Usually without for article
May be used in academic paper format
(e.g., thesis or dissertation)
May also be referred to by “Chapter”
– e.g., Chapter I
Establishesboundary of study
– History of project
– Origins of idea
» From previous work by same investigator
» From work from other investigators
Purpose of the study
In journal articles - may be a part of the
Thesis/dissertation - often stands alone
– e.g., Chapter II
Components of the Introduction
Theoretical or conceptual framework
Pertinent literature review
Specific “aim” of the study
What is the context of the investigation?
Who is/are the subject(s)?
From what idea(s) did the study derive?
May include brief history of project
– Is this an applied/clinical study?
– Is this a basic science study?
Is the study:
– Theory based?
– Clinically based?
From what theory does the study derive or
what theory is being tested?
– Dynamic systems
– Inverse dynamics
Are there competing theories?
Discussion during a separate class session
Usually a component of the last paragraph
States the overall objectives
May refer to subject(s)
May include brief description of design
– Case study
– Single subject design
– Quasi-experimental, etc.