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Chapter 7
When a person is baptized:
• Freed from sin
• Reborn as a son/daughter of God
• Receives grace
• Shares in God’s life
• Becomes part of the Body of Christ, the Church
• Receives the fullness of the means of salvation
  from sin and death, and
• For a share in the divine life of the Trinity
(p. 124)
Three sacraments of Initiation

• Baptism, Eucharist, Confirmation
• Celebrate a Christian’s transformation,
  entrance, and lifelong growth in the
  Church, the community of Jesus’ followers
(p. 124)
Baptism celebrates five realities for
the Christian:
• Being welcomed into the community of Jesus, the
• Beginning a lifelong conversion, turning away from sin to
   embrace the Christian way of life
• Being reborn to a new identity as a son/daughter of God
• Sharing in the mission of Jesus, adopting it as one’s own
• Receiving the gift of the Spirit of Jesus that enables the
   Christian to share in God’s life of love
(p. 127)
Original Sin:

• The sin at the beginning of humankind
• The condition we inherit of tending to
  choose sin
• Taken away by Baptism, but effects are
  not taken away (we still have the
  tendency to sin)
Baptism affects original sin:

• Takes original sin away
• Forgives all personal sins and punishment
  due them
• Gives grace to overcome the tendency to
Personal sin:

• Our own wrongful choices where we
  choose evil over good (p. 128)
• Example of St. Therese of Lisieux – the
  “Little Way” to holiness
“Born Again”

• For non-Catholics, a one-time only event
  in which a person publicly proclaims Jesus
  as Lord and Savior
• For Catholics, Baptism celebrates a
  process of dying and rising to new life
  within a community, a process that
  happens over and over in one’s lifetime.
(p. 132)
Baptism is necessary for salvation:

• Baptism is the fullest means of salvation for
  those who have received the Gospel and have
  the opportunity to be baptized.
• Non-Catholics, non-Christians who may not
  know or believe in Christ, but who seek the truth
  and try to do God’s will as they understand it
  can be saved
• Baptism of water, desire, blood
(p. 135)
Essential words & actions of
• Pouring water over the person’s head, or
  immersion in water
• The Trinitarian formula: “I baptize you in
  the name of the Father, and of the Son,
  and of the Holy Spirit.”
Symbolic references to water in the
Hebrew Scriptures:
• Genesis: God breathes on the waters to
  bring order to Creation
• Genesis: Noah story – the world of sin is
  destroyed and washed clean through the
• Exodus – Moses leads the Israelites from
  slavery to freedom through the Red Sea
(p. 137)
Two anointings of oil:
• Before water ritual, anointing with oil on the
  breast or both hands: asking God for strength
  for the person
• After water ritual, anointing on crown of head,
  signifies being chosen as Christ was chosen, to
  share in his risen life and receive the Spirit
  through him
• Diocesan Chrism Mass – annually in Holy Week
(p. 139)
Significance of white garment:

• New life in Christ
• New creation in Christ
• Often a white ‘bib’ in Baptism today
(p. 139)
Lighted Candle given to newly
• Light is received from the Easter Candle,
  which signifies Christ, the light of the
• Newly baptized person shares in the light
  of Christ, and is encouraged to walk as a
  child of the light
• Easter Candle is lit each year at the Easter
Who may be baptized:

• Anyone who has not been baptized before
• Usual minister is an ordained person –
  priest, deacon, bishop
• Emergency baptism
(p. 143)
Separation of anointing and laying
on of hands:
• Increasing numbers of converts in
  Western church led to priest of the
  community to baptize with water, but save
  the anointing with oil for the bishop at a
  later date
• Eventually became two separate rites or
  sacraments, Baptism and Confirmation
(p. 146)
Catechumenate in early Church:
2 – 3 year period of preparation
• A person desiring to become a Christian had to
  find a sponsor
• Final preparation 40 days before baptism at
  Easter Vigil (this later evolved into Lent)
• Intensive instruction, prayer, fasting, special
  liturgies led by bishop
• Ritual bathing on Holy Thursday, two days of
  fasting, then initiation at Easter Vigil
(p. 145)
Role of godparents:
• Help support and encourage parents as
  they raise their child in faith
• Need to be baptized and firm believers in
• Need to be confirmed, document their
  status as an active member of a Catholic
  faith community (parish)
• No legal standing; not legal guardians
RCIA process: 4 stages
(Rite of Christian Initiation of
• Inquiry – leading to a decision to proceed
• Catechumenate (1 – 3 year period of study of
  the Catholic faith)
• Enlightenment or illumination: Lenten period of
  intensive preparation, rites, culminating with
  baptism at Easter Vigil
• Mystagogia – from Easter to Pentecost, a time of
  reflection and continued growth for the new
p. 151-152
              Chapter 8

