could not be discovered
               until the technology to make high-quality lenses had
               been developed.
            I. Doctors believed they understood the disease
               process, so they would not accept new ideas about
               the causes.
Slide 111

               Understanding Concepts
   3.         What is a scientific theory?

            A. A theory is a guess as to what will happen.
            B. A theory is a summary of a scientific fact based
               on observations.
            C. A theory is an explanation of how a process
               works based on observations.
            D. A theory describes a process in nature that can
               be repeated by testing.
Slide 112

            Interpreting Graphics

                        4. What is the
                           volume of the
                           gas 40 seconds
                           into the

                          F. 15 mL
                          G. 24 mL
                          H. 27 mL
                          I. 50 mL

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