Second of three sacraments of Initiation

Celebrates the outpouring of the Holy Spirit
 on a baptized person

Completes and strengthens the grace given
  by the Spirit in Baptism
(p. 156)
Confirmation takes place:

• For those baptized as infants in the
  Catholic Church, any time after “age of
  discretion or reason” (age 7)
• Typically, in adolescence
• For adults, received at initiation (Baptism)
  with the Eucharist (R.C.I.A. process)
(p. 156)
Purpose of Preparation Program:

• To learn more about one’s faith
• To grow in the faith being affirmed and
(p. 161)
Bishop’s role in Confirmation:

• Apostolic succession: Bishops are the
  successors of the Apostles
• Confirmation by the Bishop is a sign of full
  incorporation into the church handed
  down from the time of Jesus (p. 161)
Seven Gifts of the Holy Spirit:
• Wisdom
• Understanding
• Right Judgment (Counsel)
• Courage (Fortitude)
• Knowledge
• Reverence (Piety)
• Wonder and Awe in God’s presence
  (Fear of the Lord)
(Words in parentheses are from the Catechism of the
  Catholic Church)
Two Models of Maturity:

• Destination Model: Maturity is the “end
  point” of the journey through adolescence
• Journey Model: Life is a continuous
  process of growth, filled with straight
  paths and rough roads, dyings and risings.
  Maturing is a life-long process. The
  Journey Model is more consistent with the
  Christian vision of how we grow. (p. 163)
Service Experiences:
• Most Confirmation preparation programs
  have a service component.
• Service gives candidates the opportunity
  to live Jesus’ life of ministry to others
• Service gives candidates the opportunity
  to discover their own gifts and discern
  how they might serve others in the future.
(p. 165)
Requirements for Confirmation:
(for Baptized persons who have
reached the age of discretion)
• Willing to profess the Catholic faith
• Be in a state of grace
• Intend to receive the sacrament
• Willing to take on the role of a disciple of
(p. 165)
Essential symbolic actions and
words of Confirmation:
• Bishop or priest’s laying on of a hand and
  anointing the person while saying:
• “Be sealed with the gift of the Holy Spirit.”
(p. 166)
• Ancient practice of laying on of hands refers to
  conferring power on a person.
• The bishop “lays hands on” all candidates
  together by extending his hands over the entire
  group. (p. 166)
Anointing with Chrism:

• An act of consecrating the person to share
  more completely in the mission of Jesus
  Christ and the church.
• Bishop dips his right thumb in the chrism,
  puts his hand on the person’s head, and
  makes the sign of the cross on the
  forehead, saying, “Be sealed with the gift
  of the Holy Spirit.” (p. 167)
Separation of sacraments:
• Increase in new Christians led to more baptisms
    by the local priest in each community, as there
    were not enough bishops available to perform
    the anointing with chrism.
•   The priests performed the water ritual, and the
    bishops visited later to “confirm” the baptisms.
•   Eventually, the two rituals were completely
    separate, and became two different sacraments.
    (p. 171)
Catholic debate about sacraments
of initiation:
• Original Sequence: Baptism,
  Confirmation, First Eucharist, should be
• Delayed: Put Confirmation off until the
  person is old enough to understand the
  work of the Spirit within, later than the
  age at which First Eucharist was received.
(p. 172)
                   Chapter 9
• Eucharist is the third sacrament of initiation.
• It is the ultimate sign of Christ’s presence.
• Vatican II: Eucharist is the “source and summit
  of the Christian life.”
(p. 176)
• Eucharist derived from a Greek word meaning
• Christians celebrate Eucharist in the context of a
  sacred meal, thanking and praising God for all
  the good he has done for them. (p. 179)
Banquet symbolism and Eucharist:

• Jesus often used the symbol of a banquet to
    describe sharing in the Kingdom of God.
•   A meal was one significant setting Jesus used to
    communicate what God’s love was like. (p. 179
    – 180)
•   Christians are invited to bring their everyday life
    to the “table of the Lord” and unite that life with
    Jesus’ sacrifice. (p. 180)
Eucharist: Celebration of Past,
Present and Future
• Eucharist recalls Jesus’ sacrifice, but celebrates
    more than past deeds.
•   It is a memorial meal, but brings about a
    present reality – Jesus gives of himself to us in
    the here and now, bringing new life to us in the
•   Eucharist looks forward to the future beyond
    time when all God’s people will be united in love
    through Jesus in the “heavenly banquet” of
    God’s kingdom (p. 180)
4 Ways Jesus is present in the
• In the person of the minister, the presiding
    priest, through whom Jesus offers himself
•   In the word of God, the Scripture being
    proclaimed and preached
•   In the people gathered to celebrate by praying
    and singing
•   Especially in the eucharistic species, the bread
    and wine that are consecrated as Jesus’ body
    and blood

• The bread and wine are more than
  symbols of Jesus’ presence:
• Through the consecration, they have
  become Jesus present. (p. 181-182)
• We are challenged not only to receive the
  body of Christ, but to be the body of
  Christ in our everyday life. (p. 184 -185)
Contradiction in Meaning of the
• Strangers or outsiders may feel unwelcome in
    our communities; Eucharist is about coming to
    the table of the Lord as a community;
•   We may not reach out to reconcile with people
    with whom we have a conflict, creating genuine
    peace with them;
•   We may not be “breaking bread” outside of
    Mass, sharing what we have with others,
    nurturing and sacrificing for one another.
•   In summary, we do not always strive to be the
    Christ we receive. (p. 186)
4 Essential actions essential to
every Eucharist:
• Proclaiming the word of God of the Scriptures
• Expressing thanksgiving to God
• The words of consecration by the priest to
    change the bread and wine into Christ’s body
    and blood by the power of the Holy Spirit
•   The receiving of Communion by the assembly
A Communion Service:
• Is not a Mass because it lacks a presiding priest who
  leads the people in offering the Eucharistic prayer;
• The essential action of the consecration is not included.
• Those who receive Communion at such a service truly
  receive the body of Christ, but have not participated in
  the whole action of the Eucharist, the Mass.
• At a Communion Service, a Deacon or Extraordinary
  Minister of Holy Communion will distribute previously
  consecrated hosts that have been on reserve in the
  tabernacle. (p. 190)
Readings at a Sunday Eucharist,
in general, come from:

• The Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament)
• Letters of Paul or other apostolic writers
  (Epistles, Acts of the Apostles, Revelation)
• The Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, John)
(p. 192)
• This part of the Mass is known as the
  Liturgy of the Word.
               Bread & Wine -
            symbols for Eucharist:
• Bread is appropriate because it was the most
    basic and essential food in Jesus’ culture; often
    represented life. It is still a basic food for many,
    and is closely associated with God’s and nature’s
    bountifulness. (p. 192)
•   Wine is appropriate because drink is necessary
    for survival; it is also a sign of celebration and
    as such is an awesome symbol for the blood that
    Christ willingly shed to free humanity from sin
    and death. (p. 196)
Jewish roots of Liturgy of the
Eucharist and Liturgy of the Word:

• Liturgy of the Eucharist: Jewish
  community meals, especially the Passover
• Liturgy of the Word: Jewish synagogue
  services at which the Torah was read
(p. 197-198)
Shift from Eucharist as community
meal to elaborate ceremony of
• As church became more of a “hierarchy,”
  the role of the clergy became more
• By the Middle Ages, the priests were
  “saying” Mass, while the people watched
  in silence.
• People participated less and less. (p.200)
Changes in the Mass as a result of
Vatican Council II (1965):
• Altar facing the wall once again became a table set in the midst of,
    or closer to, the people, with the priest facing the people;
•   Latin language, used for centuries at Mass, was replaced by the
    “vernacular,” the common language of the people where the Mass
    was being celebrated;
•   Prayers and responses were spoken by the people, not just the altar
•   The altar rail that separated the congregation from the sanctuary
    was removed;
•   Kneeling to receive Communion was replaced by the earlier custom
    of standing, to express joy and thanksgiving;
•   People were invited to receive Communion bread in their own
    hands, and to chew the bread;
•   Wine and bread were offered to the congregation;
•   Singing and “active participation” were encouraged;
•   Prayers of petition were added (Prayer of the Faithful)
•   Lay people, including women, were invited to participate in special
    roles (lectors, extraordinary ministers of Holy Communion, members
    of the offertory procession) (p. 200 – 201)

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